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Canadian Rail 406 1988

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Canadian Rail 406 1988

Canadian Rail ¢:::b
No. 406
ISSN 0008·4875 —-­
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOA: Douglas N.
W. Smith
PRODUCTION: M. Peter Murphy
CARTOGRAPHER: William A. Germaniuk
Fred F. Angus For
your membership in the CRHA which includes a
tion to Canadian Rail write to:
CRHA, P.O. Box 148. 51. Constant. Quebec JOL lXO
Rates: in Canada…… …. … .. . … . $27.
outside Canada: ……….. $23. in U.S. fUNDS.
TYPESETTING: Belvedere Photo·Graphique Inc.
PAINTING: Procel Printi
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Canadan Rail is continually in need 01 (lftWS. stories, hiSlorice data. photos. mep8 end other reproducttble meterial. Please send ell
contributions to the editor: Fred
F. Angus. 3021 Trafelgar Ave. Momreal, P.O. H3Y lH3. No payment can be made forconlribulions. but
conlrlhulOt will be given credit for materiel submiued. Material will be returned 10 the contributor il requested. Remember. Knowledge is
of little value unless it is shared With others .
Frederick F. Angus Ch(lrles De Jean M. Peter Murphy Oavid W. Slfong
R. C. Ballard Gerard Frechee Roben V. V. Nicholls la~lfence M. Unwin
Jack A. Seany David W. Johnson Andrew W. Pank.o Richard Vi berg
Walter J. Bedbrook J. Christopher Kyle Douglas N. W. Smith A. Stephen Walbridge
Alan C. Blackburn
William Le Surf Deryk SparkS
Bemerd Martin
The CRHA has a number of local divi.ions across the country. Many hold regutef
etmQ$ end is.sue newsletlefS. FUr1her infonnafion mey be obleined by writing to the
P.O. 6o~ 1162
Saint John.
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P.O. So~ 22 S!8l,on S
Mon!, .. I. au •. H3B 3J5
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PO. Bo< 5849. TeNn, .... 1 A.
TOfOnlo.Onl;o M5W tP3
.O. 900 593
SI. Cath … ir • MN)SOR·f.SSE)( DIVISION
300 CIoNn. RO&ll Easl.
Win~. Onl_ N9G IA2
t4 R-vnoIdi Bly
Winnipeg, M.nitoba R31( OM4
60 -6100. 4th Ave. NE.
Calg.ry. Alberta TlA 5Z8
O. Bo. 6102. Suolion C.
Edmo.non. Alben. T5B 2ND

O. 60. 39
R …. el.toI< •. B.C. VO£ 2S0
80 •• 00
Cr.nbrook. BrililI CoIumb,. VIC 4HS
Bo. 1006. Slati,, A.
VI,,c·C> John C. Weir
foronto flllMPOlflltlon Commission ~al 25/2. II
lergtl Wirt twllf in 192/. is st1t1n on YOiIgeo
Srrt!et in Fe/)IIltllY 1928 d/splay/g Jig, .d­
vtH/ising tWO Ihdllrri~el Vlm/s. En IQIIlt 10 ,h.
Iht1l1lrt1S, hundled! wi/I let rht1s. CIIrcis .rnI rid.
Ihl/se _I .d tidy (llIetCIllS.
COUI1e~ TOfOflro f,..llSl/ CommiSSIOfl
As par1 01 its IICtivies, the CRHA operates
Cenedian Railway Museum at Delson/SI.
Constant, Quebec which is 14 miles (23 Km.)
downtown Montreal. It is open daily
rom late May 10 eatly October. Members end
thelf immedi8le families are adm
itted free of

The Grand Connection
by Allan Graham
It was inevitable that someone would eventually see the
of a railway line connecting Cape Tormentine to the
Intercolonial Railway at Sackville. According to an article in
CN Marine Echo magazine in 1977, the Capes Route
Cape Traverse and Cape Tormentine, which is the
shortest water route to the Island, had been used by the Micmacs
for many centuries. The first regular ice-boat service at the
Capes was in 1827. From 1828, this was the official winter
mail route.
The first public promotion of the idea of a railway to Cape
Tormentine was voiced in the local Sackville newspaper, The
Chignecto Post, in 1872. At this time, the Prince Edward
Island Railway
(PEIR) was being built the length of the island
province and the Intercolonial was completing the rail line
Truro and Sackville. The line to Cape Tormentine
would serve as a link between the two railways.
A group
of SackviHe businessmen organized the New
Brunswick & Prince Edward Railway Company (NB&PE) to
build such a line.
Most of these men were involved in the lumber
The construction of a rail line would open up the wood
lands lying to the north
of Sackville. In April 1874, the New
Brunswick government granted these men a charter and
promised a subsidy
of$5,000 for each mile ofline built. The Act
ofIncorporation stated that surveys were to be carried out within
two years, construction started within four years, and the entire
line completed by 1880.
At a meeting after the incorporation of
the company, the Board of Directors elected Senator Amos E.
Botsford to be the lines first president.
The initial offering
of stock subscriptions raised about one­
of the cost of building and equipping the line. This sum was
insufficent to see the project completed. Like most railway
builders, the
NB&PE approached the Dominion government in
the fall
of 1876 for assistance. The promoters asked the
government to supply the rails for the line.
At this time, the member representing Sackville in the House
of Commons was Albert J. Smith, who was the Minister of
Marine & Fisheries. Smith was sympathic to their cause, but
found his hands tied. Prince Edward Island had joined the
Dominion on July
1, 1873. He was responsible for seeing that
the condition of union which promised that Prince Edward
Island a year-round link to the rest
of the Dominion was fulfilled.
In July 1876, the government had purchased an ice-breaking
steamership, the
Northern Light. It would operate between
the Intercolonial Railway terminal at Pictou, Nova Scotia and
of the PEIR at Georgetown, Prince Edward Island. Smith
assured the delegates that if the
Northern Light failed, the
government would build the Sackville-Cape Tormentine line
The Northern Light entered service on December 7,
1876. The steamer, which had been built for service
in the St.
Lawrence River, proved to be unsuited to
th:€ heavy ice in the
Northumberland Strait.
It was unable to fulfill its schedule and
on more than one occassion was trapped
in the ice for days.
While the
Northern Light limped along twelve years,
poisoning federal-provincial relations, the Post Office reverted
using the Cape-to-Cape ice boats during the worse months
winter weather.
The Chignecto Post took delight in chronicling the dismal
of the Northern Light and in reminding Smith of
his promise to build the rail line if the steamship service proved
unsatisfactory. Following the Dominion elections in 1878, the
Liberal administration
of Alexander Mackenzie was replaced by
the conservatives under John A. Macdonald. Much to the
of those along the NB&PE Railway, Smith, who was a
Liberal, was returned. The adjacent riding, which contained the
booming industrial town
of Amherst, returned its Tory member,
Charles Tupper.
Tupper was a senior member
of the government and a close
of the Prime Minister. If any railway was to be built to
Cape Tormentine, Tupper would argue that it should
start from
Amherst so that the benefits
of government largesse would be
confired upon his Tory constituents.
As the newly appointed Minister of Public Works, he
commissioned a special survey of the feasibility of operating a
ferry service between Cape Tormentine and Cape Traverse
which included the cost
of providing railway communication to
the two Capes. The report, which was published
in 1879, stated
that while the harbour facilities on both sides were good, the
drifting ice would make it difficult for steamers to dock.
Consequently, it was concluded that the service between the two
Capes would continue
to be operated by the iceboats. Recom­
mendations were made
to improve the efficiency and safety of
this service. While two railway lines were surveyed from the
Intercolonial to Cape Tormentine, both started from Amherst.
The Macdonald government ignored both the report and the
complaints from the Prince Edward Island government
about the unreliable winter ferry service being provided by the
Northern Light. The attentions
of the Dominion government
were focused upon a much
larger transportation issues,
including the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Referring to the complaints
of Prince Edward Islands premier,
the Dominion government contrasted the differing scale
of the
two projects,
In one case it means the transport of nine
passengers a day
for an average period of forty-eight days a year
in mid-winter [when the
Northern Light failed to make its
crossing], whilst in the other it
is a great national work, providing
Ice-boats on Northumberland Strait.
From the collection
of the late Harold Moore.
a highway in common for the eastern and western Provinces, and
opening up
of vast areas of the richest soil upon which many
settlers from the older Provinces including Prince Edward Island
are finding homes

During these years, the
NB&PE was not completely
The NB government renewed the charter in 1878 and
extended the completion date
to 1884. Given that Tupper had
yet to make a start on the Amherst-Cape Tormentine line after
three years in office, the Sackville interests once more took up
the cause
of their railway. An 1881 report on the economic
of the railway showed that the area to the north of
Sackville would yield large quantities of lumber and agricultural
traffic. Based upon the rosy projections
of increased economic
activity the railway would bring, the
NB&PE promotors held a
meeting in Sackville on February 2, 1882 to see if the residents
of the parishes of Sackville, Westmorland and Botsford would
to be assessed an extra tax to help raise funds to build
the railway.
The Chignecto Post of February 9, 1882 gives a full report of
the meeting with the final motion being moved by Josiah Wood
and seconded by Abner Smith:
That in the opinion of this meeting it is desirable to make
to the Local Legislature Application for an
Act to
enable the Parishes
of Sackville, Westmorland and
or either of them, to raise money by assessment
in aid of the construction of said line of Railway.
While the vote by the ratepayers was unfavourable, the
meeting bolstered the request by the backers
of the railway to the
NB legislature for yet another extension for the completion date
for the railway.
In March 1882, the legislature complied but
rolled back the level
of provincial subsidy from $5,000 to
$3,000 per mile.
The Chignecto Post editorial of April 20, 1882, summarizes
the frustration
of the people in the Sackville area at their inability
to get the railway underway:
The Cape Railway possesses one distinction at least. If it
has not a real existence, it enjoys a history.
It has been legislated for time and again, meetings held, speeches
poured forth, editorials written almost
by the hundred,
weighty negotiations carried through, and still after the
_.Iapse of years , not a sod has been turned. The project has
now entered upon a new phase.
The people, disgusted by
the futility
of waiting for politicians to build the line, and
by the dread of a rival line being started, have
now resolved to do what they could better have under­
taken years ago, viz. to build the road themselves.
In 1881, Tupper became a supporter
of the Chignecto
Marine Railway.
The marine railway would carry ships across
the Chignecto Isthmus thereby providing a link between the
of St. Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy. This would reduce the
Hon. Josiah Wood, major promoter of this Railway.
Photo courtesy
of Westmorland County Archives.
.. I
a f Fundy
distance ships bound from the St. Lawrence to United States
ports had to travel
by hundreds of miles. Tuppers interest was
aroused as the scheme would involve the expenditure of millions
of dollars in his constituency and would enhance the industrial
of the district. Tupper expanded the plans to
include a conventional railway line beside the Marine Railway
which would bring
PEl trade to Amherst.
Realizing that he would not be able to influence Tupper
favour of the NB&PE, Senator Botsford, the railways
president, approached Samuel Tilley, the Minister
of Finance,
for assistance. Botsford noted that Tuppers plan to make
Amherst the tenninus
of the Cape Tonnentine railway would
divert much
of the trade of Westmorland County to Nova
Scotia, which would have adverse impact upon Saint John and
New Brunswick interests.
The implications of this upon the political fortunes
of Tilley,
who was the member for Saint John, were readily apparent. In
1878, he had retained his seat by the narrowest
of margins. As
Port Elgin ~~. __ …
. ~,-
__ …..IU..~Bale Verte


he planned to stand for re-election that year, he interceded
directly with the Prime Minister
to have the government block
Tuppers plans to include a rail line from Amherst to Cape
Tonnentine as part
of the marine railway project. As Tilley was
the leading conservative
in the maritimes, Macdonald agreed
with the request.
In order to be seen to be making some movement on
improving communication to Prince Edward Island, the
government announced that
$190,000 was to be spent to extend
PEIR from County Line (later Emerald Junction) to Cape
Traverse. This branch was opened on January 22, 1885, almost
fuJI years before the NB&PE reached Cape Tonnentine.
With regard to a connecting railway line on the mainland,
Tupper stated
in the House of Commons on May 12, 1882, I
may say that I would have been prepared to bring down an
estimate for the construction
[of a railway 1 between the
Intercolonial and Cape Tonnentine, but for the fact, that
in the
meantime that service has been provided for
by the government
N. I B. I & I PtE. j RAILWAY.
A letter. dated January 281888. from the accountant o/the
NB&PE Railway describing the current state 0/ government subsidy
payments. The companys letterhead
is clearly shown in this
National Archives
of New Brunswick, who have renewed the charter of a private
company who propose to contract that work
… Under the
circumstances, we felt that we could not ask Parliament to
provide for a service which was apparently provided for the by
Thus the NB&PE was given the first chance to build the line
Cape Tormentine. Tupper, however, remained obdurate.
During the 1882 election campaign, he told his Amherst
constituents that
he did not expect that the Sackville interests
would be able to complete the line. Following the failure
of the
NB&PE, he predicted that the line would be built with Amherst
as the junction point with the ICR.
On June 8, 1882, The Chignecto Post published a report
stating that the annual meeting
of the Corporation had been held
and the following officers appointed:
Josiah Wood, president
W. C. Milner, secretary
B. Trueman, treasurer
On August 8, 1882 a contract was signed between the
Corporation and Gray and Wheaton, railway contractors, to
build the first section
of the N.B. and P.E.1. Railway between
Sackville and Baie Verte. On August 23rd the first ground was
broken in the
18 foot cut on the farm of Titus Hicks at Morriss
(MorriceS) Mills. The new railway was to connect with the
Intercolonial Railway west
of the Sackville station.
The earliest progress report I have found on the NB &PE is a
letter written to the Honourable P.
A. Landry, the N.B.
Provincial Secretary, on February
20,1883. It was written by
an engineer from the N. B. Dept. of Public Works in
He drove over a portion of the roadbed in company
with R. G. Boxall, then wrote:
The whole length of road will be about 37~ miles, of
which about 15 miles is now under contract, and I was
informed that the Company have declined to ask for
tenders for the remainder at once.
Of the portion under
contract, about
1O~ miles is graded, commencing at the
Sackville end.
The stone for culverts and bridging is
delivered along the whole line, the culverts are nearly all
completed on the first 5 miles. About
6~ miles is chopped
and cleared through the woods beyond the grading and the
whole line
is surveyed and set out with the exception of the
terminus at or
near Cape Tormentine.
The above report alludes to the fact that the terminus on the
Strait had not been decided yet.
The ice-boats from Cape
Traverse were landing on Jourimain Island so the original plans
called for the
NB&PE to go through Bayfield Corner and out on
to Jourimain Island (almost the path followed by the un­
completed 1968 causeway track).
Construction practically ceased during 1883 as financing ran
low. The only work completed
that year was the extension of the
grading from Baie Verte to
Port Elgin.
Due to the emnity of Tupper , an appeal by the railway to the
Dominion government for the loan
of used iron rails from the
Intercolonial was turned down. Barred from government
assistance, the company attempted to sell bonds in England in
order to raise the funds to purchase rails. This was unsuccessful
as British investors had developed a lack of confidence in North
American railway securities following the collapse of Northern
Pacific Railway earlier that year. In 1884, Tupper blocked the
of a financial subsidy to NB&PE. During this trying
period, the only assistance
Wood was able to secure from the
Dominion government was a
$150,000 appropriation for a pier
at Cape Tormentine.
On May 3,1884, the fate smiled upon the NB&PE. On that
date, Tupper resigned his portfolio as Minister
of Railways and
Canals to accept the post of High Commissioner to Britain. With
Tupper out
of the way, Wood, who had been elected to
Parliament in 1882, was finally able to secure support from the
Dominion government for the railway: used track materials were
made available from the Intercolonial in 1884 and the standard
of $3,200 per mile was included in the estimates for
1885. These two measures ensured that the line would be
completed and demonstrate how political support could simplify
the process
of railway building.
Wood purchased the first lot of rail material from the
in June 1884. This comprised sufficient used 56
pound iron rails, fishplates, and nuts and bolts to complete the
line from Sackville to Baie Verte. The price was
$20 a ton for
these track materials.
As well, he bought a used locomotive from
ICR which was used for tracklaying and ballasting. This
marked the beginning
of a continuing relationship with the
Intercolonial. Over time, enough used track material was
purchased to complete the entire
NB&PE. These materials
proved to be durable. They were still in place four decades later
when the government purchased the line.
Excursion Special Train on NB&PEI Railway at Port Elgin, N.B.
(Pierre Babineau Collection).
This deal with the Intercolonial was notable on two accounts.
First, it saved the company some $100,000 over the price
purchasing new rails. Second, the Intercolonial did not require
any downpayment on either the rails or the locomotive.
On August 8, 1884, the Intercolonial delivered the first lot of
rails to the NB&PE. Five days later, the tracklaying started
from the
ICRs station in Sackville. On October 17th of that
year, the first freight, a load
of deals, was shipped over the line.
By October 23rd, the rails had reach Midgic, some 7 miles from
Sackville. This marked the beginning
of irregular freight
Early in November 1884, the affairs
of the company reached
another crisis. The Intercolonial was pressing for payment for
the materials it had provided and was holding back further
of track materials. Faced with the need to raise funds,
the Board
of Directors at their meeting on November 9th,
increased their investment
in the railway in proportion to their
stockholdings. A partial payment
of $15,000 was sent to the
Intercolonial by November 30th. A second payment
was made by January 31,1885.
When the Provincial Engineer, Mr. Maxwell, inspected the
line on December
17,1884, the rails were near Baie Verte. The
irregular freight service ceased when snow storms blockaded the
in late December. The unscheduled service resumed in
April and in May was replaced by two regular freight trains per
week operating between Sackville and Baie Verte.
On June 11 th, the track was laid as far as the Post Road in
Baie Verte. To mark the event, the company to operated its first
passenger excursion on Dominion
Day, July 1st. The funds
raised were donated to the Building Fund for the Methodist
in Baie Verte. The company, however, had been
accommodating passengers on its work trains from a much
earlier date. The December
4, 1884 issue of the Chignecto
noted that the first commercial traveller had passed over the line en route to Baie Verte and the April 30, 1885 issue
commented that 34 fishermen en route from Chester and St.
Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia to
Cape Tormentine and Prince
Edward Island had passed over the line the previous Friday. The
6, 1885 issue of the Chignecto Post announced that
the railway was discontinuing the practice
of handling travellers
as it was beginning to interfere with regular work. The termination
of passenger traffic was extremely shortlived as on August 10th,
the company added a passenger car to its regular bi-weekly
freight train. The train left Sackville for Baie Verte at 1200 and
returned from Baie Verte at 1600 each Tuesday and Friday. The
fare for the
17 mile trip was forty cents one way and double for
the round trip.
In a letter to the editor
of The Moncton Times copied in The
Charlottetown Daily Patriot,
on August 24, 1885, the following
is given on the Cape Railway:
… The sleepers and rails are laid as far as Baie Verte, and
a freight train
is running twice a week, carrying freight and
passengers far beyond the most sanguine expectations
the stockholders. Baie Verte is about midway from
Sackville station to Cape Tormentine, and it
is the
intention ofthe company to go
on with the other half ofthe
road as soon as another engine can be procured. Mr. Fred
C. Harris,
in the employ of the company, is now in
Boston, and writes that he has got an engine and will be
back with it
in a few days ….
A second engine for the NB&PE arrived in Sackville on
August 29th. The purchase
of an American locomotive, rather
than a Canadian one, brought the company
in for criticism. The
Chignecto Post
commented, It is strange what good free­
traders some people are when their own pockets are concerned.
The progress during 1885 did not continue unimpeded.
Trains were suspended for almost two weeks
in early September
while the workmen struggled to secure
part of the foundation of a
I. C.R. Station, Sack ville, N.B.
From the collection
of Pierre Babineau.
bridge. While the rails were laid to Port Elgin by the end of
September, the location of the station there became a major
of contention. The matter eventually was referred to the
provincial government railway engineer
for resolution. It was
not until September 1886 that the provincial government passed
an Order
in Council fixing its location at the top of the grade on
the southwestern side
of the Gaspereaux River. A boxcar served
as the freight and passenger facility until the station was
completed late
in November 1887.
During November 1885, the railway project became en­
tangled in a further dispute over the terminal on the Strait.
According to the thesis on Josiah Wood by
Dean Jobb:
Two Westmorland County
M.L.A.s, Daniel Hanington
and Amasa Killam, forwarded a petition to Minister
Railways Pope on November 7 demanding that the
proposed route to Cape Tormentine
be deflected slightly
to the north. The Dominion government should not
subsidize the line, the petitioners claimed, unless the line
of Railway is carried through or very near Bayfield
Comer, and thence direct to and over Jourimain Island to
the place where the Boats used
for winter travel and mails
usually land.
It would be October 1887 before the tender call appeared for
the building
of a government wharf at Cape Tormentine, thus
settling the Bayfield Comer question.
Unlike its larger brethen, the
NB&PE was small enough to
be able to modify its service to suit the happenings in the
communities it served.
The Chignecto Post issue of October
15, 1885 carried the notice that the train on Tuesday would lay
over at Baie Verte until 2200 to allow Sackville residents an
opportunity to attend the Methodist Church supper.
The following quote
from The Chignecto Post on November
12, 1885 illustrates yet another similarity between the 1880s
and the 1980s. Notice the timely topic:
of the lady passengers on the NB&PE Railway
of smoking being allowed in the passenger car.
Gentlemen might surely forego their pipes and cigars,
when ladies are present, during the time it takes
to make
the trip. Shortly thereafter
in the same paper, the November 26th
an update is given on the railway:
A freight shed
is being erected at Baie Verte by E. C.
Gooden, Esq. A turntable is to be put down at Leans,
Botsford -tracklaying
is now completed to within three
of Leans, the proposed winter terminus. A very fine
first-class passenger car has arrived from the works of J.
Harris & Co.
It has three compartments -the forward for
luggage and mail, the second for smoking and the third for
passengers. The car has all the modem appointments and
fittings. Trains leave Sackville Tuesdays and Fridays,
after arrival
of Halifax express …
By mid December 1885, construction work had stopped for
the season. The rails had reached Leans, a point approximately
three miles from the terminus on the Northumberland Strait. On
December 17th, the first train operated to the end
of the line
bringing in a carload of general merchandise for a merchant at
Bayfield and brought out two carloads
of agricultural products.
Following the installation
of a turntable at Port Elgin in mid
December, the railway inaugurated daily except Sunday mixed
train service between Sackville and
Port Elgin. Under the new
schedule, the train left Sackville at 1400 and returned from Port
Elgin at 1600.
Middle Sack ville Station, now at Cape Tormentine, N.B.
Sept. 28/86.
The surveys for various alignments between Leans and
Cape Tormentine were completed during the latter part
of 1885.
These were laid before the New Brunswick government. In its
of January 21, 1886, the Chignecto Post announced
that the direct line to Cape Tormentine had been chosen.
February 1886 proved to be
an eventful month for the
railway. On February 5th, the snowplow left the track and ran
an embankment. The locomotive followed a similar course
in the process demolished the plow. After a days work, the
locomotive and its train were brought back to Sackville. Service
over the line did not resume until the 10th. On a more cheerful
note, the Sackville-Baie
Vertemail started to move by rail on
February 18th. This provided the line with a welcome source
Politicians were constantly coming up with additions and
new ideas to keep the pot boiling. At one point a line was to built
to connect Amherst with the NB&PE R. at Baie Verte, then
someone came
up with the idea to connect this line with Shediac
as sarcastically portrayed in this Chignecto fIst article of
December 24,1885:
Cape Tormentine -Everybody wants to build a railway
this important place. The Sackville people, early one
morning while Amherst was asleep, took the
start and
commenced a Railway. Then the Islanders put forth their
strength and got one built on the other side to connect with
it. This was
all insufficient to meet the aspirations and
of this famed locality, and Senator Howlan
launched forth his scheme of a sub-way, so that people
go back and forth between the Cape and the Island
dry shod, and trains meander through with loads
merchandize. This scheme seemed for the moment to be
large enough to satisfy the highest vaults
of ambition -but
only for a moment.
Next came a scheme to connect this
great entrepot with Shediac, a survey was made, and a
line evidently prepared by Nature herself was fortunately
discovered .
Hardys Station, now at Otis Trenholms in Port Elgin, NB.
Sept. 28/86.
Thomas Rideout, the Dominion Government Railway
Inspector, went over the
NB&PE for the first time in June 1886.
As twenty miles
of line were under traffic, the line was eligible
for a payment of up to $64,000 of its subsidy. Rideout
recommended that $10,000 be held back
in order to ensure that
ballasting requirements called for
in the NB&PEs subsidy
agreement with the government was carried out.
The Inter­
colonial claimed
$53,245 of this sum as settlement for the
amount still owing for the used track materials it had sold to the
On September 9,1886, The Chignecto Post reported that the
track has been laid to Cape Tormentine …. A water tank has
been constructed near the Cape,
fed by gravity with a main 800
ft. long.
The September
9, 1886 Chignecto Post brought its readers
an update on the railway:
The Company is negotiating for a powerful first-class new
locomotive with
all modem improvements for the express
A neat station building 36 x 20
is being erected at Baie
Verte by Mr. M.
OMeara. It will contain two waiting
rooms and a booking office. The platform will be
protected by a pent house or covered way.
Melrose Station, now at Simon & Ruth Brownstones, Timber River,
NB. Sept. 28/86.
The station buildings at the Cape are under way, in charge
of Avard Dobson, Esq. The house itself will be 40 x 20
with a ladies and a gentlemens waiting room and a
booking office. A freight shed 36 x 20
is being erected and
also an engine house. A turntable has been placed there by
Mr. C. Gayner.
On November
18,1886, The Chignecto Post reported that a
new quarry was built at John
Lanes near Bayfield and that a
short siding had been constructed into it, likely
for ballasting the
On November 25, 1886, The Chignecto Post reported
The outside
of the station house (in Cape Tormentine) is
all completed and the interior is now being plastered. Mr.
Smith McGlashing
is the contractor. The turntable has
been put
in working order.
A large number
of persons assembled at the station (in
Cape Tormentine) Monday evening (November 21) to
witness the arrival
of the first regular through train from
Sackville, and the cry
of Hark, Sir? which greeted the
passengers had quite a cityfied sound.
So the line was finally finished and open to the public. The
Grand Connection was made, although the ice-boats were still
landing three miles away at Jourimain Island where the
government boat house was. Ice-boat passengers wishing to take
the train from Cape Tormentine would have
to pay a fee to be
taken to the station.
On February 3, 1887, the first mail destined to Prince
Edward Island was forwarded
by the NB&PE. Up to this time it
had been routed via Amherst. Shortly after this date, winter
storms wreaked havoc with the train service. The train from
Sackville on February 12th got bogged down
in snow near Port
Elgin. It did not arrive in Cape Tormentine until the next
afternoon. This was but a prelude to the big storm which
occurred less than two weeks later. This one shut the line down
for twenty days. The most spectacular accident in the history of
the company occurred while operations were underway to open
the line. The regular train had been snowed
in at Cape
Tormentine on February 24th.
On the 26th, Superintendant
Harris departed Sackville with locomotive Number 2 and a
First Railway Station, Cape Tormentine, N.B., as it looked in 1928.
(Pierre Babineau Collection).
snow plow. While making a run at a large drift three miles east of
Port Elgin, the plow left the track and reared up. After shearing
off the locomotives headlight, smokestack, cab and all its
outside gear, the plow came
to reston the tender. It was not until
March 15th that service was restored.
Based upon the experience
of the two winters, the company
let a contract to have 1,100 rods
of snow fences erected along the
line on
March 31,1885.In order to claim the lastofthe subsidies
from the Dominion government, the railway had a gang
of men
working the summer adding extra ballast from Baie Verte to
Cape Tormentine, widening the cuttings and improving the
In the summer
of 1887 way stations were built at all
necessary points, thus giving the following list
of stations:
(W.S. = Way Station)
Middle Sackville
Upper Sackville
Baie Verte
Port Elgin
Hardys (W.S.)
Melrose (W. S.)
Cape Tormentine
Unlike the
P.E.I. Railway which was a government-built
and owned railway, the
NB&PE Railway was a private
company with shareholders and stayed this way until it was
purchased by the Federal Government on August 1, 1914. On December 15, 1887, G. Brown submitted a fmal
examination report to the
Hon. D. McLellan, N. B. Provincial
Secretary re the
N. B. & P. E. Railway Co. Hisjob was to see if
the work had been completed according to the terms
of the
contract. I will quote several sections
of this report:
I started from Sackville and walked the entire length
of the
railway. The location
of the line is good, there being no
gradients exceeding the limit allowed by the contract. viz.
(60) sixty feet per mile and no curve with a less redius
than (1000) one thousand feet which
is the limit of
curvature called for in the contract …
There are (5) five booking stations and (6) six flag stations
on the line
of railway all of which are in good repair. At all
these stations are sidings which seem to be
of sufficient
number and length to accomodate the traffic.
At Sackville there are an engine-house and water-tank
and a turntable. There
is a tank near the end of the 33rd.
mile and an
engine-house and turntable at Cape
Tormentine all of which buildings are in good repair.
The railway
is equipped with a rolling stock consisting of
(I) one comparatively new locomotive, (2) two second­
hand locomotives, (1) one first-class passenger car,
one combination car having accomodations for 1st class,
2nd, class and baggage, (3) three box cars, (20) twenty
flats, and
(I) one snowplough …
The eastern terminus of the railway is at Cape Tormentine
where the track will run out on the new pier now being
built there by the Dominion Government.
At the
SackviUe end the railway has a water terminus which
reached by running over a spur line of the Intercolonial
Cape Tormentine second station. Sept. 28/86.
Railway that runs down to the tide-water in the river near

There is one u:.ain each day except Sunday, a mixed
passenger and freight train that
lea~es Sackvllle about
2:30 p.m. and runs to Cape Tormentine, returning the
same day, arriving
in Sackville about 7 p.m.
The entire length of the road is 35.49 miles or very nearly
35~ miles.
Hows that for a complete report? I put only part of it in, too! !
of the locomotives mentioned was called The Flying
in honor of the railways greatest promoter, Josiah
On January 17, 1888, The Charlottetown Daily Examiner
reported that the mail boats now land at the new hotel at Cape
Tormentine near the railway depot. This, we assume, was
J. W.
Tuckers Seaside Hotel. Thus ended one of the biggest
problems with the Grand Connection. The ice-boats continued
in use until 1909.
A letter to the editor
of The Charlottetown Daily Patriot on
27, 1888 complained about the residents of Pictou
jealously clinging to the hope that the Pictou to Georgetown
route would win out against the Capes Route
as the winter one
of preference. The letter states, in part:
There are people
in Pictou, too, who seek to make matters
worse -with an eye to the dollar,
no dou bt -by trying to
impress travellers with the idea that at Cape Tonnentine
we may expect to meet a lot of heathen or semi­
barbarians, and
we were most lovingly warned to look
out for ourselves, if we venture to take that route.
The following day the
Daily Examiner carried a story which
underlined the dangers and frustrations inherent
in ice-boat
Yesterday afternoon the boats from Cape Traverse got
within a mile of Cape Tormentine, but were obliged to
return owing to the southwest gale prevailing and the

Turntable and engine house with ferry dock in background, Cape
Tormentine, N.B. Sept. 28/86.
All through the 1880s and up to the present, a great deal of
talk has been heard about building a tunnel between the Capes,
sometimes called the
sub-way in early articles. One gentle­
man named Robert Linkletter spent
part of 1888 travelling
around the area discussing the fact that he received orders
in a
vision to construct the subway, also to dry up the waters
of the
Atlantic Ocean. The
Daily Patriot of July 29, 1885 stated
Mr. Howlans subway at the Capes, they say, will cost at
least $30,000,000. This at 5 per cent interest will be
$1,500,000 or about $13.65 for every man, woman and
child on the Island. Making the distance
10 miles across,
at 3¢ per mile,
we would be compelled to take our men,
women and children and cross forty-six times every year,
to pay the interest, or each head
of a family would have to
cross nearly every day.
In March 1889, the company changed its name to the more
expected New Brunswick & Prince Edward Island Railway.
Why the original name of the company did not include
in its title is an as yet unsolved mystery.
The first attempt made by Josiah Wood to sell his railway
in April 1903 . An agreement to sell the NB&PEI to Halifax
financier Benjamin F. Pearson was drafted,
but the deal fell
In 1908 the Province
of New Brunswick published a report
on the condition of the railways in that province. It
contained a detailed report on the financial and operational
of the line. Up to June 30, 1906, the NB&PEI
had received $113,440 in aid from the Federal Government and
$99,709 from the N .B. Government. The total cost of building
this railway
is listed as $307,744, (including rolling stock). This
makes a cost per mile of $8,548, a very cheaply-built railway,
indeed. In both 1901 and 1906 this railway
had a surplus. The
net earnings for the railway in 1906 were $6,988. The report
complains that there are only about 2000 ties per mile, whereas
there should be
3000 because of the scarcity of ballast.
According to this report, there were only eight bridges
on this
line: (with lengths)
Creek (about 50 ft.)
Canal (400 ft.)
Marsh Road (150 ft.)
Baie Verte
(60 ft.)
Port Elgin (five Howe truss spans and one swing
Mahoneys (75 ft.)
Timber River (75 ft.)
Brooklyn (25 ft.)
In 1906 each of the five station houses had a ticket office,
waiting room and freight room (or an additional building for
.fi:.~ight). According to this report the railway still had only three
~Gcomotives as in 1887 but had one additional snowplough, one
more box
car and 21 extra flat cars. In 1906 there was one train
each way daily, between Sackville and Cape Tormentine.
Baie Verte originated most of the traffic along the line in 1906
with large quantities
of hay, fat cattle, grain and lumber being
carried. 19,221 passengers were carried over the -line, an
of 28 per cent from 1901.
The Sack ville Tribune of March, 1911 gave details of the
of the NB&PEI to a syndicate composed of M. H. G.
Siddall of Port Elgin, and Charles Fawcett and Charles Pickard
of Sackville. The new owners, the Tribune said, are to
provide an electric car service between Sackville and
Tormentine, and steamship communications in summer between
Cape Tormentine and Summers ide as well as Charlottetown,
with a ateamer and ice-boat service in winter at the Capes.
Josiah Wood now began to promote the idea that this railway
should be operated by the
Federal Government for he was
getting old and realized the importance
of his line to
communication with P.
E.I.. Rumors of impending changes
were everywhere as discussed in
The Sack ville Tribune (quoted
The SummersideJoumal of April 5,1911):
Simultaneously with this announcement (of the sale of the
railway to a syndicate) comes another to the effect
that the
Canadian Pacific has an option on the road … It may be
that the securing of the road by the syndicate is only a
preliminary to its absorption by the
Canadian Pacific or
Cape Tormentine Yard looking toward dock, showing Railway
Station on left and engine house on right. Sept. 28/
some of the other great railway companies. It may be
or later it will be purchased by the government and
part of the In.tercolonial … It may be that the Cape
Tormentine Branch will be bought from the local
syndicate by the government.
The government has
developed the
habit of buying from middlemen rather than
the original
owner, especially when the original owner
happens to be
opposed to them politically.
As predicted by The Sack ville Tribune in 1911, the
NB&PEI was purchased by the Federal Government on August
1, 1914 for
$270,000, thus bringing to a close the books of one of
the best privately-owned branch railways in Canada .
The Summerside Journal of August 30, 1915 reports:
The last crib has been set in connection with the Cape
Tormentine terminal of the car ferry and the work is
nearing completion. There are two dredges at work in the
harbor, night
and day, dredging out the approach to the
landing, and a big stone breakwater
is in course of
Thus began a new and exciting era in the history of Cape
Tormentine, but thats another whole story which well leave to
another storyteller.
Special thanks to the Provincial Archives of New
Brunswick, Fredericton, the Robertson Library,
u.P. E. I., the Westmorland County Archives (for quotes
Dean Wendell Jobbs thesis entitled Josiah Wood
(1843-1927) – A Cultured and Honoured Gentleman of
the Old School), and the Ralph Pickard Bell Library,
Mt. Allison University for the information, plus inter­
views with Otis
Trenholm, Port Elgin, Vincent Goodwin,
Baie Verte, Elmer Hicks, Sackville, and Simon & Ruth
Timber River. Special thanks to Jim
Shields, Pierre Babineau and the late Harold Moore for
the photos and information, as well as my good wife
for accompanying me on the research trips and typing and
editing the completed article.
Country Depots

In Saskatchewan
Important contributions to Canadas architectural heritage.
By Charles W. Bohi and Leslie S. Kozma
Like a modem franchise operation railway, needed numerous­
local outlets to serve patrons spread over a vast area.
Nowhere were these local offices -depots -more important
than in Saskatchewan. Built to serve customers dependent on
horse drawn transport, there was a time when almost everything
and everyone that came and went from a community passed
though the railway station
at the head of main street. I
It was to the depot that a proud father came to send a telegram
to relatives announcing the birth of a child. It was at the station
that the bicycle ordered to brighten a birthday was unloaded
from a local freight. In the depots waiting room, town residents
for friends coming to visit. It was from the station that the
communitys young went off to fight
in two world wars and help
make a place
in history for their nation. In these buildings_
thousands of men and women lived and worked, and countless
children grew to maturity. Given their prominence it
is not
surprising that depots were important community centres, and
that station agents were often counted among the leading citizens
of the town.
CP depot, Scout Lake Sask. June 1982. This is a portable
station designed
to be easy to move.
Photo by Charles W Bohi.
Nevertheless, in many Saskatchewan towns the first depots
were simple portable stations designed to
be easily moved from
place to place. As traffic grew at a given point, these simple
portables would be replaced by more substantial permanent
buildings. More than 805 permanent stations were built by the
Jansen Sask. a CP Standard Number Five station built in 1909
and photographed in 1971. A total of 84 similar stations were
located on CP lines
in Saskatchewan.
Photo by Charles W Bohi.
railways in Saskatchewan. Because most of these depots were
in two relatively short time spans by only four companies,
Saskatchewan -indeed much of the Prairie
West -had the
most standardized group
of rural stations of any large region of
North America.
As a result 612 (about
76%) of the permanent depots in
Saskatchewan were built tojust eight basic designs. Five of these
designs were widely used between 1900 and 1914 during the first
western railway
boom, and three were used during the second
period oflarge-scale railway construction
in the 1920s and 30s.
Functional and attractive, the stations in Saskatchewan and the
Prairie West are an interesting example
of the effective use of
standardized architectural plans. 2
These eight designs, while differing in exterior appearance,
were all combination stations. That is, they included space
for freight storage, passenger waiting rooms, and an office all
under one roof. Since
few Saskatchewan towns grew enough to
warrant separate buildings for freight and passenger service,
erecting a combination building serving both purposes saved
the railways considerable money. Also, because housing was
hard to find
in developing villages along the newly-built
railways, all eight designs had space for an agents apartment.
This made it easier to attract the married employees thought by
the railways to
be more responsible company representatives.
I A t its peak, Saskatchewans railway network had more than 9000 miles of track. Among Canadas provinces, only Ontario had 1J!0re.
2 There were, of course, local variations in the depots built from each of these eight designs. However, the stations in each group share
enough characteristics
to be classified together. For more detailed information on CN depots in western Canada see Charles W. Bohi,
Canadian Nationals Western Depots: The Country Stations in Western Canada (West Hill, ant.: Rail/are Enterpn·ses Ltd., 1977). Data
on CP depots in Saskatchewan based on research done by the authors for Canadian Pacifics Western Depots forthcoming from Rail/are.
For good accounts
of the development of the western railway network see G.R. Stevens, History of the Canadian National Railways (New
York: Macmillan and Company,
1977) and W Kaye Lamb, History of the Canadian Pacific Railway (New York: Macmillan Publishing
Another CP Standard Number Five, this time at Unity
in the summer of 1981.
Photo by Charles
W. Bohi.
Since the Canadian Pacific (CPR) was the first railway in
Saskatchewan, it built stations over a longer period of time than
its competitors.
Thus, it had the most diverse group of rural
in the province. Even so, during the first boom that
company relied on only two standard plans for most
of its prairie
One very common design used by the
CPR is typified by the
at Jansen, Sask. As was the case with several of the
companys standard designs, depots built to the same basic plan
as the one at Jansen came in two sizes. The smaller version was
designated as
the Standard Number Five Station by the CPR
,wnile the larger was referred to as a Standard Number Ten.
in appearance these buildings had a second floor covered
:i.~..;a low pyramid shaped roof broken by a hip dormer. The
millance of the depot had a hip roof that flowed down to the front
of the structure to form a shingled awning that covered a
rectangular bay window.
Of the 145 structures erected to these
designs on the Prairies, Saskatchewan had 84.
A second
CPR depot design even more widely used in the
West is represented by the station at Strongfield, Sask.
Strongjield station, one of 118 similar.
Photo by Charles
W. Bohi.
These buildings had a second storey covered by a gable roof
broken on the front
by a gable dormer. While these depots had
few decorative features and were less attractive than many other
standard station designs used in Saskatchewan, they were far
more striking than most
of the rural two storey depots built by
U. S. carriers in the prairie and plains states. In all, more than
of these stations were erected in the Prairie Provinces.
Saskatchewan had more that 118. Designated as a
lines station by the CPR, construction of this design was
limited to lines west
of Kenora.
Also hard
at work building new lines in the Prairie West
between 1900 and 1914 was the Canadian Northern (CNoR),
the Canadian Nationals most important predecessor in the
region. A western based railway when it was getting started
the late 1890s, the CNoR won enough popular support in the
Prairie Provinces to gain the financing required to build most
what is now the Canadian National in western Canada. Under
the direction of architect R. B. Pratt, the CNoR built one of the
most interesting groups
of depots in North America. 3
CP station at Frontier Sask. built in 1917 and photographed by
W. Bohi in 1970.
Hired by the Canadian Pacific as a draftsman in 1885 at the
of 23, Pratt rose quickly. A company architect by 1898,
Pratt developed two striking rural station plans for the Canadian
Pacific before leaving that carrier to join the Canadian Northern
in 1901.
Judging from his rural depot designs Pratt liked to create
interesting rooflines that could be used on buildings
of different
sizes as an architectural trademark. Perhaps it was the
opportunity to carry out this concept with a young company that
Pratt to leave the Canadian Pacific for the Canadian
For his new employer Pratt created a pyramid shaped roof
broken front and back -and in some cases on the ends –
prominent gable dormers. This roof design was so flexible that it
was used on stations on Canadian Northern properties from
J Rural depot designs were usually the product of anonymous company draftsmen. However, many of Pratts plans for the Canadian
were signed.
4Whos Who and Why 1912 (Toronto: International Press, 1912).
Designed by R. B. Pratt, the CP depot at Carievale Sask. was of a
type flexible enough
to be used on two sizes of stations as well as
section houses. Only two
of these were in Saskatchewan, with
twenty others
in other western provinces.
Photo by Charles
W. Bohi, 1969.
Nova Scotia to British Columbia. As well as being used on more
than 153 Third Clas
s depots in Saskatchewan, it also adorned
the Second Class stations built at more important communities
like Kindersley and
North Battleford. Indeed, Pratts roofline
was so versatile that it was used on large stations built
Dauphin, Man., Saskatoon, and Edmonton. The authors know
of no other designer who had such an impact on the architectural
of Prairie Canada. Certainly no other railway in
Saskatchewan, indeed, in North America, marked so many of
its stations with such an attractive architectural trademark.
Not all Canadian Northern depots included the dramatic roof
that marked the numerous
Third Class buildings. At smaller
communities, a much more
spartan Fourth Class station was
often built. Typified by the depot at
Debden, Sask., these one
storey structures were covered by a very plain gable roof
by dormers. Nevertheless, the design was large
enough to include a small
apartment for the agent, and was used
at more than 40 communities in Saskatchewan.
The second major predecessor
of the Canadian National in
the West was the Grand Trunk Pacific (GTP). A subsidiary of
Another design by R.B. Pratt, the depot at Theodore Sask.,
photographed in 1971, was represented by 23 stations in the prairie
provinces, only jive
of which were in Saskatchewan.
Photo by Charles
W. Bohi.
The Pratt roofline was so versatile that even large stations like this
one at Dauphin Man. had them. A similar station once existed at
Saskatoon Sask.
Photo by Charles
W. Bohi, 1983.
the Grand Trunk, a British-controlled company with an
extensive system
of railways in central Canada as well as
important connections to the United States, the
GTP was the
western section
of a transcontinental railway that ran from
N.B. to Prince Rupert, B.C. This company erected
the most standardized group
of depots in Saskatchewan.
19.07 and 1920 the GTP built over 154 depots in
Saskatchewan. Of these, 108 were built to a design that was a
less-decorated version
of a station that parent Grand Trunk had
developed as early as 1898 and built
in large numbers in
Ontario. Typified by the depot at Ruthilda, Sask., these
buildings are easily identified
by their unusual bellcast hip roof
and a rounded bay window that continues through the roof
overhang to become a
donner that lights the second floor living
Built in 1918, the Canadian Northern depot at Debden Sask.
represents a Fourth Class station.
It was still in service when
be Charles W Bohi in 1973.
To give their depots in the prairies a southern exposure, and
to protect patrons from the prevailing winter winds, the
located most of their mainline stations on the north side of the
track with the waiting rooms pointing east. Since main streets
at the rear of these depots, the towns also were on the
5 The Grand Trunk Pacific designated depots like the one at Ruthilda as Design A Stations. It appears that the GTP classification
lVas based on the size of the building. Thus, Design A applied to the smallest depots while Design D applied to larger structures
at divisional points.
Ruthilda Sask. is typical of the J08 depots built in Saskatchewan between 1910 and 1914 by the Grand Trunk Pacific. Originally
wooden sided, this station had stucco added by Canadian National.
by Charles w: Bohi, 1972.
Canadian Northern built larger Second Class stations at Divisional points like Kindersley Sask. This station, photographed in
1913, had gone by 1972.
Saskatchewan Archives Board. Photo R-A9376 (1).
The Canadian Northern station at Hardy Sask. is a Fourth Class depot built in 1918 at a time when Canadian Northerns
grand visions had
been destroyed by its financial dijJicuities.
by Charles W Bohi, 1970.
CN depot at Mantario Sask. as photographed by Charles W Bohi
in 1971. A Canadian Northern Third Class type, this station
was built by Canadian National in 1920, and, unlike many, never
had stucco applied.
north side of the track. Consequently, many of the communities
along the
GTP had a basic similarity that was enhanced by the
railways practice
of naming communities alphabetically as it
built west.
Of all the rural Saskatchewan stations described in this
article, depots like the one at Ruthilda, Sask., were most widely
in other provinces. British Columbia, for example, had
more than 103
of these structures while Alberta had 89. Many
others were found in Ontario and Quebec along the National
Transcontinental Railway, the government financed company
that built the eastern portion
of this transcontinental railway
from Moncton to Winnipeg.
For a variety of reasons, by 1920 both the Canadian
Northern and the
Grand Trunk Pacific were bankrupt. Out of
the financial wreckage of these and other lines emerged the
Canadian National
(CNR). During the 1920s and early 1930s,
Former Canadian Northern station at Turtleford Sask. as photo­
graphed by Charles W Bohi
in March 1971.
this newly-created company and the Canadian Pacific engaged
in a competitive struggle that saw more thousands of miles of
branch lines built in the Prairie Provinces. To provide stations
along these new lines, both companies developed new standard
station plans.
The CP designated it most impressive post-World War I
depot design
the A 3 station. Similar in basic design to depots
like those built at Strongfield, the
A3 buildings were
dominated by a massive gable dormer that gave them a very
striking appearance. Erected at towns created along new lines,
and used
in communities where older stations needed replace­
ment, the
CPR constructed more than 35 A3 depots in
Saskatchewan. Some 36 others were built in the other western
The CP depot at Naicam Sask. built in 1922, is typical of the more
35 type A 3 stations built by CP in Saskatchewan between
1919 and 1929.
Photo by Charles W Bohi.
CP class
A3 station at Nipawin Sask., photographed by Charles
W Bohi
in 1983, is one of only two such stations still in service in
the 1980s. Others have, however,
been preserved as museums.
Shamrock Sask. station is a typical CP 14A structure. More
than 33
0/ these were built in Saskatchewan between 1922 and
Photo by Charles
W. Bohi, 1972.
A second CPR station design widely used in Saskatchewan
during the 1920s and
30s was classified as a 14A building by
the company. Represented by the station
at Shamrock, Sask.,
these were essentially one storey buildings covered
by a hip roof
broken by a cross gable dormer that contained two bedrooms
on the second level. Smaller and less imposing than the
buildings, the l4A plan was adopted primarily in response to the
changing transportation environment emerging by the mid-
1920s. By
that time autos and trucks were beginning to appear in
significant numbers on the rudimentary road system of the
province. Moreover, by 1925
it was clear that the pre-World
War I boom was not going to return. In such a setting building
smaller, less costly depots no doubt made good sense to
management. So satisfactory was the 14A design that 33 of
these structures were erected in Saskatchewan alone. Alberta
and Manitoba had 39 more.
In turn, during the
1920s and 30s about 40 Canadian
National Third Class depots like the one at Paradise Hill,
Sask. were built
in the province. Very squarish in appearance,
The Canadian National Third Class station at Paradise Hill
was duplicated at as many as forty other locations in that
By 1973, when the photo was taken, most merchandise
to the depot by truck.
Photo by Charles
W. Bohi.
By 1928, when this CP 14A station at Coronach Sask., was
built, autos and trucks were cutting into railway traffic. Photo­
in 1970, this station, like most 0/ its type, was gone
Photo by Charles W Bohi.
these buildings had a second storey covered by a hip roof. In
addition, most
of these structures had high concrete foundation
walls that come up to the ground floor window sills.
The CNRs
Third Class plan was used along new lines and at locations
where an older depot needed to be replaced. In addition to those
in Saskatchewan, Alberta had 12 of these buildings while a
small number were also erected in Manitoba and British
Because they were so unique the rural stations of the Prairie
Provinces -most numerous
in Saskatchewan -are one of that
regions most important contributions to Canadas architectural
heritage. While some depots
in the province can still be found on
their original sites they are usually
in disrepair. Unfortunately,
this once Ubiquitous
part of the rural provincial landscape has
nearly disappeared. Although some communities have preserved
their depots as museums
or in historical parks, more remains to
be done if a significant number
of stations are to survive to recall
this important part
of Saskatchewans history. The authors are
gratified that a good beginning has been made.
The CN Third Class station at Rabbit Lake Sask., was on the
same side
0/ the track as the grain elevators. This was a new
layout, designed/or safety reasons around 1910. This station never
had stucco applied.
Photo by Charles
W. Bohi.
6After the Canadian Nationalwas/ormed
it continued to use depot designs built by its predecessors as late as 1923.
Transit Advertising
By Norris Adams.
The zest of visual persuasion *** an enchanting bonus for your transit trips.
Shakespeare, in his play, As You like it -gave us these
encouraging lines:
All the worlds a stage,
And all the men and women merely players,
They have their exits and their entrances
And one man in his time plays many parts.
Our stage, I suggest, will be the vehicle, or in advertising
parlance, the
means. The proud role of the players is to present
the message.
The profession knows this as the medium. In
your transit travels, quite likely, you have often glanced above
the windows and feasted on the stream
of those colourful
advertising messages, always neat and uniform in their space
racks. Many
of these products and services are literal household
words known and respected from as far back as the era
of the
first four wheel streetcars. See, how many
of these you can recall
along with a familiar associated vehicle. N ames likely Wrigleys
Coca Cola, have been respected for many decades. The ads
are lessons in contemporary social history.
They speak of
desirable consumer goods; to classify a few we note: foods,
fashions, entertainment, medications, travel, employment and
deployment -the list goes on and on.
The ads always seemed a
complement to the vehicles chosen for their presentation.
writer in the Toronto Globe and Mail in an article datelined, in
January 1981,
made a good comparison and may well have had
in mind, exists and entrances as mentioned above; Toronto
has seen many forms of street cars over the decades: wooden
cars in the teens, steel
Red Rocket Witts in the twenties,
PCCs in the 30s, and now the sophisticated
Canadian Light Rail vehicle.
Many properties have built their own cars -in fact, as traffic
increased and world conditions warranted, some have rebuilt
and modernized some really old equipment. World
War II in
itself was a stage that seemed set as a challenge to the resource­
fulness and ingenuity
of our major street railways. Everywhere
they looked something was grieviously worn, be it roadbeds,
tracks, switches, catenary, and by no means least, the groaning,
weary rolling stock. All ofthis can be coupled with the trauma
manpower shortages, wartime regulations and material short­
When peace finally came, there was need to address, not
only postponed repairs and replacements, but accumulated
technological updates necessarily held
in limbo. The automobile
was gaining some liberation.
It was regarded with family pride,
revered for its comfort, privacy, speed and flexibility -never­
theless, more and more it became a partner to its own undoing.
The roads and streets, the arteries to and from the chosen
suburban living, now became webs
of strangulation and mass
It seemed that the portal to portal aspect was
being downgraded by a host
of irkesome cost factors.
These included expensive parking, fuel, license and upkeep,
insurance and stresses -sometimes jointly referred to as, the
race. Public transit was in need of a shakeup. There had
to be new guidelines, new inter connections, faster and more
relaxing rolling stock.
The master had certainly to retain his car,
that speedy, weatherproof accessory linking him to and from
home. Yet, he must safely tether it each day in a handy kiss:!-_
& park compound. From this junction, he would relax init –
unimpeded state-of-the-art, either heavy or light rail trains~f:,
This grandeur would possess both easy access and egress, be
well-lighted, climate-controlled, and there would be adequate
back lighting too, for the advertising and company transit
messages. Required transfers would be easily and quickly made
to and from programmed connections with street cars, trolley
coaches and motor buses.
Lets put those two advertising terms into perspective. In our
first picture, the means are either a B.C.
Transit Sky train and/or
a trolley coach. Each is shown crossing the Burlington Northern
Cut. The medium is the on-board car card which devotes
itself to the subject
of oranges plus, a healthful deriative
C. The versatility of the means are shown in the
pictures on the next page.
~ .. -,
,~\_i?:~~r;;~~i~~( . ~:,
……. … ~ (ilia
In retrospect, Transit Advertising history has been colourful.
As the twentieth century advanced, well-known brand names
were making their debut. The composite picture shows: Heinz,
Fitch Dandruff Remover, Wrigleys
Gum and Paris Garters­
No Sox Appeal.
There was a resurgence for Transit Advertising, as new
of motive power emerged. The larger faster cars offered
larger audiences. Equally important, their more attractive
interiors better lighting and advertising racks made the ads more
inviting and easier to read. In 1979 the Canadian Light Rail
Vehicle was placed
in service in Toronto. Although, the horse
cars clanging has faded into the past, and sleek modern vehicles
and high-speed transit systems have replaced the early con­
veyances, transit advertising and metropolitan transit have
enjoyed an enduring relationship.
Advertising creates and
sustains markets -just like the oranges previously mentioned.
Organization, however
is needed to make ends meet. Fruit
Juice on our freight line is the rather enticing title to an article
in the B.C. Electric Employees Magazine in January
At that time, the Vancouver-California fruit train was
expidited by the team-work
of four major railroads. Iced
refrigerator consists were sped north with their perishable
cargoes with high ball efficiency. The crews selected were a
proud and dedicated lot. Their constant dependability seems to
be eulogized
in this pungent couplet;
For men must work, and fruit we must eat,
Be it lemons sour, or oranges
A Vancouver open, single truck street car, circa 1904 -near
the advent
of electric cars on Vancouver streets. The rather
manly exterior ads
of soap and cigarettes are prominent. The
fare box is the conductors portable coffee pot. BeER built over
of these rugged spartan Narragansett type cars with double trucks, wood slanted sides and monitor roofs, starting
the first decade of the century. They were not beautiful nor
comfortable as they trundled, swayed, weaved and waddled, but
with modifications they moved World
War IIs heavy traffic
stoically, and endured well into the post-war period.
One of the Narragansett type cars is shown in service after
emerging from the companys beauty parlour.
No longer do we
see protruding cowcatcher it has been replaced by a fender
under the front platform, now an arch roof, chrome-tubed
leather seats replace the spindle-back wood seats. The ad
on the
outside front dash invites participation
in the RCAF.
BCER 264, one of IS Fairview type -steel bottom and
side frames that were imported from England about
1912 and
by the company. The exterior wartime display
was the antecedent
of todays King-Size Trans Ad bus poster.
BCER 211, one
of 30 Brill semi-convertible cars, built by
American Car
Co of St. Louis in 1911. The front dash Ad
speaks for a theatre stage revue.
This is likely how 211 or any of its series would look inside­
during World War II. The light bulbs are blackened as a
precaution. Familiar ads
of long duration displayed are: Rogers
Golden Syrup, Wrigleys Gum. Note the crew communication
cord. Interior
BCER 501 Built by Brill 1913, shows some more
wartime ads.
The means and the medium combine effectively
in this
outside message on
TTC Peter Witt 2358. The Witts were
always immaculately groomed and maintained and did
culean service over many years in Toronto.
BCER 361 Built by Can-Car in 1926. Two man, single end,
arch roof. Interior Ads:
Tea-Bisk Dont Say Bread-Say
McGavins. Note the hard wearing interior furnishings.
BCER PCC 400 Vancouvers first. 35 units were to follow
of them loved and respected by Vancouverites and
at their demise. The fine young lady (who became
A.) and I, often spent pleasant Sunday afternoons aboard
400, on her Stanley Park, Joyce Road circuit. The close
production of PCCs in 1952 accounted for a total of 5000
PCCs built worldwide.
PCC 4199 is enhanced with 1940s period ads.
of the convenience, comfort and safety features of the
new street car thinking are evident. Halton County Radial Railway Museum
Car 55 built in
for the Toronto Civic Railways, single truck Brill, straight
wood sides, arched roof, acquired
by the TTC in 1921. Interior
shows coal heat, rattan seats, enamel standee hand-holds. The
ads proclaim the virtues
of Heinz Ketchup, Wrigleys Spearmint
Gum, etc.
The Birney Street car era was roughly from 1921 through
1948. Three Canadian strong-holds were Halifax, Toronto and
BCER 409 in Victoria displays a front dash ad for the
companys product
GAS. In Halifax a car on the Armdale
route carries
an exterior display totally dedicated to advertising
Victory Bonds.
1301 is characteristic of the heavy steam coach type used on
the B.C. Electric,
Canadas longest interurban. This car
weighed 81,000 lbs. and was built by Ottawa Car in 1910.
BCER 1321 built in 1910 as a combine by A.C. & F., was
rebuilt by the company
in 1942. Note the washroom and the
double set
of communication cords. Timely ads vouch for:
McGavins Bread, B.C. Home Heating Coal and Marchands
Hair Treatment. The crush load admonition reads Move
Forward. The last Fraser Valley passenger run was made
September 30, 1950. The author went along, invited
as one of
the few mourners.
Expo 86 was indeed a stage that gave us a world-wide
of to-days available rail transit vehicles. Speaking of
entrances take note of the 2-car Bre-Leyland Diesel Rail Bus
(RB. 100).
As the Fraser Valley home-seekers continue to
grow, these units may well serve their commuting needs. An
inter-connection with the Sky train could conceivably be made at
the new Surrey terminus. Doubtless, these rail buses will
be the
means to display to-morrows good advertising messages, or
if you like
the medium.
**** FOOT NOTE ****
As a young boy in Toronto, I became interested in both the
of Torontos street cars, along with the timely interior
and exterior advertisinj car cards.
The association that the
messages seemed to have with the messengers became a
very interesting combination.
To quote: just one example. The
message was:
Its the steady rain that soaks. This was likely
written to extol the benefits
of advertising messages that are
constantly repeated.
ad hung midway and transversely from the ceiling of
TTC Peter Witt street cars.
My appreciation must, most sincerely,
go to both Eric J . D.
Smith, a consultant with Trans Ad in Vancouver, and Richard
Griffin, Manager Operations, Trans
Ad, Toronto.
These two gentlemen have really encouraged me, with
photos, car cards, letters and background information.
The friendly, generous gift of their experience, time and
talent, kept me-
on track. -Norris Adams.
By Douglas N. W. Smith
In December 1987, Canadian National received permission
to abandon two segments
of its Valley field Subdivision in
southern Quebec. At one time, these were part of Canada
Atlantic Railway (CAR). The CAR was largest railway in
Canada ever owned by a single individual.
In many ways it seems almost inevitable that John Rudolphus
Booth would enter the railway business. Known as the Lumber
of Canada, he was a self-made man. Born on a small farm
near Waterloo in 1827, he went to the United States hoping to
find greener pastures. While there he spent three years as a
labourer building bridges along the Vermont Central Railroad.
In 1852, Booth moved to
By town, which was later renamed
The signing of a reciprocity agreement with the United
in 1854 removed the duties on Canadian timber and made
its price competitive
in the American market. The large
population growth
of the Atlantic states fueled a tremendous
nd for sawn lumber which caused the Ottawa Valley
lumber industry to boom. This demand, coupled with strong
business acumen, enabled Booth to parlay a leased small lumber
mill on
Le Breton flats into one of Canada largest lumber
operations. By 1900, Booth controlled over 4,000 square miles
of land, most situated to the northwest of Ottawa.
During the 1870s, Booth expanded his operations into the
northeastern United States then established a wood yard at
Rouses Point, New York and a sawmill at Burlington, Vermont.
These events would lead to Booths interest
in the CAR.
The CAR was formed when the charters of two companies
were amalgamated
in May 1879. The Montreal and City of
Ottawa Junction Railway had been chartered in May 1871 to
build a line from Ottawa to Coteau Landing via Alexandria,
Ontario. Using the Grand Trunk line from Coteau to Montreal,
CAR would have the shortest route between Ottawa and
Montreal. A complementary project, the Coteau & Province
Line Railway was chartered
in June 1872 to build a line from
Coteau to the United States boundary. In conjunction with the
Montreal and City
of Ottawa Junction, the two lines would form
the shortest rail line
from Ottawa to the border. Included in the
charter was the right to build a bridge over the St. Lawrence
River which would permit freight shipments to bypass the
congested Montreal freight yards.
The funding for the line failed with the onslaught of a major
economic recession which began
in 1873. Lacking substantial financial backing, the two projects remained dormant for most
the decade.
By the end
of the 1870s, Booths mills were producing over
40 million board feet of timber. With the tremendous growth in
his business, better transport facilities to the U.S. became of
paramount importance. Connections to the American railway
system from Ottawa were circuitous and time consuming
as was
the water route down the Ottawa, St. Lawrence and Richelieu
To improve access to the United States, Booth and two
partners, Governor J.
G. Smith of Vermont, who was also
of the Central Vermont Railroad, and G. H. Perley,
another Ottawa Valley lumber magnate, formed a syndicate and
took over the dormant
CAR project. Construction of the line
from Coteau Landing to Ottawa began
in the spring of 1881. It
was completed in October 1882.
started on the line from Clarks Island, across the St.
Lawrence River from Coteau Landing, to LaColle
in 1883.
Trains started to operate over the line
in February 1885.
Initially, the
CAR used running rights over the Grand Trunk
from LaColle to Rouses Point where connections could be
made with the Central Vermont Railway and Delaware &
Hudson Railroad. Later Booth would build his own line from
LaColle to Alburg Junction, Vermont. The million dollar cost
building the bridge over the St. Lawrence caused even J. R.
Booth to pause. A rail car ferry linked the two segments
of the
CAR until 1890. This structure required more than one mile of
bridging and was the third railway bridge to span the St.
In the 1890s, Booth extended the line westwards from
Ottawa to Georgian Bay to improve the accessibility
of his
timber holdings. As the other two members
of syndicate did not
support the extension and
in order to qualify for government
subsidies, Booth incorporated the extension
as the Ottawa,
Arnprior & Parry Sound Sound Railway
(OA&PS). Construc­
tion started
in May 1893 and reached the terminal at Depot
Harbour on the shores
of Georgian Bay in December 1896. In
order to stimulate traffic over his rail line, Booth constructed
grain elevators at Depot Harbour and Coteau Landing and
formed his own steamship line to operate to Chicago, Milwaukee,
Duluth and
Fort William [now Thunder Bay] to bring grain
shipments destined to his railway. In 1899, after Booth had
purchased the interests of the other two members
of the
syndicate, he amalgamated the
OA&PS into the CAR.
A .fifteen-car passenger train on the Canada Atlantic, photographed in November 1886, displays a great assortment a/passenger .-
cars from the 1860s to the 1880s.
National Archives
a/Canada photo C-2S967.
The Canada Atlantic
of March 1890
shows all trains as well as
very impressive artwork.
Fred Angus.
:m..e…STERN ST..A..ND..A.ED TI~:m.
GOING EAST. Time Card March Srd. 1890.



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~ ~It ~~~,~ 1;0~il:it1 rc:n:::i v:::;~t~J)!~:~a;e and ~ud~n and O. & L. C. Railway Irnins 10 and .
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By 1903, it was an open secret that Booth was ready to sell
CAR. As a relatively small railway, it stood to lose much of
its grain traffic when plans to increase the number of trans­
continental railways from one to three systems were realised. As
well, the property was only marginally profitable yielding profits
of less than 2% on its total capital cost. The Grand Trunk
Railway completed negotiations to take over the line
September 1904 which they officially absorbed on October 1,
1905. The
CAR corporate shell was preserved as the Grand
Trunk had guaranteed the interest on a special $16 million
bond issue which was used to buyout Booth and fund the
of the property. In May 1914, the CAR was
amalgamated into the Grand Trunk. In 1923, the
Grand Trunk
was added to the
Jines making up the Canadian National
overflow route for the Grand Trunk and
CN traffic destined to
the United States from Ontario. Traffic handled over the line
to fall in the 1930s as lumber shipments from the Ottawa
Valley declined. With the upgrading
of freight yards in Montreal
in the 1960s, the line lost much of its value as a bypass route.
The section
of the line between Barrington and Ayrness was
in June 1986.
On December
23, 1987, the Railway Transport Committee
(RTC) gave CN permission to abandon the line from Ayrness to
Cecile (a point just south
of Valleyfield), a distance of 9 miles.
No traffic had been handled between these points since 1981.
This section of the line was isolated when a slip hit the
CN bridge
over the St. Lawrence Seaway near Cecile.
No opposition to the
application was made.
On December 29, 1987, permission was granted to abandon
the line from Mile 1.69, just west of Cantic to Barrington, a
distance of
10.23 miles. Twenty three carloads had been
handled over this section
of the line. The loss on the two sections
of the line total approximately $300,000. CN has been saved
the expense
of demolishing the damaged bridge over the Seaway
as Quebec Hydro agreed to purchase the it from
CN. The end of
railway service over this section of rail line is of more than
passing interest to members of the Association. During the early
1960s, the CRHA sponsored a farewell to steam trip behind
CN locomotives 5107 and 6153. Additionally, the Barrington
is on exhibit at Canadian Railway Museum.
• ~B90 •. ~B9.
::E .: THE
~ Grand Trunk Railways
2:: Via Coteau, .
c( Connecting at Bonaventure Station wilh all
~ trains to and from the E~lS[ Luxuri·
f–OliS Parlour Cars on all
ex: OTT~VT.A.
~ Rouses Paint, st. Albans, T~oy,
Z Albany, Sa~atoga,
ex: Boston,
U New Yo~k and Philadelphia,
Z· via
< WaA:ner Sleepers run between Oltnw~ nnd
o llostOo, and Ottawa and New York.
p:: Bal:l:al:e Checked to all 10/ :>< TICKETS to be had at all Ticket
…l . Offices.
Z .
The Canada Atlantic pass proudly displays the steel bridge at
Coteau. The back indicates that the pass
was also good on the
OA & PS,
Collection oj Fred Angus.
The Stanstead, Shefford & Chambly (SS&C) was charted to
in 1853 to bring rail service to the area of the Quebecs Eastern
Townships lying along the American border. The line was to
from St. Lambert to a point on the border near Rock
Island, Quebec. There a connection was to be made with the
Connecticut & Passumpsic Railroad which was building its line
towards the Canadian border. Once connected, these two lines
would become a competitor to the Vermont Central Railroad
(VCR) which had almost a complete monopoly on international
traffic. The VCRs only competitor for the traffic between the
of Canada and the Atlantic seaboard was the Grand
(GTR). The GTR, however, was handicapped in
competing with the VCR for two reasons. First, most trans­
Atlantic shipping lines bypassed the
GTRs seaboard terminus
at Portland, Maine
in the favour of the more developed harbour
at Boston. Second, any Boston traffic shipped over the
GTR had
to be trans-shipped at Portland from broad to narrow gauge
freight cars. The future
of the SS&C was to be determined by the
competition between these two companies.
I __ I_S_S_U_E_D_B_Y_G_R_A_N_D_T_R_U_N_K __ R_A_I_L_W_A_Y ___ I Ne:ort&Return ~ ) Newport &Return
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ON;E FIR S TeL A S SPAS SA G E , ~ ~ ~ i::5 ] vi I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
I=l~ ~ooCC: ~ ~ ~, I=l~ o~oo ~ Only on presentation of this Tleket, with I 0 ..,..,1-,,::; . d f- -.. ~
. CHECKS ATTACHED z: t> ::::.. v
91 ~ ~ 0 :-::-. • <.!l uj ~ .....: :.: f--
VALID ONLY UNTIL 31sI OCTOBER, 186 I>. :;; (f) E ~!;; 1>….. en I/)
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This ticket was issued by the Grand Trunk Railway in Montreal on August 21 1865 for a return trip to Newport. One of the
coupons covers a stage journey from Outlet
to Waterloo, while the following one is for the SS&C from Waterloo to St. Johns. The
& Champlain had been leased to the Grand Trunk the year before but the name still appeared on the ticket.
Construction of the SS&C commenced in 1854. The
contractors, however, ran into financial difficulties and by
March 1855 they had discontinued work on the section
of line
between St. Lambert and Chambly. During April 1855, work
between Waterloo and Frost Village was wound up. As the area
between Farnham and St. Lambert had resisted the blandish­
of the promoters to take stock or bonds in the company,
the Board
of Directors decided to build a branch between
Adamsville and St. Johns, Quebec where a link could be
effected with the Champlain & St. Lawrence Rail Road.
In 1857, a new contractor was found to take over the
of the line. In June of that year, the Board of
Directors resolved to start construction from St. Lambert as
soon as possible. Given the shaky fmancial position
of the
SS&C, it
is most likely that this motion was used as a bargaining
in the discussions between the SS&C and the Montreal &
Champlain Railway
(M&C). At issue was the construction of a
branch line from the
SS&C main line to the MC at St. Johns.
Both parties stood to profit by an agreement. The SS&C
would be spared the expense of building to the St. Lawrence.
M&C, which generated the bulk of its revenues from the
international traffic it handled for the VCR, would control the
Canadian outlet
ofthe SS&C traffic. If the SS&C developed its
own line from the St. Lawrence to the Connecticut &
Passumpsic, it would cut into the
M&C traffic. This would have
a very adverse effect on the
M&Cs precarious fmancial
position. The
M&C agreed to assist the SS&C on liberal terms.
These included accepting
SS&C bonds in lieu of cash for freight
construction materials, loaning rolling stock to the
SS&C for use
on construction trains at nominal rates, and offering favourable
terms to either work the lines
in common or to carry the SS&C
traffic over its lines to St. Lambert.
In October 1857, the
SS&C accepted the M&C aid
proposal. As a reflection of the close relationship between the
two railways, the SS &C made Waterloo rather than Adamsville
the eastern termius ofthe branch. The SS&C completed the first
of its line from Saint Jean to West Farnham in
December 1858. Continuing eastwards, the line was opened to
in January 1860. The company again experienced
financial troubles
in 1861. The contractor gave up his contract
and in July the line was leased to
A.B. Foster. He had served as
the managing director, a position akin to general manager, ofthe
SS&C since 1855. Waterloo was reached in November
The next year a two mile extension was built from Waterloo to
Frost Village.
During the years the SS&C was under construction, the
VCR and
GTR both started negotiations to lease the M&C. The
of the VCR were refused in 1860 as the lease offer was
deemed insufficient. Spumed, the
VCR started to construct its
own line, the Montreal & VermontJunction Railway, along the
east side
of the Richelieu River in 1863. The SS&C was brought
into the VCRs sphere at this time
in order to spare the VCR
from having to bridge this river. As early as 1863 A.B. Foster
was a member
of the Board of Directors of the Montreal &
Vermont Junction. In 1866,
he had his lease of the SS&C
to this company.
Faced with the actions
of the VCR, the M&C accepted
overtures from the
GTR. In 1861, in order to secure a downtown
in Montreal, the GTR acquired running rights over the
M&C and use of M&Cs Bonaventure station. The M&Cs
financial condition deteriorated substantially following the
of the American Civil War. At the same time,
heavy expenditures
for the renewal of track and equipment was
required. The incursion of the VCR into Canada was a source
alarm as the loss of this traffic could cause its revenues to fall by
up to 50%. For these reasons, the M&C became willing to
accept the offer
of the GTR to whom it was leased in 1864.
During the 1870s and early 1880s, the long planned
extension of the
SS&C eastwards from Frost Village began.
Rather than being built by the
SS&C, most of this line was built
by the Waterloo & Magog Railway (W&M). In 1877, it
reached Magog and
in 1884 Sherbrooke. The company was
backed by the Central Vermont Railroad (CVR), which was
managing the VCR.
By 1884, however, the CVR viewed both
the SS&C and
W&M as expendible. One reason for this was
Read Down Read Up
—m-IJ4i I 301 I
1 J04i360–
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=:~EiiC~tlsi~,;h,~~ S.88~IMlsManl
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…… t6.«l1······ 0i
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• 63°! 5 ! …. Orford Lakc ….
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4511 8.51; 8.51146.71.. Rlcheloeu ……. 9.48 1i.29. 529 …. ..
4 65, 8 5~i 8 55
47 6: .. Chambly Canton 9.441 5.24. 5 24.(
6.001 90°1 900,489. Chambly ……. 9.40, 6.19: 6 19, ..
6 76, 9 30 9 30160 8 .. St. Lombert. . . . . 9.071 4 5Q: 4 bO …
6 46.t 9 5C
f 9 5067 8M Montreal GTRy. . .. 1.. t 8.45.t 4.2St 4.251 ..
PI! 1 IJI, IJI, I ! (Bonavenlllr.Statl···) IJI, I PI! ! PI! I
By 1919 the SS&C was still controlled by the CV as we see from a
timetable issued by
eVan May 4 of that year.
that the two railways proved to be marginal financial invest­
ments. More importantly, during the early
1880s, co-operation
between the
Grand Trunk and the CVR increased to counter the
of the CPR into eastern Canada and New England.
As the
GTR had lines to most of the important points served by
the CVR-controlled lines in southern Quebec and these
lines had superior alignments and traffic levels, the CVR lines
were unnecessary.
The logical purchaser for these lines was the Canadian
Pacific whose subsidiary, the Atlantic & Northwestern, held a
charter to build a line from Montreal to Saint
John, New
As the W &M track occupied a strategic mountain
pass necessary for
CP to secure the most direct line between
Farnham and Sherbrooke, CP purchased the line in 1888. Most
of the W &M was abandoned in 1889, when CP completed a
new line on a more favourable alignment between
Farnham and
Sherbrooke. During the initial discussions with
CP in 1884, the
CVR had tried to include the SS&C in the deal. CP refused to
purchase this line. When
CP started to build its own line
between St.
Johns and Farnham, the CVR capitulated and
agreed to sell only the W
Thereafter the SS&C became an unremarkable branch line.
It remained part of the CVR until November 14, 1923. At a
of the SS&C Board of Directors held in the private car
Mansfield at Bonaventure Station that day, the lease of the
line to
CN was approved. On November 1, 1945, CN
purchased the line. the SS&Cs corporate existance came to an
end in 1956 when it was amalgamated with
During the depression,
CN acquired trackage rights over the
CP line between Iberville and Farnham. This pennitted it to
abandon the
SS&C line between these points in 1936. On
1, 1951, CN rerouted its twice daily Montreal­
Waterloo service from the line via Saint Jean to the Montreal &
Southern Counties line through Chambly. This step co-incided
with the ceasation
of the Montreal & Southern Counties
interurban service between Marieville and Granby. Almost a
decade later, on May 1, 1961, passenger service was
discon tinued. Readers desiring
to learn more about the SS&C and W &M
should refer themselves to the excellent two set Railways in
Quebec by Derek Booth. They were published by
Railfare and are still
in print.
On November 23, 1987, the RTC gave CN pennission to
abandon its line between
Eyre Junction, Saskatchewan and
Acadia Valley, Alberta, a distance
of23.7 miles. The line was
built by
CN under the Canadian Northern charter. Construction
began in 1919.
It was opened for traffic on September 15, 1926.
In 1986, the line carried 463 carloads and generated a loss
$251,663. The approval of the abandonment was conditional
upon the upgrading
of grain loading facilities at Oyen,
The remaining three line abandonments approved by the
RTC in December 1987 concern CN lines in southwestern
Ontario. Two
of these lines were built with the backing of the
Great Western Railway during the 1870s. The Wellington,
& Bruce Railway
(WG&B) was incorporated in 1864 to
build from Guelph through
to Lake Huron. No construction was
undertaken until the
Great Western Railway agreed to guarantee
the bonds and took stock
in the company in June 1869. On July
1, 1870, the first 13.5 miles
of line were opened between Guelph
and Elora.
By December 1872, the line reached its tenninus at
Southampton, 102 miles from Guelph. In December 1874, a
branch line from Palmerston to Kincardine was completed.
In August 1882, the
Grand Trunk took over the Great
Western. The lease of the WG&B was included in the
In the general corporate overhaul of April 1 , 1893,
WG&B was amalgamated into the Grand Trunk.
In September 1970, the passenger train service from
Toronto to the Bruce Penninsula communities
of Southampton
and Owen Sound was discontinued.
The first major abandon­
of the fonner WG&B trackage occurred in August 1983
when the
CTC granted CN pennission to abandon the line
between Fergus and Palmerston .
Four years later, on December
3, 1987, the
CTC detennined that the Fergus-Guelph line was
redundant. In 1986, the branch handled 45 carloads and
incurred a loss
of $168,412.
1–________________________________________________________ ……J, .. ,.
P~8. l~ ••. nM!d ~l:d STATIONS. l~lIIe. P~ … MI~d Pl. •. MIt-d
P.M. P.lII, -~I:-A,M, AnRIK L~AVE. A:M. A:M. p.Ol. P.M.
~.1Q _~~,,5}~ ~~ H.~.~I tt~~~ .1(]il~.,3~oJ.lI–I, 920 110 00 !_!}!i ~.~~
12 15 630 525 850,.,1 (8ee)l.46)v 1350· ….. I 4 201 7 DO
II 4U –5·55 –4-40 8Jij Ai-::H,L.: .. i,l.u;:;;li~LVI-O flO 20 III 45 t 4581745
II 27 539 4 25 750 ……. 1lmllchtQD. .. ….. 6.08 1034 1203 512 802
II 12 5 25 4 II 7 30 :v. J (: It f arr 11 72 ,.c…. 12 20 ……. . .. , …. .
… …. . .. … , …. … .. RrTl . …. .. …. , Ivo . 10 50 1 00 5 25 8 20
11 01 507 355 710 ………. Pre.ton ………. 116.7 11 Dill 30 539 835
.. 1.054lj ~ ~~ .. 3,,4.7 … 7 OI~~~f.~~::1 ~Ut ~l ~ … .. 8 .. 4.5
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3 15 t 625 Iv. J f arrl … , .. , . ……. 6 20 9 15
~ ~ ~ ~ arr … GUelph … ho 27.88 ~~ = ~ =
08 4 06 220 …….. rr.,.(; .. llh Jet … .!ve 26.76 12 DO 320 648 …….. .
f9 56 3 53 ,…. . ………. Marden .. . 30.96… …. 3 53 6 69
. 939 328 1 40 ………….. Elora.. .0.21 1228 440 7 15
9 3~ 3 18 1 30 . . ……… Fergus … 42.91 12 40 5 10 7 22
9 17 2 58 12 10 ………….. AIllIll …. 4!UlO/12 55 5 35 7 36 . 9
03 2 42 II 52 . ..Gohlstou. . 1>1.66 1 10 5 55 7 4~
8 56 2 32 11 40 0 ……….. Draytoll……….. 58.15 1 20 6 201 755 9
845 2 19 II 25 ,lix 18301200 III CO P.M. Ive I PalmorBtoo f arr W.Ja 145 7001 820 A.M.
a 805 1 05 ……. 7 15 arr ……….. 11.. … lv.1 . 2 05 . a 8 4! I 845
7 50 12 50 ……. 6 55 Iv. J Hit f arr -4 9-
7 50 12 50 arr . all· OIL 1 vo , 2 19 9 00 9 30
fl4! .. 1617 Fultons 7~I!1V228 ……. j943
7 35 12 25 ., 6 OS ……….. Cilfford.. ~l.G5 2 34 9 14 1005
715 1 55 ,…. 520 ……. Mildmay 90.. 252, 935 1055
702 11 35 440 ………… Walkerton …… 96.27 305 951 11 50
!6 49 ll 13 3 45 .. . … Dunk.ld ……….. lOl.16V 3 15 12 10
6 43 11 05 …. , 3 38 …. Carglll …….. 103,71 3 20 10 06 12 30
640 11 01 .. , 323., …. Pinkerton …….. I06.01 323, 1009 1240
6 26 10 45 … 1 2 50 ….. , … Palsley.. . ll1.35 3 40 10 25 1 00
!6 08 10 IS ,…. ……………. 1urnero ……….. llX 6i 402
6 57 10 00 … . ……………. 1ort Elgin …….. 124 24 4 22 . 10 57 ..
~ 5 50 f 935…….. . ….. Southampton …… 128.26 4 35 … , . «11 05 .
,M, A.M. 1.11.1, P.M. LEAVE ARIHVE, P.M. P,M. 1,11.1. P.M.
?Outhal~~~~~l ~r~~l ~di~l~e~~;.o~·~cs The Grand Trunk timetable oj July 2 1894 shows the WG&B and
LH&B lines as well as a map oJthe companys routes in southem
oj Fred Angus.
The London, Huron & Bruce Railway was incorporated in
February 1871. The Great Western leased the property in
1873. Construction began from Hyde Park, 4 miles west of
London on the Great Westerns Toronto-Sarnia line, early in
1875. The 69 mile line from Hyde Park to Wingham Junction
was opened
in January 1876. Trackage rights were acquired
WG&B so that the LH&B trains could operate into
Passenger service over the line came to an end on April 27,
1940. In 1941, the section of the line between Clinton Junction,
a point on
CNs line between Stratford and Goderich. and
Wingham Junction was abandoned. On December
24, 1987,
RTC gave CN permission to abandon the 14 miles of line
from Ilderton
to Centralia. No traffic had been shipped over this
of the line since 1982 and losses in 1986 totalled
The third line to be abandoned in southern Ontario was the
Tavistock Spur extending from
Samia to Tavistock, a distance
of 7 miles. This line was projected as part of the Brantford &
Buffalo Joint Stock Rail Road Company which was chartered in
August 1850.
The scheme was expanded to form a direct rail
line from Lake Huron to the head
of the Erie Canal at Buffalo.
Reflecting the new asperations, the company was renamed the
Buffalo, Brantford and Goderich Railway in November 1852.
The company ran out of funds after completing the line from
Fort Erie to Paris. It lacked the resources to complete the Paris­
Goderich portion of the line. Under an agreement with the
of the Buffalo, Brantford and Goderich Railway
February 1856, the Buffalo & Lake Huron Railway
assumed control
of the line. The line reached Stratford on
8, 1856. The section to Goderich was opened to
traffic on
June 28, 1858. The company was leased to the Grand
Trunk effective July I, 1864.
Interestingly, two railways once operated between Tavistock
and Stratford. On
January I, 1876, the Port Dover & Lake
Huron Railway completed its line between
Port Dover and
Stratford. This line was subsequently incorporated into the
Grand Trunk, Georgian Bay & Lake Erie Railway in March
1881 as partofa line from Port Dover to Wiarton. Following the
ofthe company into the Grand Trunk in 1893, the
. former
Port Dover & Lake Huron trackage between Tavistock
and Stratford was abandoned.
CN received permission to abandon the line between Paris
Junction and Tavistock in the early 1980s. In 1986, the
Tavistock-Stratford line handled
14 cars and lost $38,868. The
RTC gave CN permission to abandon the line on November 20,
On December 8, 1987, the RTC ordered CP to continue
operation between Rocanville and Esterhazy, Saskatchewan, a
of 28.5 miles. These points lie in the middle of the
Neudorf Subdivision which stretches
126 miles from Virden,
Manitoba to
Neudorf, Saskatchewan. The line was built as the Pheasant Hills Branch by
CP. The portion under consideration
was opened to traffic
in 1904.
Between 1982 and 1986, this section
of the branch line
handled more than 150 carloads per
year. In 1986, the loss on
operations was $410,239.
The Neudorf Subdivision was part of the Basic Rail Network
of grain lines. The railways are prohibited from abandoning lines
included within this network. On September 10, 1987, the
section between Rocanville and Esterhazy was removed from
this category.
Initially the Saskatchewan
Wheat Pool had decided to close
down its grain elevator at Tantallon in 1987. This was the only
elevator on the section
of line between Rocanville and
Esterhazy. Following a review
of the impact of line abandon­
ments, it was decided to forward a recommendation to the
of Transport that farmers be compensated for increased
trucking costs caused by the closure
of a branch line. While the
is under consideration, the Saskatchewan Pool decided
to keep the Tantallon elevator open.
The RTC ordered the line
be retained for a one year period.
The Commissioners hearing the case noted that this
abandonment case raised
an important issue concerning the
statutory freight rates for the movement
of grain. The rates for
grain movements are fixed as
part of the Western Grain
Tr1ll)sportation Act.
As these rates are based upon distance, an
abandonment which makes shipments more circuitous will
increase the amount the farmer must pay for transportation.
Commissioners noted that farmers to the west of Esterhazy
could pay upwards
of $229,000 more to move their grain to
Thunder Bay.
At the same time, the portion of the freight rates
subsidized by the government could increase by
While the rates are fixed by statute, the Act does allow the
railways to enter into contracts for lower freight rates subject to
by any person who believes the public interest would be
prejudiced. The Commissioners stated they expect
CP to make a
submission concerning how such impacts could be mitigated
when the case
is reconsidered.
Sale of the British Columbia Hydro Railway
As of October 1,1988, the British Columbia Hydro Railway
will have a new owner.
The 75 mile long railway, which
stretches from Vancouver to Chilliwack,
is the former interurban
of the British Columbia Electric Railway. Itel Corpora­
of Chicago acquired the line from the British Columbia
government as
part of the governments privatization efforts.
Included in the
$32 million deal are 500 freight cars and 19
locomotives. The railway, which serves 300 customers,
generated a net income
of $2.2 million on revenues of $21.5
!tel was one offour companies short-listed by the government
in May. The others were Canadian firms which included Essex
Mortem Holdings Limited (owners of the Essex Terminal
in Windsor, Ontario), Northern Rail Contractors
of Langley, British Columbia, Seanix Technology
Corporation, a Vancouver-based venture capital company. !tel
is a United States conglomerate. Part of its operations includes
rail car leasing arm which manages a fleet
of 75,000 cars.
In order to maintain the neutralty
of the company, the British
Columbia government did not consider the bids by
CN and CP.
CP Rail, however, paid $6.3 million for the seven miles ofBC
Hydro line its trains use to access the Roberts Bank coal port.
!tel will
be able to operate its trains free of charge over this
The Story of Saskatoons Streetcars and Trolley Buses
Saskatoons Electric Transit
by Easten Wayman
96 Pages
8~ x 12 inches
21.6 x 30 cm.
Published by: Railfare Enterprises
P.O. Box 97
Hawkesbury, Ontario
K6A 2R4
Price: $25.00
In recent years there have been published histories of the
various street car systems
in Canada, especially those in the
West. This series has continued with the publication, early
1988, of Saskatoons Electric Transit. Electric railway
enthusiasts have been looking forward to each
of these as they
appear, and the latest continues the high standard that was set by
the earlier works.
The city of Saskatoon, founded in 1882, had a street railway
system from 1913 to 1950, and trolleybusses from 1948 to 1974.
Both eras are well covered by Easten Wayman who begins the
story with the founding
of Saskatoon in 1882, follows through
the organization
of the street railway in 1911, the start of
operation on New Years day 1913, and thence, in an
interesting, easy-to-read style, down the years. Altogether eight
of street cars ran in Saskatoon, and we are introduced to
of these in turn. Although only numbering forty-eight units,
and never more than
35 at anyone time, they were a varied lot
comprising single-truck
turtle-back cars, second-hand trams
from Charlotte
North Carolina, Preston-built single and
double-truckers, modern steel lightweights, third-hand Peter
Witts (ex. London Ont., previously Cleveland Ohio, originally
for Rochester N. Y.) and even one early Ottawa car dating
from 1892!
if this is not enough to whet the appetite of the traction fan,
the routes
of the system are covered in detail including five maps
showing the system
at various periods in its existance. There is a
detailed equipment roster which lists acquisition date
of each car
together with notes on the disposition
of same; if there is doubt
the reasons
for any assumptions are explained. Interestingly a
suprisingly large number
of cars are still in existance in various
conditions including one at a museum in California. In the
trolleybus era some were sold to Vancouver
in 1974 but these
too have now been retired.
There are about 120 black-and-white photos covering all
from the construction days to the last trolleybusses. It is
interesting to observe the progression of the paint scheme over
the years. The original scheme was a dark colour with delicate
striping and bearing proudly the name
MUNICIPAL RAILWAY. Gradually the scheme becomes
simpler while the word Railway gets smaller and then
vanishes leaving the rather curious-appearing
name Saskatoon
Municipal (Municipal what? one might ask). Eventually the
name disappears completely and the cars are seen
in a very
pleasing livery
of olive green and cream. This brings us to
another feature of this book; colour photographs. Many
of the
of smaller systems do not have pictures in colour for the
simple reason that the lines were abandoned before the general
of colour photography. Here, however, colour is used and
we are thus able to see in greater detail how the cars looked in
their last years. Although colour photos appear 28 times in the
book, there are not actually that many pictures represented for,
curiously, several are repeated,
in fact some appear three
The book also tells stories which help to enliven the bare
facts. In one case, a passenger involved
in a serious wreck in
1922, in which car 4 was totally demolished, did not ride a street
car again
for three years despite being relatively uninjured in the
Saskatoons Electric Transit
is a very fine work which
shows, once again that the history
of a smaller system can be just
as interesting as that of one of its bigger brothers.
August 1988.
CRHA COlDlDunications
1908 -1988
Members of the CRHA will be sorry to hear of the death,
on June
17 1988, of Jim Patterson. For the last ten years Jim
has been membership secretary,
in which he not only maintained
all records relating to membership, but also answered numerous
questions, on a vast variety of subjects, asked
by members. He
thus became almost a personal friend and source of information
to railway enthusiasts continent-wide, most of whom he never
Jim Patterson was born
in Montreal in 1908 and was
educated at St. Patricks Academy and the Montreal Teclmical
School. After a career
in Northern Electric he joined the
Montreal Locomotive Works, later becoming Assistant
Personnel Supervisor. During World
War II he was employed
in the Tank Arsenal of MLW during which period the company
produced tanks and heavy armament
for war service. At the
same time
he was in charge of voluntary civil protection with
the company.
His later career with
MLW involved a variety of activities
including salesman
for the company, before his retirement in
the 1970s. His other activities also included community
in St. Eustache, where he was a founder of the local
proprietors association, and even included ownership
of a
movie theatre
in nearby Pointe Calumet.
It was after his retirement that Jims interest in railways and
in the CRHA really came to the fore, and in 1978 he became
membership secretary.
It was soon realized that the Associa­
tion had not only acquired a person to maintain the files, but also a genuine friend
of the members who was willing to
communicate with them
in many matters. Those questions
which he was not able to answer he referred
to other authorities
who could help. His address
in St. Eustache became a place
where an inquiring member, or potential member, could
be sure
of getting a speedy reply.
For eight years Jim handled all the membership processing
including addressing the copies
of Canadian Rail (monthly until
the start
of 1983) on the old addressograph machine fondly
called the
Iron Monster. In 1986 his load was somewhat
by the introduction of a computer system, but Jim
still opened and processed all mail and,
of course, answered all
inquiries. Failing health caused Jim
to think about retirement,
and he had made plans to give up, reluctantly, the membership
in November 1988. However, soon after his 80th birthday,
he entered hospital where he passed away on the morning of
June 17. He had been active to the end and had processed
some memberships only a
few days before.
The members of the Association, both individually and
collectively, have lost a good and loyal friend.
To his widow
and family
we extend deepest sympathy.
F.A. August 1988.
Theft and Vandalism
at The Canadian
Railway Museum
A CROWN from Canadian Pacifics Royal Hudson
Locomotive 2850 –
A Set of vintage Street Car advertising posters , STOLEN
from Montreal Tramways car No. 200.
And many other items –
STOLEN from our Museum. If
anyone hears anything about these items, or sees them
offered for sale, please immediately advise the Director,
David Monaghan (Phone 514-632-2410).
These items were cleverly removed during museum hours;
or by some knowledgable person
or persons who may have
stayed after closing hour with theft in mind. the thief(s) most
likely were aware
of the market value of such artifacts. We
like to think that none
of our members has so little regard for
the real purpose of this Museum that they would commit theft
to obtain them.
So we ask each member to keep a sharp eye
for these artifacts, and perform your duty by reporting all
available knowledge.
As to VANDALCSM -those of us who have built and
cared for our Museum have become accustomed to smashed
doors on
vintage railway cars, broken windows -yes, even
broken lj; Lexan replacement plastic windows; and so many
other item~ thai wc·v~ forgotten them. Wrecking for fun
appears to be an occupation entered into by our neighbours
frequently in everyone of our twenty-seven years al this
location. Yes, much of the area is fenced; yes, we have a
watchman; yes, numerous liglm function all night; but no, we
cannot afford to !;uard aJI of the propeny all of the lime .

Stepl;lcn Otto, former head of the Ontario governments
heritll&e conservation programs and now a consulting historian,
is writing a
book on 01IaOO5 buildings and arch.itecturo: II)
1914. To be published by the University of foronto Press in
1991, it will be e)(tensively ilIustratoo using only first-class
archival photographs, engravings, paintings and architectur
plans. The project is supported by the Canada Council, the
Arts Council and the Ontario Heritage Foundation.
Insurance -prohibitively expensive, if obtainable; and first
dollar coverage would be an impossibility.
Do we understand the mentality of people who steal and
srna.~h our propeny? Definitely not; but it goes on IL/ld on. All
we can
do is appeal to all who have any connection with our
Museum to respecl iI, and LO pass on to the Director or the
any information that might help to reoover the
stolen goods, or SlOp the vandalism.
Stephen Walbridge, July
25, 1988.
Visits by thc author to more than 160 museums, lihraries and
to date have turned up a wealth of materials, including
this splendid but unidentified view
in the collections of the
d-Perth Archives.
If you can identify the station shown or even just the line on
Which it was located, please write Stephen Otto at 23 Rosedale
Rd., Toronto, M4W 2PI. The lack of signboards may show that
the building was newly-buill.
The topography and style of house
in tl;le background may also provide confinning evidence.
Thil (lhm(). t()k~1I by Charl~:r W. Bohi al £-,tiI, Saskafchewan in the summe,. oj 1970, is embkmatic ()f mu 0/ prairie (fi/1OOtiir[6. 7he grain eltlalo~, lilt boxca~, lhe mainline, passing .Tiding and depot (I~ {llIlypicu/. By J970 this fonner
Grand Trunk Pacific sUitwn WaJ boarded up and abandoned. Today ii is gone.

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