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Canadian Rail 322 1978

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Canadian Rail 322 1978

Canadian Rail =
No. 322
NOVEMBER 1978

CA
COVER PHOTO:
The domaine of steam was rapidly yielding
to the more efficient
Diesel when Jim Shaughnessy caught
CNR 8734 heading train 430 south
at Palmer Mass. in the early
fifties. The wayfreight steamer
is in the hole waiting for the mainline drag to
clear. Photo from
the CRHA Archives, S. S. Worthen
Collection.
INSIDE FRONT COVER:
Oddly enough the initial interest
in Diesel locomotion focused on
its use in yard switching and low
horse-power applications. Early Diesels
were in no way powerful
enough to replace the steam giants
such as this 1923 Kingston Loco­
motive Works product No. 6010.
This U-1-a class Mountain Type is
seen pulling the CNs crack Continental Limited across the Fraser River
at Cisco, B.C. Photo
from the CRHA Archives, S. S.
Worthen Collection.
R4IL
ISSN 0006 -4 6 75
Published monthly by The Canadian
Railroad Historical Association
P.O. Box 22, Station B
r~ontrea 1 Quebec Canada H3B 3J5
EDITOR: M. Peter Murphy
EDITOR EMERITUS: S. S. Worthen
BUSINESS CAR: J. A. Beatty
OFFICIAL CARTOGRAPHER: William A.
Germani uk
LAYOUT: Michel Pau1et
CALGARY & SOUTH WESTERN
L. M. Unwin, Secretary
60-6100 4th Ave. NE
Calgary, Alberta T2A 5Z8
OTTAWA
D. E. Stoltz, Secretary
P. O. Box 141, Station A, Ottawa, Ontario
K1N 8V1
PACIFIC COAST
R. Keillor, Secretary
P. O. Box 1006, Station A, Vancouver
British Columbia V6C 2P1
ROCKY MOUNTAIN
C. K. Hatcher, Secretary
P. O. Box 6102, Station C, Edmonton
AI berta T5B 2NO
TORONTO & YORK DIVISION
J. C. Kyle, Secretary
P. O. Box 5849, Terminal A, Toronto
Ontario M5W 1P3
WINDSOR-ESSEX DIVISION
R. Ballard, Sr., Secretary
300 ca bana Road Ea st, Wi ndsor, Ontario
N9G 1A2

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1930 ARA fuel test.
William G. Blevins P. Eng.
In these days of rising fuel costs and threatened shortages
we tend to think of fuel conservation as a recent phenomenon. A
review of the historical records of the railway trade would give
the lie to this as the literature abounds with tests, data and
devices encouraging the economic use of fuel. Certainly coal
represented the vast bulk of railway fuel used in 1930 when the
steam locomotive reigned supreme as the prime mover of people and
goods.
A usurper was not only in the wings at this time but had
already demonstrated its potential and practicability. The
internal combustion engine could easily deliver power to the rails
at four times the efficiency of a typical reciprocating steam
locomotive. While the threat was there, the size was not. No
practically-sized internal combustion engine could rival the five
to six thousand horsepower ratings of the mainline 4-8-4 passenger
locomotive or 2-10-4 freight locomotive of the day in the United
States. It was instead, the yard switching and branch line
assignments, where power renuirements were in the regime where the
internal combustion engine could compete. The nuestion was:
Which internal combustion engine: gasoline, distillate or oil
engine? Both the gasoline and distillate engines relied on spark
ignition as does the automobile, while the oil engine utilized the
compression ignition of the diesel cycle. By 1930 all three types
of engines, no matter how fueled, were almost universally coupled
to an electric transmission with an engine-driven generator and
axle-hung traction motors. Throughout the 20 s and early 30 s
the engine controversy attracted the attention of the railway
mechanical and technical staffs whose function it was to design,
purchase, and maintain rolling stock which provided the greatest
service and utility at the least cost.
The fledgling Canadian National Railways had indeed been from
its beginnings a pioneer in the use of internal combustion engines
in railway vehicles. Chief of Motive Power, Mr. C.E. Brooks had
presented several learned papers to the technical societies and
journals of the day on CNR experience with non-steam powered enuipment.
By the late twenties, experience had shown the oil-electric to be
the system of choice for CN. This had resulted in sizable orders
for self-propelled oil-electric passenger cars with the Westinghouse­
Beardmore oil-engine of air-ship fame. The primary use of these cars
was to replace steam power where steam was least efficient, i.e.
branch-lines with one-or two-car passenger and baggage loads.
As a leader in the field, Mr. C. E. Brooks was in 1930 the
Chairman of the America Railway Assiciation Committee on Automotive
Rolling Stock. Under his auspices a series of tests to compare
the fuel efficiency of the three types of fuel burning internal
combustion engines was undertaken. Testing took place in February
and March of 1930 on the Union Pacific (distillate cars), Chicago
and Northwestern (gasoline cars) and Canadian National (oil cars).
CANADIAN
327
R A I L
Rather than rewrite the report, the author has extracted the sub­
stantive portions of the Report of the Committee to the ARA Convention
of 18 -25 June 1930 at Atlantic City, N.J. The author has also taken
the liberty of emphasizing the CNR portion of the test for obvious
reasons.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON AUTOMOTIVE
ROLLING STOCK
To the Members:
COMPARATIVE FUEL TESTS CONDUCTED BY
COMMITTEE ON AUTOMOTIVE ROLLING STOCK
I -General Determination of Method
Rail motor cars have been designed and developed
to utilize a variety of fuels. At present the prin­
cipal grades in general use are gasoline, distillate
and fuel oil. The choice of fuel to be used on any
given railroad is governed primarily by the location
of that railroad with respect to its oil supply; the
choice may also be influenced by mechanical features
of the motor car enuipment for burning the various
grades. With this in mind, the Automotive Rolling
Stock Committee proposed to make a series of compa­
rative tests of different types of fuel as utilized
in the various rail motor cars designed for each type
of fuel. It was thought such a series of tests would
produce information and data whioh would be useful to
an~ railrodd undertaking the selection of rail motor
eauipment best fitted to its own needs.
In order to eliminate as many variables as
possible, it was decided to run the tests on three
representative railroads in the same general geo­
graphical territory; the characteristics of the runs,
the profiles, the classes of service and the fuel
sources would, therefore, be comparable. Further­
more motor cars of the same or nearly the same horse­
power and with similar electrical enuipment would be
selected.
It was originally decided to obtain a figure on
each of the three railroads of kilowatt hours per gallon
of fuel consumed. Such figure to a great extent would
exclude variable conditions external to the car, such as,
for instance, wind resistance, grade resistance, high or
low temperature, etc. Load factor, however, would still
affect the results, as it might influence the efficiency
of the various power plants. It is interesting to note
that, working towards an ultimate figure of kilowatt hours
per gallon of fuel used, sufficient additional information
was obtained to make possible considerable enlargement of
final results.
II -Instruments
It was the desire of those conducting the tests
to make all the runs under as nearly actual operating
CANADIAN 328 R A I L
conditions as possible. Therefore, decision was made
to install the fewest possible meters consistent with
the results to be obtained, such meters being compara­
tively small and easily installed. A graphic watt
meter was installed to measure the output of the main
generator and a second graphic watt meter was installed
in the exciter circuit to measure auxiliary power. To
obtain figures of total kilowatt hours for both the
main generator and exciter, locomotive type watthour
meters were also installed. The purpose of the
graphic meters was to give a picture of the load curve
of the power plant at any particular part of the runs,
while the purpose of the watthour meters was to furnish
figures of total energy over any part or parts of the
test runs.
III -Accuracies and Inaccuracies
Present in the Tests
Laboratory accuracy is claimed for none of the
tests or the results. It is possible to determine
kilowatt hours per gallon of fuel for any power plant
in the shop or on the test floor by artificial loading.
It was thought to be more representative of actual
conditions, however, to obtain such a figure during
regular service runs. Enginemen were instructed to
handle the cars in their regular manner and forget
the test instruments or personnel so far as possible.
For the most part this was done and the results are
considered comparable to every-day operation.
Mileages as given and used are only between
stations, the relatively few miles operated between
stations and engine houses being neglected. This was
necessary on account of the various methods of handling
motor cars and trailers between engine houses and
stations on the various railroads. In some cases a
steam switcher was employed; in other cases the
trailer was uncoupled and the motor car operated alone,
and in other instances both motor and trailer car were
operated to and from the roundhouse.
IV -Description of Tests
The railroad with probably the longest experi­
ence in the use of distillate for rail motor cars is
the Union Pacific. Owing to this and to the fact that
it had available for test single power plant cars of
300 h.p., it was selected for the distillate tests.
The Canadian National Railways operate two oil­
electric rail motor cars of the some nominal horse­
power in Western Canada, and having had particular
experience with this type of fuel, were selected
for the fuel oil tests. The Chicago & North
Western Railway, operating in the same central
territory, has single power plant cars of about
the same horsepower, and it was accordingly
selected for the gasoline tests. It will be
noted that the conditions outlined in Article (1)
CANADIAN
329
R A I L
as to characteristics of runs, profile, classes
of service, etc., are all met in the selection
of the three railroads above named.
The general procedure in the case of every
car tested was approximately as follows:
At the engine house or terminal the watthour
meters and graphic watt meters were installed and
meters tested for correct direction of readings,
etc. The fuel tank or tanks were filled just to
the point of overflowing; wotthour meter readings
were taken at the start and end of the run, and
ot each regular stop; also time of arrival at each
station was noted. In the case of the Union
Pacific cars, where two kinds of fuel were used,
meter readings were taken only when operating on
distillate.
A sample of the fuel used in each car for each
run was obtained and analysis made to determine
B. T. U. value and gravity. Figure (4) shows
standard specifications of the various fuels.
Relative costs as obtained from the purchasing
departments of the various railroads in auestion
are also shown for comparison.
A synopsis of runs on the three railroads
follows:
UNION PACIFIC SYSTEM
First run, Leavenworth, Kansas, to Milton­
vale, Kansas. Distance between stations 166 miles,
distance credited to distillate operation 164
miles. Motor No. M-24, trailer No. T-19. Severe
grades in spots, particularly when leaving Missouri
River Valley; otherwise generally flat, rolling
country. Total estimated load, 3 tons; total light
weight of train, 76 tons.
Second run, Salina, Kansas, to Oakley, Kansas,
and return. Total miles 380, total miles credited
to distillate operation 378. Motor No. M-41 and
main line steel baggage car No. 1773. Some severe
grades, but mostly flat prairie country. Total
estimated load, 8 tons; total light weight of train,
117 tons.
Third run, Denver, Colo., to Fort Collins, Colo.,
and return. Total distance 136 miles, total credited
to distillate operation 130 miles. Motor car No. M-40,
without trailer. This was an exceptionally
fast run over flat, rolling country. Total load
estimated at 2 tons; light weight of car, 56 tons.
Four run, Kearney, Neb., to Stapleton, Neb.,
and return. Total distance 205 miles, of which 204
miles were credited to distillate operation. Motor
car No. M-30, trailer No. T-IO. Run was through
PLAN OF eN 15829
CANADIAN 331 R A I L
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CANADIAN 333 RAI L
rolling country with worst grades westbound. Total
load estimated at 4 tons; total light weight of
train, 85 tons.
CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY
First run, Des Moines, Iowa, to Ames, Iowa,
and return (two round trips). Total miles, 138.
Motor car No. 9918, trailer No. 188. Fast runs in
Sunday service between the two cities, with heavy
grades in each direction. Total load estimated at
2 tons; total light weight of train, 93t tons.
Second run, Eagle Grove, Iowa, to Fox Lake,
Minnesota, and return. Total miles, 199. Motor
car No. 9920, trailer No. 1124. Rolling country
with some severe grades. Total load estimated at
4 tons; total light weight of train, 89 tons.
Third run, Wall Lake, Iowa, to Tama, Iowa.
Total miles, 146. Motor car No. 9912, trailer No.
1069. Rolling country with ruling grade favorable
to eastbound movement. Total load estimated at 6
tons; total light weight of train, 73 tons.
Fourth run, Carroll, Iowa, to Sioux City, Iowa,
and return. Total miles, 256. Motor cor No. 9926,
trailer No. 1109. Rolling country with very heavy
grades in spots. Total load estimated at 5 tons;
total light weight of train, 87 tons.
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS
First run, Winnipeg, Man., to Somerset, Man.,
and return (two round trips). Total mileage, 408.
Motor car No. 15829, trailer No. 15740. Extremely
severe fifteen (15) mile grade westbound, otherwise
flat, prairie country. Very severe snow conditions
on second westbound trip. Total load estimated at
3 tons for three one-way trips and 2 tons for the
fourth trip; total light weight of train, 98 tons.
Second run, Saskatoon, Sask., to Regina, Sask.,
and return. Total miles, 445. Motor cor No. 15827,
trailer No. 15741. Mostly flat, rolling country
with several severe grades in each direction. Total
load estimated at 5 tons southbound and 4 tons north­
bound; total light weight of train, 98 tons.
V -Data Obtained
Figure 1 shows complete tabulated data of each
run of the entire test, including such information
as engine manufacture, model, and horsepower; manu­
facture and model of the generator; type control;
schedule and clapsed time; kilowatt hours from
generator, exciter, and total; U.S. gallons of fuel
consumed; miles per gallon; watthours per ton mile;
kilowatt hours per gallon of fuel consumed, and
over-all efficiency of the power plant.


• N 1-10
CANADIAN
334
R A I L
tABOLAtlOI OT DATA
Ilfr.l »odel Con-PTOQ

ol
Tl_ X ••• H. OUf
O.S. .11 11.. KIH .11
Mi_ SolMd. Mgt ~n. Ex Toht::!~ g:~. r.~:~ ~.
P.P.
1&4 ,16· atoe-u 10 460 Q&.fi I.n :54,7 4.11 11.:
lea ,0-169 na 2e 726 1311,0 l,,:-l SO,6 6.10 12.~
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201 ,}o 1&9 718 If 142 n. t.M S8.J :10.31 13.;:
• a It (I) toll 1820 1110$ Uti it 1410. Itt.8 3.16 34.110.88 16.
a.c1Da no 8lIi 10 IN U 106 81.2 s.tt 31. ~. u,e:c:
::~!O: it !!: 1:;::= 1::::: u~ !! t!:! :0:: !:~ :::!~:: :!:!:
Figure 1
An inspection of the graphic records brings to
light a very important factor, namely, that the
average power plant in a rail motor car is rarely up
to full capacity, and, if so, but a very short time
in the total run. In each run there is considerable
time when the engine is either s~ut down or idling.

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Figure 6
Figure 2
GEN}mATOR hIL01.JAlT OUTPUT
Portion of Winnipeg-Somerset ~lns
,
It is particularly interesting to compare the
last half of the two runs from Winnipeg to Somerset.
The first was made on a nuiet, cold winter night,
the engine throttle being advanced only to the sixth
notch at maximum; the second was made in an extremely
severe blizzard where snowdrifts as high as the car
floor were encountered and where the throttle was
advanced to its extreme open position.
It is to be noted that the over-all efficiency
of the oil-electric power plant is about 10 higher
than the figures for the gasoline or distillate
plants. This is nuite evidently due, as would be
expected, to the higher in her rent efficiency of the
oil engine. Gasoline and distillate power plants
show approximately the same over-all efficiency.
The important point to note in this connection is
the fact that approximately the same kilowatt hours
are obtained from a gallon of distillate as from a
gallon of gasoline. In view of the price differen­
tial of seven and one-half cents as on the Union
Pacific and the Chicago & North Western, this shows
the potentialities of burning distillate if a given
railroad can economically obtain a good supply.
Kilowatt hours per gallon are an approximate
measure of the over-all efficiency of the power plant,
assuming the same B. T. U. and gravity characteristics
of the different fuels. For any two cars operating
from the same fuel, the kilowatt hours per gallon
figure obtained is a direct measure of the efficiency
from the raw fuel to electric energy at the main
generator and exciter terminals, and is a relatively
~venient figure to obtain.
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PROFILE AND LOAD CURVE OF CANADIAN
NATIONAL RUN
WINNIPEG-SOMERSET
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CANADIAN
339
R A I L
VI -Conclusions
The results set forth in this report are in no
way to be considered as reflection on the performance
of any of the railroads involved. Very fine co­
operation on the part of all was given the sub­
committee in conducting the tests. We believe the
data obtained will be helpful to any railroad con­
sidering the purchase of internal combustion rail car
eauipment as pointing out what may be considered re­
presentative conditions to be met with the three
classes of fuel.
Any railroad, in making a decision, however,
should take into account not only the cost and
efficiency of conversion of a power plant using a
given fuel, but also the accompanying expenses for
maintenance, lubricating oil, etc., resulting from
the use of it.
Respectfully submitted,
COMMITTEE ON AUTOMOTIVE ROLLING STOCK.
Conclusions -47 Years Later
The resultant figure of greatest interest to the fuel conser­
vationalist is the thermal efficiency of the power plant. This is
simply the percentage of the total energy that is available in the
fuel that has been transformed into electrical energy out of the main
generator. The CNR oil-electric cars converted on average 24% of
the available energy in the fuel while.both the spark ignition
competitors (distillate on UP and gasoline on C&NW) could only
produce electric power with 13% of the available fuel energy.
Given the higher cost of gasoline, this meant a fuel bill well
over three times higher than the oil car, while the UP distillate
fuel, being cheaper per gallon, was only 20% higher in cost of
running the car. The fuel cost of a steam locomotive to handle the
same load would have been about three times higher than the oil­
electric car.
It is of interest to note from Fig. 4 that the #2 Diesel
Fuel oil of today is almost identical to the Distillate used by UP. The
difference is, of course, that today the diesel compression
ignition is used rather than spark ignition.
Figure 4
Typical Fuel Characteristics
Type UP 1930 ClYNW 1930
Distillate G8s01ine
CN 1930 CN 1977
Fuel Oil ~2 Diesel
Specific Gravity .847 .743
.9(, .845
Gravity Baume °

60 1(, 35.7
Viscosity @ 100o~ (S.U. ) 34 31 62 34
!ITT] per lb. 19,51>0 20,800 18,900 19.590
Gost per U.S. Gallon 5i 12.5¢ 7.5i 33.3¢
CANADIAN
340
R A I L
In 1977 it is clear that the oil-electric cars of 1930 which
evolved into the diesel-electric locomotives of today were the
winners of the contest. To the foresightedness of men like Mr. C. E.
Brooks we owe an enormous debt. Had the steam locomotive not
been replaced, the fuel budget of todays railways would have driven
freight rates to unprecendented levels.
The routes used for the CNR tests in 1930 have long since
dropped passenger service, indeed one section of the Regina to
Saskatoon route is now flooded by Lake Diefenbaker formed by the
damming of the South Saskatchewan River. The cars are now scrapped
with a sister car (15824) now a museum piece. The technological
heritage remains, however, and the concern for fuel efficiency is
something that will increase a~ the years pass and liouid fuel
reserves dwindle •
••••••••••••••••••
•••••••••••••••••
NTON
by W.Brow and E.Johnson
After a twenty-seven year absense,flanged wheel transportation
has returned to the Edmonton Transit System. The decision to build
Canadas third rapid transit system was made after Edmonton was sel­
ected as the site for the Eleventh Commonwealth Games in August 1978.
On April 24th, 1978, a 7.2 km line was opened from downtown Edmonton
to the northeast section of the city. The $64.9 million
project commenced in Oct. 1974 and the first cars were delivered in
May, 1977. Service started April 24th, 1978.
The route begins at 101 St. and Jasper Ave., the center of the
city, in a cut and cover station called Central. Two blocks east the
line turns north and angles across to Churchill Station, by the City
Hall. The control office for the system is located here. Extensive
pedestrian tunnels connect with many of the buildings from these two
underground stations. The underground section comes to the surface
at 95th St. between the CN tracks. The crossing at 95th St. is one
of 9 grade crossings on the route.
Running northeastward, the first surface station is Stadium,
site of the new, magnificient Commonwealth Stadium, built for the
games. Bus lines feed in here and park and ride parking is
available. Four grade crossings are crossed in nuick succession
(112 Ave. 82 St., 114 Ave., 115 Ave.) and this is followed by the
CANADIAN 341 R A I L
Cromdale Car Shops (part of the original street railway barn built
in 1913.) where the 16 cars are serviced and stored.
The second surface station is built over 118th Ave. and is
called Coliseum. The station serves the Coliseum, the new home of
the Edmonton Oilers hockey team and scene of many trade shows.
Across the street to the south is the Exhibition Grounds. Nine
feeder bus lines connect with the LRT here. The track continues
northward past three major packing plants and the CNs North Edmonton
Station, across 66th St. and then dives under the main CN line and
reaches Belvedere Station at 129th Ave. This station is of a
temporary nature.
Service
Known as LRT Route 101. Weekday services commence with 10
minute service, 5:30 AM to 7:05 when 5 min. scheduling is used to
8:45. Again 10 minute service resumes through to 3:25 PM when 5 min.
service is offered until 5:35 PM. 10 minute service completes the
day to about 1:00 AM. On Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays, a 10 min.
service is used from 6:00 AM until shortly after 1:00 AM on Saturday
and to midnight on Sundays and Holidays. During football games and
other special events, 8 and 5 minute service has been advertised.
Running time from Belvedere to Central or return is 11 minutes.
Trains consist of two cars and three trains each way provide normal
service.
Edmontons Light Rail Vehicle, RTE1
Ca rs
16 cars were supplied by Siemans-Duwag Ltd. at a cost of
$550,000 each. These cars are 6-axle, 2-section, articulated double
end light rail vehicles. There are 4 motored and 2 non-motored
axles. 218 HP motors running on 600 V.DC are used. Top speed is
80 km/h. The length of one car is 2429 mm (79-8+). Weight is
29,700 kg (33 tons). One car will seat 64 and stand an additional
120 or 368 passengers for a 2-car set. Cars are numbered 1001 to
1016, inclusive.
CANADIAN
342
Technical Data:
Type 6 axle, 2 section articulated
double-end light rail vehicle.
Axle
Arrangement 4 motored and 2
Motors
non-motored.
2 self-ventilated 218 h.p.
series-wound traction
motors.
Top Speed
80 km/h (50 m.p.h.)
Length
23, 054 mm. (758)
Length inc/. couplers
Width
Height
Voltage 24,284 mm.
2,650 mm.
3,660 mm. (798)
(88
3
;4)
(120)
600 v.
dc
Passenger Capacity
Noise
64 seated, plus 162
standing
50 ft. from car 75 dB.
(quieter than a diesel bus).
(8 Edmonton transit
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Light
Rail Transit has become a reality
for
Edmonton. The City
of
Edmonton
has the
distinction
of
being the first
city
in
Canada
with
a
metropolitan
population
base
of
under
1
million
to
have
such
a system.
Edmonton
has selected the Siemens/DuWag car
for
use on the Northeast
Light
Rail Transit Line.
Although
the
car
is
German
built,
approximately
35%
of
the
cars
components
were
manufactured
in
Edmonton
.
The
car
body is a
lightweight
welded steel design. The whole atriculated
portion
of
the car is
covered
by
reinforced
plastic
parts,
which
are
harmoniously
adjusted
to
the
interior
lining
of
the
car
and
provide
maximum
protection
for
the passengers.
The
articulated
platform
permits
safe
passage
from
one
section
of
the
car
to
the
other
.
Good
noise
insurlation
has
been
pro
v
ided
by
noise
absorbing
layers
on
the
inside
of
the
side
walls
and by glass
wool
layers
within
the
ceiling
. The
floor
is made
of
16 mm. Delignit
plywood
and is
covered
with
a
solid
carpet
.
Further
noise
reductions
have been
achieved
by
insulat
i
ng
motor
trucks
with
rubber
buffers.
Edmonton
s
light
rail
vehicle
has
upholstered
seats
of
modern
design.
They are
arranged
compartment-wise. At the aisle side, they are suspended from the car roof by the vertical hand-rails.
measurements in
mm
.
Fully
enclosed drivers cabs are provided at
both
ends
of
the car,
with
access Hom
tM
passenger
compartment
by a
door
. The cabs design
allows
for easy
operation
of
the
control
equipment,
good
visibility,
good
ventilation,
a
comfortable
drivers
seat and
pleasing
colours.
Heating
is
provided
by
forcing
outside
air
through
the
electric
resistance
coils
and
then
into
the
passenger
compartment.
The heated
air
is
controlled
by
thermostats
.
During
the
summer,
the
equipment
is used
for
ventilation
of
the
car
.
The
air
in
the
car
is
eXChanged
about
30
times
per
hour.
The
cars
doors
are
individually
operated
by
a
passenger
push-button
after
having
been
released
by the
operator
. Safety
of
these
doors
is guaranteed by photo-<>Iectric cells and sensitive edges.
For
additional
ventilation
in
summer,
the
upper
portion
of
the
window
can
be
opened.
All
window
panes are
of
safety glass.
Electronic
controls
prevent
wheel
spinning
or
sliding
and
solenoid-operated,
heated sanders are
provided
at
both
sides
of
each
motor
and
truck
in
order
to
improve
adhesion
under
bad
conditions.
Edmontons
initial
order
of
14
light
rail
cars
will
have
the
capacity
to
comfortably
carry
5,000
to
6,000
people
per
hour
in
each
direction
during
peak
periods.
These vehicles.
with
a
top
speed
of
around
80
km/h
will
travel the 4.5 mi:e
Northeast
Line
in 12 minutes.
This
is
about
half
the
time
required
for
an
automobile
or
bus
to
the
travel the same
distance.
LRT train 1001 leaving Stadium Station on May 23, 1978. The LRT
system was immediately put to the test by transporting thousands
of visitors and athletets alike to and from the Eleventh Common­
wealth Games which were held in August. Photo courtesy Ted Wickson.
Car 1012 heads a train into the sunlight at 95th. St., CN tracks
are on both sides of the LRT at this point. The LRT line terminates
1.6km underground and to the left. Photo courtesy of the authors.

CANADIAN
L. R. T.
EDMONTON TRANSIT
N.E. Section
7.2km
Right of Way
345
R A I L
belv~de.re.
~~=::;:I,~= 12.9 Ave
Welded rail is used on wood ties in the subway and joined rail
is used on the surface. Underground, the rail and tie are separated
by rubber pads and Pandrol clips are used. Track centres are 3.55 m
(II -8). Overhead, single catenary wire is suspended on brackets
from a pole between the tracks. In the subway, the wire is fastened
to hangers from the ceiling. Track sections are blocked and speed
controls are installed between the rails. Telephones connect all
cars with the control center and 88 remote cameras patrol the
stations.
On May 24, 1978 Ted Wickson caught this LRT train at Central Stn.
the downtown terminus.
Car 1014 leads this inbound train at Stadium Station on May 23, 1978.
Photo courtesy Ted Wickson.
I
/
/
Conclusion
/
CANADIAN
/
/

Y
/
Y
347
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
R A I L
~ /
,,«- ~ /
o~ /
,,I)
~ / ,,0
/
/ /
/
/
/
/
/ /
/
/
Since 1970, Edmonton Transit has experienced a 43.6 per cent
increase in ridership, outpacing the 25 per cent population increase,
strong indication thot people will use public transit.
Future plans call for an extension to the Southside and Mill
Woods area, the cost of which is estimated at $137 million. It is
proposed that the existing line be extended about 2 km to Clareview
Town Centre, a new development. Studies are underway to evaluate
lines to west Edmonton and another northwest to the City of
St. Albert.
It is generally agreed that the line is a welcome addition to
help reduce the autos moving in Edmontons core. The LRT is an
excellent modern system and Edmontonions can be very proud of their
new line.
[he ..
uuslness
car
WE WISH TO TAKE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO WELCOME JACK BEATTY INTO THE
Canadian Rail family. Jack is na stranger to our readers
as he has contributed on a regular basis over the years
to our magazine. Jack will be our BUSINESS CAR editor effective
with this issue. John Welsh who has held the post for over a
year· now will assume the firemans seat and will continue to
help out,.o·s his -,time a.nd-.heaLth permit. We wi-s.h to t.oke this
opportunity to thank John on behalf of all our readers for his
Business Car presentations over the past months.
VIA RAIL PROGRESSES FURTHER. SOME TIME AGO, COMMENT WAS MADE TO
the effect that the only tangible evidence was a consolidated
time-table. Since then, of course, that has been divided into
three regional folders. Also, a common-fare structure has been
implemented. However, at the Fall Change of Time Oct. 29th, it is
expected that a number of the Governments proposals for ratio­
nalisation will be implemented:
(1) A train will operate from Montreal to Vancouver via CN tracks
from Central Station to a point yet to be determined between Dorval
and Ste. Annes, thence via CP rails to North Bay, returning to CN
North Bay-Vancouver via Capreol, Winnipeg and Edmonton.
(2) A train from Toronto to Vancouver, using CN rails from Union
Station to South Parry and CP Parry Sound-Vancouver via the present
route of The Canadian.
(3) Schedules will be adjusted so that both trains will be in Winnipeg
at the same time. They will divide at Winnipeg, with one train taking
the CP route to Vancouver, and the other going via CN. This will
permit passengers en route from Montreal to Calgary or from Toronto
to Edmonton to make suitable connections.
(4) To facilitate arrangements for sleeping car passengers, it is
expected that one sleeper will be on the train from Montreal to
CANADIAN
349
R A I L
Winnipeg, where it will be transferred to the train from Toronto for
hondling Winnipeg-Vancouver via Calgary. Likewise, a sleeper on the
train from Toronto to Winnipeg will be transferred to the train from
Montreal for the trip to Vancouver via Edmonton.
VIA is also echoing the viewpoint of many when it condemns the m~s­
guided policy of moving stations to the suburbs. Whatever is gained
in reducing the number of level crossings over well-travelled city
streets or in uprooting rail lines within a citys limits is lost
in the inconvenience travellers have in getting to the relocated
terminal. Rail stations have already been moved to the outskirts
in Quebec City and Saskatoon, while future moves are planned for
Moncton and Regina. It isnt too late to reverse the trend. Moncton
and Regina can be left alone, and Saskatoon can look to Quebec City
where a study group is looking at the feasibility of reopening the
old downtown Palais Station to passenger traffic. (Montreal Gazette)
u.S. AUTO MAKERS ARE NOW REQUIRING CARRIERS TO USE ENCLOSED
rack cars, which are intended to stem the theft and
vandalismaf transported cars that last year (1977)
cost an estimated $212 million in losses, reports Business Week
(May
15/78)
IF YOU WERE READING RAILROAD STORIES IN 1936, YOU WILL REMEMBER
the first of Donald M. Steffees annual speed surveys,
later run in Trains. The latest appears in Quarterly
Issue No.3 of The Timetable Collector (May 15/78) and spans
17 pages, with many reproductions from tts, guides and the first
survey of world trainspeeds that was available to the reading
public -the now rare Express Tr-.ains -English and Foreign by
Forwell and Farrer, published in 1889. Mr. Steffee subtitles
his article, Keys to the Speed Survey, and discussed in critical
detail the clues and reasoning that go into his work. In his
five-page tabulation of todaysfastest (75 MPH or better)
U.S. has 73 runs by Amtrak Metroliners and one by a Conrail
Silverlineri six runs by Amtrak diesel-powered trains. For
Canada, CN is credited with 12 runs by Montreal-Toronto Turbos
and Rapidas.
His overseas listings include Japan, Great Britain, France
West Germany, U.S.S.R., France & Belgium, Italy and Sweeden.
Three countries show runs averaging in excess of 100 mph. Japan,
of course, leads with Hikari averages as high as 110.2 mph.
France has one run (Etendard) of 62.7 miles at 101.5 pmh. The
British have four trains Swindon-Reading at an average of 103.2
mph.
The
Foxwell/Farrer book recognizes the following best
express mileage in Canada, based on August 1888 timetables:
Grand Trunk -Chatham-London, 63 miles at 41 mphi
-Point Edward-London, 64 miles at 41 mphi
Michigan Central -Niagara Falls-Windsor, 225 miles
at 40 mph (by two trains)
CANADIAN
350
R A I L
VANCEBORO (MAINE) ENGINE HOUSE, FORMERLY OWNED BY THE MAINE
Central and now by CP Rail, has been leased by the
San Louis Central, southern Colorado shortline, to
handle maintenance of 250 of San Louis reefers now leased by
CP Rail to handle potato traffic in the Maritimes. This is
reported in The 470 (Portland Division, Railroad Enthusiasts),
June/78. The cars assigned to this service represent more than
50 per cent of the 12-mile roads fleet. Much of the fresh
produce business once handled by the San Louis Central on its
home line, Monte Vista-Center, has been captured by truckers.
Now, the Vanceboro operation employs four men full-time.
E & N UPDATE -FROM JULY 28, THE VICTORIA COURTENAY SERVICE HAS
been improved by addition of a second RDC, following
urgings by B.C. Premier Bennett and others. A Vancouver
Sun story, July 22, said the decision to add the extra car was made
after CP Rail officials noticed an increase in passengers
due to the introduction of reduced fares July 8 by Via Rail.
Two weeks earlier Bennett rode the line and found many prospective
passengers being turned away for lack of seats. (Victoria­
Courtenay one-way fare has been reduced to S8.00 from Sl4.45i
Victoria-Nanaimo to $5.00 from $7.60) The Committee to Save
The E & N has been active in promoting public support for the
provincial governments fight to keep the service going, despite
the CTCs decision to allow CP Rail to terminate it Dec. 13/78.
ENTERPRISE IN CRANBROOK, B.C. IS REPORTED IN THE SANDHOUSE
(of CRHAs Pacific Coast Branch), June/78. In a letter
to the editor, Garry W. Anderson of Cranbrook, writes
We are presently building Stage 1 of a Railway Museum dedicated
to the Crowsnest and Kettle Valley route of the CPR (i.e. the
southern CPR). Stage 1 includes the renovation/restoration of
one of the Class A dining cars built by the CPR in 1929, as
well as the restoration of an old 1912 caboose. Stage II will
see another coach added for exhibition purposes and an old water
tower relocated to our site. Stage III should see an old station
built and,Stage IVa lo~omotive added to complete the picture.
Included ~n our project ~s the development of our archives which
will co~sist of a small but expandin~ librarr a catalogued
collect~on of photographs and many h~storica pieces of rail­
road artifacts. Garry writes on behalf of the Cranbrook
Archives, Museum and Landmark F6undation.
TROUBLE ON THE TAZARA -CHINESE RAILWAY EXPERTS IN TANZANIA AND
Zambia who were due home at the end of the year will
stay in Central Africa for another two years. The
Tazara Railway, Chinese-built lifeline for Zambia to a seaport,
has suffered through local workers negligence, complacency
and extravagance, according to Tanzanias Transport Minister.
A group of Chinese technicians arrived recently in Zambia to
train new railwaymen to replace those under arrest for stealing
freight. In addition, less than 50 per cent of Zambias rolling
stock and only eight locomotives are serviceable through lock
of maintenance.
(London Daily Telegraph, Aug. 4/78)

,
I
I

I
ALGOMA CENTRAL LAST YEAR CARRIED A TOTAL Of 108,000 PASSENGERS
on tours and regular service, up from 103,000 a year
earlier. With its Agawa Canyon trains in U~Mer and snow
tours for three .onths in winter, ACR carries at peak (in
Septe~ber) 2,400 passengers a day requiring two trains of 22_24
cars each, according to a Toronto Globe & Hail review, Aug 23/78,
which quotes vice-president (rail division) Stanley Block. ACR h
as been Making a profit for the post decode. Profit in 1977 w
as S7.1 million co.pared with S4.l .illion in 1976.
HALIfAX_MONTREAL RAIL PASSENGER TRAFFIC ROSE 40 PER CENT IN THE
first six months of 1978, co.pared with the corresponding
period 10lt year. Thil statenent by a Via Rail Canada
spokelman, published Aug. 10/78 prompted (for no particular
reason) a laak_back at the June 1912 schedule of the Ocean Limited
No. i99 No. 200
Halifax iv. 8:00 Hontr.,ol .. v. 19;30
Moncton
14:20 Levis 24; :0
Levis

3;00 Monc·~on
15:45
Montreal orr. 7:35 Holifax orr . 22:00
AMTRAK UPDATE lSUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE) -THE U.S.
Hause of Representatives voted June 23/78 to prohibit
Amtrok from dropping any possenger trains before
Oct .. ., 1979. The Transportation Departlllent had propased
poring Amtraks systelll from 27,000 lIIiles to 18,900 lIIiles. Its docume
ntation af A.traks cost-problems focvssed on making the
system 1I0re labor efficient; antiquated work rules are
cited far inflating Amtraki operating crew costs ta $87.9
million annually. ICC recards show that the average annuol
salory of a Santa Fe passenger troin engineer lost year was
$27,652. Conductar$ were poid 324,763; brake~en S23,236;
firemen 523,220. A Chicago Tribune article, Lobar rules rvn
A.trak into the ground, says of the Southwest LiMited operation:
If engineers and conductors were required to work an 8-hour
day, it would appear that A~trak could cut in half the S3.97
.. illian a year it pays for the operating crew. Lost year, the
loss an the Southwest li~ited totalled $24.6 ~i1lion.
The leave5 have fallen and the first whi5P of snow flutter across
the barren Nove~ber landscape as CP Jubilee Type 2927 ( 4_4_4 ) 5teamS
along near West Bra~e, Quebec in the early fifties. Nate
the Mixed consist including wooden trussed baggage cor, heavyweight
coaches, Gnd a sewer arched roof car. Photo courtely of Jim
Shaughnessy, from the CRHA Archives, S.S.Worthen Collection. ..

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