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Canadian Rail 404 1988

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Canadian Rail 404 1988

Canadian Rail ~
No. 404
–:-:—:–:–:——————–ISSN 0008·4875 —-­
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus For your membership in the CRHA which includes a
ITOR: Douglas N. W. Smith subscription to Canadian Rail write to:
Murphy CRHA. P.O. Box 282, 51. Eustache, Quebec J7R 4K6
$23, in U,S, FUNDS.
CARTOGRAPHER: William A. Germaniuk Rates: in Canada ………. .
ichel Paule! outside Canada: ……….. .
PESETTING: Belvedere Pholo·Graphique Inc.
PRINTING: Procel Pri
THE COLLECTION (C.N. 7700) …..••…•…••…
……………… .
Cal30lan Rail IS continually in need of news, stones, historical dala. photos. maps Bnd othtlr reproouelible material. Please send 1)11
contributions to the editor: Fred F. Angus, 302 Trafalgar Ave. Montreal. P.Q. H3Y 1 H 3. No payment CBn be made lor contributions. but
the contribut
or will be given cred!tlor materialsubfllilted. Mulel;al will be returned to the contributor if requested. Remember •.. Knowledge is
of hllie vatue unless 1 is shared with othell·· .
Frederick F. Angus
R. C. Ballard
Jack A. Beatty
Walter J. Bedbrook
Alan C. Blackburn
Charles De JelJn
… ! W. Johnson
J. Christopher Kyle
Willfaffi lc Surl
Bernard Manin
M. Pet Robert V. V. Nicholls
drew W. Panko
Dougla::; N. W. Smith
Oeryk Sparks Da
vid W. Strong
laurence M. Unwin
Ril;hafd Viberg
A. Stephen Walbridge
John C. Weir
The CRHA has a number of local dlv!Slons across the country. Many oold regular
and issue newsleners. Further information may be obtained by wrillng to the
In ordfll 10 ,limln, hi doubk hetldim; of loco·
moiNe. on ..nge, ,,./,,,, fhe maS .cquirPd
wo 4·6·4 Iocomotw.. from 1M Nflw York Cn/, .. I
in ,h~,, 1940 •. Ot>e of elff. tlngine 50. ,s
,hqwn .. dim; up rhtl 8uf/tlla,0 Toronto T,.m J72 on
Dffcem/)tll 16, 1953. DffplJf1ing Sunnyside
I//I/ion. which 1$ visibl, tltxwtl Ihe ,e/lrof th in,
,htl ttlin will btl.1 Union 5;00, Toronto til 1205.
Th lUI UI on rhe II,in is N,w YOlk Clntra 10
room, 6 daubl, bedroom sltleping elf optlftlling
from New York CIr~ to Toronro.
P.O. eoo t162
S.,nl John.
Neweru,wck E2l 4G7
P.O. BOil 22 SI.llon e
Mon.III. au •. H3B 3J5
.O. eo.o 962
S …. hs Filii, Onlario K7A 5A5
Box 103
K;,lon.Onario K 7M SP9

P.o. Bo~ 5849. T.rmmll A..
TOtOnIO.Onllrio M5w tP3
P.O. Bo~ 593
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300 CI~ Ro.d fill. NeG tA2 • K
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Wlnnlp$lI. Man;Toba RlK OM4
60 _ 6100. 411 Ave. NE.
ealil Alberta T2A 5Z8
O. Box 6102. SlatlOn e.
Edmonlon. Alberta T5B 2ND
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R~lOke. e.e. VOE 250
P.O. Box
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.O. Bo_ 1006. Stooloon A.
V.OCOlN… BritISh Coh.Imbi. VGe 2PI
Credit .. P/lI,,.,On·Gr:orge CollectiOn.
As part 01 Its activities, the CRHA operales
the Canadian Railway Museum at Oelson/SI.
Constant, Quebec whIch IS 14 m!les (23 Km.)
from downtown Montreal. It is open daily
from latB May to early October. Members and
theit immed
iate families are admittttd free of
To The TH&B
by Douglas N. W. Smith
The TH&B owned the only two locomotives with a 2-8-4 type wheel arrangement in Canada. One of these, engine 202, is seen
46 freight cars out of Hamilton on a lovely fall evening. A connection will be made with the New York Central at Montrose
Yard near Niagara Falls, Ontario. This picture
was taken on October 29, 1944.
Credit: Paterson-George Collection.
During the course of the past year, the Toronto, Hamilton &
Buffalo Railway
(TH&B) became another name for the history
CP Rail, which had acquired all the stock in the company
in 1977, merged the company into its monolithic mass on May
21, 1987. The occasion was marked
by a final meeting of the
TH&B Board
of Directors in three CP Rail business cars parked
at the
TH&B station in downtown Hamilton. Thus, one hundred
and three years after the date
of the issuance of its first charter,
the TH&B wound
up its affairs. A colourful chapter of
Canadian railway history has drawn to a close.
The origins of the TH&B lie in the expansionistic policy
by the Grand Trunk Railway in the 1880s. There were
two basic reasons
for the adoption of such a policy by the Grand
Trunk. The first reason was to block
CP plans to expand into
southwestern Ontario by acquiring railways which could have
been used
by CP for that purpose. The second reason was to
eliminate a major competitor, the
Great Western Railway
thereby eliminating its main competitor
in southwestern Ontario.
The two railways operated parallel lines between
Fort Erie and Windsor and between Toronto and Samia. The acquisition
the Great Western gave the Grand Trunk control of over two of
the three lines linking the Fort Erie/Niagara Falls-Detroit
gateways. Competition between the two railways for a larger
of the tremendous traffic moving from the midwestern
United States to the eastern seaboard had been particularly
intense and led to a number
of rate cutting wars. Control of the
Great Western helped the Grand Trunk to stablize its rates in
southern Ontario.
At the beginning of the 1880s, Hamilton was served by three
In 1882, the Grand Trunk took over the Great
Western and in 1884 the Northern & North Western, a line
which linked Hamilton to Port Dover and Barrie. These two
steps made Hamilton a one-railway town.
Such a state
of affairs did not sit well with Hamilton
businessmen and municipal leaders who feared the effect that a
Grand Trunk monopoly could have on freight rates. Government
of freight rates did not begin until the tum of the
century. During the nineteenth century, railways offered special
rebates to favoured shippers and engaged
in furious rate cutting
on competitive routes
in order to secure a larger share of the
The Schenectady Locomotive Works turned out TH&B 1 late in 1894. The locomotive was used in the construction of the
Brantford-Hamilton line during the winter
of 1895. It was sold about 1917 to the Maple Leaf Milling Company and used as part
ofa landfill in 1927.
Credit: National Museum
of Science and Technology.
traffic. Manufacturers, whose finns were located in towns
served by a single railway, were at a competitive disadvantage
as they had
to pay regular freight rates.
Spurred on
by the actions of the Grand Trunk, Hamilton
interests secured the first charter
for the TH&B from the
provincial legislature
in 1884. It authorized the construction of a
standard gauge line from Toronto to the International Bridge at
Fort Erie or Cantilever Bridge at Niagara Falls via Hamilton. A
five year time limit was mandated for the completion of the
A factor which had made it difficult
to raise the funds to build
the line had been the inclusion
in the charter of a clause
forbidding the lease or merger
of the TH&B with any other
railway. While
no progress was made towards actual construc­
tion, the legislature extended the charter
for another five year
in 1889.
Amendments made to the charter
in 1890 rendered the
project more palpable. While the new provisions specifically
prohibited the lease or sale
of the company to Grand Trunk or
Canadian Pacific, it allowed the Michigan Central or Canada
Southern to lease or take over the company. As well, the
could tenninate at Weiland rather than the Niagara River. At
Weiland, connections could be made with the Canada Southern,
which at this time was being operated by the Michigan Central
Railway, which
in tum was a subsidiary of the powerful New
York Central System
(NYC). By the time these changes had
been put in place, a new player had entered the field which
significantly altered the final configuration
of the TH&B.
The earliest component of the TH&B to be constructed was
by another company which initially had no plans to serve
Hamilton. The Brantford, Waterloo & Lake Erie Railway
&LE) completed a line between Waterford and Brantford
several years before work commenced on the Hamilton-Weiland
line. The reasons for the construction
of the BW &LE were
remarkably similar to those which created the demand for the
TH&B. By the mid 1880s, Brantford was an up and coming
community. Its rail service when compared to the neighbouring
communities such as Woodstock and Galt, which were served
by two railways and had direct service to Toronto, was less than
desirable. Brantford was faced with the dual disadvantages
being served solely by the Grand Trunk and not being on a trunk
line to Toronto. The Great Western Railway bypassed
in 1854 because the city had refused to grant it a bonus
to build the Niagara Falls-Windsor main line through their
It was not until 1870 that the Great Western built a branch
line from Harrisburg
to Brantford.
The railway which had claimed the attentions
of Brantford
during the 1850s was the Brantford & Lake Huron, which
eventually completed a line from
Fort Erie to Goderich. It was
taken over
by the Grand Trunk in 1864. Thus when the Great
Western fell into the hands of the Grand Trunk in 1882,
Brantford became a one-railway town.
In order
to encourage the establishment of new industry in
their community, the citizens of Brantford decided that an
independent railway outlet was essential. In 1885, they secured
a charter
for the B W &LE. The first phase called for the
of a line from Brantford to the Canada Southern,
was the rail line nearest
to Brantford not controlled by the
Grand Trunk. Progress languished
for the several years while
attempts were made
to induce the Canada Southern to take an
active interest
in the project. Up to 1888, the best concession
that the promoters could secure was a promise by the President
of the Michigan Central that favourable traffic agreements
be granted if the BW&LE were completed.
by this promise from the Michigan Central, the
of the BW&LE began to seek fmancial assistance.
Their charter pennited the railway to connect with the
Southern at either Waterford or Hagersville. The choice of
Waterford was hastened by the decision of the citizens of that
community to offer a bonus to the line. As well, the citizens of
Brantford and the Township of Oakland were induced to provide
substantial bonuses for the line.
The Dominion government
contributed a subsidy
of$3,200 per mile. More than half of the
of building and equipping the line was funded through
Having lined up this funding, construction started
in the
spring of 1889. Progress was rapid as there were
few engineering
difficulties. The opening of the line was delayed several months
due to difficulties
in securing a right of way through West
Brantford. The line officially opened on February 1, 1890. An
account of the first trips operated, which reveal the close ties
between the
BW&LE and the Michigan Central, is reproduced
in Appendix I.
Initially, the line terminated in West Brantford. This allowed
the company to start operations without incurring the substantial
expenditure that would have been necessary to bridge the Grand
River in order to reach the main part of the city. Reflecting the
close ties fostered with the
Canada Southern and the shoestring
fmancing, the first locomotives on the BW
&LE were second
hand engines from the
Canada Southern.
Like many projects
ofthe period, the BW &LE never fulfilled
the ambitions espoused in its corporate title. Rather than
building to the north and south, its future lay to the east.
Following the renewal
of the TH&B charter in 1889, the
of the revived TH&B project became very interested
in the
BW &LE which would provide a link for traffic moving
from Toronto to the western United States. They found the
of the BW &LE ready to negotiate. While the
BW &LE directors had been willing to finance the construction
ofthe rail line , they appeared not so eager to retain the line.
probably hoped that the Canada Southern would recognize the
of the feeder to its main line and make an offer to purchase
or lease the railway shortly after it was completed.
This view, which was taken in the Spring oj 1895, shows a construction train on the BrantJord to Hamilton extension. The train
is on the Aberdeen Avenue bridge in Hamilton. Passing beneath the bridge is a passenger train on the Hamilton & Dundas
Railway which
is hauled by a steam dummy locomotive. Behind the steam locomotive is a combination car letteredJor the
BrantJord, Waterloo
& Lake Erie Railway.· This is the only picture which has yet come to light showing the equipment on this
TH&B predecessor. TH&B locomotive 20, a 4-6-0,
was built in 1894 by Schenectady.
Credit: Hamilton Public Library.

In 1894, the Chief Engineer oflhe TH&B prepared a map showing the proposed alignmenl of the TH&B. At thaI time, the only portion actually buill
was Ihe original Bran/ford, Waterloo & Lake Erie Railway between Walerford alld Branlford. This map clearly shows Ihe Toronto-Hamilton alignment
which was surveyed by {he TH &B but was never buill. The proposed lines 10 Port Dover and Port Burwell were never built. The map clearly shows the other rail lines existillg in the region. This prillt is a photo reduction
of a larger map. Consequently, the scale in this reproduction is
approximately 17 miles
10 the illch. Credit: National Archives/MNC 104142
would be shared. The stock in the TH&B was distributed on the
following basis:
CP 27%, NYC 37%, Michigan Central 18%
Canada Southern 18%. The NYC had effective control over
the company through its interests in the Michigan Central and
Canada Southern. The support
of the CP and NYC in the
TH&B, however, became evident in the latter months of 1894.
On October 11, 1894, the ever faithful ratepayers of
Hamilton passed yet another bonus bylaw for the TH&B. This
one provided a bonus
of$225,000 to the TH&B ifit built a line
from Weiland to Waterford via Hamilton.
As part of the terms
of the bonus, the TH&B agreed to operate daily freight and
passenger service and to repay the money if the line were ever
sold to the Grand Trunk,
CP or CPs subsidary, the Southern
Ontario Pacific.
This time the
TH&B would fulfill its promise. Construction
on the Brantford-Hamilton line restarted almost
as soon as the
of the vote on the bylaw were known. On October 12,
1894, as a reflection of the new vigour prevading the project
well as its corporate links, a Michigan Central locomotive and
three-car passenger train replaced the down-at-the-heels
equipment from the
BW&LE used on the Brantford-Welland run.
The Brantford paper billed the Michigan Central equipment
as the equal
of any on the main line. Ten days later, the
of passenger service was increased from two to three
round trips daily. By mid December four new steam locomotives
had been delivered from Schenectady to the
TH&B and were
engaged upon construction work. On May 24, 1895, the 25 mile
line from Brantford to Hamilton was officially opened.
The first passenger train to pass over the line was a special
train carrying the Thirteenth Battalion from Hamilton to
London to take
part in the festivities marking Queen Victorias
At this time, the Michigan Central had trackage rights
over the London &
Port Stanley Railway from St. Thomas to
TH&B locomotive #2 headed up the consist which
included another unidentified
TH&B locomotive, 1 horse car, 1
baggage car, and
11 coaches. Reflecting the close ties with the
NYC system, the cars were supplied by the Michigan Central. A
pilot engine preceeded the special to make sure that the line was
safe. Regular passenger train service started on May 27th.
As the bonus from the City
of Hamilton would lapse if the line
between Hamilton and WeIland was not completed
by December
31, 1895, construction on this portion of the line was rushed to
completion during the latter half of 1895. On December
1895, the governments engineer, Thomas Rideout, inspected
the new line.
An excerpt from The Hamilton Spectator for
this date, which is shown in Appendix III, reveals the rushed
of the construction still going on even while the inspection
train was travelling from WeIland to Hamilton. Government
permission to open the line to traffic was granted on December
30, 1895. In recognition
of the unfinished condition of the
roadbed between Hamilton and Weiland, permission to open
the line was conditional upon trains not being operated
at speeds
exceeding 20 miles per hour.
Some citizens, who opposed the
TH&B by-law, employed
an independant civil engineer to write a report showing that the
TH&B had not lived up to its commitment to have a first class
in place by the end of 1895. This attempt to block the
payment of the
$225,000 bonus was unsuccessful, but the
report, which
is reproduced in Appendix IV, remains a valuable
document as it describes the condition
ofTH&B early in 1896.
By the end
of 1897, the deficiencies noted in the 1896 report
had largely been corrected. A copy
of a report filed by the
TH&B with the Department of Railways and Canals which
illustrates the many improvements undertaken during that year
is presented in Appendix V.
The most significant engineering structure on the new line
was a 1904.5 foot long double track tunnel which burrowed
under the fashionable suburbs along Hunter Street
in Hamilton.
Due to the sandy soil conditions, the construction involved
excavating the ground, laying the masonry for the arch and then
covering over the tunnel. By the time it was completed, over
127,000 cubic yards
of earth had been removed from the cutting
for the tunnel and 88,000 cubic yards from the approaches. Over
three million bricks and 12,000 yards
of masonry went into the
structure. The project was undertaken
by the American
contractor, Andrew Onderdonk, who was no stranger to
Canada. He was responsible for the construction in the 1880s
the westernmost part of the CP transcontinental line from Port
Moody to Craigellachie, British Columbia.
While the line was deemed sufficiently complete for the
inauguration of regular service on December 30th, the tunnel
was not completely finished.
It was only on February 7,1896
that the last brick was laid in the arch. The TH&B expended
$3.28 million to build the line from Brantford to Weiland.
Having completed the work necessary to qualify for the
of the Hamilton bonus, attention was turned to the link
to Toronto
in 1896. Surveys which had been carried out earlier
that decade proposed building on an alignment which was
largely south of the existing
Grand Trunk line. A map showing
the location
is used as one of the illustrations to this article. As
TH&B line would have passed much closer to the settled
areas between Toronto and Hamilton, it could have seriously
The last oj the baggage and express has just been loaded into a Weiland bound passenger train in this circa 1910 view. The first
TH &B station in Hamilton included space Jor the general offices oj the company on its upper floor.
Credit: Ontario Archives.
Hauling a freight train, engines 5 and 30 pause at the Hunter Street station in Hamilton in this 1911 view. This is the second
to bear the number 5. It was built by Baldwin in 1905. Locomotive 30, a 4-6-0 type engine, was built by the Montreal
Locomotive Works
in 1908. Both engines were removedfrom the roster until 1934.
Credit: National Archives PA-161572.
to the arrival of the Berkshires, the biggest freight engines on the TH&B were 2-8-0 types. Locomotive 102 (original number
51) was built
by the Montreal Locomotive Works in 1910 and could develop 45,780 pounds of tractive effort. This view taken on
October 31, 1931 shows the engine on a freight train in Hamilton in a relatively unmodemized condition.
Credit: Paterson-George Collection.
eroded the traffic the Grand Trunk derived from these
Faced with the potential loss of traffic over its Toronto­
Hamilton line if the TH&B completed its proposed line, the
Grand Trunk decided to co-operate with CP. On April 9, 1896,
Grand Trunks Board of Directors granted CP running rights
over its line from Toronto to a point near Hamilton.
Thus the
of the TH&B required only the construction of a 1.4
mile line rather than a
44 mile trunk line. This piece of
construction was dubbed the spur line by the Hamilton press.
It started from a point just west of the Hamilton tunnel and
extended to Hamilton Junction which
is located near the mouth
of the old Desjardins Canal. Following its completion, the spur
line was turned over to
CP on May 25, 1897.
Up to March 31, 1897, the Dominion Construction
Company, which built the line under a contract signed with the
TH&B, CP and NYC interests, was responsible for the
of the railroad. Due to the unfavourable fmancial
results during the period it operated the railway, the construc­
tion company took steps to reduce expenses till the line was
taken off its hands. Local newspapers recorded
that during the
of 1897 the stations at Chantlers, Cainsville and Weiland
Junction were closed and a number of engineers and men in the
freight office were laid off.
Effective April 1, 1897, the
TH&B was placed under the
of the Michigan Centrals Canada Division whose
headquarters were
at St. Thomas, Ontario. The arrangement
only lasted until
December 1,1897 when the line was restored to
independant status.
The head-office of the Company was
in Hamilton.
On May 30, 1897, the CP, TH&B and NYC inaugurated
through Toronto-Buffalo passenger service providing four round
trips per day.
As well, CP began to operate a number of
Toronto-Hamilton locals. A description of the first train to make
the run from Toronto to Buffalo
is contained in Appendix VI. CP
supplemented the Toronto-Buffalo trains with several locals of
its own between Toronto and Hamilton. The scheduled
departure and arrival times at Toronto were as follows:
Leave Destination Frequency Arrive Origin Frequency
0800 BufTalo Daily 0940 BufTalo Ex Sun
0955 BufTalo Ex Sun 1045 BufTalo Daily
1130 Hamilton Sun Only 1235 Hamilton Ex Sun
1310 Hamilton Ex Sun 1455 Hamilton Sun Only
1540 Buffalo Ex Sun 1540 Hamilton Ex Sun
1745 Hamilton Ex Sun 1800 BufTalo Ex Sun
2040 Buffalo Daily 2025 BufTalo Daily
An additional new service which started at the same time was
a through coach service between Toronto and Brantford.
While it was ready to share its infrastructure, the
Trunk was not prepared to sit idily by and let the three railways
purloin its passenger traffic. On June 14, 1897, the
Grand Trunk
inaugurated twice-daily through service between Toronto and
Buffalo in conjunction with the Lehigh Valley.
As well, it
initiated its own through service between Toronto and Brantford.
The Toronto-Buffalo trip required three hours on the
Trunk-Lehigh Valley route while the fastest train on the
CP, TH&B, MC route required 2 hours and 50 minutes.
Between Toronto and Brantford, the
TH&B-CP through coach
service took two hours while the new
Grand Trunk service
boasted a 1 hour 55 minute running time.
In 1905, the TH&B and the Michigan Central agreed to pool
their locomotives
on through trains between Buffalo and
CP power was used exclusively between Toronto and
Hamilton until 1912 when the three roads agreed to operate their
locomotives through from
Toronto to Buffalo on a pool basis
without change.
In 1905, the first
of the passenger cars owned jointly by the
TH&B, CP and Michigan Central entered service. These
wooden cars carried the name Toronto Hamilton and Buffalo
Line on their letterboard and the names
of the joint owners were
carried in small lettering
beneath the windows in the centre of the
car. In 1924, these wooden cars were replaced by
22 steel cars,
6 baggage-express cars and
16 coaches, which remained in
service to the end of the conventional train era on the
In 1897 and 1898, the TH&B operated at a net loss. The
unfavourable financial result is probably one of the reasons why
the line was placed under independant management
in December
One means to achieve profitability was to gain access to
the industrial districts
of Hamilton. The area with the largest
of industry was along the shoreline of Hamiltons
harbour. Access to this
area was made difficult as it lay to the
of the Grand Trunks main line between Hamilton and
Niagara Falls.
The first step to improving access to industrialized areas
occurred on
June 17, 1897. On this date, the TH&B began to
operate over the Hamilton &
Dundas Railway, a steam dummy
line. This gave them access to the factories
in Dundas. While the
Hamilton & Dundas Railway ceased to handle passenger traffic
in 1923, the TH&B continued to provide freight service until
recent times.
The TH&B purchased the trackage necessary for
its freight operations from the Hamilton &
Dundas in 1927.
In 1899, the railway
became profitable. This was due to
several factors. Bridge traffic between
CP and the New York
Central System was growing, the
TH&B completed its first line
into Hamiltons harbours ide industrial district and freight
AGENTS STUB-Not Good for Passage
A large source for the TH&B freight revenues was the industrial district of Hamilton. In order to serve the many spurs and belt lines, the T1l&B maintained twelve
0-6-0 switch engines. Locomotive 48 is shown showing a cut of freight cars in Hamilton on September
23, 1935. Number 48 was built by the Canadian Locomotive Company of Kingston, Ontario in 1917. Credit: Paterson-George Collection.
volumes increased as new plants opened along the TH&B while
established firms
became busier.
The following years rapidly proved the value of the link
CP and the New York Central System. During the two
decades following the completion
of the linking of the CPR and
New York Central, freight traffic experienced a seven-fold
and passenger traffic almost tripled. The 1918 net
earnings of $818,000 were almost ten times those of 1899.
Financial and operating statistics for this period are shown in
Table 1.
In an attempt to expand its influence in the Niagara
peninsula, the TH&B tried to take over the Niagara, St.
and Toronto Railway. The talks were unsuccessful
and the
property went to the Canadian Northern in 1905.
Under the charter of the Erie & Ontario Railway, the TH&B
completed the 15 mile line from Smithville to Dunnville on
December 22,1914. In 1916, the branch was pushed on another
5 miles
to Port Maitland. In conjunction with the extension of
Passengers Freight Train Total Net
Carried Ton Miles Miles Revenues Earnings
1895 26,827 85,617 31,824 17,453 4,245
1896 65,662 47,057 157,632 84,901 24,473
1897 100,275 98,403 166,851 101,220 (41,891)
127 ,743 451,149 249,090 259,843 (16,642)
174,139 490,221 275,078 332,567 85,933
1901 201,671 616,987 281,930 433,454 156,081
1914 669,744 2,192,285 477,227 1,502,331 417,014
1918 509,315 3,584,724 429,817 2,565,708 818,470
Source: Report of the Minister
of Railways and Canals.
the branch, the TH&B entered the rail car ferry business. A
subsidiary called the Toronto Hamilton and Buffalo Navigation
Company started service
in 1916 linking Port Maitland and
Ashtabula, Ohio. The rail car ferry,
the S.S. Maitland No.1,
carried Pennsylvania coal destined to Hamilton steel mills on its eastbound sailings and paper products on westbound sailings.
Following the expansion
of the Weiland Canal in 1931, which
eliminated the congestion problem which delayed vessels
travelling between Lakes Erie and Ontario, the coal traffic
Ready to start a new shift, 0-6-040 steams out oJthe Aberdeen roundhouse in Hamilton on July 22, 1948. Originally numbered
42, the engine
was renumbered in 1947 as the TH&B shujJ1ed the numbers oJits steam switchers to clear the 50 series Jor the new
diesels arriving later that year. This engine
is one oJtwo TH&B steamers currently extant and is part oJthe collection oJthe
National Museum
oj Science and Technology in Ottawa.
Credit: CRHA, Toohey Collection 48-381.
103 stands outside the Aberdeen roundhouse on July 22, 1948. The engine was built by the Montreal Locomotive
in 1910 and originally bore the number 52. In January 1918, it was returned to MLW Jor installation oj superheaters and
emergered as Number
72. In 1919, it was renumbered 103. This locomotive is preserved in the Hamilton area.
Credit: CRHA, Toohey Collection 48-383.
shifted to an all-water route from Ashtabula to Hamilton.
of the major source of revenues, the TH&B
discontinued the car ferry service in 1932.
As early as 1907, the company had tried to secure access to
the industrial town
of Port Colbome. The Grand Trunk,
however, had been able to block the
TH&B applications for.
railway charters
or running rights over its line between WeIland
Port Colbome. Once the privately-owned Grand Trunk was
folded into the government-owned
Canadian National, it
became much more difficult to refuse the petitions
of industrial
firms in
Port Colbome access by the TH&B. In 1926, the
TH&B secured a provincial charter for the Weiland & Port
Colbome Railway Company. Canadian National, the successor
to the
Grand Trunk, decided to grant running rights over their trackage between Weiland and
Port Colbome. After twenty
of trying, the first TH&B train operated into Port
Colbome on January 13, 1927.
Subsequent developments on the TH&B would involve
improving the plant and equipment rather than expansion
of its_
service area. In 1928, the TH&B acquired its first modem
steam locomotives. These engines were unique as they were the
only Berkshire type
(2-8-4) steam locomotives to operate in
Canada. While much of the territory served by the TH&B is
essentially flat land, between Hamilton and Weiland there is a
6.6 mile long I
% grade up the Niagara Escarpment· from
Bartonville, a suburb
of Hamilton, to Vinemount. As freight
The original Hunter Street station was a late Victorian structure combining turets, terra cotta, stained glass and other
to produce a vibrant structure. As part of the grade separation project carried out in the early 1930s, the
of the TH&B were elevated through downtown Hamilton. A new combined station-office building was part of this
project. Built
in the popular art deco style of the time, this is one of the few railway stations built in this style in Canada.
The structure
was opened in 1933. This view was taken on July 22, 1948 during a quiet period between trains.
Credit: CRHA, Toohey Collection 48-380.
Issued December 5th, 1943
General Paaaenger Agent
Toronto Hamilton & Bl{/falo timetables
of 1943 and 1960.
From the collection
of D.E. Stoltz.
AU ReiuJ.., Line C;jlr1 Ire Alr_Condllionw
No. 372 – 0 .. 11)
C(IiCIH!S· rOTGnto 10 lIuffI!.
Nf). 374 -O:.lly
COACH~C:; -TOlonto to
No. 380-DAII)
TOivola 10 On-tOIl -10 Scot. , Ora … I1 Roorn. 2 Compl
OINER J.OII(~I~ -Toronto In Bu/ffllo.
COACHES -01(1010 to
No. J82 -I)Uy . Thr Onlarian
Toronlo 10 Nt … Yn/lt – 6 ~dlon, 6 nnulC A~fnom~
Toronto to Nt … York – Double Renroom..1, 4 C!)mprut·
nU~I1I. 2 UrAlog Roomll,
Toronto to Nt York -14 St(tlon~.
T(>ronto to Nu. York -10 ROOTuelte 05 Obit. IJ .. ,hnom,
TOlunlo 10 j!u,hm,h-IO SeCt., Ur/lln~ Roo,,, :lLnrorl .•.
Tou;,to 1o lltltl COACH -. Tnronto 10 nu .. lo
N~w York to !ronto – Double Bfdr.,.,m~, CompRrt·
lT1ent~, 2 DrR,rng Room,.
Ne York to TOT(mto – H Se(tion,.
N~It Vork (0 ioronto -10 RooiDetlU, 6 nf>le. FeUroom,.
1::10,10010 TOfOnl.,-IO Stellon, Or-,,,jul( Hl,lflfU, J (.; .••
(.;llIyrh •• ,,1 10 Totonlo -12 8r(1100. l)rQ,wlnK RQOm.
COACH 10 roronlO
No, 375 -DaBy
Ncw Y,rir 1(> Toronto -II S~t!on, !I Oaublt RtrlroCm •.
Pilhhurl(h toTolonto–lQ Sect .. Owiol RaOIn, 2 Cornpl~.
(OpeD for o«up.n(y .1 9.30 p.m.)
BUPPItT I N I~H -Ne …. Yorlc to RII((,1I0,
DINER I.OUNGE -Ruftalo 10 Toronto.
COACAR.l -Duhlo to (nronto.
C()ACHBS -Bull.lo to Toronto.
PARLOR CAR -Nt … York 10 Bltft::alo.
DINBR -N, … Vorle to BulT.lo,
CAPS PARLOR CAR -BuWalo 10 Toroolo.
COACH BS -n,,-.Io to TOfonto.
October 30, 1960
and BUffALO
October 30, 1960


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C 92
tonnage increased, the TH&B began to search for a locomotive
which would eliminate the need to double-head freight trains.
Up to this time, the
TH&B relied upon Consolidation type
steam locomotives for its freight services. In 1927, the
borrowed two locomotives to evaluate their comparative merits.
The test engines were New York Central Mikado 355 and
Boston & Albany Railway Berkshire 1433. The Boston &
Albany, which was the first railroad to use Berkshires, was a
New York Central subsidiary.
The name Berkshire comes
from the mountain range through which the Boston & Albany
operates. Based upon these tests, the
TH&B decided to order
two Berkshires.
The Boston & Albany Berkshires had been built by the Lima
Locomotive Company
of Lima, Ohio. The TH&B decided not
to order their engines from Lima as high customs duties would
have been assessed on engines imported into Canada. The order
for two engines went to the Montreal Locomotive Works
(MLW). While MLW had not built a locomotive of this type,
their corporate parent, the American Locomotive Company
(Alco), had recently completed an order for Berkshires
for the
Chicago & Northwestern Railway. Alco supplied the patterns
and special appurtenances for these engines
to ML W which
considerably reduced the cost
of producing these two engines.
In 1930, a new 27 -stall roundhouse and
coal plant were
completed at the Aberdeen yards
in Hamilton. This replaced a
small roundhouse which had been built
in 1895 in the middle of
the wye where the Toronto and Waterford lines diverged. Following years
of acromony between the City of Hamilton
and the
TH&B due to lengthy traffic blockages at the TH&B
level crossings across downtown Hamilton, the railway and the
City reached a concensus,
in October 1930, on a plan to elevate
the track through the core
of the city. While the depression made
financing difficult, the project, which included a new combined
station and office building, was completed
in 1933.
A victim
of the depression was the TH&B branch line from
Font Hill to Ridgeville. Constructed
in 1895 as an offshoot of
the Hamilton-Weiland line, traffic had been non-existant for
many years. The branch, which was abandoned
in 1935, was the
only major piece
of the TH&B to be lifted up to 1988.
Shortly after World War II, the TH&B started to dieselize.
The roster would
be amazingly homogenous and long lived. All
TH&B diesels were purchased from General Motors, and
were built either at the Electro-Motive Diesel plant at La
Grange, Illinois or General Motors Diesel Division plant
London, Ontario. The 18 units on the roster were either yard or
road switchers. The
TH&B never owned any cab units. Due to
the small size of the diesel fleet, it was more practical to have
units which could easily
fill in any freight assignment. Rather
than buying second generation power during the 1960s and
1970s, the ministrations
of the mechanical forces at the
Aberdeen roundhouse kept these units roadworthy for upwards
of forty years.
Like many North Amencan railways during the 1920s, the TH&B bought a self-propelled car in order to reduce the cost of
operating local passenger train service. Gas-electric car 301 spent most of its working life on the Welland-Hamilton-Waterford local train schedules. Pulling a wooden coach, 301
is shown departil1jJ Hamilton enroute to Weiland. If all goes well, the arrival the train will arrive
in Weiland at 1710, one hour and ten minutes qJler the departure from Hamilton. Credit: Paterson-George Collection.
The first units ordered were four NW -2 switchers which were
in December 1947. These were built at the Electro­
Motive Diesel plant at La Grange, Illinois as General Motors
had yet to establish their locomotive manufacturing plant
Canada. An attractive cream and burgundy paint scheme was
to these and all subsequent TH&B diesels. This paint
scheme remained
in use for over forty years making it the longest
lived diesel paint scheme
of any major railway in Canada.
The march towards dieselization was not continuous. Two
second hand Hudson type
(4-6-4) engines were purchased from
NYC in 1948 for use in passenger service. Their tenure,
however, would
be brief.
In September and October 1950, the TH&B took delivery of
4 GP-7s. These were the first road diesels to be built in Canada.
It was hoped that the first such unit, TH&B GP-7 #71, would
be preserved. The unit, however, was scrapped following a
crossing accident in 1980.
At the end of 1950, 4 SW-9 switchers arrived. The delivery
ofthree additional
GP-7s in June and July 1953 permitted the
of steam locomotives from freight service in July
1953. Three
GP-9s were delivered in February 1954. These
units were equipped with steam boilers and permited the
of the last TH&B steamers from their passenger
in March 1954. The last trip made by a TH&B
steamer occured on August 7, 1955 when the Buffalo Chapter of
the National Railroad Historical Society operated an excursion
by Pacific 15. This farewell trip appropriately covered all
of the
TH&B lines operating from WelJand to Waterford with a
side trip over the
Port Maitland branch.
Passenger service started a precipitate decline in the 1950s.
first casualty was the Hamilton-Brantford-Waterford local
which made its last run
in September 1954. This rendered
surplus the gas-electric car which the
TH&B had acquired for
in local train service in 1927. The frequency of main line
service between Toronto and Buffalo had been stable with four
round trips per day from the early 1930s. As new highways and
air services cut into passenger carryings, frequency was reduced
to three round trips and in 1957 and to two round trips in
of April 1964, frequency fell to one round trip per day.
Initially, this train operated on an overnight schedule between
Toronto and New York City. While six or more sleeping cars
destined to New York, Boston, Cleveland and Pittsburg had
been the norm on the evening train
in the early 1960s, only one
sleeper was being handled by 1968. Indicative
of the deline is the
following train consist report recorded
by the agent at Weiland,
Ontario for Train 376 on March 21, 1968:
Type Of Number Destl-
Owner Equipment Or Name nation
TH&B GP-9 402 ButTalo
Express Agency Express
7795 ButTalo
Railway Express Agency Express
( express) Refrigerator
6700 Buffalo
Fe (storage mail) Baggage 3595 ButTalo
TH&B Baggage 54 ButTalo
TH&B Coach 73 ButTalo
NYC Coach
2934 New York
NYC Coach 2660 New York
Sleeper Lebanon New York
Some days the gas electnc car was sidelined for mechanical reasons. On one such day in 1948, the local train from Hamilton to
Waterford operated with a conventional consist. Shown at Waterford is Pacific 11 and a wooden combine which was retainedfor just this purpose. Locomotive
11 was built by the Montreal Locomotive Works in 1913. Credit: Paterson-George Collection.
The end of the Railway Express Agency and the termination
of mail contracts spelled the end of the conventional train
service. In October 1970,
in a cost-cutting move, the train was
moved to a day schedule and through car service between
Toronto and New York City was terminated. Between Toronto
and Buffalo travellers were accommodated
in CP RDCs. At
Buffalo, a transfer was necessary to connect with the Penn
Central service to New York.
In April 1981, the Toronto-Buffalo
RDC service made its
last run thereby ending the era of the passenger train on the
TH&B. The City of Hamilton promptly launched a suit against
CP for terminating the passenger service. The City claimed the
termination was
in violation of the terms of the bylaw which
a$225,000 bonus to the TH&B by itin 1894. The terms
of the bylaw stated that the TH&B must operate passenger
service between Hamilton and Weiland or repay the bonus with
interest. With compounding
of the interest, the sum came to $40
million. The city reduced the claim to $14 million and in 1985
accepted a decision
of the Supreme Court of Ontario awarding
them $1.8 million.
Even though the era
of the passenger train had ended, the
TH&B remained a busy freight carrier. Traffic consisted of steel
from Hamilton and Nanticoke, phosphate rock from Port
Maitland and through freight traffic between the United States
and Canada. The through traffic comprised
40% of the
companys business reflecting the important role
of the TH&B
as a link between Conrail and CP.
In February 1968, the NYC and Pennsylvania merged to
form the ill-fated Penn Central Transportation Company. Mis­
management, regulatory strictures and high losses on commuter
services caused the Penn Central to make history
in June 1970
when it became the largest company ever to
file for bankruptcy in
the United States. Made a ward of the government, the Penn
Central in concert with other bankrupt lines
in the North East
emerged as the Consolidated Rail Company on April!, 1976.
to reduce rail operations in Canada, Conrail did
not acquire the shares
in the TH&B which were held by Penn
Central. The Penn Central sold these to the
CP Rail in 1977 as it
was winding up its involvement in operating railway properties.
Ten years later,
in May 1987, CP decided to simplify its
corporate structure and merged the
TH&B into CP Rail. Less
than a year later, the manifestations
of the TH&B are rapidly
passing. The only locomotives left in the TH&B paint scheme
of March 1988 are three switchers, 51,55 and 57. Number 51,
the first diesel purchased by the TH&B and
is now into its 41st
of service, soldiers on. Number 57 shares yard duties with
51 in Hamilton, while 55 is stored in serviceable condition.
The other switchers have been retired. The road engines are
being rebuilt
in CPs Angus Shops in Montreal. Several will be
assigned to the TH&B. Covered in the CP Rail paint scheme
and sporting chopped noses, there will be little for the wayside
observer to associate these with the cream and burgundy units
which trundled over the
TH&B for almost four decades. Since
office functions have been consolidated with
CPs in Toronto,
Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railway
AR 1
Source: October 30, 1960 TH&B Timetable, Collection of D. E. Stoltz
the TH&B station-head office building in Hamilton is practically
empty. This classic art deco styled building
is for sale. While
GO Transit may eventually use the site as the western terminus
of its Lakeshore service, the actual building may be replaced.
While saluting the more than 100 years that the
TH&B name
existed, it
is important to remember that the railway endures. It
continues to fulfill the same role it has during the all the years
since its opening, that
is providing service to the industries along
its line and acting as a link for international traffic moving
between Canada and the United States.
May it do so for 100
On Saturday morning [February 1st] at eight oclock,
Engineer Owens pulled the string, the engine tooted and the first
regular train on the Brantford and Waterford railway moved
slowly out of Brantford with a fair load
of human freight, and a
of commercial travelers trunks -the latter on a flat car
which was impressed to do service in lieu of a proper baggage
car. Messrs. Helm and Latham were on board and were pleased
with the outlook. The train was
in charge of Superintendent H.
B. North, an experienced railroader, while Baggagemaster
Dennis Hawkins looked after the trunks and luggage and twisted
the brakes.
The road passes through a splendid agricultural country,
quite close to Mount Pleasant, Oakland and Scotland villages.
For a new road, it is in excellent condition. The road-bed is
constructed of magnificent material and seemingly is very solid.
Along the line a
few passengers were picked up, going
southward, but on the return journey there was a revelation, and
a lack of coaches. The train arrived at Waterford about on time.
It ran direct into the Michigan Central )Card and station, the
company haviilg obtained the right. to do so. Soon after the
of the train, a superb MCR train of vestibule cars pulled
in going west, and a few minutes later a similar one bound east.
The connections, therefore, east and west, are most satisfactory.
The company have also arranged with the
MCR to sell their
tickets at their own wicket and include its timetable
in that of the
MCR. Assistant Superintendent McDonald, of the Michigan
Central, was at Waterford attending to the arrangements and ran
over the road to Brantford and back.
He was greatly pleased with
the prospects, and expressed himself so to the writer.
The morning train, returning from Waterford brought about
twenty-five passengers from that point, picked
up a few at
Gordons crossing, and loaded all Scotland
on at that station.
What a jam!
It was greater than any Sunday school picnic or
Orange celebration, and impressed one with the sense that all
Scotland had put the cat out, shut up house and boarded the train
for Brantford. Every seat in the car was occupied by two to four
persons, the aisle was full, the platform crowded, and the flat-or
baggage-car comfortably laden. More than a hundred were on
the train, and when they all got off and wended their way by
hack, bus, street car and sidewalk, uptown, West Brantford
awoke, rubbed her eyes, and wanted to know the cause. His now
expected she will stay awake.
Three trains each way were run and will be run each day until
further notice. The four oclock train carried back its heavy load
without accident.
In conversation with a number of Waterford people, they
seem to be more than pleased with the new road, giving them as it
does quick and cheap connection with Brantford.
Why, said
one man,
if! get a case of goods from Brantford by Hagersville
it cost me
70 cents. I can get it now for a quarter.
Source: The Brantford Expositor, February 3, 1890.
Capturing the Railroad – A Glorious Victory
Over twelve months ago now, the local directors
of the
BW&LE, through whose energy and capital the road was built,
were approached by Mr. Young, the projector
of scheme called
TH&B. This scheme, which is making great progress in
but whether on the mountain side or among the funny
of the deep in the bay, the newspaper chronicles do not
say, but we have been told a hundred times that the operations
have commenced so that by this time the track must be well
Mr. Young found the
BW&LE would be an excellent way
into Brantford
in connection with his scheme. He purchased the
road at a price agreed upon. How much exactly, the directors
will not say. But the terms were
$ 10,000 down on the spot and
the remainder within six months, failing that the forfeiture
of the
amount deposited.
On those conditions the road was turned over
to Mr. Young who manned and worked it up to yesterday
morning. The plant, that
is the rolling stock, consisted of two
No. 318 and 414, one coach and one accommoda­
tion coach, two box cars and five flat cars. These were also
handed over to Mr. Young, and so he started to run the road
taking and exchanging traffic with the Michigan Central
In the meantime he had opened negotiations with New York
and other centres
of capital with the purpose of raising money to
build the
TH&B and pay the purchase money of the BW &LE.
Hitherto he has not succeeded. At this moment, the directors
wish it to be understood that they do not blame Mr. Young.
It is
more his misfortune than his fault and they deeply sympathize
with him
in the loss he has sustained overthedeal. The BW &LE
directors became impatient. They insisted upon the payment of
the balance on the road or they would reassume control
of it. Mr.
Young pleaded for a little time. Week after week, month after
month hurried into oblivion and yet the directors lived upon the
slender fare
of repeated promises and fading hopes till the fact
forced itself upon them that the mission
of Mr. Young had failed.
Coming Shadows
On Saturday last,
The Expositor stated that Messrs.
Young, Carscallen and Wingate were
in the city trying to stage
off the climax
of repossession. This was promptly denied of
course, but just as surely turned out true. The directors
of the
&LE had a long and protracted meeting on Monday
evening, and there
in an upper chamber far from the madding
crowd, the desperate venture was conceived and the strategic
details of the company evolved. The great moving pivot
of the
discussion was that as Mr. Young could not pay, and as the
TH&B would probably never be built, they should sally forth
and give battle to the local railway Phillistines.
The Plot
It is not known for a certainty who sketched the plan of
campaign. It has on the face of it much of the diplomacy of Mr.
Henry, and not a little
of the skillful cunning in circumventing an
enemy which is natural genius ofMr. J. J. Hawkins, while the
safety and solidness
of the plot shows the steadying presence of
the president [Mr. G. H. Wilkes] and vice president.
as the grey dawn was breaking yesterday morning, and
almost ere chanticleer had startled the dead echoes
of the fading
night with his stalwart crowing, four stalwart mumed figures
might have been seen quietly and steathily wending their way
West Brantfordwards, speaking never a word but all the same
giving abroad the forcedness
of their purpose with compressed
lips and dashing eye. These were the directors. The night
constables stayed on their weary march and touched knightly
helmets wondering the while at this thusness. A dissipated dog
drowsily dozing on the doorstep not far from the bridge lazily
opened one eye, just
to close it again as they passed, with a
significant wink which meant to
say, Hello, out all night too.
The Attack
At West Brantford station those directors were joined by an
engineer, fireman, and brakemen and a rush was made
locomotive No. 318. The defence was feeble. Not a soul was
about. The locomotive speaking slightly through the nose with
a whistle at the close tendered a ready obedience. The station
house was next attacked; the defence again was feeble. Mr.
Nelles put
in an appearance and a happy thought struck the
directors. They made him general manager. [This would appear to be yet more bit
of poetic license by the reporter. Mr. Nelles
appearance was most likely not a simple hapstance. His
previous position had been the Grand Trunk station agent
Brantford.] He took the dignity without a murmur, and bears his
honours becomingly.
At this moment, a stormy petrel appeared
in Mr. North, the superintendent. He was granted a holiday – a
long holiday.
He refused to accept it, but in the presence of
superior numbers, he capitulated. By this time steam was up, a
train had been marshalled, and leaving a detachment to bold the
fort the directors went on to Waterford.
At Scotland and
V~ean they found the station deserted. The ladies in charge
had been wired
to lock up and go home. The directors sent for
them and on their appearance appointed them as their servants
and thus kept open the station. As the other stopping places the
agents remained on duty under the new management.
The Little Trick
At Waterford, to which point word had been sent by Mr.
Youngs friends here, a little trick was attempted. The
locomotive was let down on the
Y and the switch locked. The
plotters reckoned without their hosts. Conductor Hawkins
produced a
key from his pocket and the Y was quickly
opened. After showing their bill of sale and other legal
documents, an agent was placed in charge at Waterford, and,
heading the engine through
the Y, the triumphant victorious
directors steamed homewards. They [had] consummated a deal
with the Michigan Central, arranged for a
full water supply for
the engines and immediately began taking over traffic on the
Michigan Central.
Hauling a seemlingly endless train, units 403 and 401 depart Oakville station on the last leg for the ove:night train from the
eastern United States
to Toronto on May 22, 1958. Camed in the consist of train 712 are through sleeplll~ car~ from New York
City, Boston, Cleveland and,!ittsburgh, A
~arefol inspection heavyweight cars at the front of the tralll Will show that they are
of the equipment of the Toronto Hamilton and Buffalo LlIle ,
Credit: Paterson-George Collection,
An Awkward Meeting
At three oclock the regular train left on time, the directors
again on board. Everything worked splendidly and on the return
voyage had no less a passenger than
Mr. Young.
What are you doing? said he.
Taking hold of our own line, said a director.
You just wait, said Mr. Young and well see about this.
No, replied a director, we have waited long enough,
indeed too long and we have now taken possession and
if you
dont like it, you can see what you can do.
Mr. Young gave it to be understood that they had acted
hastily, but he was demanded to produce a more patient
set of
men than that of the BW &LE directors.
The Baliff on Hand
B aliff Joseph Jackson proceeded to St. Thomas yesterday
with a bill
of sale upon engine 414 which is lying there just now
and will prevent its removal. Whatever remedy Mr. Young
thinks he has, must be had through the medium
of law.
All is Well
The line is in full working order and going along in all its
departments splendidly.
The road is a first-class one and might
be made
of great service to the city of Brantford as well as
profitable to the owners.
Source: The Semi-Weekly Expositor, Brantford, May 14, 1891.
Arrival of the First Train at the New TH&B Station
There was considerable excitment on Hunter Street last night
when the bell
of a locomotive was heard. The people rushed to
their doors to see the first train pull into the new
TH&B station.
It was thought that the train came from Weiland, but such was
not the case.
It was a construction train, which came from the
crossing at Victoria Avenue, having been switched over from the
Northern and Northwestern Railway [actually the Grand Trunk
by this time].
It consisted of a number of flat and box cars,
loaded with gravel, ties and rails.
The train stopped at James
Street and blocked the street for some time. Several street cars
were blocked, and a number
of pedestrians had to wait until the
train got by. [The blockage
of downtown streets became a
constant source
of disagreement between the railway and the
city. This lead to the large scale grade separation undertaken
the early 1930s.]
The train was drawn by Michigan Central Railroad loco­
#0 319, and went into the tunnel. This is the first train to
enter the tunnel.
Last night there was a small gap
in the track east of
Bartonville, but [the line] is now complete between Hamilton
and welland. The ballasting gang reached Stony Creek last
By working night and day, Contractor Onderdonks men
have removed all the
earth that caved in the tunnel cutting and,
unless some unforeseen accident occurs, trains will
be running
through it on Monday.
The track will be laid [through the tunnel]
The banks have been braced up by immense timbers.
Room has been left for the masons to work on the bench walls
and to complete the arch without stopping the trains …
Hamilton Spectator, December 28, 1895.
Messrs Bruce, Burton & Bruce
In compliance with your instructions, I have made a careful
of the present condition of the TH&B from the
of the same with the Canada Southern Railway at
Weiland through the City
of Hamilton to the Town of Brant ford,
in order to determine whether the conditions contained in By­
law Number 755 passed by the Municipal Corporation
of the
said City
of Hamilton on the 29th day of October 1894 have
been complied with, so
as to entitle the said Toronto, Hamilton
& Buffalo Railway Company to a bonus
of $225,000 granted
under said By-Law but subject to the conditions, viz:
Condition 1 -The sum of $225,000 granted by said By-law
shall be paid to the Company by the delivery to them
debentures to that amount issued under the By-law and bearing
interest at four
per cent per annum from the first day of
September 1895, but none of such debentures shall be so
delivered to the Company until the completion of their Railway
as a first class road constructed with steel rails weighing not less
than eighty pounds to the yard, from Hamilton to a point on the
Canada Southern Railway at
or near Weiland or East of
Welland passing through Hamilton by a Southerly route,
substantially according to the description and specification
thereof, hereinafter contained, nor until the Company have
completed a direct connection by a first class line
of railway from
the line
of the Canada Southern Railway at Waterford through
Brantford to Hamilton, independent
of the Grand Trunk
Railway and
of the Canadian Pacific and South Ontario Pacific
Railway Companies, and connecting at Hamilton with the
TH&Bs line … such railway from Brantford to Garth Street in
the City of Hamilton to be constructed with the steel rails
weighing not less than seventy pounds per yard, nor until the said
railway has been actually opened for traffic and
is being so
operated as to give adequate and regular daily train service, both
for passengers and freight …
Condition 6 -If notwithstanding that the construction of the
Railway may have been proceeded with, as
in the last preceding
condition required, the said railway
of the TH&B … [has not
been] completed, opened and operated in the manner set forth in
the first condition
of this By-law before the 31st day of
December 1895, the grant made by this By-law shall be forfeited
and time
is hereby declared to be of the essence of this
Commencing at the connection
of the TH&B with the
Canada Southern Railway at Weiland, the iron or steel bridge
over the Weiland River is not completed, the Contractors are
now· building the easterly abutment and a timber caisson has
been sunk
in the centre of the River apparently to receive the
masonry for the centre pier.
The abutment at the Westerly end of
the bridge is finished, but the iron or steel superstructure cannot
yet be built on account
of the incomplete state of the masonry
pier and abutments, nor did I see any trace
of the materials for
the superstructure at the side
of the bridge. At present, the track
is carried over the River on a temporary wooden structure. At
St. Anns, the piers and abutments of masonry are completed
ready to receive
an iron or steel superstructure but the
has not been built nor
is the material now on the
for completing this bridge. As at Weiland, the track is
carried over the River on a temporary wooden structure.
The track is completed from Weiland to St. Anns, but the
ballasting, surfacing and alignment
of the track is not of a first
class order. From St. Anns to Smithville, the surfacing,
ballasting and alignment
of the track is of the same class as
between the points last named.
From Smithville to Winona, the
is ballasted with one lift of ballast and from Winona to
the side road leading down to the Village
of Stony Creek, the
railway has likewise been ballasted with one lift
of ballast. From
Smithville to Stony Creek, the track is not carefully lined and
surfaced and
is not in good condition. From [the] sideroad to the
East end of the iron or steel bridge over Stony Creek, one lift of
ballast has been distributed along the railway and on the 31st [of]
December gangs
of men were employed putting this ballast
under the track. From the
West end of said bridge to the crossing
of Wentworth Street in the City of Hamilton, the railway has not
been ballasted and
at many soft spots the timbers have sunk into
the mud so that the surface
of the rails is barely visible. The
fences have not been built from Stony Creek to Hamilton.
Over the whole distance from Weiland to Hamilton there are
only a
few sidings for the crossing of construction trains and at
many of the points at which there are to be stations, no sidings of
any kind have been laid. There are no proper station buildings
completed, nor sufficient siding accommodation for loading and
unloading freight and
for crossing trains. No semaphore, switch
or telegraph signals, no permanent tanks or water stations, in
fact all the necessary facilities for the safe working of a first class
railway have yet to be built.
The railway is double tracked from
the crossing
of Wentworth Street through the City of Hamilton
James Street. A brick freight house is being built at the
of Catherine Street but was not nearly completed on the
r of] December nor had any sidings for the handling of
freight been laid at this place. Where the railway enters upon
Hunter Street and from that point along Hunter to James, the
track has not been surfaced and planked up to the level
of the
rails so as to allow the safe using of the street. A brick passenger
station has been built at the
East side of James Street. From
James Street to the east end of tunnel at Park Street, the railway
has yet to be planked and surfaced to comply with the terms
the By-law, not have any gates or other proper appliances been
placed at the points
of crossing McNab, James, Hughson and
John Streets
by the Railway Company. Hunter Street from
Charles to Park Streets
is completely blocked by the tracks and
by material for constructing the unfinished portions of the
At the East end of the tunnel, where it debouches on to
Park Street, about
60 feet is yet to be covered with the earth filling.
The surface of Hunter Street has been restored from this
point to the
East line of Bay Street. From the East end of the
at Park Street to a point about 50 feet from the East line of
Caroline Street, the tunnel is practically finished and the earth
filling over the same in place, but the part of the street from Bay
Street to near Caroline has not been properly resurfaced and
From a point 50 feet East of the East line of
Caroline Street to a point 60 feet East of the East line of Hess
Street, the tunnel has not yet been built, for about 100 feet of this
distance westerly from the present end
of the tunnel, 30 feet East
of the East line of Caroline Street, the masonry erectment walls
forming the lower portion
of the tunnel have been built, but about
30 feet on the
North side have been pushed on to the track by a
of earth and must be cut and rebuilt. From the Westerly
of the erectment wall just named to within 90 feet of the East
line of Hess Street, the railway is now an open cutting with
almost perpendicular walls
of earth about 50 feet in height and
up for the greater part of the distance with heavy timbers.
From a point about 90 feet East of the East line of Hess Street to
a point about
30 feet West of the same, the revetment walls on
both sides are built and from this point, that
is about 60 feet East
of the East line of Hess Street, to a point about 30 feet East of the
of the tunnel at the West line of Queen Street,
the tunnel
is finished and the earth filling is being put into place
over the same.
From a point about 50 feet East of the West line
of Queen Street to Queen Street end ofthe tunnel, the arches are
yet to be built, the
earth filling put in place and the masonry front
and arch
of the opening of the tunnel completed and revetment
walls leading to the mouth
of the tunnel are yet to be built. From
Queen Street West to Bay Street, the earth in the slopes of the
cutting has not been taken out. A double track
is laid from the
Park Street end
of the tunnel to Garth Street, but at noon on the
2nd [of]
January 1896, on account of the slide of masonry and
earth on the
North side of the railway at the crossing of Caroline
Street could not be used as double track railway until the debris
from the slide
of earth and stone had been removed and the wall
rebuilt. There are no proper semaphore or telegraph signals on
the railway at any point inside the City
of Hamilton.
is no ballast from Caroline Street to Queen Street on
the South track through [the] tunnel and no ballast from
Street to Garth Street under [the] North track.
From Garth Street to Summit going West, the railway is
ballasted with but one liftofvery poor ballast. At quite a number
of places between these points and where the railway crosses
of considerable depth the track has been carried over on
temporary pile trestles.
At one point where a long and shaky­
looking structure
of this kind is situatel dJ, a masonry culvert has
been built and beginning made to
fill the trestle in with earth. The
embankments and cuttings over this part of the railway are too
narrow, the drainage has been poorly provided for and
at points
where the fillings are on side hills the embankments have slipped
and left bad spots
on the track.
From Summit to Jerseyville, the railway has more and better
ballast, but the track required to be lined up and resurfaced.
The cuttings and embankments from Jerseyville to Brantford
of the same narrow character and this is more especially the
case where the railway follows the windings
of the Grand River
immediately on this side
of Brantford. There are no proper
station buildings between Hamilton and Brantford, nor sufficient
length of sidings and no semaphore, switch or telegraph signals.
The bridges are pile trestles and generally the character
of the
of the railway as far as it has advanced is not first
class. The station buildings in Brantford are common wooden
structures and have evidently been built some time.
Brantford to Waterford, the railway is the old Brantford
Waterford & Lake Erie and
is constructed as a second rate
railway with wooden bridges and culverts except the bridge
across the
Grand River which is of iron or steel on masonry piers
and abutments.
At the West end of the bridge there is a long pile
trestle which required to be filled in with earth. This
part of the
is laid with a light rail about 56 pounds to the yard.
Nothing has yet been done to improve the class
of this part of the
From the foregoing facts as to present condition of the TH &B
from Weiland through Hamilton and Brantford to Waterford,
the only conclusion possible
is that this railway has not yet been
completed and that when it is completed on the lines which its
present condition indicates, it will not be a first class railway and
in class with the main lines of the Grand Trunk or
Canadian Pacific or any other first class railways on this
continent. Consequently, the
TH&B have not complied with the
conditions contained in the By-law granting a bonus
$225,000 and are not entitled to receive this amount under the
said By-law.
An attempt is being made to run regular passenger
and freight trains over this railway, but as no timetables can be
obtained at the
Companys station, it is plain that the officials
acknowledge that it is not possible to run regular trains
in the
present state
of the road.
The real facts of the case are that the construction of the road
is not yet sufficiently far advanced to warrant an attempt to
operate passenger and freight business over it. The
TH&B is
now affording a spectacle unique in the history of railway
in this country, and I most emphatically maintain
that this
is the first time a new railway has been permitted to be
for traffic with hundreds offeet of its line through a tunnel
unfinished and in such a precarious state that a land slide may
happen at any moment to block the traffic
or endanger the lives
of the passengers. Should an accident happen in this tunnel
involving a loss
of valuable lives, it is difficult to see what
defence could be offered by the persons responsible
for the
premature opening
of this railway.
.-…… -It~ …… -………… …, ..
Your obedient servant,
Thomas McKeown
3rd January 1896
. … –
. ,,:-._. TH&B CP CN ..
. T. H. & B.RY.
LATE IN 1897
At the eastern terminus, near Well and , is located a four stall
frame enginehouse, turntable, and water tank.
Water is obtained
from the service
of the Town of Weiland. Land is now being
at this point for a sorting yard of six hundred cars
capacity. One half mile west
of Well and Junction Yard the
Well and River
is crossed on a single span through truss brid~e of
steel, resting on stone abutments. The length of the bridge is 150
Three miles west, a branch line, four miles in length, runs
northward to
Font Hill Nurseries. Continuing westward, the
main line runs through the Villages
of Fen wick and St. Anns. At
the latter place, Twenty Mile Creek is crossed on a single steel
deck girder span, 102 feet
in length, on stone abutments. At
Smithville, a town of about 2,000 inhabitants, 17.3 miles from
is a water station, water being obtained from Twenty
Mile Creek.
Continuing westward past Grassies station to Vinemount
is I twenty seven miles from Weiland, is located a relief
water station, where water
is obtained from a deep well sunk in
solid rock. From Weiland to Vinemount, the line runs through a
fine agricultural country, practically level, well settled and
One half mile west of Vine mount, the line passes over the
of the Niagara escarpment. Leaving the brow of the
escarpment, the road winds down the face
ofthe bluff on a grade
of 55 feet per mile, compensated for curvature. Stoney Creek is
crossed on a steel viaduct, 226 feet in length, with posts resting
on masonry piers.
Near Bartonville, a steel viaduct, 480 feet long, carries the
road over Albion stream. The road enters the City
of Hamilton
at the base
of the bluff, crosses the Hamilton & Port Dover
Branch of the Grand Trunk Railway at grade, near Victoria
Avenue, where a pneumatic interlocking plant is installed.
The right of way between Weiland and Hamilton is generally
75 feet in width, except at station grounds, and along the face
the bluff, where extra width is provided. The line is generally
straight, there being no curves sharper than 3 degrees.
The track is laid with steel rail of American Society Section,
80 pounds per yard, angle splice joints with four bolts,
Pine ties on tangest, oak ties
on curves, and ballasted
with gravel.
The Hamilton station is a large brick building, located
between J ames and Hughson Streets, and contains the general
of the Company. The present freight shed is 40 feet by
330 feet, and is built of brick. A Team and Freight Yard of 150
cars capacity and a freight shed
of 40 feet by 305 feet are now
being constructed, Three blocks west
of the station is the east
of a large stone and brick arched double track tunnel
1904.5 feet in length, which affords a passage for the
through the southerly extension of Burlington Heights. One
thousand nine hundred feet west of the tunnel
is thejunction with
Canadian Pacific Railways new line to Toronto.
The junction has wye connection and is controlled by a large
mechanical interlocking plant. Here also
is located a six stall
brick roundhouse, turntable, repair shop, etc.
Continuing westerly, the road passes over the Hamilton &
Dundas Street Railway. and Aberdeen Avenue, on a steel girder
bridge. Immediately west of this a large Sorting Yard, to hold six
hundred cars,
is now being constructed. Binkley Hollow Creek
is crossed with a stone arch of 15 feet span and 200 feet in length.
of Dundas , the road climbs upward with a grade of 80
feet per mile to the Summit, one mile south of Copetown, and
eleven miles west
of Hamilton. At Summit is a water station with
Easterly from Summit, the country traversed
is very rolling
and the road passes through the villages
of Jerseyville and
At Cainsville, the Goderich branch of the Grand
Trunk Railway
is carried over the TH&B with a steel deck
bridge on stone abutments. Here also the line enters the Grand
River Valley and passes through the southerly portion of the
of Brantford. At Brantford, there is a modem brick
passenger station and a large frame freight house. One thousand
feet west of the station
is a steel through truss bridge of three
spans and 304 feet
in total length crossing the Grand River. This
bridge rests
on stone abutments and steel piers filled with
all of which are firmly anchored to bedrock fifteen feet
below the bed
of the stream. From Brantford, the road continues
southwesterly, passing though the Village
of Mount Pleasant.
Two miles west
of Mount Pleasant and adjacent to the right of
way is the Companys gravel pit, containing 18 acres of gravel.
Thence through the villages
of Scotland and Vanessa to the
junction with the
Canada Southern Railway at Waterford. At
this junction is located a four stall frame engine house and sand
The right
of way between Hamilton and Waterford is
generally 66 feet wide.
The track from Hamilton to Brantford
is laid with steel of
American Society Section, weighing 70 pounds per yard,
connected with angle splice with four bolts, and
is ballasted with
gravel. From Brantford to Waterford, the track
is laid with 60
pound steel and
is gravel ballasted.
The entire road
is fenced with substantial wire fences with
cedar posts. All way stations have new and modem buildings, are neat
in appearance, are equipped with signals and have
devices for registering time
of the passage of trains . Only the best
modem split switches are used on the road, with rigid and
positive movement switch stands, proper tan gets and lamps.
dangerous highway crossings, electric track circuit bells are in
use to warn the public of the near approach of trains. In the City
of Hamilton, the busiest street crossings are protected by gates
and watchmen. The safe passage
of trains through the tunnel is
guaranteed by the use of electric signals operated by track
Source: Report to the Minister of Railways and Canals, June 30, 1897.
The Canadian Pacific Opens Its New Route
The departure of the first Canadian Pacific train from
Toronto yesterday morning for Buffalo marks the opening
of a
new and important route through Canadian territory via
Hamilton to Buffalo, and from thereto New York. After years
negotiation, the Canadian Pacific can now run its own trains
right through from Toronto to New York in opposition to the
Grand Trunk Railway. Yesterday the new service was inaugu­
rated. Briefly, this result has been achieved by the securing by
the Canadian Pacific
of the right of way over the Grand Trunk.
tracks between Toronto and Hamilton.
It was the first intention
of the Canadian Pacific to build between these two points but an
arrangement was finally reached between the two companies
which the Canadian Pacific is pennitted to use for 50 years the
Grand Trunk tracks at an annual rental of $40,000 and a
of the operating expenses. From Hamilton, the …
[train operates lover the Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Railway
to Weiland, from which the train travels over the Michigan
Central to Buffalo
by two routes: one by way of Fort Erie,
crossing the International bridge, and the other round
Niagara Falls crossing the Cantilever bridge [with 1 connections
The first diesel purchased by the TH&B was this unit. Built by Electro Motive Division of General Motors in La Grange, Illinois,
51 was delivered to the T1I&B in December 1957. With the meticulous care of the shop forces of the TH&B, the engine remains in
use more than four decades o,fter entering service. This view was taken in 1985 on the approaches to Aberdeen Yards in Hamilton. Credit: Douglas
N. W Smith.
being made at [Niagara Falls, New York] with the New York
Central Railway.
The train that pulled out
of the Union Station at eight oclock
yesterday morning was a heavy one, consisting
of a CPR steam
locomotive, three baggage cars,
five CPR first-class coaches,
and two
CPR sleeping cars. All the coaches were filled. The
members of the Geisha Opera Company, who were going to
Schenectady, were on-board, also a number
of the members of
the Madison Square Opera Company, some artists who had
been performing at the Bijou Theatre, the Toronto and Buffalo
baseball teams

Good time was made between Toronto and Hamilton, the
run taking
an hour and two minutes, exactly schedule time. All
Hamilton seemed to be out to welcome the first train over the
new route. Passing through the spur between Hamilton Junction
and Hamilton, all the elevations on both sides
of the line were
crowded with spectators.
The new TH&B station and streets in
the neighbourhood were jammed with residents, and a rush was
made for the train when it stopped to examine the new Canadian
Pacific cars. These latter are
of a very handsome pattern by the
way and are built in the most modern style. They are composite
first-class coaches and smokers, beautifully finished
in quartered
oak, the seats being upholstered
in blue plush. The outside is
maghogany finish. [CP had a number of new coaches built
for this service at its Hochelaga Shops in Montreal.]
Mr. W.
J. Grant, the CPR Hamilton agent, with wise
forethought brought a big box
of roses and gallantly gave one to
each lady
of Geisha Company as a souvenir of the trip.
The train was timed to leave
at 9:07, but it was 9:25 before it
steamed out on its westward trip, less the sleeper and one coach,
with a
MCR engine on its head. [With the start of its service to
CP inaugurated through coach and sleeper from
Montreal to Hamilton.]
The train crew was changed at
for here a Michigan Central [crew] takes charge.
The TH&B from Hamilton to Weiland goes straight up the
incline to the top
of the mountains overlooking the rich fruit farm
of Grimsby. From here a splendid view of the
surrounding country
is obtained for many miles around. The
delay [which occured at Hamilton] was made up between
Hamilton and Weiland.
At Weiland, the train took the Michigan
Central tracks and the route leading round
by the way of the
Canadian side
of the Niagara Falls. A [5 minute] stop was made
at what
is called Falls View to enable the passengers to get out
and view the falls.
After crossing the river the train went over the New York
Central tracks to Buffalo. There was a delay on the American
side caused
by the customs officials, who had to inspect the
scenery and baggage
of the opera companies, and the train did
not pull into Buffalo on time.
At Buffalo, … the appearance of the CPR coaches created no
little interest among the railroad men at the New York Central
depot. They were subjected to a careful scrutiny while they
remained in the station. The return trip commenced at 4:50
the afternoon, the train consisting of four day coaches, one CP
sleeper, one Wagner sleeper and a baggage car. The run to
Toronto was made on schedule time, the train reaching here at
8:25 last night.
One effect
of the present new through service is to lessen the
time between Toronto and New York
by about three hours by
cormection at Buffalo with the Empire State Express, the
fastest train out of Buffalo. While the New York Central
is the
principal connection
of the Canadian Pacific, connections will
also be made with the West Shore, the Lehigh Valley, the
Lackawanna and the Erie. Under the new service, there will
four trains daily to Hamilton and Buffalo and two local trains to
Hamilton, making a service
of six daily trains [between Toronto
and Hamilton]. The 8 a.m. train out
of Toronto is the only one
that will
go to Buffalo by way of Niagara Falls. The trains
leaving Toronto
at0955, 1540 and 2040 go by way of Fort Erie
and International bridge. Three trains coming from Buffalo to
Toronto take the Falls route, however, arriving here at 9:40
a.m., 6
p.m. and 8:25 p.m. On account of the splendid view of
the falls by these trains, the railway officials expect that they will
be largely patronized by tourists, although the trip is about half
an hour longer than
by way of the International Bridge.
One significant feature of the new arrangement the Canadian
Pacific has made with the other lines would appear to
be that the
Vanderbilt system
of rai Iways will now throw as much business
as possible into the hands of the
CPR. The Vanderbilts are
in the TH&B and all imported goods for Canada
going over the Vanderbilt lines, unless specially contracted
via the Grand Trunk, will be handed over to the CPR.
Heretofore all the coal required
by the CPR from Buffalo came
in over the Grand Trunk, now the CPR will haul this coal itself
over the
Sources: The Toronto Globe, May 31, 1897.
The Hamilton Spectator, May 31, 1897,
Diesels 401 and 403 head up a Buffalo bound passenger train seen here arriving at Fort Erie., The TH&B took delivery o/three
GP9 type diesels
in 1954. Equipped with steam boilers, they permitted the retirement o/the last steam locomotives on the road.
Credit: National Museum
0/ Science and Technology.
FroID The Collection
By Douglas N. W. Smith
CNs First Diesel Switcher
The Canadian Railway Museum is particularly fortunate to
have within its collection several units which are examples
earl~ application of the diesel electric engine to railway
One of the most significant is Canadian National
77, originally 7700, which holds a number of
firsts in the development ofthis type ofiocomotive.1t was the
first diesel electric switcher to be ordered by any
railway, the first switcher unit designed without a boxcab body,
and the first visibility
cab unit to ~e built by Westinghouse.
CN was a pioneer in the field of the use of diesel electric
In 1925, itylaced into service its first diesel electric
engines, which were supplied by the Beardmore
Company of
Glasgow, Scotland. These were installed into nine self-propelled
CN 15817 through 15825. The results were so
that CN arranged for Beardmore to supply the engine
Canadas first diesel electric road locomotive, the famous
9000, which was delivered to CN in 1928.
The order for CNs first diesel switcher was placed with the
Canadian Locomotive Company
(CLC) of Kingston, Ontario.
The mechanical parts were built and the locomotive erected by
CLC. The electrical equipment was supplied by Westinghouse
Electric and Manufacturing Company
(WE&M), the oil engine
was built
at WE&M works in South Philadelphia, the control
equipment and motors
at WE&M works in Pittsburgh, and the
generator and exciter by Canadian Westinghouse
Company at
Hamilton, Ontario. While CLC outshopped the unit with
builders number 1861
in May 1929, CN did not place the unit
into service for more than a year.
Canadian Railway and Marine World provided an
ex tensive description of the locomotive after its delivery to CN
on May 17, 1930. The February 1931 issue is the source for
of the technical specifications of the locomotive. Its
principal dimensions and characteristics were as follows:
Length over all
Width over all
Height over all
Starting traction effort
Hourly rating
Continuous rating
Maximum speed
Gear ratio
33 feet 11 inches
10 feet 10 inches
15 feet 3 inches
33 inches
000 pounds (30% adhesion)
000 pounds
13,000 pounds
40 miles per hour
The locomotive was equipped with a Westinghouse 6
cy Hnder oil engine. The cylinders were 9 x 12 inches. H. F.
Finnemore, Assistant Electrical Engineer ofCN in a paper read
before the Hamilton Branch
of the The Engineering Institute of
Canada reported that the engine developed 350 horsepower at
800 revolutions per minute (rpm). An auxiliary foot throttle
increased the engine rpm to one thousand and at this speed the
engine developed
450 horsepower. The normal rating for the locomotive was
400 horsepower at 900 rpm.
The engine burned heavy fuel oil and operated on the four
stroke cycle principle. A 300 kilowatt Westinghouse generator
was rigidly connected to the engine.
It delivered power to four
traction motors, one motor being attached to
each axle of the
The total weight on the driving wheels was 140,000
The engine and generator, which were supported
on a
common bedplate, were placed
on the longitudinal centre line of
the locomotive. The auxilliary apparatus, fuel tanks and sand
boxes were mounted against the walls, providing a neat
arrangement and distributing the weight evenJy on each
The control apparatus provided series and parallel connec­
of the traction motors. The electrical output ofthe generator
was limited by means
of torque governor so as not to overload
the engine.
The 7700s fuel tanks had a capacity of 400 gallons which
sufficient to power the unit for one week.
The fuel tanks was
split in two compartments, the upper
one being at such a height
so as to provide a gravity feed to the engine. A hand pump was
used to fill the tanks
or transfer fuel from one to the other. Sand
boxes were located over each truck.
The water tank was
supported from the roof at the rear
of the main generator.
The radiator sections for water and oil cooling were installed
horizontally in the roof. Blower fans, which provided ventilation,
were thermostatically controlled.
The arrangement permitted
complete draining
of all exposed water and oil pipes when the
engine was not
in operation.
To cope with the constant use of air brakes called for in
switching service, the unit had large air storage and compressor
The air tanks were located on the length of the roof.
These were replenished by two air compressors which were
of generating ISO cubic feet of air per minute. These
operated from the main generator during idling and from an
auxilliary generator during running.
The cab was elevated at one end of the locomotive. The main
of the unit enclosing the engine and generator was tapered
so that it would not interfers with the vision
of the engineer
thereby making the unit fully bi-directional and earning it the
designation visibility
cab. Doors were mounted on both sides
and ends
of the unit to permit easy accessibility by the crew.
CN spent slightly over $88,000 for the unit. The electrical
equipment was the single most expensive
part of the locomotive.
The allocation
of the cost was follows:
One six cylinder crude oil engine
Electric equipment
Mechanical parts
One set of air brake equipment
Six reels
Inspection charges
The cost greatly exceeded that of a steam locomotive with a
comparable tractive effort.
Part of the reason for the high cost
was due to the fact that
7700 was built as a one-off test unit. ifit
had been built as part of a larger order, the tooling and design
costs would have been spread over a larger number
of units.
Balancing the greater initial cost was the superior performance
of the diesel. Mr.
C.E. Brooks, Chief of Motive Power of
Canadian National, reported to the Canadian Railway Club late
in 1930 that the unit was satisfactorily handling the work of a
36% steam switching locomotive, that
is one with a starting
tractive effort
of 36,000 pounds. It had, however, a much higher
availability and was significantly cheaper to operate.
estimated that during each 24 hour period the 7700 cost
$40 less to operate than the cost of its steam
switchers. In this pre-inflation era, this amount was sufficient to
offset the lower purchase price
of a steamer. A CN internal
memo dated 1933 detailing the different levels
of performance of
CNs steam switchers and test diesel switchers is shown in
Appendix I.
The unit spent its entire life in Montreal and eastern Ontario.
In late Mayor early June 1930, it was placed in regular service
in the St. Henry passenger car yards in Montreal. In a paper in
the September 1931 issue of The Engineering Journal, it was
reported that
7700 operated three shifts a day -24 hours a day­
every day of the week. It was sidelined for one eight hour shift
every fifth day to
be brought in for fuel, lubricating oil, water,
sand and other servicing. In 1945, it was assigned to Point St.
as a shop switcher. On December 28, 1950, its number
was truncated to 77 to free the
7700 number series for a potential
new diesel electric purchases.
After more than twenty years
of service, the engine was
replaced with
12 cylinder 380 horsepower Caterpillar D397
900 revolution per minute engine in September 1953. For most
of its life the traction effort of the locomotive was rated at 36%.
Following its re-engining
in 1953, the rating was changed to
In 1958, it was assigned to
CNs subsidiary, the Thousand
Island Railway
(TIR). Based in Gananoque, Ontario, the 77
served as a standby engine for an equally elderly diesel,
500. This unit had been assembled in eNs shops between 1928
This builders photograph shows the original paint scheme applied to the 7700. The 0-21-a beneath the number is the CN class
of this unit while the 36% is the tractive effort rating. In December 1931, CN changed the class of the 7700 to Q-1-a.
Credit: National Museum
of Science and Technology.
and 1930. In the summer of 1961, 77 was used in work train
in eastern Ontario. On December 31, 1962, it was
officially retired. Retirement, however, did not still 77s motors.
CN leased it to the Canada Starch Company who used it to
switch freight cars at their plant
in Cardinal, Ontario. The 77
in service at Cardinal through 1967.
Fortunately, the historical value
of this small diesel was
CN graciously donated it to the Association on
April 26, 1968. Less well known
is the fact that the original
engine block
is also at the Canadian Railway Museum. 77 was in
operating condition until 1980 when the lubrication oil in one
bearing experienced a dilution failure. Today the 77
inoperable, but repairable. We are indeed fortunate to have an
of the pioneering days when the diesel locomotive was
an oddity and the hold
of the steam locomotive on railways
appeared secure.
I would
like to thank Mr. R. Corley for his assistance in the
preparation of this article.
CN Inter-Departmental
December 29, 1933
To: S. J. Hungerford
Acting President
Performance Of Diesel Switchers
Referring to our recent conversation regarding the perfor­
of Diesel Switchers now in operation at Turcot freight
yards and St. Henry coach yard.
For some time back, we have been studying this subject and
have gathered all of the available data possible
in order to show
the comparative results between the Diesel switcher and the
steam locomotive.
Mr. Gage, who has been working with our
Operating Department
in collecting this data, has submitted a
report which 1
feel sure will be of interest to you.
Diesel Switcher 7700, equipped with a Westinghouse 300
horsepower engine,
is operating in 24 hour service in passenger
Per Hour
Per Shift
First Cost
Interest and
Depreciation at 10%
Cost Per Hour
Including Interest
and Depreciation
Per Shift
Including Interest
and Depreciation
Diesel 600 HP
31.16 132,200
13,200 1
26.30 car switching at St. Henry coach yard, and
7750, the Diesel
switcher, equipped with two Ingersoll-Rand 300 horsepower
engines – a total
of 600 horsepower, is operating in freight
service, breaking up and marshalling manifest trains
in Turcot
West freight yards. This locomotive
is also working 24 hours per
day. From
all reports we receive, both engines are giving
satisfactory service. I think this
is evidenced by the fact that
these engines have been
in service a considerable time and are
still operating.
The following are the comparative operating costs as
developed by the Operating Department and Shop Methods
Department, which have been carefully checked and we believe
are fairly accurate:
Diesel 300 HP
2 Man 1 Man
Crew Crew
25.30 20.45
36.80 7400
Steam 36%
NOTE: The above costs per hour are on the basis used by the A.R.A. [sic] and do not include switchmens wages.
We are still being handicapped in the operation of oil
electric switchers by employing an Engineer and
Fireman. This
subject has been recently referred to
Mr. Crombie as it is relt that
the Fireman on this class
of equipment is not required. Might say
that American railways who employ a large number
of oil
electric switchers
in service are practically all operating with
only one man on the locomotive.
It will be further noticed that even including interest and
depreciation, the figure for the Diesel electric locomotives
lower. The Diesel operation shows a su bstantial saving over the
steam engine, particularly when only one man
is employed in the
I might say that during the year 1924,
my predecessor made
some demonstrative tests, using steam engine 7455
at Turcot,
taking the indicated cylinder horsepower at one minute intervals
A face only a mother (or engineer) could love. The boxy design of
the front end of the 7700 is clearly reflected in this builders photo
taken at its Kingston plant. The equipment trust certificate
clearly visible in the lower left hand corner of the engine.
Credit: National Museum of Science and Technology.
DEC. 12th, 1933


ST AM 5 %


W Q 4-68
throughout 15 consecutive hours, with the following rather
surprising results which would,
in one way, indicate the
of the steam engine:
1. Average speed
2. Time
in motion
3. Thermal efficiency at wheel rim
with standby losses
4. Average cylinder horsepower over
the total time 4.06 miles per hour 55.9%
66.7 horsepower
In as much as this locomotive could develop at least
horsepower at higher speeds, the load factor at 8.5 % in its actual
work application seems to be very low.
I am attaching herewith a chart showing the comparative
drawbar-pull speed curve of an average steam switcher as
compared with the Diesel electric 600 horsepower switcher
7750, which shows -at low speeds -the Diesel switcher is the
more efficient locomotive, but falls away
in tractive power as
is increased, as compared with the 50% steam engine.
While the steam engine curve was taken from actual test
1, I am inclined to think that it does not show the
maximum efficiency
of the locomotive as well as it should. You
will notice that we have plotted a curve showing the theoretical
tractive power
of a 50% steam locomotive.
A careful check
of existing locomotives operating in St.
Henry coach yard, Turcot and Point St. Charles yards, shows
that we have 26 engines
in operation, including the two Diesels.
The steam switchers cannot
be counted on for more than 16
hours service per day, whereas the two Diesels are working
constantly 24 hours per day.
Should the railway company lind itself
in a position whereby
they could make an investment with the object in view
. !,-~
.,….. .,.
.,-.~. ~…:.–
effecting economy, we believe that with seven Diesel electric
we could take 12 steam engines out of service at
these points; also believe that considerable saving may be made
by the operation
of Diesel switchers in such yards as Toronto
Terminals and at Samia.
my opinion, if we were called upon to build additional
switching locomotives, we should not build anything under 600
horsepower, although it
is true that many operations can be
performed with a 300 horsepower machine. I do not think from
an operations point
of view that the 300 horsepower engine is
sufficiently powerful to make its operation flexible and adequate
for general transportation service.
Motive Power and
Car Engineering
Perhaps one title for this photo could be
in the challenger
in the lions den.
In this view, Number 7700
is at the Turcot roundhouse. Compared
to later photo­graphs, the most obvious change
is the elimination of
the stripping around the locomotive number. Credit: Paterson-George Collection.
are original CLC side and cross-sectional line drawings
of 7700. The place­ment
of the mechanical components inside the unit are shown by the dotted lines. Credit: National Museum
of Science and Technology .
By Douglas N. W. Smith
In this months issue, we will continue to serialize the
tremendous number
of branch line abandonment decisions
released by the Railway
Transport Committee ofthe Canadian
Transport Commission just prior to its demise on December 31,
The first item is a footnote to the history of the Toronto
Hamilton & Buffalo which appears
in this issue. On December
21, 1987, the RTC authorized CP to abandon the 2.6 mile
remaining portion
of the TH&B Dundas branch.
The line was built by the Hamilton & Dundas Railway
(R&D) in 1876. The H&D was primarily a passenger railway
operating over the streets in both communities.
It could not
interchange carload freight with the steam railways as Hamilton
prohibited such operations over its streets. Freight was carried
in small box cars owned by the H&D which could accommodate
the sharp curves around street corners in Hamilton.
contents of these cars had to be transferred to full sized freight
cars at the Ferguson Street Station
in Hamilton.
The TH&B acquired running rights from a point just west of
the Aberdeen freight yard to Dundas in 1897. This permitted the
factories in
Dundas to ship carload lots without the need for
In 1923, the H&D ceased passenger operations.
In 1927 the
TH&B bought the 3.51 segment of the Hamilton &
Dundas line it used for freight service.
In 1930, the line was extended down the centre ofHatt Street
in Dundas and up the Niagara Escarpment to the plant of the
TIIls view from Picturesque
Dundas sholVs a train on the
& Dundas Railway circa
1895. A small
0-4-0T steam engine
is pulling a very mixed consist. As
the train operated over city streets,
the engine
was camouflaged under
the body
of a streetcar in order not
to frighten horses. Due to the tight
curves on the line, it
was not
possible for the H&D
to handle
freight shipments. The TH&B began
carload freight service
to Dundas
over the H&D
in 1897. During that
year, the H&D converted
to electric
operation for its passenger service.
Credit: National Archives!
PA 237054
Canada Crushed Stone Corporation, a distance o£o.43 miles.
The plant ceased to ship by rail in 1982. The RTC approved a
TH&B application to cut the line back to mileage 2.66 in 1985.
As no freight had been shipped over the remainder of the line
since 1985, the
RTC granted CPs request to abandon the
of the line without any public hearings.
Over the past fifteen years, CN has been gradually ending its
rail operations on Vancouver Island. During 1987, the
carried out hearings on CNs application to shut down all its
remaining lines on the island.
The construction of the trackage currently used by CN was
started by the
Canadian Northern Pacific Railway (CNP) in
1911 on lines from Victoria to Patricia Bay, in the Saanich
Penninsula, and to
Port Alberni. The war effort and the scarity
of steel for rails slowed construction progress on these two lines
On April 30, 1917, the CNP opened the Patricia
Bay line. While grading work on the line from Victoria to
Alberni was largely complete, only 4 miles of rail had been laid
by 1918.
The CNP became part of the new Canadian National
in December 1918.
While the government abandoned the
CNPs plan to build to
PortAlberni, it did ultimately permit CN to lay 95 miles of rails
northwards from Victoria
on the graded right of way. The reason
for the construction
of the line was to open up new areas of the
of the island to lumbering.
By the end
of 1919, the rails had reached the Koksilah River,
some 53 miles from Victoria. The 32 miles from Koksilah to
Kissinger were laid down during the next nine years. Based
upon official
CN records, the official opening dates for the
various segments
of the line are as follows:
Line Segment Distance Date Opened
Patricia Bay Junction
to Milnes Landing 24.7
January 19, 1920
Milnes Landing to
26.2 January
20, 1920
Kinsol to Canlog 16.9 August
6, 1923
Canlog to Cowichan Lake 3.8 May 18, 1924
Cowichan Lake to Youbou 9.6 November
4, 1924
Youbou to Kissinger
II.7 July 6, 1928
On November 4, 1924, CN opened a 6.6 mile line from
Deerholme to Cowichan Bay. This line was built after lobbying
by lumber mills at the north end
ofthe CN line in order to reduce
the distance their products had to travel by rail to reach marine
transportation. When this line opened, what had been a 100 mile
rail trip from Youbou to Patricia Bay was reduced to
30 miles. In
1927, a car ferry slip was built
in Victoria.
The first
CN line to be abandoned on the island was the one to
Patricia Bay. Except for the first
few miles north of Victoria, this
line was abandoned
in 1935. The situation remained stable for
the next three decades.
Due to the weakening of two major
trestles between Victoria and Deerholme,
CN ceased through
freight service from Victoria to Youbou
in 1965. This split CNs
operations into two isolated segments which were connected by
car ferry operation.
On November 27,1974, CN applied to abandon its line from
Victoria Wye, the new name for Patricia Bay Junction, to
Deerholme. In 1976, the RTC authorized
CN to abandon the
of the line from Victoria Wye to Leechtown effective
August 9, 1978 and from Leechtown to Deerholme effective
June 30, 1979.
The reasons for these long delays before the
abandonment could occur was to permit lumber companies to
complete cutting on-line timber.
CN applied to abandon the line from Youbou to Cowichan
in 1976 and the 1.6 mile remanent of the Patricia Bay line
(called the Saanich Spur) extending northwards from Victoria
in 1977. Subsequently, CN amended its application to
exclude 1.2 miles oftrack
at Cowichan Bay as CN was using this
trackage to trans-ship lumber
from truck to rail cars. The RTC
ordered the retention
of both these lines due to the volume of
traffic then being offered.
On April I, 1987, CN applied to abandon the remainder of
its trackage on the island, namely the 1.2 miles at Cowichan Bay
and its trackage
in downtown Victoria. As the time was
approaching for the mandatory
five year review of the earlier
RTC decision, the Committee chose to consider all
applications at one time.
In its decision of December 31, 1987, the RTC concluded
CN could abandon the entire line from Youbou to Cowichan Bay due to the low levels
of traffic. Less than 100 carloads were
shipped and losses approximately
$900,000 in 1986. The
lumber traffic, which had sustained this line,
no longer moves by
rail on the island.
Due to low freight rates offered by the
Burlington Northern, this traffic now moves by truck to New
Westminister where it
is loaded onto Burlington Northern cars
for movement to receivers
in the United States.
The RTC found that the lines
in Victoria should be retained.
It found that CN had been actively discouraging shippers and the
line had the potential to become economic. Thus
operations on Vancouver Island, which once extended over
more than 100 miles oflines, now
is down to less than 4 miles of

~-.. EBoN
–C N (I~ S .. lcl ),IAY/IU)
Sunny Alberta
By Basil N. A. Lankester
Back in 1916/17 when I was six, I was confined on my back
for about
18 months and unable to move at all. Now, it so
happened that
part of this time we were living next to a large
military camp at Whitley
in the county of Surrey, England. The
camp held some 30,000 troops in training and waiting to be
drafted to
France for what was hoped to be the final push. At the
of which I write, I think they were all Canadians, many of
whom we came to know very well, as my mother was heavily
involved with the
Y.M.C.A. canteen and recreation facilities
within the camp area. Quite a number
of men used, when
possible, to come to our house in the village
just to enjoy a brief
respite from camp life and I found them and their stories about
life in
Canada very absorbing, they also used to spoil me a bit
from time to time, the result
of all this was that there grew up
within me a great desire to see the country for myself.
When I was in due course cleared of my illness, it was the
of the doctors attending me that I should live an outdoor
life which eventuated
in my studying agriculture for a time, and
then the question arose as to how, and where, I would earn my
In my mind I can still see the glowing posters on English
railway stations some time after the
war was over, advertising
the great open spaces and golden corn
ofthe Prairie Provinces,
especially Alberta, with vast expanses
of the latter stretching
away to the horizon. Well those posters plus my earlier meeting
up with so many Canadians influenced my desire to head west
one day,
if possible.
It was 1927 that my family met a certain Captain Rex Gibson
who had a quarter section on R.R. 1
at Stony Plain Alta. (and
who I believe became a leading light in the Mountain Club
Canada until his untimely death on a climb in the Rockies some
years ago).
An arrangement was reached that he would take me
on as an apprentice for about a
year to see how I got along, and
how I liked the country, once there. This plan came to fruition
spring 1928.
Looking back at my now somewhat delapidated photo album,
I am reminded that, along with another nine Britishers and about
2,000 immigrants from the Ukraine, I boarded the White Star
liner S.S.
Regina at Liverpool in late March 1928 to suffer
of the roughest Atlantic crossings one could ever experience,
that is, until the last couple
of days when we were fog bound all
the way into Halifax.
We reached Halifax on the 6th April
which was I think a Good
Friday, but not before nearly running
aground on the island
in the middle of Halifax harbour! I had
virtually eaten nothing during the whole
10 day voyage, such sea
sick pills as there were at that time helped me not
at all, and with
only about
£2 in my pocket the prospect of a four to five day train
journey ahead
of me seemed a bit daunting. In fact, some old
long resident Halifax relatives, Archibald,
by name, were to
meet me
and said they would see I had plenty of food for the
but due to the disembarkation taking place on Easter
week-end we never met up as they did not know the ship had
disembarked on the Saturday.
For the first couple of days I managed on some bread,
andjam, which I had managed to purchase in the docks
before the
trains departure. I spent my little remaining money
on a snack
in the huge long countered buffet car which had been
attached to the train.
Then came the crunch. I asked the head
ifhe could give me ajob the other side of the counter. Yes
sure! came the reply, you can start right now, but you wont
get paid other than a couple of good meals a day. Fine I
replied and got round the back
of the counter where I found the
largest tin bath tub full
of spuds that I could ever have visualised.
Get peeling those, he said, and you can go on peeling them till
we reach
Edmonton! The rest of my small party wondered to
where I had disappeared until dinner time that day when they
to have a bite. Knowing my liking for steam they thought I
might have hitched a ride on the footplate!
No such luck!
The train being an Immigration Special was made up of day
cars only, so when nightfall arrived the
car crew asked if I
wouldnt prefer to doss down on the floor
of the buffet car. rather
than. sit up all night, which offer was eagerly accepted by me, as
the odour of food was infinitely preferable to the over powering
of garlic and other strange smells in the passenger cars, to
say nothing of the freedom from noisy kids with their inevitable
cries during the night.
One amusing thing was that, with the extremely long train
were, and with what I imagine was one of the worlds most
powerful power units hauling us, (she was a C.
N.R. 4-8-4
automatic stoked loco with a round rear end to the six axelled
of which I have photos, but no numbers visible) there
were times after our many halts
to allow fast through traffic to
pass, when probably, due to the ice and snow making the track
slippery, there would be a fair old jerk as the wheels bit, and any
in the couplings took up, causing some 70 or more settings
of drink and food suddenly to slide down the long highly polished
counter. Quite a sight as each person made a grab for their own
plate etc: sometimes falling off the bar stool
in the effort!!
And so it was, no doubt, after numerous loco changes,
eventually reached a very cold and dark Edmonton at about
Newfoundland Travelling
Post Office Cancellations
By Cyril Kidd and Philip Cockrill
by and obtainable from:
Philip Cockrill
Hampstead Norreys
Newbury, Berkshire
Price: 6 pounds sterling. 52 pages.
This most interesting work, published as Cockrill Series
No. 48, is undoubtedly the best compilation of
postmarks and cancellations used by travelling post offices in
NewfoundJand. The compilation is the work of the members of
the T.P. O. and Seapost Society in England, while the historical
material was written
by Mr. Cockrill.
The rugged geographical features
of Newfoundland have
long discouraged road transportation and, from the earliest
days, heavy dependance was had on shipping.
In later years the
railway was built across the island, but it
is only in recent times
that highway transportation has come to the fore. As part
of the
postal system of the colony and, since 1949, the province,
travelling post offices were established aboard ships and also on 23.00 hours. I had at least been well fed, had had nice warm
nights and peeled thousands
of potatoes – I still eat them and
enjoy them!
The kitchen/buffet car gang were alljoJly kind to me
and seemed most grateful that they had been saved the peeling
My efforts
in the farming line did not last too long due to the
stock market crash and
I then had 5~ years with the Bank of
Montreal at Edmonton and Vegreville. Before moving on to East
Africa, where we also harboured some of the worlds largest
meter gauge locos!
PS. I still have a photo
of C.P.R. loco 2321 taken in 1932,
C.N. R. loco 2329 of which I enclose a small print taken by
me at Cartier in 1932 according to the scribble on the back.
I also have a photo I took at Geikie, Alta. in 1930 ofIoco No.
5116 when I think she was hauling an East Bound Trans­
continental through train. And finally a shot of an older loco
No. 1144 taken somewhere around Moncton I think,
Maybe the foregoing could be
of interest to someone.
Cockrill Series Booklet No. 48
the trains ofthe Newfoundland railway system. It is the study of
these mobile post offices, and their postmarks, that is the subject
of this book.
The first
part of the book is a concise history of the railways
of NewfoundJand from the first proposal
in 1868 until confede­
ration with
Canada in 1949. Then follows the listing, arranged
alphabetically and including illustrations of all known major
types. Also illustrated are complete covers (stamped and
postmarked envelopes),
as well as post-I 949 cancellations. The
information given includes the earliest and latest known date of
each type, covering a period from the late 19th century until the
early 1950s.
Anyone interested
in philately or in railway or ship history
find this book of considerable interest. The railway history
is worth the price of the book, including as it does, a
of historic photos of both trains and ships. The subject of
airmail is not included since there were never any post offices
actually aboard the aircraft, and it
is only travelling offices that
are covered. In summary the book
is a valuable and much­
needed addition to the literature
of philatelic and transport
of eastern Canada.
West Of The Great Divide
An Illustrated History of the Canadian Pacific Railway in British
Columbia 1880 -1986.
By Robert D. Turner
Published by: Sono Nis Press
1745 Blanchard Street
Victoria B.C.
Price: $39.95 350 pages.
Those interested in the history of transportation in British
Columbia will be familiar with the name
of Robert D. Turner,
of such great works as The Pacific Princesses, The
Pacific Empresses and Vancouver Island Railroads. His latest
book, appropriately titled
West of The Great Divide, is yet
another masterpiece.
It is no less than a history of Canadian
Pacific railway operations
in British Columbia from the start of
construction of the government section by Andrew Onderdonk
in 1880 up to the present-day C.P. Rail system in 1986.
Undertaking a book of this magnitude
is all the more difficult
these days because
of the numerous C.P. histories that have
been published in the last
few years as the railway celebrated its
various centennials. However Mr. Turner has succeeded fully
producing a book which is of very great interest and which does
not duplicate any other work on Canadian Pacific history.
West Of The Great Divide one will not fmd lengthy
of the politics and financial problems inherent in
railway construction. Nor will there be extensive lists of
locomotive and equipment. The story does not end with the
of the main line, but continues to the present. What
one will find is an extremely readable and coherant history
which does what few if any other books have done:
in one
volume it tells the story
in such a way that a person totally
unacquainted with
C.P.R. history would have an excellent grasp
of the railways British columbia operation by the time he
reached the end of the book.
In the preface, Robert Turner reflects on his feelings
as he
in a century-old business car to Craigellachie on November
7 1985, the
lOOth anniversary of the Last Spike. This sets the
keynote for the book: how so much has changed and yet so much
remains the same.
We are then taken on a trip through history
from the first plans
of 1880 to the new Rogers Pass tunnel of the
1980s. Not only is the main line discussed, but the numerous
branches, the subsidiary companies and the steamship routes.
To augment the text there are almost 500 photographs,
including 24
in full colour, twenty maps and diagrams as well as
timetables, logos and other graphics. Some of the photos have
not been published before. While
it is difficult to single out any
special ones, for there are so many, one must mention a few. We
have often seen the view
of the first through train arriving at Port
Moody on July
41886, however we now see the rear of the train
taken by the same photographer a
few minutes later, and in great
is the last car, none other than official car 78 now business
car 1 at the Canadian Railway Museum! Another view shows
locomotive 374 pulling a freight train over the new steel bridge
across the Salmon river
in the early 1890s. In a later era we see
the all-steel Imperial Limited at Field
in 1925, and still later the
Royal train
of 1939 hauled by 2850, the original Royal
Hudson. As we reach the mid-20th century we behold colour
of 2-10-4 locomotives on the Field hill, and later the
CLC Fairbanks-Morse C-Liners. Towards the end there are
of the modem day freights, the VIA Rail passenger
trains, and a last look at steam as No.
1201 heads eastward after
its visit to Expo-86.
A very important part
of this book is the very generous
of Sources of information. This covers five important
pages and
is followed by a bibliography listing no less than two
hundred and forty eight titles. This bibliography alone
is a great
contribution to historical study; using it the student
of the subject
go as far as he wants since it includes most of the significant
works on C. P. R. history.
West O/The Great Divide is a book which should be in the
library of every student Canadian Railway history.
Canadian Trains Canadiens
By Guy and Mireille Charmantier.
Published by: Les Editions
du Cabri
Boite posta
Ie 26
Quartier Verpierre
Obtainable from: Borogrove Bookroom
# 11 5803 Bow Crescent N. W.
Calgary. Alberta
T3B 2B6
Price: $69.00 160 pages.
This book, written by French authors and published in
France, is devoted to Canadian trains. In the words of the
it results from a discovery and an attachment, a
of a country through its trains and a progressive
attachment to this country, its inhabitants and its nature.
end product is a large-format (9 X 121-1 inch) high quality
volume which
will be of considerable interest to railway
The book begins with a brief history of Canadian railways,
followed by a description
of the contemporary Canadian railway
network. The latter includes technical information as well
quite a lengthy account of VIA rail including reproductions of
some of the newspaper headlines concerning the 1981 dis­
of the Atlantic and its 1985 reinstatement. This sets the general theme
of the book; the majority of the text and
photos deal with passenger service although some freight trains
are pictured. Following some technical data on locomotives,
is a very informative two-page map showing major railway
lines with their dates
of construction. Curiously, dates before
1900 omit
the 18 of the year, thus 1885 appears as 85. While
not all dates are shown and a
few are off by a year or so, the map
gives a good idea
of the chronological development of railways in
It is, however, the next section that makes this book so
outstanding. This
is the series of photographs , more than 300 of
them including 63 in colour. The photos were taken between
1981 and 1986 and, as mentioned, are largely
of passenger
trains. These include not only VIA but also Ontario Northland,
Algoma Central, the Montreal and Toronto commuter trains
and even the Salem
& Hillsborough, the Prairie Dog Central and
the Royal Hudson. The colour photos are all
of superb quality,
very sharp and detailed. They cover trains from coast to coast
and, unlike some books, the Maritime provinces are very well
represented. A
few of the colour photos depict scenes which are
no more, such as the turbo train, or
Amtraks Adirondack
leaving Windsor station.
All text and all captions are fully bilingual which
will be
greatly appreciated
by French-speaking enthusiasts who are too
often left out when it comes to books
of this kind.
The only drawback to this fine book is the high price which is,
unfortunately, necessary due to such conditions as currency
exchange rates. However, the number and quality
of the photos
make this a work which, once purchased, will be valuable for
many years
as a great record of the Canadian passenger trains in
the 1980s.
A Statutory History of
Railways in Canada
By: Robert Dorman & D.E. Stoltz
When the statutory history of the steam and Electric
of Canada was published in 1938, it was hailed as the
definitive source
of information on the establishment of
Canadian railway companies. Two generations of historians,
lawyers and railway buffs have used the original edition and the
Addendum as a reference.
Since 1938 , the structure of the Canadian railway system
has changed. As a result, Transport
Canada began an update of
the Statutory History and asked The Canadian Institute of
Guided Ground Transport to finish the work and ensure its
publication. In addition to post-1938 statutory citations and the
1986 status
of railway compagnies, this update contains
numerous revisions and additions to the pre -19 3 8 citations.
Robert Dorman was a long-time employee
of the Depart­
ment of Marine who began the Statutory History as a labour of
love. He was still keeping track of statutes as late as 1947 as the
of Transport archivist. Doug Stoltz was a law
student at
Queens University while researching this update.
He has since served
in the Parliamentary Library and the
Faculty of Law at the University of Ottawa . He is currently with
Department of Justice.
500 pages
ISBN 088911 268 1
$ 39.95
(Cdn.) , postage paid
Historical and Current
Perspectives, 1836-1983.
By: W. G. Scott
This book traces the development of Canadas railway freight
rate structure from its earliest origins until the
including the settlement of the Crow debate with the passage
of the Western Grain Transportation Act. It covers many new
freight rate developments that have arisen since Howard Darling
wrote the Politics
of Freight Rates and also reviews the
economic content
of these issues, thus setting the background for
the coming debate on the governments proposed chances to the
Transportation Act.
The author, W. G. (Bill) Scott, is a well-known transpor­
tation economist who recently retired from
CP Rail here he was
General Manager
of Pricing Economics. Mr. Scott provides a
carrier perspective
on this controversial subject.
Key issues such as legal
equity versus economic

efficiency associated with differential railway pricing
practices; variable freight rates based on differences in costs
demand; and general versus selective rate
increases are highlighted.
4 7 4 pages, 22 tables, 27 figures
ISBN088911262-2(6 x9, soft cover)
$ 21.95
(CDN.) , postage paid
C.R.H.A. . .
This year the Niagara Division celebrates its 10th anniversary.
To start off the year right an excursion was held in March to
Falls New York using Amtrak Trains # 32 (Niagara
Rainbow) and #63 (Maple Leaf).
At the beginning of the year Hollie Lowry became editor of
the Divisions newsletter TURNOUT as well as continuing as
At the Divisions annual general meeting the
following were elected to the executive:
Jack Bell Directors:
Pres.: Chris Kyle
Vice Pres
.: Tony Rubin
Gord Billinghurst
Werner Kluger
Joel Rice
The Division was very active in 1987, particularly with the
Salem & Hillsborough Railroad. A
CN turntable has been
acquired from Westfield and plans call for its move to
Hillsborough before the summer. There may also be a good
opportunity to acquire some 85
Ib rail.
During the Christmas season, the
S&HR ran a number of
Sunset Charters. As a result a number of snowplow extras had to
be run mostly with volunteers! The last run was on December 23
CN Public Relations were out for their Christmas Party.
During this run they announced that a flanger would be donated
to the railway. N ice Christmas present! With the holiday season over, restoration work began again
to finish the first class coach and tune up engine 1009.
The first 1988 issue of the Divisions newsletter UPDATE
was the largest ever. Along with a good selection of news items
were two very interesting articles
on the McAdam station and
the railway facilities there.
April 18, 1988
To March 15, 1988
To: All CRHA Divisions & Editor -Canadian Rail.
From: Annual Awards Committee.
With reference to the
January/February issue of Canadian
Rail, page 31-32, regarding the Annual Awards program, the
date for submission
of awards nominations has been rescheduled
May 31, 1988.
This extension
of time has been made for the following
The time of the announcement of the program to the
submission date was very short.
2. Extending the submission
date will permit nominators more
time to review their selection
of authors and/or persons as
in the awards categories, and submit their
As the presentation of A wards will be made at the CRHA
Annual Convention, hosted this year by the New Brunswick
Division on the Labour Day weekend in September, there
will be ample time for the Panel
of Judges to present their
decisions prior to that date.
Some excellent nominations have already been received by
the A wards Committee, and any further nominations which may be made by this extension
of time will make this first year of
awards an even better success than it now appears it will be.
lt will be appreciated if each Division will publicize the new
date and encourage its members and friends to participate
in the
Susiness ca~~1
During 1988, the By town Railway Society will be sponsoring
steam excursions using former Canadian Pacific steam loco­
motive 1201. These trips will originate in Ottawa at the National
of Science and Technology. Pulling former CP
heavyweight and VIA streamlined cars, the train will traverse
freight only trackage. These trips will be the only steam
excursions to operate
in Central Canada this year. Photo
runpasts are planned
for each excursion.
The Highlander
On Saturday July 30, 1988, a special train will run from
Ottawa to Hawkesbury, Ontario. It has been many years since a
passenger train operated over the line between Glen Robertson
and Hawkesbury. Those passengers not wishing to ride to
Hawkesbury may detrain
in Maxville and watch the famous
highland games which will be taking place that day.
Leave Otrawa:
Return to Ottawa: 1700
Ticket Price:
Not to exceed $SO.
The Autumn Valley Express
On Sunday, October 2,1988,1201 will run from Ottawa to
Pembroke, Ontario. Following the scenic Canadian National
route, which includes two spectacular crossings
of the Ottawa
River, passengers will be treated to the glorious fall foliage in the
picturesque rural areas
of the Ottawa Valley.
Leave Ottawa:
Return to Ottawa: 17 30-1800
Ticket Price:
Tickets for these excursions may be ordered by mail. You
should indicate if you prefer to ride in the non-air conditioned
heavyweight cars or air conditioned
VIA cars. Seat will be
as ticket orders are made so the sooner you place your
order the better the chance
of getting a seat in the car you
Orders should be sent to the By town Railway Society,
P. O.
Box 141, Station
A, Ottawa, Ontario KIN 8Vl. Payment
should be by cheque
or money order. With regard to The
HighJander , should you wish to order one ticket, your cheque
should be made out
Not to exceed $SO. For those ordering
more than one ticket, the
$SO amount should be multiplied by
the number of tickets ordered. Please note that there are no
special rates for children or adults. Complete details
as to
departure and arrival times will be mailed out with the tickets.
Sometimes the railroads can make people happy and this
might be one
of those cases. Woodstock, N.B., a C.P. Town,
had an active passenger service up to the
SOs, and rather ornate
brick station to prove it.
Now the Town is looking forward to CP
to donate the station for the use as a museum. The Mayor says
CP Rail has started the process that would tum over the
building and property to the Town but it might take from six
months to a year before it
is complete.
A beautiful autumn day set the
for the By town Railway
1987 excursion from
to Pembroke. The trip was
a rapid sellout, so those con­
templating going
on this years
excursion should order their tickets
Photo by Douglas
N. W Smith.
One orlhe compticUlions arising from early railroading dAYS
ofille Prolince is the need looegogiate with the New Brunswick
Company Ltd first. Canadian Pacific leased the property
!llhcy built the station. Then an application has to be made
to the Canadian
Trtlnsporl Commission for permission to sell or
lease to the T
own. The Town is asking for a C.P. caboose 10
place in fronl of the station.
Source: Up Dale.
N.B. Division C.R.H.A.
A streetcar oot desired by the B.C. govemrocnt is now the
delight of Edmonton railway enthusiasts.
The $243,000 Gcnnan~made streetcar bought by former
New Democrat ;>remierDavc8arreU in 1915 but ncverlakenofT
its loading skid was sold 10 the Edmonton Radial Railway
Society forS I by this Social Credit successor Bill Vander blm.
The slreetcar, a source of political embarrassment, did nol
eave: S.c. with any fanfare last week on its three-day trip by
truck from Vancouver.
Transit originally asked that the streetcar be loaded and
hauled away in the wee hours or on a weekend, s3id railway
society member Harvey Bradley.

They eveo wanted 10 break into the drivers ,.;omparlment
and take down the Vancouv
er and New Wesuninsterstreel signs
so it wouldnt be obvious where it came from, Bradley said.
Giant cranes unloaded the 17 ,500-kg vehicle from a uuck at
Fort EdmorMm Park almost a dozen years after it first arrived in
The Siemens-Duwag model, a prototype ohhe LRT system
in use in Edmonton, was mothballed by Social Credit after
it beat the NDP in a provincial election.
Aner six years of negotiations with B.C. Transit. the 55-
member railway society is happy to add the streetcar to its
llection of period public transit vehides.
Its not vintage yet, said society treasurer Tony Kernahan,
but 25 years from now it will be an excellent example of early
LRT technology.
The society paid about $8,000 to have it shipped here.
The car could be used as a link between the park and the city
SLOp on nearby Fox Drive or possibly across the river to
the Vall
ey Zoo. It carries 38 people sitting and I SO standing and
a top speed of 70 kmh.
le in Victoria, wOld of the sale provoked an angry
from NDP transit crilic Robin Blencoe. who said B.C.
taxpayers shouldnt be subsidizing the ventures
of the Edmonton
is a late Christmas present from our premier to the
of Edmonton, said Blencoe in an interview from his
Victoria office. Its all a part of Bill Vander Zalms plan to
priYatire the
pt.Oples a~sets.
S. Edmonton Journal lia Lon Marsh
VIA Rail Canada will intn:xluee two special tourist uains in
two-way service between Vancouver andJaspcr. and Vancouyer
and Banff for the summer of 19BB. The service will operate once
a week from lune 5 to Oct()bcr 9 filT a total of 19 departures. So
that the fulltripofjustover 500 miles on each route can be made
ing daylight, passengers will stay overnight in hotels in
Kamloops at
th..: halfway poinl. The one-way fare including
meals and accommodat
ion will cost S275. A six-day packnge
le tour with a hus link between Jasper and BanlT u3vcling
along the Icefields Parkway
will be :)859 per person. The Irajns
will usc refurbished Daynightcr equipment, but will not carry
dome cars or dineN; meals
will be served at one·stlea. The
train~ are expected to attract 17,000 passengeT! for the season
and generate some $3.4 million in bolel revenues at Kamloops,
8anrr and Jasper.
In develo
ping this new service. VIA worked closely with
many local go
venunenls and business groups, and VIA is to be
congrarulaled for it.~ initiative in crealing a tour train for s()me of
the best scenery in the west. There were mixed press reactions
including the
miSrlomerthat VIAs present uains in the West do
ll the mountain scenery at night. While welcoming these new
trains, Transport 2000 remains strongly committed to daily
trHin~ from VanCOuver t(l Calgary and Edmon·
ton and beyood with the purchasing
of new bi-Ievel Superliner
equipment for the
se services. In a future issue of Transport
Action, the success of AMTRAK Superliner trains in the U.S.
est will be anal)7.ed to indicate how long-distance trains can
meet m
ultiple uansportation needs and draw on multiple travel
mark~ts. In this way a daily transcontinental service can remain
a.~ a fonn of basic ground transportation. ratherthan
CUI back to reduced frequencies and being devoted to only one
kind of diemele.
S. Transport
Before ~ming 10 Ihl Canadiall Railway Mu.leum. 77 served on Ihe Canado Storch. Railwuy al Curdinol. Onlario. bl IIII~ pO.~1
1~1 ~Iel<, Cal1~da Slarch s:tam lotolOli~ 5 look. on 01 ils replactmelll. After rhe rtpowering oflhe unit in )95). eN chongId
77 s class (Q LS·4a and rrv!Sed tlUf:iIU ra//ltg 10 15%.
Credit: Phillip
Canadian Rail
P.o. Box 282 St. Eustache, Que., Canada
J7R 4K6
Postmaster if undelivered within
10 days return to sender. postage guaranteed.
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