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Canadian Rail 486 2002

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Canadian Rail 486 2002

ISSN 0008-4875
Postal Permit No. 40066621
CPR 2816 BACK IN STEAM AFTER 40 yEARS…………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………… 3
…………….. JAY UNDERWOOD………………….. 8
TO THE VIRGINIA & TRUCKEE …………………….. FRED ANGUS………………………….. 12
MY FAVOURITE CPR STEAM LOCOMOTiVE ………………………………………………………………
. STAN GARNER………………………… 13
SIR CASIMIR STANISLAUS GZOWSKI1813 -1898……………………………………………………. VICTORIA B. KATORSKI…………. 34
EXPORAIL REPORT No. 8…………………………………………………………………………………………… CHARLES DE JEAN………………… 36
NEW COIN DEPICTS LOCOMOTIVE SCOTIA ………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………. 37
0 OF MONTREALS STREET CAR SySTEM …………………………………………………… JACQUES PHARAND……………… 38
THE BUSINESS CAR…………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………. 39
FRONT COVER: The CPR EMPRESS, steam locomotive 2816, about to enter the lower portal of the Upper Spiral Tunnel on
Saturday, September
22, 2001. CPR photo by Rick Robinson
For your membership in the CRHA, which
includes a subscription to Canadian Rail,
write to:
120 Rue St-Pierre, SI. Constant,
Que. J5A 2G.9.
Membership Dues for 2002:
In Canada: $36.00 (including all taxes)
United States: $31.00 in U.S. funds.
Other Countries: $56.00 Canadian funds.
Canadian Rail is continually in need of news, stories
historical data, photos, maps and other material. Please
send all contributions to the editor: Fred F. Angus, 3021
Trafalgar Avenue, Montreal, P.Q. H3Y 1 H3, e-mail No payment can be made for
contributions, but
the contributer will be given credit fol
material submitted. Material will be returned to the con tributer
if requested. Remember Knowledge is of little value unless
it is shared with others.
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: Douglas
N.W. Smith
W. Bonin
LAYOUT: Fred F. Angus
.. PRINTING: Procel Printing
DISTRIBUTION: Joncas Postexperts
The CRHA may be reached at its web site: or by telephone at (450) 638-1522
A New Year and a New Look for Canadian RanI
For the new year 2002 we are introducing the fLrst of several changes and improvements to Canadian Rail. First and foremost is the new cover which
will give the publication a more contemporary look while maintaining the historical orientation to which the C.R.H.A. is dedicated. The insignia
of the
Association has been modified to make it bilingual; this was done by using initials so as to avoid crowding the design. However the basic elements
of the
design, the locomotive Dorchester, the mountain and the two maple leaves, have remained unchanged as they have been for almost seventy years. This
new insignia will gradually
come into use on all publications and stationery of the C.R.H.A. The little track section, in use for more than forty years, has not
disappeared but has been re-located to the title page inside the front cover.
It is now planned to use colour covers exclusively. This will include historical photos as well, for the earliest good colour photos are now more than
sixty years old, and hand-coloured illustrations exist for earlier events. Other changes are slated to take piace dwing the year.
This will include improvements
to the layout
of the interior of the magazine as well as possible further modifications to the title page and the back cover. At the same time CRHA
Communications is also undergoing a facelift and will appear in a smrut new format.
The next big change is the content
of the atticles themselves. This is something that the editor cannot do alone! Ever since the publication statted it
has depended on input from the members to make it a success. There is never enough; even
if it seems that there is a surplus of material one month, this is
soon used up and for the next issue there may be a shortage. At present there are few atticles remaining in the file. Above all there has been little input lately
on recent events and modern rolling stock. Accordingly it was necessary for the editor to include much from the age
of steam, and the present issue digs very
deep, in many cases back to the nineteenth century (which is now the century before last). While stories from the 1800s are often most interesting, we would
like very much to include more material from the late 1900s and even the 2000s.
The next (Mruch-April) issue will be a special one on a single subject. For
all future issues we will
be looking for more input from the members.
To accomplish all this the editor needs more help. Anyone interested in writing articles and providing photos and other supporting material will be
very welcome. Having more assistance in the various facets
of production will also ensure that deadlines are met and the publication appears on time.
Canadian Rail belongs to the members
of the C.R.H.A. Together we can continue the improveme:lts already statted so we can truly call our
publication The magazine
of Canadas railway history.
CPR 2816 Back in Steam After 40 Years
Crossing Stoney Creek bridge in British Columbia on September 22, 2001. Photo by Roger Burrows
As most Canadian railway enthusiasts know, the
nadian Pacific Railway has repatriated its Hudson
locomotive 2816 from Steamtown in Scranton Pennsylvania.
Following tluee years
of rebuilding in BC Rails steam shop,
2816 operated under its own power on August
16, 2001 for
the first time
in more than forty years. After three days of
testing, 2816 headed up an impressive passenger train and
left Vancouver on September
19 for a five-day trip to Calgary.
The trip went off perfectly, exactly
as planned, in true
CPR style. At every stop along the way, employees and the
public came out in droves to see this historic occasion.
Salmon Arm B.C. alone, more than 2000 people, from infants
to grandparents, crowded the station platform as 2816
steamed by. Those who watched the train on its five-day trip
were not only local residents. Steam enthusiasts came from
all over, at least one from as far away as Berlin Germany,
especially to see the train.
Although the length of the train required a diesel
helper (3084) through
the mountains, the diesel was removed
at Morants curve, near Lake Louise, on the 5th day, and
2816 hauled the tra
in the rest of the way to Calgary. Two
days later, on September 26, the annual meeting of Canadian
Pacific was held at which the shareholders voted
to split the
company into five parts, one
of which is Canadian Pacific
It is no coincidence that 2816s historic trip to
Calgary was just before this equally historic meeting. Locomotive 2816 is no stranger
to Calgary, the city
that is now its home. In 1931, only a year after it was built, it
was assigned to operate out
of Calgary, and it remained in
service in that area until 1937.
In its later years it operated
of Montreal, sometimes on long distance trains and
in commuter service. As such it was one of the
last steam locomotives in service
on CPo The end came in
1960 when all CPR steam operation ceased. However, 2816s
work for
CP was not quite over; in February 1961 it was
pressed into service to supply steam for the Glen
Yard while
the regular boilers were shut down for repairs.
It was then
stored until 1963 when it was sold to Steamtown USA in
Bellows Falls Vermont. It thus became the only CP
unstreamlined Hudson to escape the scrapper. When
Steamtown moved to Scranton Pennsylvania 2816 went too,
and it remained there until 1998 when it was re-acquired by
CP and moved to Vancouver.
2816 is now named the CPR Empress and will
operated as a roving ambassador throughout the system.
Plans call for it
to start its tour in May 2002.
The photos accompanying this article were very
kindly provided to Canadian Rail by Jonathan Hanna,
Corporate Historian of the CPR. They were taken by the
companys photographers during this spectacular fi ve-day
We hope you will enjoy them and will see 2816 during
its tour this year.
Opposite Top: Leaving Banff Alberta on September 23, 2001, with Cascade Mountain as backdrop. Photo by Roger BLl/TOWS
Oposite Bottom: Crossing the Fraser River at Cisco, B.C on September 20, 2001. Photo by Roger Burrows.
Top: Approaching Field, B.C on September 22, 2001. Photo by Rick Robinson
Bottom: 2816
in commuter service in Montreal in 1960.
Next page: Crossing
the bridge at Sicamous, B.C on September 21, 2001. Photo by Roger Burrows
Page 7: Approaching Craigeilachie,
B.C on September 21 2001. This was the site of the driving of the Last Spike on the CPR
on November
7, 1885. Photo by Roger Burrows
Mountain Moguls In The Maritimes
By Jay Underwood
When the Intercolonial Railway came into
being in July
of 1867, the government of Canadas
first crown corporation inherited a variety of
locomotives from the Nova Scotia Railway and
New Brunswick-owned European & North
American Railway. These machines were all
manufactured for the provincial gauge (5 6) and
used on work trains to support construction
of the
railway, and maintenance of the passenger and
freight schedules on those portions
of the line.
It was not until January of 1870 that
newspapers began carrying the first tenders for
engines and rolling stock, seeking a supply of 40
locomotives and tenders,
250 box freight cars
and 250 platform cars, all built according to the
railways specifications.
The equipment was in such short supply
that extra trains were cancelled on the two
provincial lines, as the Sackville, New Brunswick,
Chignecto Post noted
in its June 30, 1870 edition:
Our people are doubtless disappointed at
not having extra trains tomorrow. Mr. Carvell
informs us that the excursion train over the
European and North American railroad tomorrow,
all the rolling stock at his command, and
prevents his complying with the requests made.
Almost as soon as the Eastern Extension of
the line from Moncton to Amherst was open to
traffic, accidents began taking a toll on the
Intercolonials engines, as the Post reported in its
January 26 1871 edition:
2-6-0 Mogul-type Virginia & Truckee locomotive #8 Humboldt, seen
here after its arrival on the
Onderdonk section of the Canadian
Pacific line
in British Columbia; Onderdonkpurchased the engine in­
May of 1882; it was then numbered 3 and named New Westminster.
The Nevada State Railroad Museum lists the locomotive as being
built by Baldwin
in 1870, with a cylinder size of 16 x 24 with 48 in.
drivers, and a weight of 55,000 Ibs. The locomotive was sold to the
Intercolonial Railway in Nova Scotia in 1887, and numbered 189. It
was rebuilt in 1896, and re-numbered 1024. It was scrapped in 1918.
On Monday evening the train with two locomotives,
on the Intercolonial Railway met with a serious accident at
the cutting at Fort Cumberland. The train having arrived
here from Saint John, proceeded
to Amherst, and on reaching
Westmorland, the snow plough was thrown
off the track,
dragging off and seriously injuring the head engine,
Apohoqui, and slightly damaging the engine New
Brunswick. The passengers and mails were sent by sleighs
to Amherst, and a special engine, the Samson , came from
Saint John early
Tuesday to assist in getting the disabled
011 the track, and removing the debris. The train
commenced running yesterday from
Au Lac Station to Saint
John, and
it is probable will resume her trips to Amherst
y. The accident was occasioned by water covering the
rails on the cutting,
and becoming frozen on the sudden
vf weather on Monday morning. We do not know if
it is the case, but we learn that had there been sectiol1 men
to attend to Eastern Extension, the accident would not have
happened; and, that notwithstanding the numerous gravel
trains running on the track, not a load
of ballast has been
on the road, or anything done to keep it in repaiJ;
which in places begins to shew the necessity of a peimys worth
of labour to prevents pounds being destroyed by
If any serious accident occurs, the people will
hold the Railway Commissioners responsible.
Neglect on the right of way was not the only threat
facing the locomotives. Less than two months later, on its
February 16, 1871 edition, the Post was reporting:
last, at Amherst, a fire broke out in the cab of the Engine
The night watchman, a man named Sears, who
was present at the time
could not get at the water soon
to put out the fire and he failed to run the Engine
out of the House. The flames quickly spreading, soon
destroyed Engine and Engine House. The Hercules was a
fine Engine, about
8 years old, and cost some $12,000. The
Engine house cost about $400. We dont know whether any
is attached to the watchman.
Almost a year later, the railway was still adding
locomotives to the roster, this time importing them from
England for use on the unconnected northern New Brunswick
as The Gleaner reported from Chatham in its October
19, 1872 edition:
The Barque Amadeo ,
Captain Crosby, arrived at
Newcastle on Monday last from
Greenock. with six locomotives
for the Intercolonial railway on
board. Two
of them will be
landed on the Railway
Whal! as
soon as the Exemplar, that is
now discharging steel rails, is
unloaded. The
Messrs. Kennedy and Allan, will
commence putting the loco­
motives together as sson as they
are land
ed, and expect to have
in running order about the
first week in December.
This news was not entirely
happy, h
owever, as the voyage
took a toll, reported by the
Colonial Farmer (Fredericton) on
December 2, 1872:
The six locomotives for
the Intercolonial brought by the
Amadeo from Glasgow,
were damaged on the voyage by
the seve
re weather.
Former Virginia & Truckee No.5, Carson, built by Baldwin in 1869, came to British
Columbia in February 1883 and was numbered
4, Savona. Sold to the Intercolonial in
it became ICR 190, and it survived until 1926 as CNR 7083. This photo shows it
working by Kamloops Lake in 1885. Photo from Canadian Pacific Corporate Archives
The railway was attempt-
ing to meet the
demand for motive power, with a policy of
buying locally, notably from a Halifax foundry, as the
of January 11, 1873 reported:
The second new locomotiVe built at William
Montgomerys Nova Scotia Iron Works, Freshwater, for
the Intercolonial Railway, was started from the works for
the railway depot yesterday on strong bobsleds drawn by
yokes of oxen and a large gang of men. Though it
weighed nearly 30 tons, it was drawn along easily. The only
difficulty being the snow
pitches in the streets, through
which trenches
had to be cut for the sleds. It got stuck in
Lockman Street last evening and remained
The first serious accident to locomotives on the line
did not occur until April 3, 1873, when the Saint John express
collided with a northbound train near Brookfield, Nova
Scotia. From that point on, the regional press paid close
attention to the railways operation and a decade later
newspapers across the Maritimes were reporting myriad
accidents on the railway.
The upsets continued at such frequency that the
editorialists began drawing the conclusion many of the
accidents were caused by government attempts at cost
cutting, and prolonged use of faulty equipment, which was
placing railway employees in harms way.
Even ten years after the Brookfield wreck, the railway
was attempting to
bolster the roster with imports, as the
Moncton Weekly Transcript noted in its June 14, 1882
Of the ten locomotives purchased for the
Intercolonial from Dubs Company, Glasgow, Scotland, four
are now ready for use. Three have been fitted out at
Richmond and the others are being put together in the
Moncton workshops by
Mr. Robert Hunter and an assistant
sent he
re by the builders. Yesterday afternoon the first one
here was taken out
for a trial by Driver E.s. White who was
accompanied by
Mr. Hunter and a Transcript reporter. The
trial was made to Berry Mills and back, a distance
of about
7 miles.
Except that the journals were heated, a usual
occurrence, the test was satisfactory.
The same newspaper was openly critical of this move,
which had been applauded by its competitor, The Times
(both papers were later amalgamated):
The Government organ endeavours to show that
Railway workshops at this place have not been
practically closed as have been stated, and quotes a
of the number of men now employed here and
elsewhere as its authority. But who is the authority for the
The organ does not give it, nor is therein, so far
we know, any official statement accessible to the general
public or
to public speakers or writers, from which the facts
can be verified.
The information should be accessible to
But taking the
Times statement: There were 380 men
employed in July 1878, in the Moncton workshops, as
against 300 in July
1881! Here is a decrease of 80 men
yed, and yet the organ states, We dont think Moncton
has any right
to complain of the treatment received from the
of Mr. John A. Macdonald. Eighty men less is
no cause of complaint when the Government turns them
of employ and out of the industlY, but eighty men are a
great number
in the Times editors mind when employed in a
Lock Factory or a Sugar Refinery. But by the Times showing
the Government did reduce the workshops
to 270 persons,
Another view of No.4, Savona, this time at Keefers B.C. in 1885. Canadian Pacific Corporate Archives
thus turning out of employment 119 men! This is more than
the number that
is claimed to have been employed in either
of the great new industries of Moncton.
But the Times has not touched upon the vital point,
the fact that only repair work is done here
now, while the
of a very complete and costly chamctef; prepared
for the construction
of locomotives and rolling stock, is lying
idle! Why is it that we are not now making locomotives
here? They make locomotives
in Saint John and other cities.
We are buying them, as has been shown in these columns,
abroad –
in the United States and Scotland. Why is it then
that with
all the appliances for making locomotives at Moncton,
119 men were discharged, and constructing
operations stopped! The only reason is that Sir Charles
Tupper laid a paralysing hand upon this Moncton
Sir Charles, the Minister of Railways and Canals, was,
according to the Transcript, the root
of all the railways evils.
Indeed, locomotives were being imported from the United
States, but some
of them were far from new, and one of
Tuppers purchases for the Intercolonial brought some beasts
of varied heritage into the stable, mountain locomotives
that had only recently finished work on the Canadian Pacific
But that does not begin to explain their round­
about route to the East
coast. Their story begins in
the silver district of
The Nevada silver boom
followed hard on the heels
of the California gold rush
of 1849, with the discovery
of the fabulous Comstock
gold lode near what
is now
Virginia City,
Nevada in
1859. By 1865 the
Comstock mines were
preparing for large-scale
production, and silver
became the principle prize,
having been discovered in
the blue rock that ham­
pered the miners in their
quest for the yellow metal.
In addition to the four Moguls, Onderdonk purchased four new 4-4-0 locomotives, built by Baldwin in 1884. These
were numbered 6
Nicola, 7 Kamloops, 8 Shuswap, 9 Columbia. In 1887 these too were sold to the Intercolonial
where they became 184, 185, 186, 187 respectively.
Above we see No.6 with a flat car for a tender. Opposite bott()m
is No.8, while below is No.9. All photos were taken in British Columbia in 1885.
Canadian Pacific Corporate Archives
The Historical Guide to North American Railroads
The Virginia & Truckee Railroad was incorporated
on March 5, 1868. Construction began almost a year later.
and the first train from Carson City rolled into Gold Hill,
just south
of Virginia City, on December 21, 1869. A month
later the line reached Virginia
City. The line from Carson
to Reno and a connection with the Central Pacific was
completed on August 24, 1872.
This appears to have marked high tide
for the ]jttle mountain railroad. Virginia City
was destroyed by fire in 1875, a
nd while the
catastrophe brought new business in the form
of material to rebuild the community, silver
ore production began to decline toward the
of that decade. It was perhaps for this
reason that the railroad decided to divest
itself of some of the older equipment.
Mogul (2-6-0) locomotives: 3
Story, 5 Carson, 7 Nevada and 8,
Humboldt, were sold in March 1881, Feb.
1883, Oct. 1883 and May 1882, respectively,
to D.O. Mills
of Onderdonk Construction.
Andrew Onderdonk was the American
contractor for the Canadian Pacific Railways
line through the mountains of British
Columbia. The locomotives were
respectively numbered 1 Yale, 4 Savona,
5 Lytton, and 3 Westminster. By 1886, Andrew Onderdonk was ready
to hand over
his completed section to the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company. Because of previous bad experiences with fOlmer
contractors engines, General Manager Van
Home of the CPR
declined to purchase the four Moguls and the four 4-4-0s.
After being stored for more than a year, all were sold to the
Intercolonial in 1887, at the height of the lines need for
more power.
The 4-4-0s became ICR 184, 185, 186, 187,
while the former Virginia
& Truckee engines 3, 5,7,8 became
ICR numbers
188, 190, 191, 189.
Still, the rate of replacement appears to have been
The Moncton Daily Transcript of January 9,
1888 made the following observation under the heading
Slaughtering I.C.R. Employees:
Two new locomotives were received for the 1. C.R.
last week. They are the first of a batch of one dozen ordered
the Kingston works. The locomotives and rolling stock
on the road have been allowed to so run down
for years
in order to present a fictitious annual statement, that
today many emp
loyees are afraid to take a rUJI with certain
The newspaper went on to refer to a December 6,
1887 incident at Stellarton, Nova Scotia when a locomotive
boiler explosion instantly killed three men and severely
wounded several others:
Experience shows as in the case of Stellarton, that
the danger
is not necesarily while running, but that actually
while standing still waiting
for orders, locomotives may
blow up spreading death and disaster around. On the
northern division, especially, some locomotives are said
be so defective, that the men are afraid to run them, and do
so at peril. But what are the lives of slaughtered drivers and
firemen and employees, the broken hearts
and shadowed
of widowed wives and orphaned children, to the party
of an incompetent Minister of Railways on the
expenditure side
of the balance sheet?
The daily run of reported accident, and the scores of
those unreported; the terrible fatality by the explosion at
Stellarton; the almost daily delays
to the different expresses
and passenger trains, are all incidents going to support
this general indictmen
t. The employees are afraid to speak
of the sure punishment to follow; the higher officials
not utter a protest because complaints may men
reorganization with themselves as the sufferers; (lnd one
half the public press is bribed, by printing jobs, into silence.
As for the mountain Moguls, the Intercolonial rebuilt
188 and 190 as 0-6-0 types at the Moncton shops in 1898
and 1908 respectively. Engines
191 and 189 were also rebuilt
in 1896. After the rebuilds, the
engines were renumbered
ICR 1023, 1025, 1026 and 1024.
is not to suggest that the four mountain moguls
in any way inferior to the task, or that Tupper had made
an unwise purchase.
The engines remained in service with
the Intercolonial well into the twentieth century, even
as the
of the Canadian Government Railway dawned, with the
same numbers.
ICR 1026 was sold in 1917 to Canadian Car &
Foundry Co. and 1024 was scrapped in 1918. With
the birth
of Canadian National came yet another set of numbers for
the two survivors; ICR 1023 became CN 7082 (scrapped
1920) while ICR 1025 became CN 7083. It was scrapped in
1926, the last of the lot.
Another Canadian Connection to the Virginia & Truckee
.:. …. ;;;;===;:-.;:::;.
As this article was ready to go to press, a very interesting artifact came to light in California. It is a 125 year old ticket,
by the Grand Trunk Railway in Montreal, good for a trip in Emigrant.Cars only from Montreal to Virginia City Nevada.
This ticket, printed on heavy green paper, and bearing the printed signature
of General Manager Joseph Hickson, was
ssued on November 14, 1876 to one Joseph Barbeault. It was meant to be used almost immediately, for one of the conditions
that it had to be presented to the Union Pacific Railroad at Omaha within eight days of sale or it would be void. The route
llave been Grand Trunk to Detroit, Michigan Central to Chicago, Chicago & North Western to Omaha, Union Pacific to
Ogden, Central Pacific to Reno, a
nd Virginia & Truckee to Virginia City. Only the final coupon (the V &T) is still attached.
What is especially interesting
is that there was sufficient traffic between Montreal and Virginia City to warrent the Grand
trunk preparing specially-printed tickets instead
of filling in the final destination by hand as was often done. However 1876 was
the big silver-mining boom of the Comstock lode and evidently quite a few Canadians, as well as immigrants landing in
Montreal, headed west to seek their fortune in the silver mines.
It is very likely that some of them travelled on the V &T behind
of the engines that later came to Canada.
My Favorite CPR Steam Locomotive
by Stan Garner
-.l————-5S··lIf .————-roo-4··l~
1——————.———-~S~8r pl. Ih?lII!l,,,
An officwl CPR dwgram of an N2 locomotive like 3647. No. 3647 was built by Montreal Locomotive Works in March 1911
as No. 3847. Renumbered 3647 in September 1927, it was scrapped in June 1959, soon after its retirement.
This brief account describes the reason why N2a No.
3647 became my favorite CPR steam locomotive.
First a little-background. My dad worked for Richfield
Oil Corporation and
he was transferred from Los Angeles to
CPR 3647 switching in 1957. All photos by the author.
Calgary in January 1956. My mom, my brother and I joined
him that summer after school was out.
We moved into an old
in Elbow Park on 36th Ave S.W. and I enrolled at
Central High SchooL After an all too blief summer I quickly
learned that I could stay warmer by walking
to school than by
standing around waiting
for a trolley bus. I also walked from school to
my new job as a box boy at the Town &
Country grocery store on 7th Ave at 7th St.
S.W. My favorite route took me across the
CPR mainline a few blocks west of the station.
Calgary is laid out in a grid with
avenues running east and west and streets
running north and south. The grid is broken
into 4 quadrants. The CPR station was located
on 9th Ave S.E.
just east of Macleod Trail
(divides east
& west) on the north side of the
tracks. The main line runs east and west. From
the station west, the
main line was double
track. There was a switching lead on each
side of the main plus yard and industry tracks.
A manual interlocking tower controlled all of
the puzzle switches and turnouts at the west
end of the station. A similar tower controlled
the east end (these towers were removed in
1957.) Each weekday a steam engine,
No.3647, worked the Robin Hood Flour mill
and a lumber yard located on the north side
the main line. The mill straddled 4th SI. (4th
St. crosses under the tracks) and there was a small
yard at each end. The lumber yard was close to 8th
St. A new diesel
switcher worked the coach yard,
station and a few industries on the south side
of the
main line across from the flour mill. Another steam
engine, No. 911, worked the tie treatment plant and
other industries west
of 14th St.
I was walking from school towards the main
line one afternoon when I found the diesel switcher
on an industrial spur south of 10th Ave.
The engine was stopped and I walked over to look
at it and started talking with the engineer. His name
was Jack Mitchell and he asked if I would like a ride
and invited me to
come on up. I rode while they
switched several spots then it was time for them
go for a quit. I had stayed out of the way and not
asked too many dumb questions so Jack invited me
come back and ride again, which I did many times. He
also told me that the crew on the 3647 were ok and that I
should ask them for a ride too. He warned me
to watch out
for the Bulls because it was their
job to keep trespassers
off the property. The next day I caught a ride on the
3647. The engineer was L.c. Bowman and the r­
fireman Jack McGinnes. They were both old heads
who liked a yard
job with regular hours.
I rode the 3647 every chance I got. During
school the lunch period was two hours long and I
would walk the 3-4 blocks from school up to the
lumber yard and catch a ride almost every day. On
school holidays and
in the summer I would ride until
it was time for work. Jack McGinnes taught me
fire the engine (it was oil fired) and L.c. Bowman
let me
move it light a couple of times.
That crew had a great job. They would spot
in cars (40 foot box cars) for the mill in the east
yard in
the morning then spot the engine on a lumber
yard spur and
take a break in the lumber yards
employee lunch room. They drank coffee, ate donuts
and played cribbage until it was close
to lunch. Then
they would relight the fire, spot a lumber car or two
and occasionally a box car at a business on a spur
in a narrow alley north of 9th Ave. Nter that
spotted the engine back on the lumber yard
spur and went to beans in the lunch room. After
lunch they pulled loaded cars from the mill, spotted
in the west yard for loading and if necessary
moved some cars
in the east yard. They would take
another break, then pickup the loads from the mill
and any empties from the lumber yard and get ready
to head for Aylith yard for a quit. When they were
ready to leave for home
L.c. would start moving
toward the tower and whistle for a signal. Usually
there were
no other trains at that time and the tower
operator would line the switches and signals in time
to let him out onto the main without stopping.
3647 did not have an all weather cab.
During the winter the rear
of the cab was closed off
with a
wooden wall that had a door in the center.
When you stepped through the door you were nose
to nose
with the
backhead and had to squeeze by to get to either
side. It was crude, but it kept the cab nice and warm. The
engineers window was fitted with a bay window
box so
L.c. could look out without freezing. When
3647 needed maintenance the relief engine was
usually No. 3695. It had an all weather cab with lots
of room.
There are a lot
of anecdotes from my time
with the 3647 and her sisters, this
is one of the good
ones. Late one afternoon I climbed aboard to ride
while they switched grain empties bound for Aylith
yard. One
of the brakemen walked up to the cab and
motioned for
L.c. to lean out and talk to him. He
told him that there were a bunch of drunks in one of
the empties aDd that the crew had closed the door
on them and wanted to take them for a ride. I figured
we were going to take them to Aylith and tum them
over to the Bulls, but that
wasnt what they meant.
We picked up a cut of about 25 empty box cars then
the car with all the drunks. The brakeman lined
us out of the
west yard and gave us a big back up sign. L.C. took off like
a rabbit and accelerated to about 20 mph. He brought the
string to a very quick stop using only the
jam (engine brake),
the slack ran in something terrible.
He immediately got a
come ahead sign and took off in the opposite
direction. When he got up to speed he came to
another quick stop. This process was repeated 4
5 times. Each time the slack action was fearsome.
The last move took
us back into the west yard where
we stopped with a bang. The crew then opened the
box car door and out rolled the drunks. Thoroughly
shaken up and much wiser for the experience they
staggered away. This valuable lesson on the hazards
of public drunkenness and trespassing on railroad
property was, by necessity, repeated about once
every 3 – 4 months. The reason was simple. There
was a government liquor store across from the flour
mill on 9th Ave about 5th or 6th Streets.
It opened
for specific periods
of time during the day and the
neighborhood drunks would pool their resources to
buy bottles
of cheap wine then head for an empty
box car
to enjoy the afternoon. They always left a mess in
the cars; thus, the crew invented the
Ii de as a way to solve
the problem.
One day, I think it was
in the faU of 1958, I saw the
flour mill being worked by a brand new FM diesel
The regular crew was on the job, but it
didnt seem right. I climbed aboard the rear end (the
unit was set up long hood first) stepped
into the shiny
new cab, said Hello, then asked where the 3647 was.
They told me she was done. I never saw her again.
[Editors note: She was scrapped
in June, 1959).
911 lasted another month or so and, as I recall,
the 922 was the last CPR steamer on a regular
job in
It was on a local that went towards Lethbridge.
CN continued
to run steam into Calgary until late 1959.
Oh yes, I graduated from Western
Canada High
School in 1959 and returned to California to join the
US. Navy, but thats another tale.
I have a few faded slides
of the 3647 and her crew
some photos of the back tracks at Ogden shops
taken with a Kodak Brownie using Ektachrome film
May of 1957. Ive attached a few of them to this
A Home-grown Hero on the Intercolonial
It may be impossible
determine how many of
the 70 Canadians who
received the Victoria Cross
during the First World War
travelled the Intercolonial
to Halifax or Saint John. But
the rail way managed to
produce a hero of its own in
the person
of a 28-year-old
employee whose name is
listed with about 5,500
employees of the Canadian
Government Railways sys­
tem in Canadian Nationals
1923 book Canadas
National Railways: Their
Part in the War.
This roll of honour
includes employees of the
Intercolonial, National
Transcontinental, Prince
Edward Island, Canadian
Government, Canadian
Northern, Grand Trunk and
Grand Trunk Pacific
Railways, several of whom
were awarded the Military
Medal, and one who won
the French Croix de Guerre,
for their
valour during the
Only Jean B.A.
Brilliant of Bic,
Quebec (he was named John in the
Canadian Record,) was awarded the
Victoria Cross, the Empires highest
honour for valour.
Brilliant was working at the
Intercolonial station at Bic, Quebec when
the war broke out, and during the winter
of 1914-15 he joined the 22nd Battalion,
tne Quebec Regiment, and sailed for
England in the Spring of 1915 as part of
the second Canadian contingent.
The unit went to France as part of
the Se~::lOd Canadian Division, and by
August of 1918 found itself engaged by
the Germans near Meharicourt during the
of Amiens. The extract from the
London Gazette of September 27, 1918
records Brilliants service, noting his
most conspicuous bravery and
by Jay Underwood
Jean Brilliant VC 1890 -1918
outstanding devotion to
duty when in charge of a
company which he led in
attack during two days with
absolute fearlessness and
extraordinary ability and
initiative, the extent of the
advance being twelve
On the first day of
operations shortly after the
attack had begun, his
companys left flank was
held up by an enemy
machine gun. Lt. Brilliant
rushed and captured the
machine-gun, personally
killing two of the enemy
crew. Whilst doing this, he
was wounded but refused to
leave his command. Later
on the same day, his
company was held up by
heavy machine-gun fire.
reconnoitred the ground
personally, organized a
party of two platoons and
rushed straight for the
machine gun nest.
During that second
action, Brilliant and his men
captured 150
prisoners and
15 gUllS. He was wounded for a second
time, and again refused to leave his
command. In the third action of the day,
he led another rushing party toward a
heavy field gun and was wounded again,
Brilliant also received the Military
Cross, but died of his wounds on August
10, the last day
of the battle. The Victoria
Cross was awarded posthumously on
September 27, 1918. Brilliant is buried at
Villers-Brettonnex Military Cemetery,
Fouilloy, France, 10 kilometres from
Ironically, the Amiens offensive, fought
by Canadian and Australian troops,
the action that gave impetus to the end of
the war. The Germans made one last stand,
at Mons, but by by November 11, 1918,
they were forced to capitulate.
The Case of the Transfer that Never Was
Laffaire de la correspondance qui nexista
by / par Jacques Pharand
Foreword. Firstly, readers
will notice the transfer ticket
reproduced here does not bear a
erial number, which would
normally have appeared in the
box inunediately below the form
number….. Secondly, bear in
mind that the Montreal &
Southern Counties Railway
(M&SC), as a rule, printed its
transfers for use over a 5-to-6 year
period, with the last year
of one
stock overlapping the first year
of the next, to ensure a smooth
nsition and to ensure
exhaustive use of older stocks.
Thus two consecutive forms
would be printed 1946 to 1951
and 1951 to 1956 and here
fOlms the key to the story.
Preambule. Le lecteur aura
d abord note que la
correspondance reproduite ci­
dessous ne comporte pas de
numero de serie, lequel aurait
apparu dans la case directement
sous Ie nUfTIero du formulaire …
Deuxiemement, gardez
a I espri t
Ie chemin de fer Montreal &
Southern Counties (M&SC), en
regie generale, imprimait ses
correspondances pour un usage
de 5 a 6 ans, la derniere annee
dun modele chevauchant la
premiere du modele suivant, de
maniere a en faciliter la transition
et d assurer I ecoulement des
reserves en mains. Ainsi, deux
modeles consecu ti fs seraient
imprimes « 1946 a 1951 » et «
1951 a 1956 », ce qui constitue
la cle de la presente histoire.
The company. M&SC
had been operating only two
years when it became a Grand
Trunk Railway subsidiary by that
railways first tinkering with
interurban services during 1911.
Until its last days, M&SC
operated in a thoroughly
independent fashion, although it
had become a property of
Canadian National Railways
(CN) along with the Grand Trunk
early in January 1923.
was continuous after the mid-
1930s when, principally,
competition from the un­
inspiring ticketless automobile
took its increasing toll.
FllIm6{) 4
,om .. de
St. lambert
To .. a
P:;J.S DUR£r
Nor TRANsn~Rm£
1966 1867
1956 Hasa

The story. Back in 1955, CN, who had inherited
Victoria Bridge with its constituent Grand Trunk Railway,
was faced with two problem
s. First, the bridge, linking the
of Montreal with the South Shore of the St. Lawrence
Ri ver, had become grossly
inadequate, with only one lane
in each direction for road traffic, both located on the upstream
of the span and the M&SC right-of-way, rented since
1909, on the
downstream side. Second, the St. Lawrence
Seaway, then under construction, requested extensive
refurbishment of the railroad structure, to include an alternate
deviation of CN tracks, so that ships going through the future
locks would not compromise continuous traffic by rail.
OATt O{MlsstOH
F£V ..

7 8
_. —
·9_1~ APRIL
I t1 2

13 14

… _1~, 16 JUH£
11 18
La compagnie. Le M&SC
n etait en operation que depuis
deux ans, lorsqu il devint une
filiale du Grand Trunk Railway,
premiere experience de ce
reseau dans Ie domaine du
transport interurbain en 1911.
Jusqua ses derniers moments, Ie
M&SC (indique en rouge sur la
carte) fonctionna toujours sur une
base a
utonome, bien quil soit
devenu la propriete du Canadien
National (CN), au meme titre que
Ie Grand Trunk, en janvier 1923.

~ -.
t,;,::…::;. —
OCT. 2728

NOV. .29:30
.T {jlr.
Le declin de la compagnie fut
constant apres Ie milieu des annees 1930, a la fa veur
grandissante de Iautomobile peu encline aux
Le recit. En 1955, Ie CN, qui avait acquis Ie pont
Victoria en me me temps que Ie Grand Trunk, €lait confronte
a un double probleme. En premier lieu, Ie pont reliant la cite
de Montreal avec la rive sud du Saint-Laurent
etait devenu
tremement desuet, avec une seule voie de circulation
automobile dans chaque direction, celles-ci etant localisees
du cote sud de la structure, I emprise du M&SC, louee depuis
1909, occupant
Ie cote nord. De plus, Jamenagement de la
maritime du Saint-Laurent en cours exigeait des
renovations majeures, incluant un trace de contournement
Meanwhile, M&SC traffic from
the north end of the bridge to its
downtown terminal in the citys McGill
Street had become a nightmare.
Although only about 1.5 miles in
length, it also had
to cross the Lachine
Canal (circumventing Lachine Rapids
in the St. Lawrence River, as the Seaway
would also do) at
Blacks Bridge on a
single track, for both reaching and
leaving its terminus; said swing bridge
was open almost as often
as it was closed,
on account
of boats going through up
downstream, thus affecting
schedules and stalling passenger cars
waiting at both ends.
M&SC thus decided to cut
back its operation to the south
end of
Victoria Bridge (St. Lambert), offering
only a much-reduced rush hour shuttle
service between the Montreal terminal
and St. Lambert. This gave rise
to the
transfer ticket now considered. This was
to be used
to transfer between cars from
the shuttle and cars
of the other lines
still operated by the M&SC on the South
Shore. The longest
of these worked to
Marieville and had formerly run to the
of Granby, more than 40 miles from
Lambert. This latter stretch had
in April 1916 and served until
abandoned in
November 1951.
Under pressure from government
and public alike, the parent CN,
however, declined this arrangement.
The M&SC had no other choice but
curtail service to Montreal, which
happened in June 1955. This met the
CN requirement
of freeing space on the
bridge for additional road traffic lanes.
Meanwhile, there was no
in printing stocks of the new shuttle
form, since there remained enough wads
of the previous general pattern (i.e.
1951 to 1956) to be used.
The writing
was already on the wall, so to speak, for
the M&SC terminated all its operations
on 13
October, 1956. The line
afterwards continued to carry CN freight
And that
is the very condensed
of the transfer that never was,
and aL importantly for collectors
half-a-century hence, explains why our
example ticket has no serial number.
fact it was later revealed to be one of a
few specimens rescued from company
offices by the accomplished CN
draughtsman, the late G. Norman
en aval des voies du CN, de fac;:on a ce
que Ie passage des navires dans les
futures ecluses nempeche la circulation
continue des convois ferroviaires.
Entre-temps, la circulation des
vehicules du M&SC entre lextremite
nord du pont et Ie terminus du centre­
ville, rue McGill etait devenue un
veritable cauchemar. Bien que long da
peine 1,5 mille (2,5 km), Ie parcours
devait franchir Ie canal Lachine
(contournant les rapides de Lachine
dans Ie fleuve Saint-Laurent, a linstar
de la Voie maritime) en voie simple au
pont Black, pour atteindre et quitter son
terminus; ce pont toumant etait presque
aussi souvent ouvert quen operation
norma Ie, en raison des navires remontant
descendant Ie courant, ce qui
compromettait les horaires et
immobilisait les vehicules aux deux
extremites du pont en question.
En consequence,
Ie M&SC dec ida
de tronc;:onner ses opera tions a
Iextremite sud
du pont Victoria (Saint­
Lambert), proposant un service de
navette aux seules heures de pointe
entre Montreal et Saint-Lambert. Ceci
fut a Iorigine de la correspondance
dont il est fait mention ici. Cette
correspondance devait etre utilisee entre
les vehicules de
la navette et ceux des
autres circuits du M&SC toujours en
operation sur la rive sud. Le plus long
de ceux-ci passait
par Marieville pour
atteindre la cite de Granby, a
40 milles (65 km) de Saint-Lambelt. Ce
(indique en pointilles sur la
carte) avait ete complete en 1916 et
demeura en usage jusqui son abandon
en novembre 1951.
Sous les pressions du gouvemement
du public, Ie CN rejeta toutefois cette
proposition. Le
M&SC neut dautre
choix que dabandonner Ie parcours
jusqui Montreal, en Juin 1955. Ceci
rencontrait les exigences
du CN liberant
lemprise pour la creation des nouvelles
voies de circulation automobile.
Entre-temps, limpression dune
nouvelle correspondance specifique­
ment pour la navette se trouvait donc
injustifiee, dautant plus quune
quantite suffisante de correspondances
du modele « general» (i.e. : 1951 i
1956) demeurait disponible. Du reste,
il s agissait en quelque sorte, du chant
du cygne de ce reseau, Ie M&SC cessant
definitivement toutes ses operations, Ie
Thompson. Norman
learned that the few were
printers small sampling
as proofs prior to
quantity printing -which
never took place.
Throughout this
demise of M&SC transfer
tickets, there was
contemporary good news.
The company continued to
issue its characteristic
Edmondson card tickets
until -it is tempting to say
the very end. Two
examples are shown,
No.02586 dated 10 Sept­
ember 1955 and, from
about a month before
closure, the blank-destin­
ation card numbered
405772, dated 4th Septem­
ber 1956 and made valid
to Brookline.
LEFT: The last M &SC
timetable, Sep. 30, 1956.
BELOW: M&SC train at
Lambert in 1948.
30, 1956
Suburban and Interurban

Horaire complet des trains
Suburbains et Interurbains
Eaotem . Siandard Time
MAIquaile 4731
ORchard 1·7241

Heure Normala de lEo!
No. 123
SI. Lamhert
13 octobre 1956. Par la suite, Ie parcours continua
d etre uti lise par Ie CN pour les convois de
Et ceci constitue
un bref resume de Affaire
de la correspondance qui nexista jamais et, point
plus important pour les collectionneurs
un demi­
siecle plus tard, explique pourquoi notre specimen
na pas de numero de serie. De fait, il savera
ulterieurement qui! sagissait de Iun des
quelques exemplaires « sauvegardes » des
bureaux de la compagnie par Ie dessinateur
renomme du CN, Ie regrette G. Norman Thompson.
Norman apprit que ces quelques exemplaires
etaient des epreuves precedant limpression en
quantite -laquelle
neut jamais lieu.
Malgre Iabandon des correspondances du
M&SC, on peut faire etat de « bonnes nouvelles
» par la suite, La compagnie continua demettre
des billets typiques du type Edmunston et ce -on
serait tente de
Ie dire -jusqu a la toute fin. Deux
exemples sont illustres, No. 02586 en date du 10
septembre 1955 et, environ un mois avant la
fermeture definitive, Ie billet sans destination
specifique No. 405772, date du 4 septembre 1956
et valide jusqua Brookline,
ontreal & Southern Counties Ry Co.
Good lot O[l~ p …. ge -Bon JIOu.. _,oyago ~
.. from .• , de ~ONtREAL Que.. . ~ 00
llMI·t; ONf MONT,H :..-. VAliDITE UN MOrS 0
Not l1:ao.aferahle.· i!:.. ~<.
c … . r-
8AILW~YCO; -1o.J.
Good, for I)Ue lnt Ct •• iDI!oIBare .J~D …….
4)iI., , M.ntlt erQJ~,ol datil ot Ale. 1. –
BOn DQW un ~ti e.nP … mAreCI…. …….
, en dedf.Dll dUft M.-enltllllnm8Dl 1. –
. de In liMe de In vente. ,
TAO roo ~
Westland Manufacturing Company
Courtesy of Smiths Falls Railway Museum
It is fitting
that we mention this
known comp­
any as the Canadian
Pacific Railway pre­
res its Hudson
2816 to make its first
run in many years.
Why? CPR 2816 has
five pressure gauges
manufactured by
Westland in its cab,
plus a sixth that was
rebuilt and a seventh
as a spare.
So how is
it fitting that the
Smiths Falls Rail­
way Museum writes
about this company?
If I said that CNR
1112 has two West­
land gauges in its
cab, do bells start
Company is our own
Alan Westland, trust­
ee and Vice-Pres­
ident. Alan hand
crafts each and every
gauge with up
to 80 hours spent on each one. Alan buys the
gauge movements
from various sources, the case castings
from Alloys Foundry, the metalsmiths in Merrickville, the
dial plates from another company; the glass and various
other bits and pieces are purchased from other sources.
casings start with wooden moulds that Alan has either built
himself or has had made -the cases are usually 6
or 8 inches
in diameter.
Many people might ask why manufacture steam-era
pressure gauges? Surely all steam locomotives had a
complete set
of gauges when they stopped working on the
The answer is that many gauges were destroyed or
stolen and the manufacturers are no longer in business.
companies still make gauges, but they are steel, painted black
and are used in diesels. The steam-era locomotives gauges
are polis
hed bronze that some would describe as beautiful
and are readily collected
as works of art representing an
era that ceased 40 years ago.
The case is cast
in bronze and is
tumed over
to Alan
who then uses his
lathe to machine it
to si ze and cu ts
screw threads so that
later a threaded
bezel can be fitted to
hold the glass
surface plate. The
screw holes to
mount the dial plate
are then drilled.
After the machine
work, the casing is
lovingly polished
by hand. The dial
plates are designed
by Alan, based on
of the type
of plate that the
locomoti ve had
when built, and sent
to a contractor who
digitises the design.
The data
is tied into
computer, which
cuts the plate, twice.
Each cutting session
an hour. After
this is done, Alan buffs the matte metal and ensures that
paint gets into the cuts. (Modern
dials are silk screened onto
the metal).
Earlier last summer at the Elgin County Railway
Museum, Tom
Paynes Reading Railroad No. 2101, a 4-8-4
nOlthern type locomotive, sporting Westland gauges was in
steam. Other locomotives with Alans gauges are CNR 1112,
CPR 2816 and
BC Rail has two gauges for use in its steam
locomotives based in North Vancouver. Alan has been asked
to provide gauges for two other locomotives -CPR 2839, a
Hudson in California and CNR 3245, a 2-8-0 at
Memory Junction in Brighton, Ontario.
s gauges are not only functional steam-era
gauges, but they are works
of 31t. So when you see photos of
CPR 2816 in magazines or on the TV news broadcasts
sometime later this year, remember the Smiths Falls Railway
eum of Eastern Ontarios connection. We should be
of this connection.
Narrow Gauge 4-4-0s in Quebecs Eastern Townships
Second-Hand or Newly Constructed?
The Mystery Continues
by Donald R. McQueen
The central issue in this mystery is whether the narrow
gauge locomotives of the Philipsburg, Farnham & Yamaska
Railway and the Lake Champlain & St.Lawrence Junction
Railway were second-hand 4-4-0s or newly constructed by
Canadian Engine & Machinery Company (CE&MCo)
at Kingston, Ontario.
Interestingly enough, the mystery doesnt begin in
eastern townships of Quebec, but in the hinterland of
Toronto, Ontario.
The Toronto & Nipissing Railway
It has long been established that the Toronto &
Nipissing Railway (T&NR) had 12 narrow-gauge
locomotives -six built in Bristol, England by Avonside and
six in Kingston by the Canadian Engine & Machinery
Company (CE&MCo) -all twelve between 1870 and 1873.
Incorporated by W.Gooderham in 1867, the T&NR
was constructed from Scarborough Jet. to Coboconk by 1872
using a track gauge
of 3 6. It was granted running rights on
the Grand Trunk Railway and a third rail was laid from
Scarborough Jct. into Toronto. The T&NR also leased and
operated the Lake Simcoe Junction Railway (LSJR) when it
opened in 1877 between Stouffville and Sutton, Ontario.
The T &NR was converted to standard gauge in 1881 and
became one
of the nine companies which formed the Midland
Railway of Canada in April 1882.
The six wood burning 4-4-0s [llxI8 42] ordered
from the CE&MCo in either 1869 or early 1870 were believed
under serial (or boiler numbers) #83 to #88. The only
entries on page 6 for serials #83 to #88 in the CLC
Locomotive Record ledger book of 1916
are the customer
name of Toronto Nipissing Ry and the shipping date of
1870 for serial #85. A later felt pen entry for #88 has 4-4-
0 under the heading Builders Class. All other spaces,
including road number and specifications, are blank. Until
2000, conventional wisdom (notably Edson & Corley:
p82; Lavallee: NGRC p105; Cooper: NGFU p22 or McQueen
Thomson: CinK p168)2 had the Kingston-built
locomotives numbered between 1 and 6, with only the name
of nO.6 recorded. As strong as the suspicion was that there
were more locomotives named than just T&NR 6, the only
evidence then available was an 1871 builders photo -one
of CE&MCos first -which in various forms has had wide
publication exposure.) What is believed to be the only other
known photograph of these T&NR 4-4-0s shows the same
locomoti ve at Sutton, Ontario on the LSJR in 1877
However the publication of Constructed In Kingston
spurred further investigation and in 2001 long-lost
information about the entire Kingston order came to light.
The T&NR road numbers and names (below) were listed in
Engineers Report of August 16, 1872, and had been
reproduced in the Toronto Globe for September 12, 1872.
CLC# Number and Name Arrived
T&NR 2 M.C.CAMERON 11-08-1870
84 T&NR 3 R.wALKER & SON 12-14-1870
85 T&NR 4 R.LEWIS & SON ?12–1870
T&NR 5 JOSEPH GOULD 3 -24-1871
T&NR 6 UXBRIDGE ?4–1871
. ,
88 T&NR 7 ELDON ?4–1871
These six Eight-wheel Types may have been
delivered from Kingston between November 1870 and April
187l. The newspapers of the time reported the first two
arriving on November 8 and December 14, 1870 respectively,
and no. 5 on March 24, 1871.
All the Kingston-built 4-4-0s were intended to remain
in service up to the time the T &NR was standard-gauged.
However fate -in the fOlID of fire -disrupted those plans.
FIRE -Uxbridge has been without a fire so long
that the one
of Sunday last [1-14-1883] was a surprise. The
engine-house here
of the Midland Railway Co. was burned
to the ground and four engines
in it almost totally destroyed
on Sunday morning about la clock. No one was in the
building at the time
of the fire, which is supposed to have
caught from a stove. The man engaged as wiper had left not
an hour before, believing everything apparently safe.
The fire, originating inside, had made considerable progress
before being noticed by the night operator at the station,
who was the first to see
it, and when it was found that water
could not be obtained to work the fire engine the building
to be given up and all energies directed towards saving
adjacent buildings, which was done by throwing snow on
roof and sides. R. W Ward, the wiper, made an effort to
run out the double-header, [no.9] but the smoke was too much
for him.
The loss to the company will be about $50,000. The
engines destroyed are [CE&MCo] Nos. 2, 4, 5, and
[Avonside] 9; all narrow gauge. They will likely be replaced
by broad gauge
[481/2] engines which have now become
almost universal on the road, there only being
8 [3 built by
CE&MCo and 5 by Avonside] of the narrow gauge left on
the entire line.
[authors commentary in brackets throughout
the article]
Journal: January 18, 1883.
The four burned locomotives were reported sold for
scrap on February 28, 1883 to the Dominion Bolt Company
of Swansea, a community on the Humber River mouth in
present-day Toronto. There
is no recorded evidence of any
parts of these 4-4-0s being re-sold for any other use.
The Disposition Mystery
There currently are at least three schools of thought
as to the final disposition
of the three remaining Kingston­
built narrow gauge
T&NR locomotives which survived the
1883 fire. One point
of view is that (1) before 1881 none of
the T &NR locomotives were sold to another rail way
company before the T &NR standard gauged; or that (2)
T&NR sold, leased or loaned three or four
of its Kingston­
built locomotives to railways in Quebecs eastern townships
between 1875
and 1881; or that (3) the T&NR sold only one
or two of the surviving eight; thus implying that at least
three, if not four
of the narrow gauge 4-4-0s in Quebec were
built in Kingston as new locomotives.
The evidence for each
of the three interpretations as
to the disposition of the T&NR locomotives, and the origins
of those used in the Eastern Townships of Quebec, follows:
(1) The T&NR 4-4-0s were never sold to other railways
before 1881.
The argument here is that the 12 locomotives stayed
T&NR property until after 1881. The four which were
burned in 1883 were sold for scrap, but details of the
disposition of the remaining six remain undocumented. The
T&NR Annual Report for June 30, 1883 (p17), accounts for
12 by listing 4 burned; 2 sold and 6 for sale.
Even though the dates
of disposition or the builder
of the remaining six were not given in these reports, the
is that they were put up for sale after the Midland
of Canada [MRC] standard-gauged the T&NR. This
process has been recorded
in several sources.
-The Track
to be Made the Standard Gauge.
It is learned that it has been decided to broaden the
of the Toronto and Nipissing Railway from its present
of 3 ft. 6 in. to the standard of 4 ft. 81/2 in, by the
laying of a third rail. The rails have been ordered from
England, the first shipment to be made in July [1881]. The
change will be effected in time for the fall [1881] traffic,
and by the method adopted no interruption will occur in
the operation
of the road. The same plan of three rails was
pursued with the old Erie Railroad. It
is expected that by the
fall nearly the whole road will be of steel. The change is
rendered necessary by the connection which will be
established with the Ontario
and Pacific Junction Railway
as soon as completed.
Toronto Globe: May 14, 1881.
And in summary, using secondary sources:
1881, Dec.15 -Third rail had been laid between
Scarborough Jct.
and Woodville Jct. to allow operation on
this date of first standard gauge from Peterborough to
Toronto via Millbrook
and Woodville Jet. . ..
Between July 1 1883 and June 3D, 1884, the line
between Woodville Jc. and Coboconk (Coboconk to
Lorneville, Aug.
15, 1883) and the Lake Simcoe Junction Ry.
(Oct. 26, 1883) were converted to standard gauge and the
third rail between Woodville Jct. and Scarborough
Jet.(Lorneville to Toronto, summer 1883) lifted.
Lavallee: NGRC p105; and Cooper: NGFU p54,153.
The strength
of this position is drawn from the fact
because the standard-gauging of the T &NR between
1881 and 1883 occurred after those
in the eastern townships
of Quebec (see below) the latter would not have need for any
narrow gauge locomotives -second-hand or newly
(2) The T &NR 4-4-0s were used on other Quebec railways
before 1881.
The longest-held hypothesis suggests that at least
four of the Kingston-built T&NR locomotives (serial
numbers unknown) eventually were loaned, leased or resold,
and saw service on several railways in southern Quebec.
has been suggested that up to three may nave been used by
the Philipsburg, Farnham & Yamaska Railway. They were
reported leaving Kingston (presumedly after being
retrofitted) for Quebec in December 1875; others were
shipped east between 1876 and 1881 to its successor, the
Lake Champlain.& St.Lawrerice Junction Railway.
is no doubting the evidence that four Kingston­
built narrow gauge
4-4-0s saw service on these Quebec lines.
It was circumstantially held that they were all second-hand
the T&NR -the only other extant narrow gauge
locomotives built by the CE&MCo.
This assumption was further strengthened by
comparing the look-alike appearances
of the two groups in
contemporary photographs -especiaJly T&NR 6 UXBRIDGE
and LC&SLJ 1 ST.PIE (the most current comparison appears
Constructed In Kingston, p169, but can also be found in
NGRC pp13,28). The circumstantiality of this
evidence remained viable mainly because
of the lack of any
mention of either the PF&Y or the LC&SLJ
in the builders
(CE&MCo) documents.
This thesis was originally suggested
in 1939 and has
been widely used since that time. It first appeared in
R.R.Brown: SER p20 (1939); and was cautiously repeated
in Lavallee:
NGRC p28 (1972); Edson & Corley: LGTR
p82 (1982) and McQueen & Thomson: CinK p169 (2000).
Other writers have struggled with the enigma, offering a
of built or acquisition dates, or leaving the origins of
the four locomotives unrecorded (cf. Booth: RSQvI pp146-
147 (1982); or Lavallee: CPSL p359-361 (1985).
However, even the thesis
of a loan or lease (as opposed
to a sale) to the Quebec railways mentioned above has not
been conclusively substantiated, even though it could
account for the T&NR claiming ownership of 12 narrow
gauge locomotives between 1875 and 1883. It has been
established that loans and leasing did take place between
other Canadian companies during this time period, but no
direct links between the
T&NR and railway companies in
southern Quebec has as yet come to light.
There is, however, documentation to support the
notion that at least one of the two locomotives (builders
unknown) mentioned as being sold in the
T&NR Annual
of June 30, 1883 may have gone to Quebec. As the
MRC completed standard-gauging the T&NR routes
between 1881 and 1883, two of the 36 locomotives were
put up for sale.
One built at Kingston was believed sold to the South
Eastern Railway (SER)
as 2nd 2 ST.FRANClS. SER records
show it as a standard gauge 4-4-0 [either 13×18 45 or
14×24 57] built in Kingston about 1878 or 1879, and
acquired about
The new owner of the second T &NRJMRC steamer is
unrecorded, although some suggest it may have gone to the
Lake Champlain & St.Lawrence Junction Railway in 1880,
as no.4 L ANGE GARDIEN (Guardian Angel). This
is based on a contemporary newspaper report.
A very highly finished locomotive was shipped today
from the Ontario Foundry
[ie.CE&MCo] for the LC&SU.
Kingston Daily British Whig: July 16, 1880.
The reference to the highly finished condition
this locomotive could imply either a newly constructed, a
reconditioned, or a
re-gaugedone. If new is extrapolated
from the wording
of the news item, this could be the L ANGE
GARDIEN. But no documented evidence has been found to
support this supposition; nor do any T&NR records indicate
whether the second locomotive sold was built in Bristol or
Photographic evidence plays a part
in this mystery as
well. A
photo of a Richelieu, Drummond & Arthabaska
Counties Railway Co.[1869-1872] 4-4-0 having a similar
appearance to the T&NR (or even the TG&B)5 and PF&Y/
LC&SLJRlSER Kingston-built 4-4-0s raises the speculation
that one
of this group -or one similar to it -worked on the
Another look-alike appears
in a photo of a Canada
Southern Railway construction train, likely when the
company built from Niagara Falls to Amherstburg via
St.Thomas between 1870-1873.
But these are speculative
comparisons with no hard evidence to support them other
than apparent physical features.
(3) Existence of newly-built 4-4-0s for the PF&Y and
LC&SLJ Railways
Farnham & Yamaska Railway Company;
Lake Champlain
& St.Lawrence Junction Railway;
South Eastern Railway.
Incorporated in 1871 as the PF&Y, the railway finally
opened in 1879 as a 36 gauge line between Stanbridge
and St. Guillaume in Quebecs eastern townships. The
company changed its name to LC&SLJ in 1876. When the
South Eastem Railway gained control
in 1881, it completed
23 CANADIAf1 RAIL -486
the task of standard-gauging the line. With CPR control of
the SER in 1883, the LC&SLJ was leased and operated as
the CPRs Farnham Division.
If the T&NR sold only one of its naJTOW gauge fleet
to the SER, the implication
is that the four PF&Y and LC&SLJ
locomotives were newly-constructed narrow gauge 4-4-0s
from the Kingston firm. This would also suggest the
locomotives in question were built from plans similar to
those used for the T &NR, which would account for the
physical similarities between the T&NR and PF&YILC&SLJ
The recently researched evidence which appears
below can now be used to substantiate this point of view. It
has been taken from several media sources rather than from
builders or railway documentation.
December 24, 1875 the Kingston Daily British
reported PF&Y locomotives finished and ready for
CONTRACTS CLOSED: The engines [note the
plural] for the Phillipsville, [ie. Philipsburg] Farnham and
Ry., having been completed by the Canadian Engine
& MachinelY
Works, the foundry is without any orders, and
for the time being the establishment will be closed down.
The above engines
[plural] were forwarded per the Grand
to their destination today ….
Kingston Daily British Whig: December 24, 1875.
These might be
PF&Y nos. 1 aneL2, although the
total number shipped
is not known, but this late-in-the-year
delivery might account for the 1876 build-date for the
locomotives that is suggested by some records. The use of
the plural here may well be elToneous -at this time the PF&Y
had only about
ten miles of track laid, and would really only
need one locomotive to operate the line.
To strengthen this
possibility of only a single locomotive on the roster, a –
February 1876 item in the St.Hyacinthe Courrier reported
LC&SLJ no.l ST.PIE [l1112x18 39]
in service.
… M.B. de LaB rue re, du Courrier de St.Hyacinthe,
dirigerent vers le terminus actuel de la voie ou la
locomotive qui a nom St.Pie,

de St.Hyacinthe (in a description of
the LC&StLJ): February 22, 1876.
years later, in July 1878, the St.Hyacinthe
Courrier reported the purchase of LC&SLJ no.2
ABBOTSFORD [13xI8 45].
CHEMIN DE FER -Une superbe locomotive, ayant
nom Abbotsford, achetee [purchased, not built] a
Kingston, Ont., pour la compagnie du chemin de fer de la
jonction du Lac Champlain et du St.Laurent, a du etre placee
la ligne Dimanche dernier. [7-21-1878]
de St.Hyacinthe: July 23, 1878.
The following July (in 1879) the St.Hyacinthe
Courrier again reported the arrival of the LC&SLJ no.3
BEDFORD [13×18 45].
Une nouvelle locomotive, Le Bedford pour la
de chemin de fer du L. Cet S.L., est arrivee en
cette ville jeudi. [7 -1 0-1879J Elle a ere essayee
CLC# Shipped
(??) PF&Y 1 ST.PIE 12:24-75
LC&SLJ 1 ST. PIE by 2-22-76 SER 19 ST.PIE -81
UCR 1 -91
QSR 100 7-00 Sc c-06?
(?? ) (PF&Y 2 ABBOTSFORD) 12-24-75 or if not, then
-or-SER 2:2nd(?)
(??) (PF&Y 3 BEDFORD)
( ??) SER 2 :2nd
? 7-16-80
c. -81
immediatement sous la surveillance du superintendant
M.J.R.Foster. Cette locomotive est la belle que la compagnie
possede, et elle a donne
pour son voyage d essai, la plus
grande satisfaction.
Courrier de St.Hyacinthe:
July 12, 1879.
And finally, the Kingston
Daily British Whig in June,
and again
in July 1880, made references to a new and a
highly finished locomotive for the
LC&SU. This might be
a reference
to the LC&SU no.4 LANGE GARDIEN [131/
2×20 52].
LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -Yesterday an engine for
the Lake St.Champlain and St. Lawrence RR lie. LC&SLJ]
arrived at the Ontario Foundry lie. CE&MCo] for a change
in gauge.
Three other engines for this line will be re-
modelled and a new one built .
… !
Kingston Daily British Whig: June 8, 1880.
The change
of gauge for the LC&SU was announced
in the press in 1879:
It has been decided to change the narrow gauge on
LC &StLict Railway to a medium gauge and when that
change is effected the road will be completed to
Montreal Daily Witness: August 5, 1878.
The process of re-gauging by laying a third rail was
completed on July 20, 1880 and conversion
of the narrow
gauged 4-4-0s was done at Kingston between June and
August, 1880. Readers should note this is earlier-than the
change of gauge on the T&NR which took place between
1881 and 1883 -thus surplus T&NR locomotives would not
of interest to the LC&SU -in terms of taking advantage
of their 3
6 gauge.
Accounting for this delivery evidence from the press,
PF&Y/LC&SLJ/SER roster might be revised as in the
table above:
Subsequent sales and dispositions of the SER
locomotives can be found in the following sources: Lavallee:
NGRC; Booth: RSQvI; Lavallee: CPSL; McQueen &
or if not, then
M&A 21 -91
OMR 1:1st -95 Ds
SER 22 LANGE -81
2 c. -91 M&A
OMR 1: 2nd 1898 (1900?) Sc
Unfortunately, none of the newspaper sources actually
word their reports to indicate whether any of these
locomotives from Kingston were newly constructed. Thus
the possibility that the CE&MCo could very well have been
reconditioning older locomotives is not completely
eliminated. All the available records indicate the Kingston
firm never applied new serial numbers to any of the
locomotives it reconditioned or rebuilt -even those which
received new boilers.
But the notion
of new construction begs the question
as to whether CE&MCo serial numbers could be assigned to
the four narrow gauge PF&Y/LC&SLJ locomotives. The
answer is yes. Interestingly enough there are still five serial
numbers (#35-39) for which no customer has yet been found
(see McQueen & Thomson: CinK p165 for details), Despite
_. the hazy record which survives from that early period
locomotive building at Kingston, four more serial numbers
be assigned, assuming of course, that additional
conclusive evidence will warrant such an inclusion into the
of the builders production record.
There the mystery stands: one school suggesting no
sales of T &NR took place
to Quebec narrow gauge railways
except for one
to the SER; another suggesting that least four
former T&NR 4-4-0s went
to the Eastern Townships; and a
third suggesting the Quebec narrow gauge locomotives were
new products constructed in Kingston.
The issue may never be resolved unless more
information comes to light. The data currently at hand are,
at best, fragmentary and laconic in its detail, whether it be
the builders existing record, railway records, photographic
images, or press reports.
But inherent
in all research is the corollary that new
is still in existence and will some day be discovered.
This supposition has already been demonstrated recently in
this case. Hence the search for the full truth
in this story
A builders photo of Toronto & Nipissing No.6 ill 1871.
[1] For detail about the origins of the CLC production
ledger, see
McQueen & Thomson Constructed In Kingston
page 159.
[2] Explanations for
book title codes is found in the list
of sources (below).
[3] At least three versions
of the left-hand broadside view
of T&NR 6 at the CE&MCo plant in Kingston exist. (See
McQueen & Thomson:
CinK p169; or Lavallee: NGR p12,
[PA C2604] in Cooper: NGFU p22). Another version (that
can be seen
in the Kingston Pump House Museum) has the
information underneath the photograph:
[lhs] G.J.Tandy, Superintendent, Kingston, Ont.; [center]
of Directors R.J.Reekie, President and Managing Director,
Montreal; Henry
Yates, Vice President, Brantjord; George Stephen
(of George Stephen
& Co.), Montreal; Robert Cassels, Banke!;
Quebec; John Shedden, Toronto; [rhs] Charles Gilberl, Secretary
Treasure!; Kingston, Onl.
And yet another version (used in Eldon & Corley:
LGTR p85 top) has an advertisement printed in medieval
gothic along the top
of the photograph:
Narrow Gauge Engine (3 feet 6 inches) Built at
Canadian Engine
and Machine Companys Works,
[4] The rear left hand side of T&NR 6 taken at the
opening of the LSJR is identified as an image of A&D Grant
Sulton. This copy from the Hubert Brooks
collection can be found
in Cooper: NGFU p39.
[5] Toronto Grey & Bruce Railway
36 4-4-0s built by
Avonside in 1870-1871 also appear quite similar to the
T&NR narrow gauge 4-4-0s. See Lavallee: NGRC pl5 for an
of one.
[6] The photograph in question is from the Societe
dHistorie de Drummondville, Quebec and is dated L Avenir
16 AoGt 1871. Besides having velY similar physical features
to the
locomotives in McQueen & Thomson: CinK p 169;
Booth: RSQvI p81, 82, 84, 96; and Booth: RSQvII p93,
95b,(but not 95t, 97); and Cooper: NGFU p22, 39; it appears
to have a builders plate similar to those used by the Kingston
builder between 1878 and 1887.
The photograph can be found in Robert D.Tennant
J r: Canada Southern Country p 19 and takes on the same
of a T&NR Kingston or T&NRrrG&B Avonside
Acknowledgements and Sources
Many people have helped unravel this story as it
now stands. I wish to thank the following for their
contribution: Dana Ashdown, Marc Carette, Colin Churcher,
Art Clowes, Ray Corley, the late Fritz Lehmann, Gord Soutter,
W.D.(Bill) Thomson, and last, but not least, Carl
Riff -whose
expertise and persistence
in unearthing unexplored material
The published sources used include the following:
Booth: Railways
of Southern Quebec (vol 1 & 2). [RSQ]
Nanow Gauge For Us (T&NR). [NGFU]
Corley: Toronto & Nipissing Railway roster and notes
Corley & Lavallee: South Eastern Railway roster & notes
(un pu blished).
Dorman: A Statutory History of the Steam & Electric
Railways of Canada (1837-1937).
Edson & Corley: Locomotives of the Grand Trunk railway.
Hopper: Synoptical
HiStOlY of the CNR.
Lavallee: Canadian Pacific Steam Locomotives. [CPSL]
Lavallee: Nanow Gauge Railways
of Canada. [NGRC]
McQueen & Thomson: Constructed
In Kingston. [CinK]
Intercolollial Railway Locomotives, an Update
More information on the Intercolonial Railway of Canada (IRC) Locomotives illustrated in Canadian Rail No.483 page
122 has come
to light. Although readers may be able to find the ancestry of the IRC passenger cars in Lepkey & West: CNR
Passenger Equipment 1867-1992, that
of the steam locomotives is more of a challenge, as all IRC rosters are still unpublished.
is what Ray Corley and Don McQueen have found concerning these locomotives.
IRC 2nd 66 (SG 4-4-0 16×24
60 125# 75000wt, and later 16×24 69 160# 90000wt 12000te) was one in an order for
21 (IRC 46-66) built by Manchester about April 1875 under serial #695. This was the 17th lot of locomotives acquired by the
It was delivered to the IRC at Moncton in June 1875. Rebuilt June 1896 at the IRC shops in Moncton, it became after
January 1912, IRC
1111, class 017. After January 1916 it was renumbered and relettered to CGR Ill, class A2-17. It was one of
three in order to survive into CNR ownership in 1919. CGR III became CNR B-7-a 235, and was retired for scrap November
1924 at Moncton.
151 to 159 (SG 4-4-0, originally 18×24 69 140# 80000wt 13400te and after 1894 17×24 69 180# 110000
195550wt 14365te 45-6) were built by the Canadian Locomotive & Engine Company between April 1883 and April 1884,
the 38th lot of locomotives for the IRe. IRC 154 (c. February 1884 #281) was rebuilt December 1894 by IRC, Moncton. Its
boiler was exchanged
in December 1895 with IRC 137 (140# Fleming #29 of February 1883) by IRC, Moncton. Although in
an accident February 3 1904 at Milford
., it survived to become, after January 1912, IRC 03 1085. After January 1916 it became
CGR A3-3 1085, and after September 1 1919 CNR B-5-a 218. It was retired for scrap on July 30 1920 at Moncton.
IRC 1st 98 (SG 0-4-0 14×22
48 120# 40000wt ) was bu.ilt by Baldwin in March 1875 under serial #3704. It was part of
15 acquired by IRC which consisted of seven switchers, IRC 94-100. IRC 98 was retired for scrap in 1894.
L Age dOr de lIntervention du Gouverllement
du Quebec en Matiere de Transport Ferroviaire
par Richard Leclerc, Ph.D
Nous comprenons que Ie gouvernement na pas pour
politique la construction des chemins de fer, mais aucun
corps ne peut exercer une influence plus heureuse sur
I esprit
des hommes de chemins de fer que les membres du
gouvernement. (1)
Dans Ie processus complexe menant a la concretisation
des projets ferroviaires, cette citation resume en quelques
mots les
attentes que la bourgeoisie investissait dans Ie
gouvemement du Quebec durant la periode allant de 1867
1920. A cette epoque, il netait pas du res sort du secteur
public de construire de gerer et de posseder des chemins de
fer. Cependant, son appui moral, technique et financier etait
indispensable pour soutenir Iessor
dun reseau ferre prive.
gouvernement est lelement central qui canalise
transforme les demandes issues de la societe. Cest
lappareil gouvernemental qui detient Ie mandat au nom du
dadopter et de fa~onner la politique ferroviaire. La
bourgeoisie ne
souhaitait pas son intervention directe par
voie de propriete des ouvrages de chemins de fer, mais pranait
plutat une action suppletive sobre. L ideologie· dominante
alors en vigueur
considerait que seule la propriete privee
des biens et equipements pouvait generer des retombees
optimales sur lensemble de la societe.
sans Ie soutien financier gouvernemental,
la plupart des compagrues de chemins de fer navaient pas
les moyens
dentreprendre de couteux travaux ferroviaires.
Le profil bas de I action gouvernementale permi t de
preserver la philosophie sous-jacente au liberalisme
economique, soit sa non-ingerence dans les activites des
entreprises privees.
Cest a Quebec quetaient centralises les pouvoirs
politiques, legislatifs et administratifs qui stimulaient Ie
developpement du reseau ferroviaire. La structure
administrative tres legere favorisait une concentration des
gouvernementales entre les mains des autorites
politiques et mirusterielles (figure
1). Le POUVOlr decisionnel,
bien que maltrise
jusqu a un certain degre par les elus du
peuple, etait avant tout contrale par les membres du Conseil
executif, tandis
que Ie pouvoir administratif et technique
etait monopolise
par quelques hauts-fonctionnaires (ex. Ie
directeur du Bureau des chemins de fer).
Le Conseil executif
Au cours de la periode 1867-1920, Ie pouvoir
decisionnel en matiere de transport sur rail etait centralise
au Conseil des ministres. Les decisions majeures concernant
la creation, les reorientations et la fin des programmes daide
financiere aux chemins de fer, ont ete discutees et enterinees
des reunions du Conseil, tout comme les modalites
dapplication des programmes. Le Conseil executif distribuait
par arrete en conseil,
sur une base discretionnaire et suivant des criteres sou vent
arbitraires, les subsides aux entreprises ferroviaires
requerantes. Ainsi, les ministres pouvaient prendre des
decisions qui favorisaient des amis du regime, cela au
detriment de considerations plus objectives. A dautres
occasions, ces resolutions tablaient en priorite sur les effets
anticipes sur lamenagement du territoire et Ie
developpement economique. Cest donc dire que
I attribution des subventions ne sappuyait pas seulement
sur des criteres impartiaux.
Jusqua la creation de la Commission des services
dutilite publique, toutes les compagnies de chemins de fer
avaient Iobligation de faire approuver et sanctionner par
lieutenant-gouverneur en conseil leurs taux de peages. II
possedait egalement Ie pouvoir de reviser les reglements
qui fixaient ces taux (2).
Le Com.ite des chemins de fer
Constitue Ie 8 octobre 1870, Ie Comi te des chemins
de fer est une composante relevant
du Conseil executif cree
par I Acte des chemins de fer de Quebec de 1869. II etait
compose d au moins quatre ministres dont un assurait la
presidence du Comite, alors que Ie sous-ministre a
I Agriculture et aux Travaux publics ou une autre personne
Ie poste de secretaire (3).
Un des objectifs ayant concouru a la creation de ce
Comite, etait de delester Ie Conseil executif des
deliberations dordre technique en vue daccroltre dans cette
derruere instance,
Ie temps imparti a la discussion des enjeux
et ecoDomiques de certains dossiers ferroviaires.
Les pouvoirs conferes
par I Assemblee legislative,
lui octroyaient Ie mandat de veiller au respect par les
compagrues ferroviaires de certaines Dormes de securite afin
Ie transport des passagers sans peril et de prevenir
les accidents. Ainsi,
Ie Comite avait la capacite dordonner,
avec lassentimeDt du lieutenant-gouverneur en conseil,
a une entreprise de chemins de fer de construire un pont
lieu dun simple passage a niveau lorsquil juge la chose
it la surete publique (4).
Pour mener it bien Ie travail dinspection, Ie Comite
devait recourir aux services des ingenieurs du ministere des
Travaux publics. Ces professionnels avaient pour mandat
de verifier sur Ie terrain I etat des ouvrages felToviaires et de
fournir un rapport ecrit contenant ses recommandations.
Ainsi, aucune entreprise ne pouvait mettre en service regulier
une nouvelle voie sans avoir obtenu Ie
consentement ecrit
du Comite.
Par ailleurs, une fois en operation, il pouvait
faire inspecter de fa~on discretionnaire tous les chemins de
Jacques Cartier Bridge on the QMO&O about 1878.
Les decisions du Comite des chemins de fer etaient
Stu lappreciationde lingenieur. Lorsquil avait re(,:u
1avis de 1expert, Ie Comite pouvait rendre son ordonnance.
pouvait autoriser loperation de la ligne, en interdire
1utilisation ou exiger que les modifications necessaires pour
securite des citoyens soient apportees avant toute
Par ailleurs, Ie
Comite devait etre informe par les
entreprises ferroviaires de tout accident qui aurait cause des
blessures, la mort
de personnes ou des dommages a leurs
equipementset installations. Chaque annee elles avaient
I obligation de produire et transmettre un rapport dMaille
des accidents .survenus sur leur chemin de
Le veritable pouvoir decisionnel et final Mait derenu
par les membres
du Comite des chemins de fer et du Conseil
executif. De par la loi, lingenieur ne possedait quun
pouvoir delegue pour ordonner, lorsqu il Ie jugeai t
necessaire, la cessation des activites sur un chemin de fer
considere corrune dangereux. Toutefois, il avait
l obligation
dinformer Ie comite de son initiative, lequel devait faire
ou rejeter cette decision par Ie Conseil des ministres.
Suivant I Acte des chemins de fer de Quebec, les
compagnies ferroviaires devaient egalement faire ratifier par
Comite certains de leurs plans et devis relatifs a la
construction douvrages adjacents au chemin de fer, tels les
les jetees et les ponts.
Le Comite fut rendu inoperant
Ie 30 decembre 1909
et rem place par un organisme autonome de reglementation,
la Commission des services dutilite publique du Quebec.
Deux raisons motiverent
la suppression de cet organe
du Conseil des ministres. La charge de travail des ministres
qui allait en
saccroissant en raison du developpement de
I a ppareil gouvernemental, ne leur permettait pI us de
consacrer autant de temps a ce Comite dont Iexistence netait
plus aussi justifiee quaux belles heures de la politique
ferroviaire. Deuxiemement, dans Ie souci de depolitiser cette
activite et de decentraliser les decisions administratives,
devenait preferable de deleguer les pouvoirs du Comite a un
de regIe mentation autonome.
National Archives of Canada, photo No. PA-33160
L Assemblee legislative
Le Comite permanent des chemins de fer, canaux,
lignes de telegraphes, mines, compagnies de mines et
Ce Comite permanent est un organisme de
l Assemblee legislative regroupant des deputes suivant la
repartition des sieges octroyes aux partis politiques
representes a la Chambre. Le premier comite fut fOime Ie 30
decembre 1867.
II deposa son premier rapport a la Chambre
onze jours plus tard.
Le Comite permanent joue un role fondamental dans
processus legislatif qu~becois. C est un fOTumou les
parlementaires discutent, analysent et controlent
scrupuleusement les projets de loi, les credits budgetaires,
etc., soumis par la Chambre apres leur adoption en premiere
lecture et tombant sous
la competence du Comite.
Ie nombre imposant de projets de lois deposes
en vue de constituer des entreprises de transport sur rail et
sollicitude du gouvernement pour favoriser 1expansion du
reseau ferroviaire quebecois,
Ie Comite permanent occupa,
jusquaux dernieres annees
du XIXe siecle, un role dominant
parmi les institutions de la Chambre. Lieu strategique ou
siegeaient des membres influents du Conseil executif, les
deputes pouvaient y rencontrer les personnes preoccupees
ou concemees par un projet de loi. Cest au cours des reunions
de ce Comite que se joua lavenir de plusieurs entreprises et
projets de chemins de
Le ministere des Travaux publics
Le premier gouvernement quebecois fut assermente
quatorze jours apres
la creation de la Confederation (Ie Ie
juillet 1867). Le Conseil executif etait alors compose du
premier rninistre Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau,
un depute
conservateur et de six rninistres. Louis Archambault fut
premier titulaire du rninistere de I Agriculture et des Travaux
Dans ce nouveau pays, ce ministere allait etre appele
a relever des detis majeurs sachant que l agriculture et la
construction d equi pements ainsi que d infrastructures
Crossing Salmon Creek in 1878. Photo by Alexender Henderson. National Archives of Canada No. PA-164704
etaient les fondements sur lesquels devait se developper Ie
Charge de doter IEtat quebecois de routes, de ponts
et d
edifices gouvernementaux, cest it cet organisme que
pendant pres de cent ans, Ie mandat de gerer la
politi que ferroviaire. Toutefois, ce nest pas avant 1888 que
Acte du departement des travaux publics indique
clairement les fonctions, les pouvoirs et les devoirs
incombant au ministre dans ce secteur:
Bien que disposant
it prime abord dune juridiction
et de pouvoirs etendus, dans la realite les activites du
ministere se circonscrivaient
it un role de soutien technique
et administratif.
Le veritable pouvoir decisionnel etait du
du Conseil des ministres, alors que les fonctionnaires
disposaient dune autorite delimitee et deleguee par les
Avant la creation du Bureau des chemins de fer, il
existait pas it Iinterieur du departement, dunite
administrative pour encadrer cette mission, lintervention
du ministere etant avant tout informelle. Entre 1867 et 1880,
est it lingenieur-directeur des Travaux publics, Pierre
Gauvreau, quincomba en vertu de son large mandat, la
gerance des programmes et des activites techniques
inherentes au transport sur rail.
Laugmentation de la charge de travail due it la
croissance de
lactivite gouvernementale dans ce secteur,
eutraina la creation du Bureau des chemins de fer lors de
Iabolition du ministere
du meme nom. La loi abrogeant Ie
depa11ement des chemins de fer, stipulait que tous les dossiers
possectes par ce dernier devaient etre transferes aux Travaux
publics (5). Les rapports annuels du ministere ainsi que Ietude
des comptes publics revelent deux constats. Suivant les
epoques, les effectifs d~ Bureau des chemins de fer sont
modestes, ne comptant quentre deux et cinq employes
occupant des postes dingenieurs, de comptables, de comrnis
et de messagers. Quant au personnel de direction, il est
caracterise par sa tres grande stabilite etlongevite. Entre
1886 et 1920, cette branche administrative relevant du sous­
ministre des Travaux publics na connu que trois directeurs,
soit Edouard Moreau (1886-1896), Louis Vallee (1896-1919)
et Ivan Vallee (1919-1957).
Le Bureau joua avant tout un role de soutien
technique et administratif au sein du ministere et du
gouvernement. Ses pouvoirs etaient restreints. Les decisions
importantes et de nature plus politique impliquant I octroi
de fonds publics, la fixation des taux de peages ou
I application des reglements de securite etaient I affaire du
Conseil executif ou du Comite des chemins de fer.
Le ministere des Chemins de fer
L Acte concernant la di vision du departement de
I Agriculture et des Travaux publics, sanctionne
Ie 24 juillet
1880, donna naissance
au ministere des Chemins de fer. La
loi transferait
au ti tulaire du nouveau poste I ensemble des
pouvoirs detenus jusqualors par
Ie ministre de I Agriculture
et des Travaux publics:
Par Ietablissement de cet
organisme dont lunique
vocation etait de gerer la politique ferroviaire, Ie
gouvernement Chauveau consacrait limportance
du chemin
de fer pour appuyer
l essor de I Etat quebecois. La creation
de ce ministere avait pour dessein de bonifier
Ie controle sur
A lautorite du Comite des
chemins de fer sajoute
un pouvoir
de reglementation economique
obtenu du lieutenant-gouverneur
en conseil. La Commission avait
la capacite de mener des enquetes,
dinterroger des personnes, ainsi
d inspecter tous les ouvrages
et les equipements ferroviaires
tombant sous sa juridiction.
Inspection trip on the Montfort & Gatineau Colonization Railway in 1903, just before its
purchase by Canadian Northern. National Archives
of Canada, photo No. PA-149551
Ce tribunal fut etabli par
Iadministration Gouin (1905-
1920) afin de calmer les forces
nationalistes qui sinsurgeaient
contre la mainmise des capitaux
etrangers sur les entreprises
hydroelectriques, processus qui
jouait au detriment des Quebecois
francophones. Dans Ie secteur
ferroviaire une telle reglementation
prenait de I importance, sachant
que la presque totalite du reseau
quebecois de tramways electriques
la distribution des subsides aux entrepreneurs prives et sur
la societe d Btat Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa et Occidental
Par ailleurs, les dirigeants politiques innovaient
en consacrant pour la premiere fois une place officielle au
transport ferroviaire a I interieur de la structure
administrative du gouvernement du Quebec.
Ie departement connut une vie ephemere
nayant subsiste que 71 mois. Ladoption du Consolidated
Railway ,Act.
par Ie, Parl,ement canadien et Ialienation du
a. Fentrepriseprivee, ne justifiaitplus quun ministere
tconsacre a la politique ferroviaire. En 1884, plusieurs
dont Honore Mercier, remirent en question son
Deux ans plus tard, soit
Ie 30 juin 1886, Ie ministere
des Chemins de fer est aboli.
Au moment de sa fermeture, Ie
ministere ne comptait que trois employes: deux profess­
ionnels et un messager (6). La defunte stmcture ministerielle
et ses employes furent integres au ministere des Travaux
publics sous
Ie nom de Bureau des chemins de fer.
La Commission des services dutilite pubJique
La Commission des services dutilite publique
(devenue en 1920 la Commission des services publics), qui
est I heritiere de tous les pouvoirs
du Comite des chemins
de fer, fut constituee par lAssemblee legislative
Ie 29 mai
1909. Ses membres,
au nombre de trois, dont un agissait a
titre de president, etaient nommes par Ie lieutenant­
gouverneur en conseil pour un mandat de dix ans.
Commission avait Ie statut de tribunal
administratif, ce qui expJique pourquoi elle relevait du
Procureur general et non
du ministre des Travaux publics.
Sa principale fonction etait de controler et de surveiller
Iensemble des entreprises privees exploitant un service
dutilite publique tombant sous la juridiction des lois
quebecoises. Elle avait pour role dagir tel un regulateur au
sein de Iindustrie du transport sur rail afin de proteger les
interets economiques et la securite
du public mal desservis
en raison de I absence de concurrence dans
ce secteur.
urbains appartenait a des
compagnies cornme la Quebec Railway, Light and Power et
la Montreal Light, Heat and Power, filiales de grands trusts.
Plut6t que de
proceder a la nationalisation de ces
entreprises, ce qui netait guere compatible avec
la doctrine
du laisser-faire, Ie gouvernement Gouin prefera reglementer
les activites de ses personnes morales.
Durant cette ere, la politique felToviaire a eteun des
elements dynamisants ayant concouru
a Iamenagement du
telTitoire et au developpement economique du Quebec.
volonte gouvernementale etait dappuyer la
creation dun reseau de chemins de fer de base qui
maximiserait la puissance de IBtat Quebecois par la
valorisation de ses caracteristiques geopolitiques comme
presence de richesses naturelles et une localisation
geographique favorisant la circulation vers Ies principaux
marches economiques.
Cette politique,
a une exception pres, ne derogea pas
aux regles
du liberalisme economique. Le gouveroement se
confina a produire des aides techniques et financieres
destinees aux entrepreneurs prives. Lenonce global de ses
intentions sappuyait sur cinq principes directeurs:
l. les intervenants prives sont libres dinvestir, dagir
et de
developper les territoires qui representent Ie plus
davantages pour concretiser leurs objectifs;
2. toutefois, Ie gouvemement disposant de res sources
financieres limitees, se reserve
Ie privilege dattribuer les
subsides suivant les avantages strategiques que representent
les projets.
Tous les projets nayant pas des effets dentralnement
egaux sur Iamenagement
du territoire et Ie developpement
economique regional ou national,
Ie Conseil executif devait
selectionner les entreprises
quil estimait les plus vi abIes et
les plus genera trices de retombees pour IBtat Quebecois (7).
3. Ie gouvernement encourage les municipalites et
les individus a participer au capital des entreprises ferro­
4. Ie gouvernement ninitie pas de projet ferroviaire
(8). Sa mission est
dappuyer financierement et dencadrer
legalement les propositions soumises par les individus ou
5. Ie legislateur nintervient dans Ie secteur ferroviaire
que pour assurer la securite du
public et Ie respect des
principes de Ieconomie de marcM par la reglementation
economique des activites des transporteurs.
Des avril 1869, les grands objectifs de la politique
ont ere operationalises par
I adoption de I Acte des chemins
de fer et de
I Acte pour lencouragement de certains chemins
a lisses de
colonisation. De ces deux lois, les premiers
programmes ferroviaires quebecois ont ete inities.
L Acte des chemins de fer encadre, dans ses moindres
details, la construction et I exploitation des chemins de fer
sous juridiction quebecoise. La loi est constituee de vingt et
parties dont les plus importantes traitent d aspects
legaux et economiques, tels la constitution en corporation
de ces entreprises, des assemblees generales, des reglements
et avis internes ou de questions plus techniques relatives
aux plans et arpentages, aux terrains, a leur evaluation, aux
normes de construction des chemins et ponts, aux
conventions de trafic, etc.
A travers ces decennies, les principes generaux sous­
tendant la politique ferroviaire
sont demeures identiques.
La seule entorse a cette continuite fut I achat des chemins
de fer de la rive nord et du Montreal, Ottawa et Occidental,
lesquels ont ete integres
au sein de la premiere societe dEtat
Ie Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa et Occidental.
Devant I incapacite de ces compagnies d achever
leurs travaux de construction en raison de difficultes
financieres amplifiees par la crise economique de 1874, Ie
gouverriement simposa comme maltre-dceuvre de ce projet.
Ces entreprises
narrivaient pas a emprunter des capitaux
sur les marches financiers britanniques en raison dune perte
credibilite aupres des investisseurs. Cette perception
negative avait ete col portee injustement par la presse anglaise
a Iinstigation des dirigeants du Grand Tronc, proprietaires
dune Iigne concurrente etablie sur la rive sud du fleuve
Saint-Laurent. Cette compagnie voyait
dun mauvais ceil ce
projet qui allait generer une
conCUITence. a ses acti vites.
Devant Iimportance des sommes deja investies dans
ces affaires, la seule solution soffrant au gouvemement etait
de devenir actionnaire de ces compagnies afin de restaurer
confiance des milieux financiers londoniens. Dans son
enonce de politique
du 6 decembre 1875, Ie tresorier Joseph
Robertson estimait que limportance strategique de ces voies
pour lessor de la puissance de
lEtat quebecois, justifiait a
elle seule cette derogation exceptionnelle
au principe de la
non-intervention gouvernementale (9). II tient a cette
occasion un discours economique plutot rarissime chez
Jhomme politique du temps, lorsquil aborde la capacite du
secteur public a produire ce bien par comparaison au secteur
prive: [
… ] Ie gouvernement [ … ] peut construire les chemins
il est question, a moins de frais que nimporte quelle
compagnie privee, et quen profitant
du bas prix du fer et de
il peut etre demontre qu il est possible de construire
des chemins de fer au Canada sans quil y ait de speculation.
31 CANADIAf1 RAIL -486
Malgre les pretentions du grand argentier quebecois,
cette aventure, si courte fut-elle, s avera tres onereuse pour
Ie tresor public. La Commission denquete concernant Ie
QMOO recommanda au gouvernement de: [ … ] se contenter
de su bventionner telies Jignes de chemins de fer, [ … ] encore
subventions doivent-elles etre limitees par Ierat des
finances de la province. [ … ] la Province de Quebec ne doit
construire elle-meme des chemins de fer que pour des raisons
a fait exceptionnelles qui doivent se presenter bien
rarement. (11)
Echaudes, les dirigeants qui se succederent
au Conseil
executif limiterent leurs actes aux fonctions plus
traditionnelles alors devolues au gouvernement. Quant aux
programmes mis de Javant pour en aniver
a la concretisation
intentions gouvernementales, ils nont pas connu la
meme stabilite. Les programmes
daide financiere destines it
favoriser la construction de voies ferrees ont ete modifies en
profondeur a sept reprises en 43 ans. Le gouvernement devait
reajuster constamment ses programmes en fonction du
cheminement de son intervention et de Jetat de Javancement
du reseau ferre.
Dans les prochaines pages, nous presenterons
Iensemble des programmes ferroviaires de la periode 1867
a 1920. Sachant que la politique ferroviaire a pris la forme
de trois types de programmes, soit la propriete, la distribution
et la reglerrientation, cest sur cette base quils seront
Programme du Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa et Occidental
Suivant sa loi constitutive, la compagnie de chemin
de fer
Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa et Occidental avait la
responsabilite dorganiser un ouvrage public appartenant
et devant repondre aux normes de construction Ies mieux
adaptees aux interets
generaux de lEtat quebecois (12).
Les fonds alloues par
Ie gouvernement furent utilises pour
Ie parachevement dune voie ferree reliant la ville de
Quebec au chemin de fer du Canada Central dans la region
de lOutaouais.
Le programme
ne Ie 24 decembre 1875, par la sanction
du lieutenant-gouverneur de I Acte relatif
a la construction
chemin de fer de Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa et
Occidental, ne dura que sept annees. II sest acheve a la
dun vote tenu it I Assemblee legislative qui enterina
la privatisation de la societe dEtat. Au printemps de 1882,
QMOO fut vendu en deux sections a deux groupes
d entrepreneurs pri Yes.
Programme daide au financement du
Ce programme avait comme ambition premiere de
it la sous-capitalisation chronique des entreprises
ferroviaires quebecoises et au sous-investissement du
gouvernement federal en octroyant, aux entrepreneurs
eligibles, une aide financiere afin dappuyer et favoriser la
concretisation de leurs projets. De plus, en conformite avec
les grandes orientations de la politique,
il devait donner les
moyens aux compagnies de chemins de fer
d amenager ce
territoire encore neuf, impulsion qui ne saurait etre que
bienveillante au developpement economique dun Etat
quebecois en pleine organisation.
• soutenir lindustrial­
isation et la competitivite du
Quebec sur
la scene mondiale;
• favoriser
I exportation
et lautosuffisance
en matiere
de materiel ferroviaire.
Street car for Sherbrooke, Que. 1897.
Le programme daide a
Iindustrie ferroviaire avait
pour ambition dattirer des
capitalistes etrangers, gener­
alement des Etatsuniens, des
Britanniques et des Canad­
iens, a venir etablir des usines
en terre quebecoise. Le
gouvernement voulait ainsi
favoriser limplantation
dentreprises produisant des
lisses, des serre-ecrous, des
locomotives, du materiel
roulant et tout autre
equipement ou outillage
utilise par les transporteurs
National Archives of Canada, photo No. PA-164674
Le programme a ete
instaure Ie 30 juin 1881 et
etait toujours en vigueur en 1920. Le prograrrune a debute en
aVlil 1869 et sest acheve
officiellement en 1897, par la fin des subsides en argent et
en terres.
Apres cette date, Ie gouvernement continua a
distribuer quelques subventions, jusquau debut des annees
1930. Toutefois, son action est reduite se limitant
a Ioctroi
d argents sur une base irreguliere et discretionnaire, en
fonctionde Iimportance des retombees quun projet Mait
de generer pour Ie developpement industriel.
Progtamme daide technique
Avec ses ingenieurs specialises dans Ie secteur
ferroviaire, Ie gouvernement possedait une expertise lui
permettant de faire effectuer
a linteme une garrune etendue
detudes et de travaux visant
a jauger la faisabilite technique
dun projet de chemin de fer. Des ingenieurs ceuvrant dans
des bureaux
detudes privees ont egalement Me appeles a
effectuer de teUes analyses pour Ie compte du gouvemement.
Dans I intention
d assurer un soutien technique qui
comamment defaut a cette epoque dans les regions
rurales et saverait tres cofiteux lorsque disponible, Ie
du Quebec nhesitait pas a fournir cette aide
aux personnes et aux organisations qui
Ie demandaient. Ce
programme a ete en vigueur de 1867
a 1920.
Programme daide au developpement de lindustrie
Ce programme visait a soutenir Ie developpement
dune industrie quebecoise du materiel ferroviaire en vue de
maxi miser les retombees economiques et de garder au
Quebec les sommes investies par Ie gouvernement dans
lexpansion du reseau ferroviaire. Des objectifs plus
specifiques et sous-jacents au developpement economique
etaient perceptibles chez les decideurs lorsquil instaura certe
• attirer et developper une expertise dans
Ie secteur

creer de nouveaux debouches pour la main­
Programme de reglementation economique
Lobjectif de ce prograrrune etait de sauvegarder les
interets economiques du public dans Ie secteur ferroviaire
en favorisant un
controlegouvernemental sur les· activites
des entreprises operant
detels services.
Plusieurs compagnies, profitant de leur situation de
monopole dans Ie marche en raison des contraintes
techniques imposees par Ie transport sur rail, nhesitaient
pas a exploiter la clientele quebecoise. La principale
resultante de cette situation etait qu elles imposaient des
tarifs de transports exorbitants et dispensaient
un service
laissant sou vent
a desirer. Afin de pallier a linsuffisance de
concurrence, une des conditions fondamentales permettant
dassurer une saine economie de marche, etait que Ie
gouvernement se devait dintervenir pour soutenir un
meilleur equilibre entre les forces en presence, soit les
entreprises et les utilisateurs de ces services.
Ce programme a
Me institue en avril 1869 lors de
I adoption de I Acte des chemins de fer. Ces dispositions
etaient toujours en vigueur
Ie 31 decembre 1920.
Programme de reglementation de la securite
Ce programme cherchai t a favoriser, chez les
transporteurs ferroviaires, Ie respect de normes minimales
de securite, de construction ainsi que
ladoption de regles
uniformes dexploitation permettant de pallier aux erreurs
et aux negligences techniques,
conduisant sou vent a des
accidents couteux
en pertes bumaines et materielles. Par son
Ie legislateur voulait egalement assurer aux
pas sagers
dun train, un voyage seffectuant sans dangers et
aux citoyens cotoyant
regulierement une voie ferree, des
conditions de vie securitaires.
Cette reglementation avait ete rendue necessaire en
raison des frequents
accidents impliquant des convois. En
juin 1864, une terrible tragedie ferroviaire impliquant un
train de voyageurs du Grand Tronc survint dans
la ville de
Belreil au Quebec.
Cent personnes y ayant perdu la vie, les
dirigeants gouvernementaux.
nhesiterent pas a prendre des
mesures crercitives pour eviter la repetition dune telle
Le programme a ete mis sur pied en avril 1869. Au 31
decembre 1920, il etait toujours en application. Au cours
des decennies, des modifications mineures sont venues Ie
transformer en vue de Iadapter a levolution technologique,
legislative et societale, a laquelle etait soumis IEtat
Cet article a permis de demontrer que de 1867 a 1920,
gouvernement a consacre beaucoup d energie et de
ressources financieres pour soutenir Ie transport ferroviaire
en tene quebecoise.
Pour atteindre ce but, il na pas hesite a
etablir une structure administrative legere et des programmes
suppletifs dont les visees ne
cherchaient pas a deloger Ie
secteur prive de ce champ dactivite, mais plutat a orchestrer
et a soutenir son action.
(I) Archives nationales du Quebec (Centre de Quebec et de Chaudiere­
Appalaches), Fonds
du Ministere des Travaux. publics (Bureau
des chemins de
fer), E25, Atticie 712, Lettre de Monsieur Boily dela
Chambre de Commerce
du Saguenay, 4 janvier 1920.
(2) Acte des chemins de fer de Quebec. S.Q. 1869, c.51, article
(3) Ibid. Seconde paJtie.
(4) Ibid. mticie 36.
(5) Acte pour
aboLir la charge de commissaire des chemins de fer et
(6) Debats de I Assemblee legislative. Edmund-James Flynn, 26
mars 1885, p. 453.
(7) Debats de I Assemblee legislati
ve. Joseph Robeltson, 13 janvier
(8) Ibid, pp. 138-139.
(9) Debats de I Assembl€e legislative. Joseph Robertson, 6 decembre
p. 133.
(10) Ibid.
(II) QUEBEC. Commission d enquete concernant Ie chernin de fer
Q.M.O. &
0 (1887) Rapport du commissaire. (s.l.:s.n), p. 31.
(12) Acte relatif
a la construction du chemin de fer de Quebec,
Montreal, Ottawa et Occidental. S.Q. 1875, c.
2, aJticie 2.
English Synopsis of the Foregoing Article
by Douglas N W Smith
Railways were the engine of economic development
in the Victorian era. Both the federal and provincial
governments took an active hand in supporting the
development of the rail network and in regulating them.
The situation in Quebec was typical. The provincial
government created a Railway Committee composed of
cabinet members in 1870. Its role was overseeing railway
development and operation, and was
to relieve the provincial
cabinet who had handled all cases since the creation
of the
province in 1867. The Committee had the power over
provincially chartered railways. It used professional
engineers from the provincial Department of Public Works
handle technical matters including inspection of newly
built railway lines. In seventy years, there were only three
directors of the Railway Branch established in the
Department of Public Works. These were Edouard Moreau
from 1886 to
1896, Louis Vallee from 1896 to 1919 and
Ivan Vallee 1919 to 1957.
The Railway Committee of the
provincial cabinet was replaced by the Public Utilities
Commission in 1909.
There was a short-lived cabinet position of Minister
of Railways. The office was created in 1880 to manage the
large subsidies which the province was paying to local
railway lines and to manage the Crown owned Quebec
Montreal Ottawa & Occidental Railway. The QMO&O was
the first corporation owned by the Quebec government.
railway which stretched from Quebec City to Aylmer, Quebec
(near Ottawa) had been created to salvage provincial
investments in two private companies who had become
insolvent. Seventy one months after its creation, the position
was abolished
as the province had sold the QMO&O and the
creation of a federal Railway Act rendered the position
The Public Utilities Commission was created in 1909
regulate monopolies, such as power companies and
railways. The Gouin government had created this tribunal
to appease nationalists who fumed about foreign companies
which controlled the hydro-electric companies. All the
Quebec tramways fell under the purview
of the PUC as they
were owned by hydro-electric fIrms.
The PUC replaced the
Committee of the Quebec cabinet. The Ministers
were ready
to let go this responsibility as the period of large
scale railway development was drawing to an close and
of the railway network fell under federal jurisdiction.
Power was surrendered to bureaucrats.
During the period
of railway development from 1867
to 1920, the provincial oversight had dual goals of
developing railway infrastructure, providing jobs, regulating
rates and ensuring safety. The provision
of subsidies in either
cash or. land was to encourage the construction of railways.
The creation of a Crown corporation was necessary to
complete the QMO&O. Financial grants were made to the
railway supply industry to create employment. Montreal
became a leading Canadian centre for locomotive and car
as well as part suppliers. This had a counterpart in
the subsidies which were being accorded to major industrial
firms to build in the province.
Sir Casimir Stanislaus Gzowski 1813 -1898
The recent death of Peter Gzowski reminds one of his great grandfather, Sir Casimir S. Gzowski, one of the greatest
of nineteenth century Canada. Among his many achievements was the construction of the International bridge at Fort
Erie, Ontario, completed
in 1873. Although the superstructure has been renewed, the original piers from Sir Casimirs time are
still in use supporting this vital link between Canada and the United States.
The following article
is adapted from one by Victoria B. Katorski, and it appeared in a publication issued to commemorate
the centennial
of the bridge in 1973.
It should be noted in passing that the
CRHA has honoured the memory of Sir Casimir by naming the bridge into the
Canadian Railway Museum the Gzowski Bridge. This structure was originally built by the Canadian army in 1962, and was
replace by a st.ronger structure
of the same name, also built by the army, a few years later. This second Gzowski bridge is still in
In overcoming
difficulties, means were used
well known
to Engineers is the
statement Colonel Sir Casimir
S. Gzowski made in his
published report after the
completion of the International
Bridge in 1873. During his
lifetime, he had to overcome
many difficulties. He was born
St. Petersburg, Russia, in
1813; Poland
at that time had
partitioned by the three
great powers, Austria, Prussia,
and Russia. His father
according to several authorities
was Count Stanislaus Gzowski,
who was an officer in the
Imperial Guard. This made it
possible for Casimir to enroll
in the Military Engineering
College in Kremnitz. He was
then nine years of age. A
brilliant youth, he developed
an avid interest in engineering.
Upon graduation from the
school at seventeen, he
received a commission in that
of service.
in 1830, the
Polish patriots staged the first uprising. Casimir abandoned
his plans for the future and joined the countless number
men to fight the haughty, cruel Grand Duke Constantine.
The Duke escaped, but the Poles captured the arsenal and
fought until Warsaw was free. Young Casimir was wounded
several times and had some narrow escapes eluding the
Russian forces. A disaster occuned at the Battle
of Boromel,
in which Casimir was involved, and the Polish forces had
surrender. Theil hopes for a victory collapsed!
The defeated Polish warriors were imprisoned and
later exiled. Disillusioned, Casimir left Europe and arrived
in New York City in 1833, when he was twenty.
He was
faced with more difficulties. He needed work but he neither
spoke nor understood the English language.
With his initiative and
determination, he soon solved
his predicament. An excellent
linquist in French, Italian, and
German and possessing a good
knowledge of his mother
tongue, he taught these subjects
and eventually conquered the
English language. Restless, he
moved to Pittsfield, Massa­
chusetts, to work in a law office.
Consequently, he became
interested in the legal profession
and studied
law. In 1837, he was
admi tted to the bar.
But he never lost interest in
engineering. He seized the first
opportunity to work as a civil
engineer in Pennsylvania. In
he went to Canada and
realized the vast possibilities it
offered. Establishing residence
in Toron to, he obtained
employment in the Department
of Public Works.
S. Gzowski brought
with him from his native land
perseverance and a passion to
work. He adapted himself
to the
needs of the New World and
reached the top of his profession. A public-spirited citizen,
he willingly rendered his abilities to his adopted country.
He overcame his difficulties and
in solving them, he received
personal satisfaction and succeeded in making progress for
himself and others.
Canada made gains and she gave him
recognition for his devoted service.
zeal and enthusiasm, he advanced from one
position to another. He became Supervising Engineer of
Roads and Harbors in Western Ontario in 1842-1848,
Engineer of Harbor Works at Montreal, 1850-1853, and
Consulting Engineer for Ship Channel Improvement
between Montreal and Quebec. Later, he was assigned to be
Chief Engineer of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railway
His interest in railway construction caused him to
resign the latter post
to form a partnership with the late Sir
A.T. Galt, L.H. Holton, and Sir David MacPherson. This firm
received the contract for the building of the Grand Trunk
between Toronto and Sarnia. It also achieved
success in other ventures. In 1870 he was requested to
become a member
of a commission to study and report on
the waters
of the Dominion.
That same year, he received the contract for the
building of the International Bridge at Fort Erie and to report
on the enlargement
of the Weiland Canal. Because of his
uccess in the various assignments, he received the
distinction as one of the leading engineers of his time.
Concerning the construction of the International
Bridge, all credit was given to the professional skills of
Casimir S. Gzowski. The physical construction fell on his
shoulders, and his accomplishments in the course
of this
undertaking have brought him universal renown. There can
be no question as to the importance and
value the structure had in serving
railway traffic. It increased trade with
the West,
and it promoted newer
methods of engineering. It served as a
of friendship between Canada
and the United States. A tribute to him
is a tribute to all engineers who have
contributed unselfishly to mankind and
to progress everywhere.
A postage stamp issued in 1963 to commemorate the 150th
of the birth of Sir Casimir Gzowski.
At this time, Gzowski was more
or less retired and approaching 60 years
of age, but the challenge
of such a project
appealed to him, and he tackled the
problem with all his usual zeal. He was
ably assisted by Mr. E. P. Hannaford,
Chief Engineer
of the Grand Trunk. and
was soon reviewing drawings with the
best brains in the engineering field on
both sides of the border.
The International Bridge with its original superstructure.
In spite of overwhelming s.etbacks, Gzowski. the
builder, is amazing for having completed and made
functional the piers, and having erected the iron
superstructure, the massive drawbridges. and the connecting
rail yards despite the fact that Piers 4 and 5 were not yet in
For us, who reap the benefits
of this structure Sir
Casimir recorded an account of the work which he felt of
some importance. There are numerous reasons for building
bridges but why did he take time
to write a book about this
particular bridge? It is a remarkable volume, entitled
Description of the International Bridge … (Toronto, 1873.
65 p., plates). Perhaps he was motivated, like Julius Caesar
and Marco Polo, to recount his experiences and explain his
difficulties for the benefit of mankind.
From his recitation
of woes we realize Sir Casimirs
reason for his book and may estimate the character
of the
builder while standing in admiration of his unyielding
persistence. His limited knowledge of the stream bed, of the
of the depth of water, the unpredictable gales
that lashed at his efforts, the shipping interests that fought for his defeat, together with the
absence of sophisticated
equipment made Sir Casimir Stanislaus Gzowskis
accomplishment the more impressive. His achievement has
now stood for almost a hundred and thirty years.
of his military background and interest in
military affairs,
he was made president of the Dominion Rifle
Association and helped in Canadian defense and in the
of the national militia. In 1879. he was made a
full colonel and was appointed an Honorary Adjutant
to Her
Majesty the Queen. Eleven years later, he was knighted
Queen Victoria.
As one
of the founders of Wycliffe College, he served
fifteen years as chairman
of the board. He took an active
part in the creation
of Niagara Falls Park and was the first
of the Park Commission. He became the first
of the Society of Canadian Civil Engineers.
As a member
of the Conservative Party, his friends
encouraged him to seek a political office. He declined.
Sh011ly before his death, in 1898, he served temporaIily as
administrator for the Province
of Ontario, dUling the illness
of its Lt. Governor, Sir George Kirkpatrick.

New CD of Montreals Street Car System
Decouvrez pour la premiere fois revolution du
en commun de Montreal, sous la forme dun atlas
historique. Quelque 178 cartes, regroupant plus de 1300
modifications de circuits, racontent 80 annees dans
levolution de la metropole. Une encyclopedie unique, que
vous voudrez consulter
a lecran, ou imprimer sous forme de
volume practique. Fonctionne
sur tout ordinateur personnel
et avec tout genre dimprimante (couleur recommendee).
Le numero
Ie plus familier du circuit vise apparait au
haut de la page. II est suivi de la date dentree en vigeur de
ce circuit et de sa date de termination sur ce graphique.
Labsence de date de terminaison signifie que ce circuit sest
prolongue au-dela de 1966. Les circuits anterieurs a 1923
(qui n
etaient pas numerotes a lepoque) ont ete rapportes
au graphique Ie plus logique pour representer adequatement
ces parcours.
a la retraite, Jacques Pharand a realise cette
impressionnante compilation. II est egalement I auteur de
plusieurs ouvrages relatant lhistoire du transport en commun
de Montreal et de Quebec.
Discover for the first time the evolution of the
Montreal transit network, in the form of an historical atlas.
Some 178 maps include more than 1300 route changes,
narrating 80 years in the evolution of the city from the days
of the horse cars to the eve of the opening of the Metro. A
unique encyclopedia you may consult on your monitor
screen, or print as a practical document. The user has the
choice of logging on in either English or French; both
languages are available on the same CD. It works with any
PC and with all printers (colour recommended).
Above: Montreal Tramways Company, car 1312 in 1929.
The most familiar line number appears at the top of
each graph and is followed by the implementation date of
this route and its demise, insofar as the graph is concerned.
of a termination date means that the route
Below: One of the maps to be found on this CD.
was maintained beyond 1966. Routes prior to
1923 (which were not numbered at the time) are
attached to the most logical graph showing this
retired engineer, Jacques Pharand
created this impressive compilation. He is also
the author
of many books on the public transit
of Montreal and Quebec City.
Plice for single orders is $25.00 + $3.00
Price is in canadian funds in Canada
and US dollars for all other countries (that is USA
and abroad). Obtainable from:
Jacques Pharand
2207 de Bruxelles Street
Montreal QC
(514) 356-2680
Personal checks accepted, but with the
usual lO-day banking clearance, thus bank drafts
and money orders are preferred. Unfortunately,
no credit cards are accepted.
Route 65 (1913-)
BLEU pALE (271) COTE DES NEtGES (1913·1925)
BLEU MOYEN (543) –COTE DES NEIGES (1925·1928)
BEiGE (465)
–COTE DES NEIGES (1928-1949)
ORANGE _ COTE DES NEIGES 65 (1949-1955)
MALNE (258) __ COTE DES NEIGES 65 (1955 )
The Business Car
The 28th annual Lindsay and District Model
Engineers Show will be held on Saturday and Sunday, April
6 and 7 2002 at the Victoria Park Armoury, 210 Kent Street
West, Lindsay, Ontario.
On Saturday the show will be open from 10:00 A.M.
to 5:00 PM., while on Sunday the hours are 10:00 A.M. to
4:30 P.M.
Admission is $5 for adults, $4 for seniors and students,
$2 for children. For more information phone Wayne Lamb at
(705) 324-5316
or Eric Potter at (705) 328-3749.
The curators of the Canadian Railway Museum are
presently researching for two temporary exhibitions for
which any outside help (info, stories, artifacts, documents
etc.) would be very much appreciated.
The exhibitions are:
Stamps Express
The story of Canada through railway stamps, this
exhibition will also focus on mail traffic
by rail. In charge of
research is Josee Vallerand
Women and the railways
The story of railway women, especially Canadian but
also American, from the first ones hired in the 1830s in the
U.S. to contemporary trades. In charge
of research is Jean­
Paul Viaud (
Montreal writer Julie Gedeon is researching and
writing a book that will be called
Iron Ladies -The Role of
Women in Canadian Railways for McGill -Queens
University Press, and she needs your help. Julie is eager to
get in contact with women that worked for any
of Canadas
railways, whether in an office, on the tracks, aboard a train,
in a munitions shop during the war,
or any other capacity.
She wants
to speak to female carmen, engineers, secretaries,
comptometer and telegraph operators and so
fOlth -including
wives that helped to maintain a station
or section of track
their husbands. She is also interested in journals,
newspaper clippings, photographs and other documented
sources of information about Canadian railway women. Julie
can be reached at P.O. Box 295, Roxboro, Que H8Y 3E9,
telephone: (514)
626-2475; fax: (514) 626-0952; or by e­
mail at
Sudbury Electrics & Diesels is a new book on a rare
It is a look at the railway services for and by the nickel­
copper mining companies
in the Sudbury region of northern
Ontario. Included are: International Nickel (INCO),
Falconbridge, Mond, British America Nickel and others; even
an iron
mine Operations of the CPR, CNR and Algoma
Eastern serving the mining industry are covered. Over a
of rail-related history is to be found here.
The book has 176 pages, with16
of them in colour. It
is 8 112 by 11 inches with a hard cover. There are 303 black
and white photos, 36 colour images, 26 maps and diagrams
nine locomotive rosters.
Price is $63.95, including postage. Cheque or money
order, no credit cards, from:
Nickel Belt Rails, Box 483, Station B, Sudbury, Ontario
P3E 4P6
Mr. Ron Cooper of Gravenhurst, Ontario writes:
Ref. Canadian Rail #485, pages 194-195. My notes
(which could be wrong) show that the Duchess
of Cornwall
and York was converted from one
of the Britannia cars #202,
203 or 204 (built in 1901) and later returned back to a regular
car. A further thing that has long
puzzled me is that the
photo on page 194 shows the car operating on the left side
of the street, but the lower photo, page 195, shows it operating
on the right side
of the street.
On December 15,
2001 Amtrak began
ervice between
Boston (North Stat­
ion) and Portland
Maine. The train is
called the Down­
. easter and oper­
. ates four times a day
in each direction.
This is Amtraks first train in the Pine Tree State, and is also
the first long-distance passenger train scheduled in Maine
since the demise
of VIAs ever-lamented Atlantic exactly
seven years before. These photos were taken on January
2002. One shows the I ~
Downeaster in Bos-.i!:t;~~~~~i~l;S,
ton, while tbe other~ F~~~WJl).J:l
shows a plaque on the
former Grand Trunk
building in Portland,
Portlands role in the
history of Canadian
Back cover top: CPR 2816 and its train at the Beaver
V211ey road crossing near Leanchoil B.C. on Saturday, September 22, 2001.
CPR photo by Roger
Back cover bottom: CPR 2816 hauling the special train around Morants Curve in Alberta on Sunday, September 23, 2001.
Note that diesel 3084 has been removed and 2816 is hauling the train unassisted. CPR photo
by Roger BUITOWS
This issue of Canadian Rail was delivered to the printer on FeblUary 19, 2002.

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