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Canadian Rail 396 1987

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Canadian Rail 396 1987

Canadian Rail a
No. 396

25-Feet Closed Electri:: Motor Car No. 539 .

Combined Passenger and Baa-gage Car No. 574 .

Published bi -monthly by the Canadian Railroad
Historical Association P.O. Box 148 St. Constant P.Q.
JO L 1
XO. Subscription rates $25.00
($22.00 US funds if outside Canada)
EDITOR: Fred F Angus
CO-EDITOR: M. Peter Murphy
LAYOUT: Michel Paulet
High above the old B. C. Electric right of way, the new
Sky train carries passengers sWiftly and smoothly between
and New Westminster. This view, taken on May
27 1986, shows the B. C. Hydro line (directly beneath the
second cal
of the Sky train) as well as the overhead wires for
Vancouvers trolleybusses.
by Mark Paul.
One hundred years ago the first train arrived at the newly­
founded city
of Vancouver British Columbia. Within five
years an electric interurban line
was in operation between that
and New Westminster. These wood-cut drawings of 1892
in considerable detail the type of cars which began the
service on the Westminster and Vancouver Tramway Company,
the predecessor
of the B. C. Electric and the ancestor of the
Sky train which now runs over much of the original interurban
of way.
ISSN 0008-4875
P.O. Box 1162
Saint John.
New Brunswick
E2 L 4G 7
O. Box 22 Station B
Montreal. Que. H3B 3 J5
P.O. Box
141. Station A
Ottawa. Ontario
K1 N 8 V1
P. O. Box 5849. Terminal A.
Toronto. Ontario M5 W 1 P3
300 Cabana Road East.
Windsor. Ontario N9 G 1 A 2
P.O. Box 603
Cambridge. Ontario N1 R 5 W1
O. Box 593
St. Catharines. Ontario L2 R 6 W 8
P.O. Box
Smiths Falls. Ontario K 7 A 5 A 5
O. Box 6102. Station C.
Edmonton. Alberta T5 B
2 NO
60 -6100. 4th Ave. NE.
Calgary. Alberta T2 A 5
P.O. Box 400
Cranbrook. British Columbia V1 C 4 H 9
P.O. Box 1006. Station A.
Vancouver. British Columbia
V6 C 2 P1
14 Reynolds
Winnipeg. Manitoba
R3 K 0 M 4
P. O. Box 103
Kingston. Ontario
K 7 M 6 P9

tions. It became the Ottawa & Prescott in 1855 and the St.
Lawrence &
Ottawa in 1867. After the Grand Trunk standard
gauged its line
in 1873, both lines co-operated to provide
through sleeping
car service bet ween Ottawa and Toronto.
The second line to reach the capital was the Brockville &
Ottawa –
Canada Central Railways which completed their
Brockville -Carleton Place –
Ottawa route in 1870. Built to
broad gauge, the system interchanged cars with the G
TR until
GTR standard gauged its line. Due to its poor financial
position, it was not until 1880 the money was available to
standard gauging the Canada Central.
In 1881, the syndicate which would successfully complete
the Pacific Railway took over the faltering transcontinental
project from the Dominion government. They early recogTlized
the importance
of developing a network of lines in the
industrialized eastern portion
of the nation. The earnings from
the eastern lines would generate the funds to
carry the trans­
continental line until the prairie provinces became settled and
traffic built
to renumerative levels. During the I alter portion of
the 1870 s, Duncan McIntyre, a member of the syndicate, had
acquired the controlling interest
in the Central Canada and in the
1880s in the St. Lawrence & Ottawa. The Canada
Central, which had almost reached Mattawa in 1881, was
amalgamated into the
CPR that year to form part of the main line
between Montreal and Vancouver. The western division
of the
grandiloquently titled
Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa & Occidental
Railway between Montreal and Ottawa was purchased from the
Government in 1882. With the completion of the
Ontario &
Quebec Railway between Smiths Falls and Toronto
in 1884, CP had its own Montreal-Ottawa -Toronto route.
Recognizing that its monopoly on traffic
in the Montreal­
Ottawa-Toronto area was about to be broken, the Grand Trunk
opened negotiations with the bondholders of the St. Lawrence&
Ottawa during 1882-1883. However, Mr. McIntyre remained
in control and in 1884, CP leased the St. Lawrence &
Ottawa for 999 years. While
it parallelled the Canada Central,
the lease provided CP with complete control over terminal
in Ottawa and would prevent the GTR from securing
the line to access the capital. Once
CP took over the line, it
rescheduled the passenger trains to avoid connections with the
GTR at Prescott and ceased to stop at the GTR station.
In the fall
of 1907 , the Grand Trunk revised the schedule of
local Train6 between Toronto and Montreal. To promote better
service to the smaller communities
of eastern Ontario, Train 6
was detained
at Kingston to permit connections with Train 4,
the Atlantic Express a Chicago-Montreal express train.
Passengers who boarded Train 4 west
of Kingston could transfer
to the express to complete their journey to Montreal thereby
saving over an
hours travelling time. As well, passengers from
Toronto could change to Train 6 to reach small communities
eastern Ontario.
This step, which shortened trip times along the GTRs
Montreal-Toronto main line, should have been well-received.
Howe,r, the move adversely affected those passengers
travellmg from points on the
GTR line west of Brockville to
Formerly, Train 6 arrived at Brockville at 2: 15 pm.
allowing a reasonable connection to the Canadian Pacific Train
80 which departed at2: 40 pm. for Smiths Falls, Carleton Place
Ottawa. At Smiths Falls, Train 80 made connections with
CPs Train 4, a Detroit -Montreal train which included in its
consist a Chicago -Montreal sleeping
car, thereby offering an
alternative to the
GTR Montreal-Chicago trains. Needless to
say, those travelling from southern Ontario over CP were
guaranteed a firm connection to the capital!
To the chagrin of the GTR, CP chose that fall to reschedule
Train 80 to leave Brockville at 2: 20 pm. which eliminated the
connection to any
GTR train. Under the new schedule, the
GTR Train 4 would arrive in Brockville at 2: 30 pm. some ten
minutes after the
CPR train had steamed out from the north side
of the Brockville station towards the nations capital. Supposedly
CPR would hold No. 80 for ten minutes if they were
informed there were passengers
aboard No.6 for Ottawa.
Seemingly some things never change, as the GTR train was
quite often more than ten minutes late which meant the
train was gone by the time the GTR train made its belated
arrival. Thus the mail from points
east of Toronto often had to
spend the night
in Brockville awaiting the first departure of a CP
train the following morning. As Train 80 was the last train of the
day to
Ottawa, the unfortunate passengers had the choice of a
hectic eastward journey along the
Grand Trunk hoping to make
connections with an Ottawa bound train at one
ofthe intervening
junctions or spending the night
in Brockville.
in the august pages of Hansard for all members of
the House of Commons to contemplate, is the tale of two groups
of travellers, who having missed the connection with the CPR,
out from Brockville on the GTR to make a connection to the
On December 4, 1907, Mr. D. Henderson, the
member for Halton outlined his ordeal
in making the trip from
Toronto to
… the [CP] Chicago train for Toronto was upwards
of an hour and three -quarters late, [so we] preferred to go
on by the Grand Trunk. We left twenty -five minutes late
and made up twenty minutes between [Toronto] and
Brockville. There were about eight passengers for
Ottawa, and the conductor of the Grand Trunk train was
good enough to wire to Brock ville to ask them to hold the
train, at least that
he told me that he did so … We reached
Brockville, according to my watch, about five minutes
late by the schedule time and on alighting we discovered
CPR had pulled out ten minutes previous to our
Mr. Henderson and his wife returned to the
GTR train to make the dash to Cornwall Junction where they
hoped to connect with the New York Central train to
An accident on the GTR at Cardinal prevented their train from
reaching Cornwall Junction.
The couple had to spend the night
at Prescott and complete their journey on the
Prescott local the
nex t morning.
A little more than a month later, on
January 17 , 1908, Mr.
Taylor related his travails on his recent trip from his home in
Gananoque to Ottawa:
When we
[Mr. Taylor, and the MPs for Brantford,
This circa 1920 photo shows the Brock ville station during a lull in activity. The view is/rom the Grand Trunk side. The trains o/the
Canadian Pacific operated from a pocket track at the rear o/the station.
Photo: Canadian National.
Toronto Centre, and Belleville) arrived at Brockville at
0 clock we found that the CPR train had left on its
time, although they had been telegraphed to hold
their train
… On our train was a friend of the member for
Kingston .
.. who had bought a return ticket to Ottawa via
When he got to Brockville he asked the
station master how he could get to
Ottawa and he was told
they were making arrangements for
No. 4 to leave
and connect for Ottawa at Cornwall Junction.
Mr. Sullivan bought his ticket to Cornwall Junction, but
the engine of No.4 train which we were on broke down
near Prescott and we stayed on the track for an hour until
No.6 came along and shunted us into Morrisburg. I
telegraphed from Morrisburg to Cornwall to know if the
train would be held
as there were twelve passengers on
board, but I got a reply that they would not wait for us.
The engine of No . 6 was put on NO.4 and we started for
Cornwall and when the conductor
came [Mr. Sullivan)
told him he had a ticket for Cornwall
Junction to go to
Ottawa. but the conductor said he would have to buy another ticket from
Cornwall to Coteau. This gentleman
then had to pay
90 cents for another ticket, and when he
got to
Coteau he had to pay $2.10 for his passage to
Ottawa, thus purchasing three sets of tickets to reach
here. Those who were on board that train arrived in
Ottawa at 10: 30 pm. that night. I say that is a gross
While the members
of the public had to keep digging into their
wallets as the trip to
Ottawa became more and more circuitous,
the fortunate
MPs simply had to show their railway passes -a
perk they receive to the
present time.
The matter was brought to the attention of the recently
formed Board
of Railway Commissioners for Canada. On
December IO, 1907, the Board ordered the GTR and CP to
organize their schedules
such that a reasonable connecting time
would be allowed at Brockville effective
January 1, 1908.
Matters remained at an impasse for a while longer as CP
requested and received two ex tensions. The matter was soon
cleared up and
Mr. Taylor could once again reasonably expect
to find his train waiting at the junction.
The beginnings of
Canadas Railways
Robert F. Legget O. C .
a -dinner of members of the Canadian Railroad Historical
Association, held at McGill University on
Friday 18 July
1986, as a part of the Associations celebration of the 150th
of the first journey by a passenger train in
Let us, in this quiet evening hour think again of the historical
of the great event that we are celebrating this weekend.
How better to start than to say that, a few months ago, some of
us in this room were privileged to be members of the relatively
party assembled by C. P. Rail to attend the centenary of
the driving of the last spike on the C. P. R. at Craigellachie, in
the heart of the snowclad mountains of the Monashee Range in
British Columbia. You have all read about the proceedings
the excellent account published in Canadian Rail.
Despite the fact that it was a celebration of Canada, as well
as a significant railway event, it received little attention in the
media, so neglected are railways today in the public view. But it
was indeed a celebration of Canada, the iinking of the small
on the West Coast with the four fledgling Canadian
provinces in the East, by that thin line of steel , ensuring that the
Dominion would indeed
stretch from sea to sea and from the
river unto the ends
of the earth , to remind you of those fine
words from Holy writ -verse 8
of the 72 nd psalm -which gave
us the noble name
Dominion, but which today are so seldom

As we stood there, surrounded by hillsides of evergreens,
lovely with their first dusting
of snow, the mists swirling above­
exactly the same weather as on the original day one hundred
years before all
of us were moved in a quite mysterious way,
difficult to express in words. One of my CPR friends put into my
hands a small red leather -bound note book. I opened it and
found it to be the field note -book
of H.J. Cambie, one of the
engineers on the pioneer line, beautifully written up a century
As I read his brief notes , I wondered what thoughts were
in his mind as he stood on the
self-same spot to see Donald
Smith hammer in the original last spike. The spirits of those men
were with us
that day, I felt sure. I thought especially of
Sandford Fleming.
He was there, now as a Director of the Company,
despite his earlier dismissal by the Government of Alexander
Mackenzie. You can recognise him with his magnificent white
beard, in t1e famous photograph, just behind and to the right of
Donald Smith. He must have thought back to his own
remarkable trans –
Canada journey of 1872, searching out the
Dr. Legget delivers his address to those attending the dinner
by the C. R. H. A. at the Sesquicentennial convention on
July 18 1986.
Photo by Fred Angus.
that the new railway should follow. And I felt sure that at
least a passing thought crossed his mind about the rem;Jrkable
Royal Commission
that investigated his work, in which he was
so unjustly criticised.
(His devastating reply to the Report was
printed and published as a Blue
Paper by order of the next
Parliament, the only such officially printed reply to a Royal
Report of which I have ever heard) .
Flemings thoughts would have gone back much further than
that, however -to his work on the Newfoundland Railway
assuredly, and especially to the building
of the Intercolonial
Railway, linking Halifax with
Montreal, which he had
completed in 1876.
It is passing strange that this historic line has
been so over -shadowed by the building
of the Canadian Pacific
line to the
West since it, too, linked two widely separated parts
of the new Dominion. It is the railway that is mentioned in
Section 145
of the British North America Act, surely the only
in history to be enshrined in the original constitution of a
major country?
It was a magnificent piece of early railway
One o/the earliest locomotives a/the Ontario Simcoe & Huron was the Josephine , built in 1853 and shown here at the end a/its
career about 1880.
Photo: Canadian National.
engineering, still serving its intended purpose, its original well­
maintained masonry structures still serving admirably after
more than a century. Together with the C.
P. R., their combined
thin line
of steeL did indeed stretch from sea to sea, from Atlantic
shores to those
of the Pacific.
Fleming had gained his early railway experience on yet
another pioneer line, more modest in scale but equally
significant to the area it served. This was the first railway
Upper Canada. This was not the Grand Trunk or the Great
Western, as is often popularly imagined, mention of the
of the Grand Trunk bringing in to this hasty survey
the distinguished name
of Casimir Gzowski. Several years
before its completion, hpwever, a little train
steamed out of
Toronto and went as far as Aurora on what became the Northern
Railway of Canada. This was on 16 May 1853, almost twenty
years after the event that we are celebrating this weekend.
is a fine bronze plaque commemorating this event on one of the
column bases outside
Torontos Union Station but, when last I saw it,
it was badly stained and almost hidden by shacks.
All that I have said so far will be generally familiar. But did
you know that the
Chief Engineer of the Northern Railway.
responsible for its building, was Frederick William Cumberland?
If you have heard this name before, you will probably have
it from an architect since the architectural profession
regard Cumberland as one
of their great early practitioners. He
was a good architect but he was primarily an engineer, trained in
England as a pupil of the great Isambard Kingdom Brunei. Once
I was privileged to examine some of Bruneis early notebooks,
in the custody of Bristol University. The superb draftsman­
ship and intricate detailing
of all Bruneis sketches of railway
buildings showed me clearly how Cumberland had acquired his
architectural skill. Let us not forget
that he was essentially an
engineer, a railway engineer
too, playing an important role in
story of Canadas railways. And Sandford Fleming was one
of his two assistant engineers.
Fleming had arrived in
Canada from Scotland in mid-
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Some mid -century publications that pointed to the growing awareness in Canada a/the railway development. While some, such
as the gauge
o/the Sf. Lawrence& Atlantic, were retrograde steps, others like the Victoria Bridge/oresaw the magnitude to which
the railways
in Canada would grow.
summer 1845 and he was still in his mid -twenties when he came
under the innuence of Cumberland, who must have been a good
teacher and an inspiring leader. I like to think of some of the
BruneIs innuence on Cumberland rubbing off on to
Fleming. His remarkable ability was well shown by his
appointment (now in his early thirties) as Chief Engineer of the
Northern Railway when Cumberland had to resign (because of
his architectural activity!). But we must not forget that the
actual building
of the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Union Rail
Road (its original name) was late in the field compared with the
Champlain and St. Lawrence line, so dominant in our minds
It is not in my province to say more than a passing word about
most significant pioneer line. All of you know at least the
of its story. Let mejust say that I find special delight in
the association of famous Montreal names of today -such as
McGill and Molson-associated with this far-sighted venture of
150 years ago. The Honorable Peter McGill was the President
of the Company at the time of the official opening; he served
later on the Board
of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railway
Company, precursor of the Grand Trunk. John Molson the first
just six months before the line was opened but John Molson
second W2~ an active participant in its affairs. And Louis
Joseph Papineau was one of the honoured guests at the opening.
All three men spoke at the opening ceremony.
I wish I could
have heard
P~pineau, in particular, such was his reputation as
We must not, however, get too starry -eyed about this event
of 150 years ago, significant though it was. The initial trip to St.
Jean went well, as did the return trip to Laprairie, even if
somewhat slowly because of the trouble experienced with the
of the locomotive. At seven in the evening, the great
that had come over from Montreal for the event
embarked again on the new
steamer Princess Victoria for the
return journey to
Montreal. Just after leaving the wharf at
Laprairie, the vessel ran aground and it took more than an h,)ur
to get her free.
Another start was made but about a mile from
shore one
of the guests fell overboard and it took so long to
rescue him that darkness had fallen when he was
saved; the
Captain decided to return to Laprairie. Somewhat naturally
there was not enough
accomodation in the small village for the
party, many of whom spent a very uncomfortable night,
some dancing away the tedious
More remarkable, however, is the fact that, but for a slight
turn in
Fortunes wheel, the Champlain and St. Lawrence
Railroad would not have been the first railway in Canada but the
second. And if the second, it would have achieved little fame
and we would not be here this evening.
It is a strange story that
may be new to
In those days, Toronto was still the village of York –
York as it was often caJled-but there, in the summer
ofl832, a meeting was held to discuss the possibility of building
a railway between York and
Lake Simcoe, around which some
settlement had started. The discussion was abortive but the idea
was resurrected two years later. On 23 June J 834 a meeting was
held for a similar discussion
in the village of Newton when
settlers around Lake Simcoe again advanced the idea
of a
railway but this time from Lake Simcoe to
Lake Huron. This
revived the original idea
of a line from Toronto( as York had now
become) to Lake
Simcoe. Another meeting was held in Toronto
on 26 July 1834, attended by Toronto businessmen, some of
whom had been at the meeting in Newton.
William B. Jarvis was appointed Chairman of the meeting
James Newbiggin the Secretary -arid I give you these
names to add a little corroborative detail to thetale I
am telling!
It was decided at this meeting to build the Simcoe and Ontario
Railway. Nineteen of those present each subscribed £ 1-5 -0 on
spot, in advance of stock purchases, to help to pay for the
ssary survey which was estimated to cost £50. And a man
Thomas Roy was appointed to conduct the survey-which
he did.
His instructions were dated 23 September 1834 and they
included the statement that he was to select a
line upon such an
inclination as will admit
of the use of Locomotive Engines upon
Will you kindly bear with me while I say a few words more, of
relevance I assure you, about this remarkable man? Not only
was he a very good civil engineer but
he was also a geologist, a
good combination, being realised only
in these modern days for
its full potential. While carrying out
his survey work up to Lake
Simcoe in 1834-35, Roy noticed and recorded the succession of
raised level areas at increasing heights above the level of Lake
ario, which distinguish the topography all round that great
of water. Not only so but he deduced, quite correctly,
that they were raised
beaches, formed on Lake Ontario when its
evel was
at successively higher elevations than it is today. Our
current knowledge of glacial aClion readily explains how the
beaches were formed but Roy had nothing to guide him but his
own intuition and
yet, apart only from not knowing that
blockage by ice was the cause of the successive levels of the
Lake, his explanation is entirely in accord with modem
geological thinking. He wrote a paper summarising his observa­
lions and deductions. It is entitled The Raised Beaches of
Lake Ontario and it was presented to the even then venerable
Geological Society
of London on 22 March 1837 and
thoroughly discussed.
was not present (although I think that he did once visit
and so the paper was presented to the Society on his
behalf by
Mr. (later Sir) Charles Lyell, one of the acknowledged
of the modem science of Geology. When, in 1842 , Sir
Charles visited the Niagara Falls area, in the course of his wide
travels in
North America, it was but natural that Thomas Roy,
the civil engineer, should have been his guide, as he was also
when they
came to Toronto and examined the raised beaches.
This all has a modern ring to it but please recall that this joint
visit was in 1842, the year in which Roy died. So also were his
discussions with
James Hall, the distinguished Director of the
New York State Geological Survey who also recognised Roys
I knew
of this friendship through my study of Roys life but I
must leave
to your imagination my delight when a distant friend
of mine, in Albany, New York, came across -almost by
accident -the originals of four letters written by Roy to Hall in
the years 1838 and 1839. You will be wondering by now why I
have made this long excursion into geological studies
of so long
ago but this is
because, in a letter dated from Toronto on 16 May
1838 (from Roy to Hall), occur these words:
You may be surprised that I am not better informed
that opening at the Head waters of the
Connecticut and
St. Johns Rivers but the fact is this
Major Yule of the Royal Engineers conducted the survey
for the
New Brunswick and St. Lawrence Railway (which
was to pass through this opening) under the auspices
of the
Government; his operations were carried on until
late in the
season; he was thus compelled to proceed to
England before he
had time to make his report. Copies of
the report were sent to the provincial governments but the
etc., are in England and I had no opportunity of
procuring any information from himself; from what I can
gather from the report, etc., the elevation is much the
same as that of the Chemung Valley.
Roys survey was completed in January 1835 and his
of the total cost of construction was in excess of
£ J 00,000. This was more than the Toronto group had expected
and so their project
collapsed. Roys plans were, however,
quite complete and
so one of the ifs of Canadian railway
is to ask IF the Toronto group had the courage of their
convictions, and
had built the line so well surveyed by Thomas
Roy, what would have been its effect on our railroad history?
Later, the idea of a line to Lake Huron at Georgian Bay instead
of Lake Simcoe was raised; two United States surveyors were
engaged to make the survey
but hopes were again deferred and,
as we have seen, the line so long in the planning was not built
until the
1850 s.
Thomas Roy was clearly one of our pioneer railway
Not only was he a remarkable man but a man of
sterling character, as his letters to the Toronto group, while
engaged on the
survey, so clearly show. I wish that I could give
you a quick
summary of his life but this I can not do because , so
far, he remains a man of mystery. We know that he came to
in 1834 and that he died there, quite suddenly, on 28 July
1842, after having undertaken a variety of engineering works,
finishing up as the equivalent of the City Engineer of Toronto.
But diligent search has to date failed to reveal his origins. In
of many hours spent on this search, I canjust say that I
he was the son of Scottish settlers of about 1780 on the
Miramichi River in
New Brunswick and that he gained his early
experience as a
Deputy Surveyor of the Kings Forests in
New Brunswick.
The brilliance of this early engineer is well shown by a small
book that he wrote. Published in
Toronto in 1841, it is entitled
Remarks on the Principles and Practice
of Road Making as
applicable to
Canada. Forty two pages long, printed in octavo
size, the little book is rare indeed. I know
of only one copy still
existing but
of this I am privileged to have a photo copy. On
occasion, I have read ex tracts from the book to gatherings of
engineers expert in foundation work, asking my hearers to
suggest a date of publication. 1930 is about the earliest that is
ever suggested, so wise was thc author, so sound his principles
of proper foundations for roads-especially about drainage-that
even today they are regarded as the best
of modern practice.
But why do I mention this little publication this evening?
Because on page 8
Thomas Roy has this to say: It is often said
layout larger sums upon common roads; they will soon be
by railways. This was in 1841. Roy goes on to
discuss this question
in a most interesting way but finishes by
raising the further question
of the probability that railways may
be rivalled
by steam carriages upon common roads …. This is
no chimerical idea …. And when oil supplies start to decline,
his idea may yet come to pass. Very
clearly, discussion of
railways was in the air in those far off days.
This further earty railway survey
must have been carried out
no later than 1836 or 1837, but possibly earlier; time has not yet
permitted following up this tantalising reference to yet another
proposed railway contemporaneaous with the event we are
celebrating this weekend.
do, however, have an even more interesting clue as to why
this survey
of Major Yule was initiated but to explain it
adequately I must ask you all to take
your minds back to what
you once learned about the
War of 1812, Mr. Madisons
War as it is often quite correctly described, The Second War
ofIndependence as it sometimes preposterously is called south
of the border! This is the war which Colonel C. P. Stacey, our
well known military historian, has described in these words:

It is one of those episodes in history that makes
happy, because everybody interprets it in his
way. The Americans think of it as primarily a naval
war in which the pride of the Mistres~ of the Seas was
humbled by what an imprudent Englishman had called a
few fir -built frigates, manned by a handful
of bastards
outlaws . Canadians think of it equally pridefully as a
of defence in which their brave fathers, side by side,
turned back the massed might
of the United States and
saved the country from conquest.
And the English are
of all because they dont even know that it
It was, however, a fierce and ugly conflict while it lasted.
Kingston was the key fortress for the British forces on land and
water. All supplies had to be brought up to Kingston from
Quebec and Montreal up the St. Lawrence River, with all its
turbulent rapids, the last one hundred miles
an international
waterway. Only once, however, was a British supply tlotilla
in this section; U. S. forces had no access roads up to
their bank of the great river. But British military commanders
that, when hostilities broke out again (as they were fully
expected to do) they would not be so fortunate and so an
alternative route between Montreal and Kingston had to be
It was, up the Ottawa, then the Rideau and Catarqui
Rivers and so were built the
Ottawa River Canals and the Rideau
Canal to convert this tri -river route into a navigable military
waterway, leading, incidentally, to the founding of By town
which, as Ottawa,
is now our nations capital city.
These we;~. canals, however, and not railways, even though
at least one tramway was used during the construction of the
Rideau Canal, as Dr. Nicholls has so interestingly told us.
There were, however, many delays following the end of the War
before the building of the Rideau Canal was started in 1826. The
great Duke of Wellington, when Master General of the
(a Cabinet post in Great Britain at that time) finally
got things moving by sending a group
of three officers of the
of Royal Engineers to British North America in 1825
(please note that date) to investigate the entire question of the
of British North America, which the Duke himself
never visited, despite his interest.
Headed by Major General Sir
James Carmichael Smyth, the two other members being Lt.
Col. Sir George Hoste and Captain J. B. Harris, this small
Commission was one
of the most remarkable groups ever to
study any major
Canadian Problem.
They got their instructions in London on 11 April 1825 ; they
sailed from Liverpool in
an American Packet on 17 April and
landed in
New York on 17 May. Proceeding to Quebec, they
reported on 25
May to the Acting Governor, Sir Peregrine
They then set out, by early steamboat to Montreal
but thereafter by
canoe or on foot (apart possibly from another
short journey by steamboat on Lake Ontario), and inspected
every British defence work all the way from
Drummond Island
(near Sault Ste Marie) to the Citadel at Halifax, nothing that
only bad weather had prevented them from visiting also Prince
Edward Island and the island
of Grand Manan in the Bay of
Fundy. In Halifax they wrote their Report, which is about
50,000 words long, and signed it on 9 September 1825, less
than five months after they got their instructions
in London.
Even today that would be a speed record! Twenty five copies
of the Report were prepared in view of its confidential
cl;laracter; they are now rare indeed.
And what has all this to do with railways, you will be
wondering. Well, when first I held
in my hands one of the
original copies
of this great Report, I read it with growing
wonder-that these three officers had seen so much, travelled so
far, and developed such sound ideas on the defence
of this
country, all in so short a time. And then on page 103, I read
in the discussion of the essential linking of Fredericton with
We turned our attention to the possibility and
of establishing a Rail Road for 36 miles from
Temiscouata to the
St. Lawrence.
They proceeded to give estimates of cost of a canal (£ 1860
per mile), and a Rail line
(more than £3,000 per mile) and
compared these figures with the cost
of a good military road at
£250 per mile. And this was in 1825 .
These were far -sighted men in those early days.
And there
were others, too.
Let me just mention four, very briefly. A man
Peter Fleming wrote a letter to the Quebec Mercury in
December 1830 advocating a railway from Montreal to Lake
Huron, five years before the Champlain and St. Lawrence
Railway was a reality. A
merchant named William Fitzwilliam
Owen was one
of the main supporters of the St. Andrews and
Quebec Railway, advocated at a public meeting in 1835 but not
activated until 1846. Peter Perry was a member of the
in 1836, the, yea~ we are commemorating, and in
that year he tried to have the railway charters, then being
considered, amended so that the Government could purchase
the lines in fifty years -clearly a man gifted with second sight.
And did you know that John Smyth published, in 1837, in
Toronto, a Map of Upper Canada, showing the proposed
of rail roads, for the purpose of ex tending the trade of the
province? And in 1845 he published a short essay on
Railroad Communication urging an all-
Canadian railway
along the north shore
of Lake Superior.
lJirrriofE of tbe monfrenl ana turbine Jtloilrnll~.
0:~06. 11r. netfer, Qr. (If.
The title page of Thomas C. Keefers Philosophy of
Railroads as published in Montreal in 1850.
Talk and writing about railways was therefore in the air in.
thc,,~ early days of our histdry. The Champlain and St.
Lawrence was, however, the first to
be translated from
theorising into actuality.
And it is that great event that we are
celebrating. How good it would be
if we knew what was in the
of these pioneers. But they left records; they were doers
and not writers -with one fortunate exception. This was
Thomas Coltrin Keefer, the younger of two famous half-
An early advocate of a transcontinental railway was Major
Robert Carmichael-Smyth who published this extremely
foresighted pamphlet
in 1849.
brothers who contributed so greatly to early engineering work in
Canada. Thomas had the gift of words . One of his legacies to us
is a small pamphlet entitled Philosophy of Railways which he
wrote at the request of the Directors of the Montreal and Lachine
Railroad. The second edition was published in Montreal in
1850, so the original was probably dated in the 1840 s, not too
long after the
event which we are celebrating this weekend. The
tex t fills 28 octavo pages, appendices 12 pages more. It is all
in rolling Victorian prose. Here is a typical example:

As a people we may as well in this present age attempt to live
without books
or newspapers as without Railroads. A continuous Railroad from tide
water to Lake Huron upon the north side of
the St. Lawrence …. and the rest can be easily imagined.
But to capture the visionary views
of those who, like Thomas
Keefer, saw what railways could do for Canada, and so
illustrate what must have motivated that small group of Montreal
one hundred and ftfty years ago, let me conclude
with the magnificent concluding paragraph
of Keefer s introduc­
tion to his discussion
of the Philosophy of Railroads. Here are
his words, from almost the time
of the start of railroading in this
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This map looks almost exactly like those published by the C. P. R. around the tum of the century. The
transcontinental railway
is there, as are the world-wide connecting steamship lines, all shown in bright red.
However this
is not a C. P. R. map, it is the map drawn in 1849 to illustrate Major Carmichael-Smyths report.
Predicting such a system
in 1849 must have seemed almost irrational, yet within much less than haifa century it was
all there just as Major Carmichael-Smyth
had envisioned.
Old Winter is once more upon us, and our inland seas
dreary and inhospitable wastes to the merchant
and to the traveller; -our rivers are sealed fountains, and
an embargo, which no
human power can remove, is laid
on all
our ports. Around our deserted wharves and
warehouses are hudd led the naked
spars, -the blasted
of trade, -from which the sails have fallen like the
of the autumn. The splashing wheels are silenced,
roar of stearn is hushed, -the gay saloon, so lately
thronged with busy life, is now but an abandoned hall, –
and the cold snow revels in
solitary possession of the
untrodden deck.
The animation of business is suspended,
the life blood of commerce is curdled and stagnant in the
Lawrence -the great aorta of the North. On land, the
heavy stage labours through mingled frost and mud in the
West, -or struggles through drifted snow, and slides with
track over the icy hills of Eastern Canada. Far
away to the Sou th is heard the daily scream of the stearn –
whistle, -but from
Canada there is no escape: blockad~d
and imprisoned by Ice and Apathy, we have at least
ample time for reflection; and if there be
comfort in
Philosophy, may we not profitably consider the
The Paper Money of the Chatnplain
and St. Lawrence Rail Road
An Update
By: Fred Angus.
the sesquicentennial of the Champlain and St. Lawrence
Rail Road there was an article on the
paper money issued
by the railroad
in 1837 . In the discussion of these pieces of paper
money one question was not fully answered. That is whether the
notes actually circulated
or were prepared for use but never actually issued.
This question arises because almost all known
of this issue are unsigned and un -numbered, often still
in the form
of uncut sheets as delivered from the printer (but
NOT proofs as is sometimes believed).
Two signed notes were illustrated by courtesy of the Bank of
Canada Currency Collection. One was considered doubtful in
Photo courtesy 0/: National Currency Collection, Bank a/Canada, Ottawa.
Photographer: James Zagon.
the extreme while the other one has the look of authenticity
it. Now, thanks to research by John Thompson, the
is much clearer, and it looks as if the conclusions drawn in
the article (that the notes did circulate for a limited time) are
indeed valid.
Mr. Thompson has identified the signatures on the 7 -1 d note
5896) and has thereby confmned its authenticity.
One signature is that of William McCullogh who was the
of the company from 1836 to about 1841, while the
is no less than that of William Dubic Lindsay the
Conunissioner( equivalent to General Manager)
of the company.
Lindsays signature occurs above the printed abbreviation
Commr on the note and is undoubtedly genuine, so
confirming the authenticity
of the note.
To settle matters, Mr. Thompson has located the following
letter published
in the Montreal Herald of October 24 1837 :
From Montreal to St. Johns there was nothing
worthy of notice but the railroad
companys usual abundance ofregularity , speed and politeness. By the
why are so few of its small notes circulated in our city?
They are by far the handsomest and most characteristic of
the tribe, and on the other side of the river are not less
current than the cars.
(Adam Thom).
So there you have it.
The notes DID circulate late in 1837,
but mostly in the Laprairie-to -8t. Johns area and little in
Montreal. Evidently the issue was halted long before the
existing supply was used up (since so many unissued notes still
exist) and they were then called in and paid off, subsequently
being destroyed.
The very few that survived are among the
in Canada, But No. 5896 (in the Bank of Canada
collection) is one of them. The letter quoted above is the only
contemporary account
of the notes to come to light so far, but
is understandable if the notes were not often seen in
However it is enough to prove the case and answer
this puzzling question .
The Trans Canada U,ited
Con,.,S 1101,,.,
By: Mike Westren
Trans Canada Limited to Vancouver to
ke~p its appoint­
ment with
Expo 86 was described in Issue 393 of
CANADIAN RAIL. The Worlds Exposition is over now,
and the historic
lUXury train has been returned to its home tracks
in Cranbrook. This short piece is intended to conclude the
ex traordinary working.
During the 5
-1 months of Expo, the Trans Canada Limited
was visited by over
86,000 people. When parties of 20
maximum can be accomodated, that translates into a lot
conducted tours. Several special events took place aboard the
CRHA and WCRA functions, private dinners and
receptions included. Visiting dignitaries ranged from cabinet
to high ranking industry officials and NA TO foreign
ministers. The
Expo experience provided remarkable exposure
for the Cranbrook Railway
Museum, and it is to be hoped much
lasting benefit and support
wi!! aL:crue.
The Trans Canada Limited exhibit had grown to seven cars in
Vancouver. In order from the far end were: (I) Open
Car or hay rack, former Mount Garibaldi, loaned
WCRA. This vehicle remained in Vancouver; (2) Full
Car 4481; (3) Combination Baggage Sleeper 4489,
donated and shipped directly from Hamilton, Ontario, courtesy
of Dofasco and CP Rail; (4) Sleeping Car Rutherglen; (5)
Dining Car Argyle; (6) Solarium -Lounge Car River Rouge;
and(7) Business Car British Columbia. The business car served
supervisory, aff quarters, and was not included as part of the
regular guided tour. Various artifacts, furnishings and parts had
been donated to and purchased for the Museum during the sojourn.
Among the items accumulated were six car end
diaphragms, and a square drumhead tail sign light box.
Monday morning 86.10.20, a minor time warp occurred
in Vancouver VIA station. One has to ignore it being the CN and
not the
CP station, but otherwise we sl ipped lightly back to 192 9
as the Trans Canada Limited was reversed into Track 4 ready
for departure for points east.
The business car had been dropped
off, thus the tail end was properly brought
up by the River
Rouge. A film crew frantically reeled off footage , or should it be
meterage, as the consist was moved
in and out of the
At 0722 on Tuesday 86.10.21, the Trans Canada bade a
fond farewell to Vancouver. With
CN SD40 no. 5126 at the
head, the transfer was made to
Sapperton. Here CP GP38 AC
no. 3004 took over, and caboose 434326 tagged along behind.
Programmed maintenance on the main line caused day layovers
in Coquitlam and Kam100ps, so much of the journey was
accomplished at night.
An historically imp,ossible triple passenger
train meet took place at Squilax around
0200 on Wednesday
86.10.22. Nos. 1 and 2 Canadians met at this point, and
sandwiched improbably between was the 1929
Trans Canada
Limited. Unfortunately this event was impossible to record
photographically with the available equipment at this predawn
The next spectacular was a stop on the famous Stoney
Creek Bridge. Nicholas
Morants wooden structure for official
CP photographs had of course long been dismantled, and in the
five minutes we were allowed, we didnt have time to build a
new one!
However, we were nonetheless quite thrilled with the
we were able to capture. At Golden a change of road
(/) 1929 Trans Canada Limited, with markers and tail sign, ready to leave Track 4, Vancouver Station 86.10.20.
(Photo: Helene Westren.)
(2) Consist/rom baggage car end, Kamloops, 86.10.22.
engine was made. No. 3004 came. otT and GP38-2 no. 3057
was substituted. Towards evening
Thursday 86.10.23, the train
was approaching home on the Windermere subdivision. At Fort
Steele the train was wyed, in order to get the cars the right way
round for replacing on the
Cranbrook Railway Museum site·. So
it was, that at 2141 on
Thursday 86.10.23 , the Trans Canada
Limited tied up in Cranbrook, 62 hrs 19 mins after departing
We werent quite finished yet. On Friday 86.10.24, taking
of being out on the main line, CP Rail was persuaded
to split the train
apart so the diaphragms could be fitted. Local
in Cranbrook yard was done by CPgu no. 1627.
Temporary tracks were laid across to the Museum site Monday
86.10.27, and the train safely returned to its home base.
The train set out with five cars, came back with six. The
whole exercise was a marvellous adventure, and one that gave
the project significant expos
ure at Expo 86. Remarkably little
wear and tear was apparent in the display cars. There are no
plans to move the train again now it
is back on permanent display
in Cranbrook. By late November, the dining car Argyle was
hosting gala dinners once more. This truly
is a living museum,
and refreshingly so.
_—–TIME TABLE 1929——..
Mooul10 V.covwu, Uho,,H ….
Twooto • .,V,lKowu ~hovnIOIll;a
V.lW;ou …. oMO(IUf •.• 7ho ..
VD E.r. E.ulCmTL Thr I
… K. O •• hfW tftloH6c. • .t .. ·,,,.d, I … , .. , …. 0, 00 dior •• tbu tII …. ID: O~ .. (Of .i~;1lI flu.fOund.
O;Io,.d ,~c 19.G Wortd lpoo,uon. V,nlovwu. C.D.d. up.., of Th. VI … Rlil p … lIon
(3) Combination baggage-sleeper no. 4489. Kamloops. 86.10.22.
(4) On Stoney Creek Bridge, 86.10.23.
(5) Exchanging GP38-2 no. 3057 for GP38AC no. 3004 at Golden, 86.10.23.
(6) A classic train returns to Cranbrook, seen on the main line 86. 10.24. In this timeless scene, the telegraph poles/or once enhance
the picture
(7) The 1929 Trans Canada Limited
is back on its home tracks, the Cranbrook Railway Museum site, 86.11. 01.
2/-/7: Mike Westren.)
eNs TEST cars:
An international first for
monitoring track conditions
Using the latest technological developments, eNs Track
Evaluation Systems
(TEST) program provides precise track
information for improved maintenance, higher efficiency and safer operations.
by Bill Palmer
technology first in railroading: a special computerized
dual-car rail unit to test track conditions under the varying
of a fully loaded moving freight car.
Success for this accomplishment has been due to the
of many employees in a number of CN departments:
Engineering developed and coordinated the project and will
tie the unit into its scheduled maintenance plans.
Technical Research Centre
staff designed and custom-made
of TESTs highly specialized equipment.
Information Services developed the computer firmware and
software installed on the
TEST cars.
The CN Car Equipment Department and Pointe St. Charles
shops redesigned and constructed the rail
Transportation developed the implementation techniques for
testing, and assures operational safety over the designated route
of the car.
The TEST program is being used primarily to plan and
CNs $500 million annual track maintenance ex­
penditures, and will complement the regular track inspection
With this new technology,
eN is better able to forecast long­
term wear
on track components, and to significantly reduce
by developing and implementing programs that can assist
track and roadway personnel to maintain
high-quality track
structure. Local maintenance supervisors can also use the
TEST information in planning long-term work programs or
short -term maintenance repairs.
A first -class maintenance program provides
CN with better
track utilization, a more responsive system for freight customers
and for train passengers, reliable train schedules, and reduces
possible damage to equipment -and to cargo.
The introduction of TEST is making it possible to determine
what the maintenance priorities
are, and make possible more
frequent inspections
in the areas where they are most needed.
The TEST cars are outstanding for their high technology,
performance, durability, reliability, and compatibility from
TEST unit to another, and with other computer systems
within the company.
A history of innovation
These two new second -generation TEST units are part of an
evolution to find the best methods
of monitoring various track
conditions –
or what the specialists call track geometry.
M ovin talked first with Pierre Berthiaume, assistant chief, technical
research, and Ray E. Kalita, senior research
engineer, both
at CNs Technical Research Centre in Saint
Laurent, a Montreal su burb.
CNs Technical Research Centre is the second largest in
North America and is responsible for development of sophisti­
cated railroad technology.
Traditionally, required track maintenance
was based on
measurements made with such simple devices as level
and strings and blocks. In the early 1960s, that changed when
Dr. Robert Cass and Dr. Nelson Caldwell of the Technical
Research Centre began a search for ways to better evaluate track
conditions on the system.
Dr. Cass is now chief of Technical
Research; Dr. Caldwell, assistant chief-mechanical and civil
The result was the development of a seismic reference mass
in measuring vertical track pertubations effect, the
spacial movement
of the axle was determined, demonstrating
that non –
contact measurement methods could be used to
measure track parameters.
Mr. Berthiaume explained that testing of this new technology
was also carried out
on a system basis. As a result of its proven
in 1967 the companys first track geometry car, the
15018, was built at the Technical Research Centre.
Mr. Kalita added that Car 15018 used the latest in electronic
technology at that time. This allowed analog
equipment in the development system to be replaced by smaller
operational amplifiers, and the new microcircuit chips
that were
becoming more and more a
part of the electronic design of Dr.
During the
next few years, Car 15018 continued to be used,
with several innovations and refinements introduced:
o Cross -level measurement added.
o Surface profile modified for improved accuracy.
o Magnetic gauge system added.
o Quarter -mile printout of surface roughness, cross level,
gauge and speed.
o A pen chart recorder installed, which showed instantaneous
in measured track parameters.
Mr. Berthiaume emphasized that the technology that had
been developed by
CN was the first inertial, or non-contact,
method developed in the industry to measure track geometry. A
of contact methods have been designed, but they are not
suitable where
64 000 kilometres (40000 miles) of track must
be inspected yearly. The reason? Contact systems lead to wear
on the measurement elements, and are subject to frequent re­
Details ofCNs innovation were published, and as a result,
both British Rail and the Netherlands built their own non­
contact systems. Lat,
er, Canadian Pacific and the Quebec
North Shore Railway also purchased this system.
The 15018 successfully continued to provide information on
track geometry, with its on -board computer analyzing and
reporting measurements to provide rail profiles,
Mr. Kalita
o TES is a dual-car unit, with a coach car and a ballasted

o The coach car contains sensors, computers, mom tors ,
printers, recording equipment,
an observation area, and living
quarters for the operating staff.
[J The unique ballasted freight car has four water tanks that
can be used to vary the weight of the car up to the maximum
allowed on the track structure.
The car also carries electric
power generators.
o The TEST units are based on three component systems:
sensors to monitor various vertical, horizontal and lateral
in track geometry; interpreters to process information
from these sources;
recorders to produce reports to identify
areas needing attention.
o The sensors provide information on surface profile of the
track, gauge, cross level, superelevation, curvature, and track
o The recorders provide five types of reports interpreted by
the computers:
Track feature locations (turnouts, mile boards, level
s, etc.) .
Location, magnitude, and maintenance priority
of track
needing repair.
Current track quality for
each quarter-mile (400 -metre)
section compared with previous evaluations.
ge at which curves begin and end, and degree of curves
and amount
of superelevation.
of all instrumentation signals produced by TEST.
o The dual-car units can travel up to 100 kilometres (60
miles) an hour.
DOne dual-car is being used for track monitoring in
Western Canada, for ultimate use in CNs Mountain Region.
The second dual-car unit has also traveled west, to Expo 86 to
demonstrate this new technolog
y; it will ultimately be used in
the Prairie provinces.
o The original track geometry car will be used in Eastern
Canada, although the dual-car units are also expected to be
in other regions as needed.
Time to upgrade
However, since the introduction of the 15018 there had been
several important technologi
cal advances. In addition, the car
itself was in need of renovation. So beginning in 1972, the
original track geometry car was replaced with a newer
car, CN
15000, which received a number of innovations over the next
few years:
o The curvature system was modified.
o Superelevation measurement was added.
o Hewlett Packard computer was installed.
o First track geometry comparative histograms were printed in
CN System Headquarters.
o The MK II computer was replaced by the MK IIl.
The responsibility for these changes was carried out by
al Research Centre staff, Mr. Kalita added, including,
in addition to Dr. Cass and Dr. Caldwell, Laurent St -Louis,
Richard Proulx, Bill Bowler,
Mr. Berthiaume, and Mr. Kalita
himself. Bill Lane was supervisor
of this car during its testing
and, later, its operations.
The next generation
In 1981, CN s Engineering Department was asked to
examine its maintenance programs to
find ways to increase
productivity and to reduce costs.
That request was met on two
The first was the establishment of the Track Force
Program; the second was a comprehensive
international evaluation
of track geometry systems. Heading
that overview was
Don Holfeld, system engineer, technology,
Operations. Working with him were
Ray Kalita, Bill Lane, and
Chafe, project engineer, TEST Project, Operations.
Mr. Holfeld explained that we began with a survey by
letter, asking roads –
in the United States, Europe, Australia
and Japan -what track geometry equipment they were using.
… ddition, a literature survey was conducted.
The letter/literature survey was followed by technical visits
to railroads
in the United States and in Europe by Mr. Holfeld
Mr. Kalita, to evaluate first-hand the track geometry
technology in those countries.
They were by no means simple
social visits; they included train trips
of some duration, many
of track inspection, and marathon discussions with foreign
railroad representatives to evaluate more accurately the systems
in use.
The result? Basically, CN s technology for track geometry
measurement was among the best available.
And with some
and modifications could meet CN s present and future
1982. a report was presented to senior management
incorporating the results of the Track Force Rationalization
study, as well as an innovative recommendation for monitoring
track geometry developed by
Mr. Holfeld steam. That idea:
The use of a dual-car unit, one of those, an instrumented and
ballasted freight
car that could vary from 177 000 pounds
(80000 kilograms) to 263000 pounds (120000 kilograms);
second, an analysis and observation coach car, utilizing
omputers, high -technology equipment, video -recording and
playback units, as well as living quarters for the operating
Included in that recommendation
for the dual-car concept
was a second suggestion for replacement of the original
recorders by easily understandable and useful computer
printouts of track exceptions and information. Mr. Holfeld
explained that because oftime restraints, those original charts
-which required considerable study – simply were not always
utilized. On the other hand, the computer printouts give
immediate, easy -to -understand information.
1982: Authorization to build two dual-car units was
The green light
With the green light, various CN departments went full
speed ahead with the construction of the cars themselves and the
technology needed.
CN s Pointe St. Charles shops modified
VIA coaches and two freight cars for the two dual-car units
needed. Installed
in the coach cars were new improved
instrumentation, underbody cameras,
TV monitors, equipment
to videotape various track views, a voice
synthesizer, an
of information on the TV monitor, a clear observation
area -and comfortable quarters for the operating staff.
Also at the shops, an innovative system called ORIAN was
ORlAN (Optical Rail Inspection and Analysis) was
designed and constructed by a United States firm especially to
CN requirements. With information from ORlAN,
Engineering will be able to forecast rail requirements many
years in advance, to direct rail gang work, and to determine
accurately areas requiring rail transposing far in advance of
critical deadlines.
As well, a number
of modifications were deemed necessary;
one of them, an improved gauge measurement system which
would allow development of a system to measure track
Three approaches were reviewed –
FRA, British and
Dutch. CN chose the latter, which uses a controlled laser beam
to measure the position
of both the right and left rails.
We purchased the plans and documentation from the
Netherlands railroad but had our own Technical Research
Centre make the necessary modifications to meet
CN needs,
Mr. Holfeld said.
Another modification has been
in a new method of measuring
superelevation, now accurate to 1/16 -considered the best
the world.
And the future? Mr. Holfeld pointed out that CN s search
for a second -generation track geometry car has encouraged
other railroads to review their own track -geometry inspection
systems. Only recently, a new committee
of the American
Railw~y Engineering Association has come into being. Its goal:
Improving the collection and distribution
of information about
track geometry technology.
Mr. Holfeld is secretary.
Through the discussions and sharing
of ideas that take place
within the operating and innovative technology and equipment
are being developed.
One such innovation that is just around the
is a robotic tamper car, that will take the information
from a track geometry
car, pass it through its own computer,
and automatically realign the track with no operator input.
In the not too distant future, laser technology, robotics and
artificial intelligence may all be buzz words used to describe
track maintenance.
The computer connection
TEST is the most sophisticated of its kind in the world, said
Ian Kearvell,
CN senior programmer analyst, CAD/CAM
. and Graphic Systems. It combines many years of experience
in track inspection technology with ,Custom hardware and
software designed and developed by the railroad to meet its
specific needs.
TEST measures track geometry using sensors mounted on
cars exterior to provide raw signals for on-board computers
to monitor, analyse and report.
The main computer converts
analog measurement data into digital form and
then produces
in real time. It also controls the operation of the TEST
The raw analog signals generated from the sensors are pre­
processed by a CN -designed MK III compu ter. After this
processing, the analog output
is sent to the main computer for
further processing.
The processed data are then analyzed and a series of reports
immediately printed:
An exception report specifying the exact location of a
D A sensor report giving a graphical interpretation
of the
track geometry.
D A curve analysis report.
D A track summary statistics report.
D A rail wear exception report from
A microprocessor called the Pulse Processor, another CN
Technical Research Centre-designed system. regulates the
timing pulse, generated by an odometer.
that is used to
determine car location and speed.
A Sony Genlocker takes information. such as
car location,
speed, and geometry data, and overlays it onto video monitors
in the observation area to keep operating personnel onboard
of all track situations.
The custom designed software packages developed for
TEST are what set it apart from existing track geometry
technology, Mr. Kearvell said. One of TESTs capabilities
is its ability to know where it is located along a particular track.
Switching to another track
is also automatically detected by the
TEST sensors and software.
Re -printed from
CN Mavin.
The Story Of The B. C. Electric Railway
By: Henry Ewert
Published by Whitecap Books
1086 West 3rd Street
North Vancouver, B. C.
operated the largest interurban system in Canada as well as
the street
car systems in Vancouver and Victoria. Electric
traction had come to British Columbia
in 1890, only four years
after the opening
of the transcontinental railway. In 1897 the various electric companies became the B. C. Electric
and until 1958 electric passenger rail service continued. At one
time there were
111 route miles of street car operation and 141
route miles of interurbans. In 1910 the system carried 40 million
passengers, and the total peaked at 146 million in
1947. Even
B.C. Hydro, the successor to B.C. Electric, still
operates freight service over much
of the old interurban
trackage, while the city
of Vancouver has a large fleet of modem
trolley busses as well as the newly -opened Sky train system,
of which runs over the old B. C. Electric right of way.
Despite the great importance of the B.C. Electric system,
there has never been a
full comprehensive history of the whole
That is, not until 1986. Now, thanks to the great
of Henry Ewert, we have one of the most interesting, ifnot
the most interesting, book ever to be written on a Canadian
electric railway system. The Story Of The B. C. Electric
Company is a massive book containing 336 large(8 YJ x
11) pages
in a hard cover binding. From the very earliest plans
in the late 1880 s the reader is led through a fascinating world of
history, technology, politics and drama as the early systems in
Victoria and Vancouver struggled to get running. They were the
first transit lines
in Canada to start with electric power, never
having run horse
cars, and one can feel the agonizing decisions
that had to be made in commiting the undertaking to this new
Passing on to the twentieth
century, we read of the spread of
the great interurban network, the upgrading of the city lines and
watch the development
of Canadas west coast cities, a
development helped
in no small way by the B. C. Electric. Then
we see the decline of the electric railway, the disappearance of
the street cars and the interurbans as rubber -tired transit took
over. Finally
we see the reincarnation of the interurban as the
new Sky train rapid -transit system and we realize that electric
is still prominent in B.C. for the Sky train is just as up­
to-date in 1986 as the electric cars were in 1890.
The Story Of The B.C. Electric Railway Company is much
more than a simple history.
It contains hundreds of photographs
ranging from the earliest views
in 1890 to the latest in 1986.
Maps and drawings abound including detailed scale drawings of
no less than FIFTY different types of street cars and
interurbans. There are also pictures
of a wide variety oftickets,
transfers and other ephemera produced by the B. C. Electric,
not to mention a detailed roster
of the rolling stock owned by the
company over the years.
In reading this book one feels that he
is reading the whole
of city and interurban traction, for there was a bit of almost
everything here. There were some of the earliest electric cars
(1890), early double-truck cars (1892) including the first
interurbans to
New Westminster that were featured in a J. G.
Brill advertisement in 1893 ! Then there was stark tragedy as we
of the Point Ellice disaster of 1896 when 55 people lost
their lives as Victoria
car 16 (a double truck car similar to
Bostons 25 -footers) plunged through a bridge. Soon there
is a
new company formed and an agressive management builds a
great system.
Here we can really experience the flavour of the
electric railways for there are so many detailed accounts and
stories to interest the reader.
From the big interurban trains to
Chilliwack to the local Birney
cars, not to mention the
cars, it is all here to be read and enjoyed. Jfyou only
buy one book
on a Canadian electric railway system this is the
one to get.
Reviewed by
Fred Angus.
Canadian Railway
Freight Pricing
Historical and Current Perspectives, 1836 -1983
Canadas railway freight rate structure from its earliest
origins until the
mid-1980s, including the settlement of the
Crow debate with the passage of the Western Grain
Transportation Act. It covers many new freight rate develop­
ments that have arisen since
Howard Darling wrote The Politics
of Freight Rates and also reviews the economic content of these
ssues, thus setting the background for the coming debate on the
governments proposed changes to the Transportation Act.
The author, W. G. (Bill) Scott, is a well-known transpor­
tation economist who recently retired from
CP Rail where he
was General
Manager of Pricing Economics. Mr. Scott
provides a carrier perspective
011 this controversial subject.
Key issues such as legal
equity versus economic
efficiency associated with differential railway pricing practices;
variable freight rates based on differences in
costs and
; and general versus selective rate increases
are highlighted.
474 pages, 22 tables, 27 figures
ISBN 088911 2622 (6 x 9, soft cover)
Available: September, 1986
(Cdn …. postage paid
Also Available from CIGGT:
Howard DarlingS The Politics of Freight Rates ($17.95)
A Statutory History of Canadian Railways, 1836-1983 ($35.95)
Canadian Institute of Guided Ground Transport
Queens University, Kingston, Canada K7 L 3 N6
(613) 545-2810
RG 43
By: Glenn T. Wright.
Inventory .
Records of the Department
of Railways and Canals
This publication of the Federal Archives Division of the
Public Archives
of Canada is, as its name suggests, an
of what material is available to the researcher looking
for information
in the records of the Department of Railways
Canals in the Public Archives. Starting with a table of
contents, the book then has a valuable history of the department
and how the records were preserved during the period from 1879
to 1936. Then follows the
meat of the book: a listing of the
holdings under major categories.
One can read for example such
headings as
Quebec Bridge 1885-1916, Subsidies to
1883-1901, Canadian Pacific Railway 1875-
1892 , Office of the Chief Draftsman 1893 -1905 , Lachine
Canal Commission 1821-1842, Weiland Canal Company
1824-1843 and many more.
The serious researcher into the history of Canadas railways
and canals will find this book invaluable.
It is bilingual, and is
available FREE OF CHARGE from:
Publications Services
Public Archives
of Canada
395 Wellington Street
Ottawa, Ontario
e. uSlne
Canadian Rail
No. 388
Society announced the winners of its annual Railroad
History awards last May at its national convention in
Sacramento California. One
of the nominees for the Railroad
History Article
Award was the article on the Newfoundland
Railway in the September-October issue
of Canadian Rail. This article, written by Mike Wragg
of Burin Newfoundland,
was nominated
in this category For an outstanding article of
lasting significance to the interpretation of North Americas
railroading history .
This is the first time that an article in
Canadian Rail has been
nominated for such an award.
It was in such company as articles
from Trains magazine, Railfan
& Railroad, Business History
Review and Railroad History. Final winner was Jim Boyd
the article The Men Who Styled the Streamliners in Railfan
& Railroad.
Mike Wragg and his associates
in Newfoundland are to be
heartily congratulated for their great contribution to the
of railway history.
at the base of the White Mountain Cog Railway in New
Hampshire recently for the dedication and christening of
three newly renovated locomotives. In celebration of event,
Gov. John Sununu, dressed
in appropriate railroad attire,
engineered one
of the three new locomotives up the shuttle train
track. In welcoming the invited guests to the Cog Railway,
Wayne Presby, one
of the owners, commented, In 1866,
Sylvester Marsh began building the Cog Railway, and in 1986 ,
weve begun rebuilding it.
According to General Manager Brad Williamson, in the
of the three locomotives, Cog employees used the
existing frames
of the engines. New boilers were installed as
as new locomotive cabs and the running gear also was
rebuilt. The boilers that were replaced were built in
stated Williamson, and after 90 years of service, they were
ready to be replaced.
in progress at the Cog this year, is extensive track work
on the mountain. The Cog has a total
of eight locomotives, and
the next phase
of work will include the rebuilding of two more as
well as more ex tensive track work.
The 470.
1986 was a year in which Canada issued an unprecedented
0/ coins and stamps depicting railway subjects. First
there was the beautiful silver dollar coin, commemorating the
IOOth anniversary 0/ Vancouver, which depicted a C.P.R.
train 0/1886 againstthe skyline 0/1986 Vancouver. This coin
was illustrated
in the May-June issue o/Canadian Rail.
68¢ EXPO-86 stamp showed the old and new means 0/
transport in Vancouver; the old was a B. C. Electric
interurban while the
new was the monorail at the Expo


• •
• •

• •
• • •

• •

The 119th anniversary o/Con/ederation was commemorated
by a set of/our stamps showing Canadian inventions in science
and Technology. One
0/ these stamps showed a rotary snow
plow; a Canadian invention
: …………•………….. ~
, •••••…….•..•••……•• ~.
November 4 saw the issue 0/ a stamp to commemorate John
Molson, and
in the upper right corner o/the stamp was a view
o/a train o/the Champlain and St. Lawrence R.R. hauled by
the Dorchester , Canadas first locomotive.
Finally on November 21 came the last of four sets of four
stamps depicting historic Canadian locomotives. Thus the
locomotive series has shown
16 locomotives since the series
began in 1983. This time one diesel (C. N. R. 9000) was
included as well as three steam locomotives.
While it
is unfortunate that there was no stamp which
commemorated directly the 150th anniversary
of Canada s
railways. one cannotfeel
too sorry. for railways were certainly
well represented both numismatically and philatelically. and
the commemoration of Canada s railway heritage is richer as
a result.
Bombardier Inc. of Montreal is trying to revive its
locomotive business.
The company said recently it has agreed to a general
partnership with Hitachi
Corp. of Japan to allow the two
companies to submit joint proposals for the design and
of diesel electric freight and passenger locomotiv~s .
Gagnon. president of the rail and diesel products
division, said
in a telephone interview yesterday that the
locomotives would be equipped with diesel engines from
Bombardier and electrical systems from
Gagnon said the agreement permits the two companies to
pool efforts and know -how to obtain a larger share
of the world
rail products market.

The market looks good in Africa and the China market will
open with time
, Gagnon said.
Last year, Bombardier stopped making freight locomotives
and laid off 350 workers after failing to win a
$90 -million
contract from Canadian National Railways.
The companys last passenger locomotive contract was for
LRC train for Via Rail Canada Inc., the federal rail
passenger agency.
Bombardier said
60 diesel-electric locomotives being
delivered to Pakistan by Hitachi are equipped with Bombardier
diesel engines.
Gagnon said the Hitachi accord gives his company access to
the latest technology. Locomotives previously made by
bardier used electrical systems supplied by Canadian General
Co. Ltd.
Gagnon added that the agreement means that both Bombardier
and Hitachi will
share, not only the responsibilities, but also the
S. Montreal
In the article Electric Traction 1886 -1986 in the
November-December issue it wll:s stated that the
electric railway at the Toronto Exhibition had been
built, using the Van Depole
system, in 1884. Our
Member Mr. Ray Corley, informs us that this railway
was actually built and operated in 1883, and was rebuilt
by Van Depole
in 1884. Evidently it was re-equipped
again in 1886 as was reported in The Electrical
of that year.
Mr. Corley also points out that the cover photo,
which was the basis for the cut on page 184 , was taken in
1885, not 1886. This stands to reas,?n since the
illustration appeared
in The Electrical World on
14, certainly too early to have been an
of the 1886 exhibition.
The author of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo article on
202 of the same issue was Ian Baird, not Raird
as shown. The editor regrets this error.
Mr. H. Arnold Wilder of the Railway and Locomotive
Historical Society writes:
As a long-time CANADIAN RAIL Enthusiast, I
should like to
report that I particularly enjoyed your issue
#390, January-February, which had two fine maps
showing the rail lines west
of Winnipeg.
Because in recent
years, so many of those lines
represented have been declared redundant and taken up , I
should like to enquire if there
is any source which will
just which lines are thus affected, with the thought
that we might update these fine
Mr. Wilders address is: P.O. Box 1418
56 Coldspring Road
Westford, MA 01886
Any help that our members can give on this subject would be
appreciated, both by Mr. Wilder and your editor, and, in
time, we hope to produce an updated version of the map.
came in, but to the casual passerby, precious little else
seems to be happening with the grande dame
of Edmonton
The Hotel Macdonald is celebrating its 71 st year, and its
year with a 100 per cent vacancy rate. But, unseen by
outsiders, workers are laboring
on room renovations and
installing new windows on the upper floors as they attempt to
restore the chateau -style hotel to its original elegance. A
16 –
storey rectangular wing, which opened
in 1953 , was demolished
earlier this
year .
The Mac was Edmontons pre -eminent hotel for at least 50
years and it played host to all kinds of notables including
royalty, politicians and show business personalities. Among
them, just to name a few, were King George VI and Queen
Elizabeth, Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, Bob Hope, Jack
Benny and Zsa Zsa Gabor.
The citys contribution to chateau -style railway hotel
architecture -named for
Canadas first prime minister, Sir
A. Macdonald-was closed for renovations in July 1983.
But, like an unwanted locomotive, it was shuttled about and
for some time.
, Heartbreak hotel
The foot-dragging by its owners, Canadian National
Hotels, caused anxious city fathers to tear their hair out in
frustration and others to call the Macdonald heartbreak hotel
or our laLy in waiting.
The renovations only began a year ago after CN Hotels
discontinued discussions to sell the Macdonald and purchase the
Four Seasons Hotel.
So, instead of the original 12 months it was to take to
refurbish, it will take almost five years for the hotel to open
again. Its rebirth
is scheduled for early 1988.
The renovations had been planned for some time, and CN
Hotels even entertained discussions for part-ownership with
local entrepreneur Peter Pocklington before entering a partnership
with the
Nu West Group Ltd. of Calgary. But, with the city
in a recession, CN Hotels severed its ties with Nu West
almost three years ago.
The first plans for the rejuvenated Mac were most impressive
-office towers
of 28 and 39 storeys, plus a architecturally
compatible hotel wing to the
south at a total cost of about $200
Todays more modest plans call for a glassed restaurant with
a swimming pool below on the south
side, and a gallery lining
the northeast side.
Both will be architecturally compatible to the hotel, says
David Kraatz of the IBI Group, the architectural firm
supervising the renovations.
The toned -down renovations will cost $24 million, with the
Mac having 190 rooms with classy modern amenities in a
traditional setting. The Wedgwood Room and
Empire Ballroom
will be restored to their former
glory, and there will also be a
bar, a restaurant, and various meeting and banquet rooms.
Kraatz says the selective demolition has
uncovered a pile of
horrendous renovations which probably made sense then, but
did nothing for the character
of the building. Still, we were
surprised that there was as much left as there
While it is planned to restore the Mac as much to its original
form as possible, there will be some changes.
As well as the
ex terior additions, the kitchen will be moved to the main floor
from the basement.
Cost $2.2 million
You cannot restore it exactly as it was in 1915 -the
modern traveller
wont accept that, Kraatz says, For
example, in 1915 you had a separate ladies entrance, very few
ladies washrooms, and 50 per cent of the suites didnl have
bathrooms -just a sink. So some changes will have to be
The original 10-storey hotel had 175 rooms and was built for
$2.2 million at the end of one of Edmontons first economic
It has almost always occupied a soft spot in the hearts of
most city folk, not to mention a prominent spot on the city
skyline that leaves competitors green with
envy. And, indeed,
it was one
of the citys three tallest buildings until the early
The hotel was built by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway on
land selected for its proximity to the business district and its
prime southern view
of the meandering North Saskatchewan
River and the greenery
of Mill Creek Ravine. Perched on the
of McDougall Hill, the Mac had a precursor on that spot
-the Grandview Hotel, a name whose origins should be self
Today, the hotels origins with the Grand Trunk Pacific
Railway are retained -the original doorknobs are emblazoned
with the
GTP logo.
The ex terior of the building, which was designed by the
Winnipeg and Montreal architecture fum of Ross and MacFarlane,
was finished in Indiana limes tome with a copper roof now
with age. Its interior featured steel frame construction,
reinforced concrete flooring, gypsum rock walls, and terra cotta
interior partitions.
The hotel was built so solidly that there are no problems with
the structure,
Kraatz says. But during the time of construction,
concerns were voiced about the stability
of the river bank.
The Mac was formally opened on July 6, 1915, when 420
people attended a ball. The Edmonton Daily Capitol described
the gala affair as the most important social event
in the citys
Another mile -post
in the social life of Edmonton was
passed last night when the Macdonald Hotel made its formal
debut as an operating
hostelry, the paper boasted. The
splendid structure was the mecca of society and upwards of 420
Edmontonians can lay claim to having feasted in the magnificent
dining room on the night that the portals
of the Macdonald were
thrown open to the public.
Groin ceiling
It was perhaps the most brilliant social event in the citys
history, for never before has it been possible to carry out a
similar function upon so colossal a scale.
of the hotels features included the octagonal Palm
Room which
in later years became known as the Wedgewood
Room because
of its groin ceiling with Wedgewood design
plaster sculpture
s. The rotunda and corridors were paved in
Lepanto marble.
The Confederation Room, with its two -storey ceiling and
arched door way to the south patio, included a massive nine by
18 -foot canvas painting of the Fathers of Confederation. The
1915 painting by Frederick S. Challener remains where he
supervised its hanging, protected from the rigors
of contemporary
by a plastic sheet.
The ballroom occupied the entire end of the east wing. Two­
storeys high, and known as the Empire Ballroom, it features
plaster sculptures
of hunting scenes in the ceiling. This
prompted some to name it the
Hearth and Hound Room.
The mezzanine floor overlooked the rotunda, and had a
ladies drawing
room, later converted to administration offices.
The hotel had a long history of seeking tax concessions from
city council. Tax concessions were wrested before it was built in
1910, including paying cost only on water and power for
years, and no taxation on property above $50,000.
In a heart-rendering oration to council in 1918, closure of
the hotel was threatened unless its tax load was further lessened.
Company representatives claimed that the average occupancy
81 rooms a day in 1916 and 76 in 1917. Hotel losses
$39,000 in 1917.
, Box· addition
The building of the 300 -room box addition many years
later cost $4.5 million and concessions were again granted.
With the city experiencing a boom after the Second World
and the discovery of oil at Leduc, more hotel rooms were ba~ly
required. So, council bowed again, reducing the hotels tax
rate to $75 a room from
$338 .
CN Hotels was so happy with the addition that the
companys then president, Donald Gordon, said the old wing
of the Mac might be replaced by a modem addition to conform to
the style
of the new tower.
But even before the new wing was built, a 1949 editorial
The Journal defended the gracious lines of the old Mac.

The new wing, as the CNR hotel officials pointed out, will
become the hotel and the present Macdonald will be the wing
reality, the paper said. This is too bad. The Macdonald is a
beautiful building and while
it will still be beautiful when it
becames a
mere wing, it will be overshadowed by the far from
16 -storey rectangular mass.
Finally, in 1983 , council made its latest concessions. For
the pleasure of designating the Hotel MacDonald as the citys
first and only municipal historic resource a year later, the city
agreed to $3 million
in concessions, including a freeze on tax
assessments in the first five years
of operation.
S. Edmonton Journal via Lon Marsh
a high -speed rail link between Edmonton and Calgary out­
weigh the benefits, says a report to Economic Development
Minister Larry
The economics are such that its impossible for me to
recommend it to my
colleagues, Shaben said in reviewing the
he insisted the idea is still alive -and the province may
take the
precautionary step of acquiring the necessary right­
The group of Edmonton and Calgary businessmen that
prepared the latest report
is gloomy about fare prospects in the
short term.
It predicts the 1.2 million annual trips needed to support the
wouldnt be achieved until the late 1990 s at the
Shaben said government subsidies
of $600 miiJion to $700
miiJion would be needed in a total project cost of $1.3
is the key to the viability of the project, Shaben
But committee co-chairman Gerald Pearson said predicting
future ridership
is so uncertain it requires a crystal ball.
Other factors -such as the decision whether to close
Edmontons Municipal Airport eventually -would also have a
big impact on the project.
Neither Edmonton nor Calgary had shown much interest in
giving their input to the committees work, said Pearson.
Mayor Laurence Decore s aid yesterday he is delighted they
put this thing on the back burner.
Decore said the idea of the high -speed link may have merit
during boom
times, but it certainly doesnt have merit now.

There are many bigger and better priorities that face
Edmontonians -repair
of water and sewer lines, getting the
LRT within the city of Edmonton concluded, getting the outer
ring road done.
Shaben said he was surprised the high -speed rail issue
hadnt earned a higher profile in either city.
S. The Edmonton Sun via Lon Marsh
world -of -tomorrow exhibits: the futuristic commuter train
glides over its 21-
km track at the sole command of central
control with all instructions and directions conveyed electronic­
fr;m a main computer to ones built into the individual
trains. Technology controls the entire system: only one human
head and hand is needed to do the thinking,
send the signals,
process the ·
data, and make the decisions.
In the more complex world
of freight trains, however, many
more heads and hands are needed. But the speed, efficiency,
and accuracy
of computers are making constant and significant
changes to the way these trains are
operated. According to W.
J. Moore Ede, manager of advanced control systems: The
data systems now being developed and in some cases ready for
testing will provide us with a powerful new tool
for controlling
the flow
of train traffic across the system. Better still, he
continues, the new generation
of smart locomotives now being
built will substantially reduce our cost
of operations.
Advanced Train Control Systems
Among the many technologies currently making modem rail­
roading safer and more efficient, few have implications as
fundamental and far reaching as the advanced train control
ms (A TCS) .
Computers communicate
A TCS uses electronics, computers, and telecommunications
to direct train movements from central control points located
across the system. Computers at these points communicate with
other computers on board locomotives to manage train
precisely determine train location, issue movement instructions,
and enforce compliance with those instructions.
How does ATCS work? Mr. Moore Ede explains: The
central computers and the locomotive computers communicate
with each other via coded radio messages
transmitted by
wayside base -stations, in most instances the same ones now
used for voice radio communication.
The central computer
receives information from the locomotive on its
location, speed,
and operating status, and then uses this information to tell the
locomotive what it should do given the track and operating
conditions facing it down the line.
For example, locomotive A is travelling at 50 Kph, pulling
5,000 tonnes of lumber. Up ahead, and out of the enginemans
visual rang
e, is a work crew, an on -coming train, and a sharp
curve. From information transmitted to it by the track -side
transponders and the locomotive computers, the central
computer knows where each train
is, the precise locations of any
crews, and exact track configurations. Using all this
information, the central computer tells the locomotive computer
the speed limit and movement authority information
it needs to
safely pass the work crew, meet and pass the on -coming train,
and negotiate that
lOC:tll0n and track
••• aa~ ••
Enforces speed limits
ATCS can also enforce train speed at those levels computed
to be the safest and most cost effective, a feature
which, Mr.
Moore Ede says, will lead to substantial fuel savings,
improved ability to handle traffic, and better equipment
utilization. And while the engineman will still be responsible
for the safe and efficient handling
of the train, A TCS can, on its
own, bring the train to a safe stop in the event of an
Centralized train control makes a lot
of sense from many
different angles. In fact, says John
Reoch, assistant vice­
president operatio
ns, given the nature of the railway, some
of centralized control is not only natural, it is an absolute
necessity. CN already enjoys a certain level of centralized
electronic surveillance
of train movements, not only through
CTC systems, but also through its management
information systems such as
and through the existence of such electronic equipment as hot
box and dragging equipment detectors, and such innovations as
its track geometry
(TEST) car. All these computer -based
systems lead to much more effective control and utilization
of all
the railways major assets, particularly its cars and locomotives,
Mr. Reoch.
Because A
TCS is computer -based, it can interface directly
CN s other computer systems to the point where, says Mr.
Reoch, we will eventually be able to integrate all railway
control and business information.
How people fit in
Technologically there is no question CN would benefit in
many important ways from the implementation of A TCS. But
the question arises, where do people fit into the scenario. Are
we actually looking at a railway that will soon be like a model
set, with one busy button -pusher in one lone office
controlling the entire system and its operations?
Mr. Moore Ede is emphatic in his response: People will
always have an indispensable role
in the business of railroading,
he stresses. Enginemen will still ride in locomotive cabs, and
will retain all their current responsibilities. All movement
authorities and track occupancy will still be controlled
by the
dispatcher. The difference A TCS will make is that it will give
the people running the train significantly better tools with which
to do their work.
It is no secret, however, that the same technology needed to
keep the railway
in business will eventually result in an overall
workforce smaller than was needed
in a less -efficient, pre­
computer era. One ofthe major challenges we face right now,
confirms Mr. Reoch, is dealing constructively with the effect
on our employees
of technology such as is represented by
TCS. But our long -range viability, our very survival as a
in fact, depends on our continued ability to meet this
challenge well.
S. Keeping
th,.. first railway in Nova Scotia was built. The Nova Scotia
road, six miles in length, ran from Albion Mine, now
Stellarton, to the loading ground on the
East River near where it
joins Pictou
Harbour. The coal from there was shipped by water
to markets along the coast of Nova Scotia, to Quebec and
Montreal during open navigation, and
to the United States.
Before the railway was built coal was conveyed to the loadlng
ground in lighters.
At that time, there were few construction engineers and not
one was available to build the proposed line. A government land
surveyor was prevailed upon to undertake the task. His name
was Peter
Crerar, and he made a complete success of surveying
the line and making the
plans. So the railway was built under his
When completed, it was in every way equal to
first steam railway; a remarkable feat, in view of the fact that
Crerar had never seen a railroad.
The line, six miles in length,
was so nearly straight that the least radius
of its curves was
1,300 feet.
The estimated quantity of excavation was 400,000
cubic yards. At the water terminus, there was a wharf 1,500
feet long by 24 feet wide, commanding a fall
of 17 feet above
highwater level
at the shoots. The masonry, bridges, and
culverts were
of cut freestone, the latter obtained in a nearby
quarry. The total cost of construction was $160,000.
The building of the Albion railway was begun in 1836, and
the road was opened for traffic in
1839. While the railroad was
being constructed three locomotives were being built
in England
by Timothy
Hackworth. These were landed at Pictou and
brought up the
East River to Albion on lighters towed by the
companys steamships.
These three first locomotives were

The Samson, The Hercules, and The John Biddle.
They were slow running but powerful locomotives and their coal
consumption was moderate.
The Albion locomotive, built later, was
of neater design and
faster, but perhaps not as powerful.
The cars were coal
hoppers, or wagons, holding a ton
or perhaps two tons of coal.
They had trap -door bottoms for rapid unloading into the chutes
at the loading ground.
There was a public opening of the line in
which all three
of the locomotives and all of the coal wagons took
part. It was a gala day throughout Pictou County, and attracted
interest throughout British North America, and in the British
Isles. People flocked into Albion from the four points of the
compass, afoot, on horseback, and in one -Iiorse chaises. One
thousand persons came up the
East River from Pictou and
in lighters, towed by the companys steamers.
·It was on this railway that Nova Scotias first fatal railway
accident occurred. There was a picnic down the
East River, at
Abercrombie, the end
of the track, and the locomotives, with
coal cars made suitable to carry people, were utilized. There
were a dozen persons or so riding in the
caboose, which was on
the rear
of the first engine, when another engine crashed into it.
One passenger was fatally injured and several were quite
seriously hurt.
S. Keeping Track
full steam
ahead for Bulletnosed Betsy.
But first, he has
to get the 300,000 -kg steam locomotive
back to Jasper from Vancouver, where
~he s undergoing about
$40,000 in repairs.

Were hoping to bring her home sometime in December,
said Home, a locomotive engineer who bought the former CNR
steam engine in 1962 and restored it to running condition with
financial help from the provincial government.
The steam
engin~ was nicknamed Bulletnosed Betsy by rail
in 1944, the year it was commissioned.
Beginning next
year, Homes plan for the old 6060 steam
engine calls for excursion runs out
of Jasper to Vancouver and
Alberta, a run to the southern United States to
promote the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympics and a possible role
in a Walt Disney movie.
theres the problem of getting Betsys work
capacity back on track. A guest appearance at
Expo in early
June took the steam right out
of her. Now, she needs new
springs, work on her combustion box and a myriad
of small

Were in a position to continue work on her, said Home.
And, were working toward a reasonable solution for further
If Homes negotiations are successful, Betsy will also make
a run to
Hanna to help the small, central-eastern Alberta town
celebrate its 75 th anniversary.
But, without
doubt, Betsys biggest coup would be winning a
in a Walt Disney production in which she would run serum
to Alaska in sub-zero temperatures
to combat an influenza
Weve been approached by representatives for Walt
Disney about a scene where the train is shown in wide -open
to simulate a cold winter scene in Nome, Alaska, said
He said the scene, which would be shot near Jasper, would
show Betsy delivering the serum
to the last stop on the train run ,
after which it would be relayed by dog team.
We have the engine to do this
for them, and we have people
here who have dog
teams, so we have the capabilities, he said.
Home said the Rocky Mountain Rail Society has received
tremendous response to the concept
of the steam train as a result
of an Oct. 2 half-hour CBC documentary entitled Lady From
The Past.
S. Edmonton Journal via Lon Marsh
Mark your calendar now for
a show for aU ages • bril7g the
whole fWllily • Talk with the
& get helpful hints at …
The 12th Annual Toronto
Model Railway Show
MARCH 14 & 15,1987
SATURDA. Y 14th SliNDA Y lSlh
II a.m. 106 p.m. II a.m. 106 p.m.
Adults $5.00
Seniors $3.00
Children 6-12 $2.00
5 and under Frlt
Group Rates available b~ prior flmtngemenl
60,(}(}(} <1q. fl. oj exlii/);I$, jeulltrill.t. ...
• Modtd R(JI/I(lY Clubs • OperQlii1 Lo)ou/s
• A /I sfob • Cr;mm{,rciu{ IJI:<1pf{JYs
• Demons/ra/ions • Vt!lIdws
For wmdor inquiries and Ill/ormalion, please call Mikl! 488-9446
SpulI.JUred By
Torull/O & York DiI~/(J1l oj nit Cu-,rlrJwn Radroud Hi.hll,, Ass(J(iUlion
P.O. Un.I 58.Jf/ ~ Sta/;on .,-1 -…. orQIIIO. OlltOriO M5 W I P3
VIA fraill No. 49, IheolJernigh,Cuvalierjrom Ol/(I …. ·a 10 Toromo ;0 8Tockville. passts1hrough $milhs Foils
(elf m;nu/es to / A ,AI, in the early morning 0/ August I /986,
Ph% by David MQrns.
Canadian Rail
P.o. Box 282 St. Eustache, Que., Canada
J7R 4K6
Postmaster: if undelivered within
10 days relurn 10 sender, postage guaranteed
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St·E … IKII. 0 …

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