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Canadian Rail 304 1977

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Canadian Rail 304 1977

Canadian Rail
MAY 1977
No304

The Great
Canadian Railway
Bluff P,iok W,bb.
Sidelights of history on the plains of central Canada never did
include photographs of Belpaire-fireboxed Northerns, trailing
Vanderbilt tanks, racing Royal Hudsons from Belle Plaine to Regina,
Saskatchewan. It might, of course, have been different, had the
Great Northern Railways James Jerome Hill accomplished his
stated objective of building a fourth western transcontinental
railway from Winnipeg to Vancouver. Just how serious J.J. Hill
was about this project can only be speculated on at this remove. His
biographers agree that James J. Hill would have do~e it, even­
tually, and this concept raises a number of interesting questions.
When Hills threat appeared in print, it was not really
something new, but rather a kind of confirmation of a rumor which
had been circulating for about 15 years. Hills proposal appeared
in a widely-read United States railroad journal in 1906, in the
form of an interview with the famous Empire Builder. In this
interview, he detailed his plans which, if they had been brought
to fruition, would have seen a new railway 1 ine parallel to the
Canadian Pacific Railway almost all the way from Vancouver to
Winnipeg, via Fernie, British Columbia, a distance of some 1500
miles, at least. In view of the magnitude and importance of such
a proposal, it was easy to see why a hurried meeting of the Direc­
tors of the CPR was called, with but one item on the agenda.
~Great Northern 4-4-0 No. 290 heads up a passenger coach and
combine at the Grandview Cut near Vancouver B.C. in the 1920s.
Photo courtesy Norm Gidney from the C.R.Littlebury Collection.
The Great Northerns spectacular curved wooden trestle near
Phoenix, British Columbia is the setting for this months
cover. While the date and reason for the photograph are un­
known the recliant human on the buffer beam would suggest
either a posed shot, or at best a slow moving train. From
the look of the fresh ballast on the trestle perhaps this is
the work extra topping off the deck. No doubt the ballasted
deck was used to help prevent trestle fires caused by falling
sparks from brake shoes. Photo courtesy of the B.C.Provincial
Archives, Victoria B.C.
Every railroad enthusiast recalls his first railway photograph.
Pat Webbs first ever photo was this 1947 shot of GN Pacific, pro­
bably class H-4 No. 1472 on the head end of the inbound Winnipeg
Limited. Having just passed eNs Fort Rouge yard the train is
working the slight up-grade to clear the streets in downtown ,
Winnipeg.
Located just in front of the Armstrong turntable was this sturdy GN
water tank. The building behind ~as a manual coaling station the
mechanics consisting of two buckets on a pulley system. This
facil ity was the end of the 1 ine for Gfj and NP crews, had James
Hills plan been carried out a far more elaborate facility ~Iould
have been required. Photo courtesy of the Author.
CANADIAN 133 R A I L
In the context of the previous 20 years, this potential
threat had to be regarded as only the latest in a series which Van
Horne and Jim Hill had exchanged in the battle for a transporta­
tion monopoly over half a continent. This running fight was not
confined to the two principles alone, but was 1 ike1y to flare up
at any point where the two companies interests interfaced.
The consequences were generally many and varied. Track
gangs of the two railways nearly took a British Columbia saloon
apart, when they met during cocktail hour, after having laid
track all day side by side separated by only the width of a shal­
low river.
While Jim Hill sent Van Horne paintings as tokens of es­
teem, Great Northern lawyers quietly bought up iron-ore real estate
in Minnesota. An irate orient-bound eastern passenger swung at -and knocked
down – a Great Northern Railway passenger agent, who
refused to sell him a ticket on a Canadian Pacific ship.
Van Horne managed to acquire control of the Minneapolis,
St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad, but with an increasingly
antagonistic Jim Hill saturating Granger country with branch lines,
Van Horne knifed aline from Hinneapol is to the International
Boundary in Saskatchewan and the heart of Hill territory. Simul­
taneously, both roads scrambled for what we today call land­
bridge traffic, often for the same tonnage. In a letter to George
Stephen early in 1891, Van Horne clearly summed up his thinking
about his former business associate when the stated, He (Hill) is
the most dangerous enemy of the Canadian Pacific. No doubt his
unexpressed sentiments were more concise and less complimentary.
It was at that point that the CPRs chief competitor was
confirming his statements with track-laying gangs. With the driv­
ing of the last spike of the Great Northern, Hill began acquiring
existing charters for railroads in Canada and obtaining new ones
from sympathetic governments. In this way, he pushed main lines
into Manitoba and British Columbia and further menaced the CPR by
building branch-l ines north to the International Boundary in every
one of the five western United States. Van Horne retaliated where
he could, but a constant shortage of funds and an unsympathetic
federal government at Ottawa made the contest a somewhat unequal
one.
Oy 1906, however, a fourth transcontinental railway ap­
peared to be a marginal proposition, even if only cursory evidence
was considered. The CPR was firmly entrenched in southern Alberta
with the Galt lines and southern British Columbia with the Columbia and
We s t ern. Far the r nor t h. the 9 row i n g Can a d ian I~ 0 r the r n R ail way
had reached Stony Plain, near Edmonton and awaited only another
spring to reach the shadow of tile Rockies. It was the Canadian
Northerns stated intention to extend its line from Winnipeg
through Portage La Prairie and 3randon to the Crows Nest Pass and
on to Penticton. in south-central British Columbia.
Meanwhile. the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway was pushing
we s twa r d fro m Man it 0 b a a tar ate ~ h i c h ~ 0 u 1 d res u 1t i nth e 1 d yin 9
of 900 miles of main line by the autumn of 1907. It, too, would
be growing a few branches to the south.
Perhaps of more importance was the fact that the Grand

4-4-0 No. 290 headed the Great Northerns first train into Grand
Forks B.C. back in 1902. Photo courtesy of the B.C. Provincial
Archives, Victoria B.C.
G
rea t I~ 0 r the r n sou t h -b 0 u n d d ail y pas sen 9 e r t r a ina s cap t u red a t
Paterson Station on the Red Mountain Rly on the Canadian si~c of
the International !loundry circa 1920. Photo courtesy of the B.C.
Provincial Archives.
CANADIAN 135 R A I L
Trunk Pacific was Lauriers pet project and was, in his oplnlon,
good for the country. Jim Hill knew very well that he could expect
the bare knuckles treatment if his Canadian transcontinental were
in any way to offer a challenge to the GTP.
To add to his many problems, Jim Hill became aware that
his railroad was suffering from the galloping inflation which began
about 1896 and peaked in 1906. In that decade, construction and
operating costs doubled and recession was openly predicted, des­
pite the fact that the Canadian west was experiencing the greatest
period of immigration that it would ever see.
While
these same settlers grumbled about boxcar short­
ages, high freight rates and transportation monopolies, they were
also fiercely nationalistic in their support of their adopted home­
land. They were not about to switch their loyalty to a foreign
railroad, no matter how attractive an alternative this was adver­
tised to be.
Van Horne calmly exposed his hole cards in the 1 June
1906 edition of RAIUJJY AGE, the signal for Jim Hill to put up or
shut up: While the author of the article, Mr. Hills New Line
Across Canada was obviously biased and some of the more tender
areas -such as construction -were glossed over, the detailed
proposal, flying as it did in the face of all reason, must have
startled some Canadians. The authors closing comment, obviously
made with tongue in cheek, referred to land grants, which had been
coolly denied to the Grand Trunk Pacific by governments sen­
sitive to the unpleasant results ever since l870!
AGE:
Here is a condensed version of the article from RAILWAY
Our i n g the pas t hi 0 m 0 n t Ii 5, m u c h has bee n pub 1 ish e din
regard to the so-called invasion of Canada by Mr. James J.
Hill, the head of the Great Northern Railway system. In order
to ascertain just how extensive the plans for the Canadian
invasion are, a representative of THE RAILWAY AGE secured
an audience with Mr. Hill which enables us to present what is
believed to be the most complete and authentic account yet
published of the proposed Canadian construction.
At present, the Great Northern system has lines from
Seattle, Washington north to Vancouver, B.C.; from Spokane,
Wash., to Nelson, Grand Forks and Midway, B.C.; from Bonners
Ferry, Idaho, north to Kuskonook, B.C. and from Rexford,
Montana north to Fernie, B.C. Under the charter of the
Vancouver, Victoria and Eastern, an east-west line over 300
miles long is being built from Midway via Keremeos and
Princeton to Cloverdale, B.C., which is a short distance
south of Vancouver. This new line penetrates a rich coal and
lumber district •.. Mr. Hill has reached the conclusion that
the rapid development of western Canada will justify the con­
struction of another transcontinental line and therefore he
has decided to build from Winnipeg west to Fernie, a distance
of about 8~O miles.
The two arms ~xtending to Nelson and Kuskonook can be
connected on the north by the construction of 14 miles of
road. The Vancouver-Winnipeg line will then be from Vancouver
An up tile hill view of tile Red I·lountain Raihlay curved trestle
(Great Northern) at the Loop located just west of Rossland B.C.
Photo courtesy of the B.C. ProvIncial Archives.
Tn e Gallo pin ) Goo s e 0 f the G rea t 110 r the r n R ail way calli n gin at
Waneta British Columbia for passengers and express. Date of the
photo is unknown, photo courtesy of the d.C. Provincial Archives.
Burlington Northerns The Winnipeg Limited consisting of an A-B
combination and eleven cars in both the old green and newer green
and orange color sche~e rolls into St. Paul Minnesota after its
overnight run from Winnipeg Manitoba. Taken in the early fifties
the color schemes reflect the image of the old and new Empire
Builder. Photo courtesy PR dept. GN Ry. St. Paul Minn.
~REAT NDRTHER~
Thousan

are gOt
every d
to Wonderful Washington, liThe ever-green
portunities, of fiDe Boil, splendid crops and lOClep.nalel
NOW IS YOUR TIME T
TO THE. PACIFIC
ChiC(lSO to Seattle,
St. Paul or Minneapolis
to Seattle
From other point. to Seattle at equally low rates,
2
PER
MILE
AND
LESS
every day, everywhere on the
system-make travel via Great
Northern the preferred w .. y for
those who demand comfort and
luxury along with economy.
Before you
make your next business
or vacation trip, ask your local
ticket agent to quote you the low
fares
via Great Northern and see
for yourself how
much better it is
than driving, or any other form of
transportation.
For Full Information
A. J. DICKINSON, P. T. M.
Great Northern Ry., St. Paul. Minn.
ROUTE of the FAMOUS …
EMPIRE BUILDER
AIR-CONDITIONED Dining and Observation Cars
CANADIAN 139 R A I L
via Midway and Grand Forks to Marcus, Wash.; thence north to
Nelson and across (Kootenay Lake) to Kuskonook; thence south
to Bonners Ferry, Idaho; thence over the main line of the
Great Northern to Rexford, Montana and thence north to Fernie
and on to Wi nni peg… The distance by the route out1 i ned wi 11
be 1,575 miles, against 1,482 miles by the present line of the
Canadian Pacific from Winnipeg to Vancouver.
What are Mr. lIi11s reasons for building this new trans­
continental line when already the country is served by the
Canadian Pacific and the Canadian Horthern, with the Grand Trunk
Pacific under construction?
In Manitoba, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Alberta lie
the great wheat-producing fields of west.ern Canada, a terri­
tory which is estimated to contain 800,000 square miles of
fertile agricultural lands .•• From Winnipeg west to the
Rocky Mountains and south of latitude 54, the country is now
half-occupied, but Mr. Hill makes the assertion that there
is still room for more people in this region than are con­
tained in all of the old provinces of Canada •••
TIle occupation of these fertile lands means an immense
grain traffic for the railroads and t~r. Hill has determined
to get a share of it. The mountainous regions are wonder­
fully rich in coal. minerals and lumber. The farmers on the
prairies east of the mountains need this coal and lumber and
there will be a large traffic in these commodities when the
new line to Winnipeg is built •.•
That the main line from Winnipeg will pass through
Portage La Prairie and Brandon is certain, but west of this
latter point, the proposed route is known only to Hr. lIi11 and
his lieutenants. For obvious reasons, Mr. Hill cannot
reveal his plans until the right of way is secured and he
has made no statement as to whether the route will be north
or south of the main line of the Canadian Pacific. Exten­
sive terminals have been purchased at Winnipeg at a cost of
$3,000,000 and terminals have also been acquired at Portage
La Prairie and Brandon .•. Survey parties are now in the
field west of Winnipeg and Mr. Hill asserts that the line
from that city to Vancouver will be ready for operation by
the time the Grand Trunk Pacific is completed to Winnipeg.
Then, Mr. lIi11 says, if the latter road and the Canadian
Pacific do not choose to take the traffic which the new road
will be prepared to turn over to them at Winnipeg, it will
be an easy matter to build from the latter city southeast,
by way of Greenbush, Minnessota to Dewey Lake Minn., from which
point the Hill lines have their own rails into Duluth •.•
As to the proposed line from Havre, Montana, northwest,
there is nothing definite •.• After the main line through
Canada is completed, north and south roads will be built and one
of these doubtlessly will be the line from Havre to
Edmonton ••• II
If further developments occurred, THE RAILWAY AGE did not
report them, nor is there any historical record of their construc­
tion. The Vancouver, Victoria and Eastern built a few more branch

This Great Northern system map is taken from the Oct. -Nov. -Dec 1934
time table courtesy of Dr.R.V.V.Nicholls and the CRHA Archives.
By this time the GN arm from Gretna, North Dakota to Portage la Pra­
irie,Manitoba had already been abandoned.
THE CLEAN, SCENIC ROUTE
CANADIAN 142 R A I L
lines in southern British Columbia, including the spectacular line
tllrough the Coquahalla Canyon. Had James J. Hill been really se­
rious in his proposition, it is likely that the transportation and economic
situations of the time cooled his enthusiams, somewhat, as
it did the aspirations of the Canadian Northern Pacific and
the Grand Trunk Pacific, along about 1915.
And more to the point: like Vall Horne, Jim Hill was
reputed to enjoy a good poker game. Can it be that Jim Hills
transcontinental main line was indeed his great Canadian bluff?
TO
OR
FROM
CALIFORNIA
via the
PACIFIC NORTHWEST
THE INTERESTING WAY
Here are definite travel values: the superbly equipped
and serviced Empire Builder, with air-conditioned
dining and observation cars-no extra fare … 1600
miles
behind oil-burning or electric locomotives-the
longest clean, cinderless mileage in the Northwest …
reduced curves and grades; low passes through the
Rockies and Cascades-with 300 miles along the most
interesting mountain scenery in America in daylight I
Mile
after mile the return on your travel dollar is
increased
in terms of greater comfort and enjoyment.
Besides, the Great Northern offers seasonal low excur­
sion fares
.•. daily fares of 2c per mile and less … no
Pullman surcharges … and dining car meals within
the range of the most restricted budget.
The Empire Builder makes connections at Seattle or
Portland with down-the-coast ships and fast trains for
California,
and at Chicago with trains for Eastern
and Southern points.
From he CQr WlndoUJ
For Full Information
SEE YOUR
TICKET AGENT
or write to
A. J. DICKINSON
Passenger Traffic Mgr.
Great Northern Railway
St. Paul, Minn.
BOOK
REVI E W
A LOOK INS IDE
Canals of Canada
with John D. Welsh.
he author of RAILROADS OF CANADA, Robert F.
Legget, OC, of Ottawa, Canada, contributes
this new volume to the Canals of the World
series, published in England by David & Char-
les and in Canada by Douglas, David & Charles.
Thus, it is addressed primarily to United King­
dom readers.
Its interest to readers of CANADIAN RAIL resides in it bridging
of the gap between all-water transportation, so vital to the devel­
opment of pre-Confederation Canada, and the network of canals which
preceded and gradually complemented the railway system. A glance at
the index brings this home, with references to the Grand Trunk, the
Great Western Railway of Canada, the Champlain and St. Lawrence Rail
Road, the Intercolonial, the Canadian Pacific and, inevitably, the
Canadian National Railways.
A
useful historical review sets the stage for the sectional tr­
eatment: Short Cuts in the Maritimes; Water Routes to the States,
Canals for Defence; Canals along Indian Routes; Some Minor Canals,
and the Great Dream, the Georgian Bay Canal.
Part II is devoted entirely to the system of canals on the St.
Lawrence River. A dozen fine maps and 24 pages of half-tone illus­
trations are varied, informative and well reproduced. Meticulously
prepared Notes, two statistical Appendices and 5 uggestions for
Further Reading add to the value of this book as a reference work.
The student of Canadian history will savour the frequent obser­
vations on the politics of waterway and railway development. But it
is curious to find no reference to the Chicora Incident of 1870 which
prompted Canada to build a lock at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, to en­
sure that Canadian ships would be guaranteed access to Lake Superior~
In the section on the St. Lawrence Seaway, describing the offi­
cial opening ceremonies in 1959, United States President Eisenhower
is named twice, although he was not present, while the ill-fated man
who acted in his stead is referred to only as the Vice-President.
r:he photograph which has been used to illustrate this book review
,:~;s from the Public Archives of Canada (C3823) and shows a Canadian
. :P.a~.cific Railway Companys passenger train, hauled by 4-4-0 Number
39.0./ crossing the bridge over the Mississippi River at Carleton Pl­
a~e, Ontario about 1895. This locomotive is today preserved at
the Canadian Railway Museum, in St.Constant P.Q. and bears the
more familiar number of 29.
Sprinkled throughout Canals of Canada are intriguing mentions
that insist on further study of such things as the brood-gauge por­
tage railway linking Carillon and Grenville on the north shore of
the Ottawa River, once an essential port of the Montreal-Ottawa water
route. This 5-foot 6-inch Provincial gauge railway kept going until
1910. There was once, would you believe, a three-mile, horse-drawn
tramway which transferred passengers around Chats Rapids, more log­
ically Rapides des Chats, not for from Quyon, Quebec, on todays Lac
des Chats on the Ottawa River. The chapter on Minor Canals recounts
such bold ventures as the Baillie-Grohman Conal in southeastern Br­
itish Columbia, which was designed to join the headwaters of the Col­
umbia and Kootenay Rivers; the Fort Frances Lock on the Rainy River,
and, closer to Montreal, the Wolfe Island Railway and Canal Company.
Each description is a contribution, in miniature, to our notional
heritage.
In sum, Canals of Canada is a comprehensive, lucidly written
and enlightening work, in compact form. It makes the study of the
history of canals in Canada a genuine pleasure.
CANALS OF CANADA Legget, Robert F., D.Sc.,OC 270 pp. $ 10.50
Douglas, David & Charles, Vancouver, BC 1976
5 3/4 x 8 3/4 Hard-cover.
PLUME
This pictorial presentation of the many
Ifacets of the steam locomotive in its
various haunts and manifestations is ba­
sically a collection of black-and-white
photographs by the late Charles Bowman,
taken during the 1960s and 70s. To the
outhor, the white plume of steam and smoke
symbolized the essence of steam locomo­
tives. Most of his photos, therefore, fea­
ture this symbol.
The book is divided into five sections: Canada and the United
States; England; Scotland; West Germany and Austriu. For each area,
The photograph which accompanies this review was taken in the 1950s
at Brownville Junction, Maine, U.S.A. by Mr. James Shaughnessy and
shows the combined white plumes from an unidentified D-10 and 4-6-2
Number 1225 on the head-end of ,a freight westbound to Megantic and
Sherbrooke, Quebec.
CANADIAN 146 R A I L
at least one large map serves to guide the reader, with particularly
good detail in maps for the U.K. and the Continent. Eighteen maps in
all add to the presentation.
Photographs of Canadian steam locomotives, mainly preserved
steam locomotives in the east, include shots of Canadian National Ra­
ilways venerable Moccasin, 6060s, 5107,6167,6153 and 6218; of
the latter we are given 11 views, six of them head-on~ Also, Credit
Valley Railways Number 136 and 1057 and ex-CPR 972 and 1276 below
the International Border. In addition, there are Canadian scenes with
Flying Scotsman ex-LNER Number 4472 and the Delaware & Hudsons
Sesquicentennial Special af 1973, hauled by ex-Reading Railroad 4-8-4
Number 1 -or Number 2101 -whichever you prefer.
Beginning in 1963, Mr. Bowman returned to Great Britain to see
and record on film a wide range of British steam, some of it remem­
bered from boyhood. His love for the subject and his ability to seek
out good locations yielded photos that are both significant and in­
teresting, from historic Kinnaber Junction to a Black Five on the
troughs at Dillicar; from a pair of A4s in Queen of Scots service
to a clean-cut ex-LNER J38. Subjects also included some British Al­
uminum and National Coal Board steam, plus Ravenglass and Eskdale,
Festiniog, Severn Valley and the Lochty Private Railway, the latter
with A4 Union of South Africa.
West German coverage, shot in 1972, gives us Pacifics, 2-8-2s,
2-6-2Ts, 2-10-0s, 2-6-2s, 2-8-2Ts and 4-6-0s, in a variety of ser­
vices and settings. One of the most delectable shots in the book is
that of a 1906 Prussian State Railways tenwheeler in local passenger
service.
For Austria, visited in 1974, a small but select group of photos
portrays narrow-gauge steam, built by Krauss-Maffei in 1902, on the
legendary Zillertalbahn, which also operated a drive-yourself train
for amateur engine-drivers, on an 8 km run. Austrian Federal Railway
2-6-2Ts are shown on the Leoben-Hieflau line, noted for its 8 percent
grades. The text in this section was completed by the authors know­
ledgeable friend and well known writer Omer Lavallee, who also as­
sisted Mrs. Bowman in the selection of all of the photographs in the
book.
Generous picture size and the superior quality of reproduction
contribute to readibility, particularly in the case of those taken
in obviously adverse weather conditions. The fact-filled captions,
with many informative historical sidelights, are admirable. The re­
viewer is reluctant to mention one minor flaw: some of the captions
are positioned awkwardly, but neverthtless are numbered, the photos
not having numbers.
If you are an amateur of railway photography, in its many and
varied aspects, you will want to read The White Plume.
THE WHITE PLUME Bowman, Charles RAILFARE* Enterprises Limited,
Montreal, Canada 1976 160 pp. 8!x12t 18 maps.
$ 15.95.
The . ~.
Dusiness car
LETHBRIDGE VIADUCT -CP RAILS HIGH LEVEL [lRIDGE AT LETfWRIDGE IS
the subject of a new book by historian Alex Johnston who
is president of the Whoop-Up Country Chapter of the Historical
Society of Alberta. Mid-February saw a company of dignitaries ride
a CP RAIL caboose over the bridge and, at miJpoint, Dr. Johnston
presented copies of the paperback to those aboard. Receiving the
first copy was Barclay Warren, CP RAILs assistant superintendent
for Alberta South in Lethbridge. The volume is dedicated to all
the railway men who have worked out of Lethbridge since 138S and
copies were also presented to retired CP engineer Andy Staysko and
retired CP superintentent Paddy Bowman.
(Pat Webb)
5.5. PRINCE GEORGE -THE FORMER CN SHIP OPERATED ON CRUISES UP THE
B.C. coast to Alaska is being offered for sale by Wong
Brothers Enterprises Ltd. of Nanaimo. The vessel, built in 1943,
made her last trip in 1975 and, after a fire, was bought by the
B.C. Government for $230,OO() plus 30 acres of Crown land at Prince
George. Next, she was bought by Wong Bros. who planned to adapt
her as a tourist attraction, restaurant and convention centre on
the Nanaimo waterfront. Use of the favored sit has been denied by
the city. For tile ~ast year, the 350-ft. Prince George has been moored
at the CP RAIL dock at Nanaimo.

Toronto Globe & Mail
RECOMMENDED READING -RAIL AND TRAHSIT (PUBLlSIIED I3I-MONTHLY BY
the Upper Canada Railway Society) for Nov.-Dec. 1976
includes a one-page illustrated article on The E~erson Connection
by K.A. Gansel, describing the activity at Emerson, Man. where
converging lines of CN, CP RAIL, B-N, BNML and SOO bring a daily
four-hour trans-border exchange of interest; a good map helps ex­
plain it all. Also in this issue, a three-page illustrated roster
for GO Transit by Pierre Patenaude, and two pages on the Fort Erie
(Ont. I~useum) with photos and a map; this is the iJome of CN 6218.
ITS YOUR MONEY -IF READERS HAVE BEEN CURIOUS ABOUT THE MULTI-
mill ion dollar Transport Canada Training Institute being
built at Cornwall, Ont., heres part of the answer. The present
Training Institute, now located in the Ottawa area, will move to
the new faeil ities during 1978, according to Transport Minister
Otto Lang. Two general types of training are provided: trans­
portation management and operational/technical training. Transpor-
CANADIAN 148 R A I L
tation management courses are attended by managers at intermediate
and senior levels. from government departments and the private
sector, involved in transportation. Some of these cover the plan­
ning of railway systems and their impact on Canadas transportation
infrastructure, but at the policy level. Operational and technical
courses are given to our own employees, and potential employees,
only. This training is in direct support of facil ities operated
by my Department, such as airports, harbours, radio stations and
the Canadian Coast Guard fleet. We do not conduct such training
for rail operations.
FRISCO BOUND -EFFECTIVE MARCH 18, NEW SAFETY REGULATIONS LIMIT
the number of passengers riding the outside steps of San
Franci sco s famed cabl e cars. On the Powell Street rU,l, number of
running board riders is restricted to six on the right hand side
of the car, eight on the left hand side. On the California Street
line, only four passengers are allowed on the running board on
each side. On all cars, no more than two passengers may ride
between the stanchions of each running board; and passengers must
not stand between the forward cabin door and the gripman.
-San Francisco Chronicle
EXACT FARE SYSTEM -THE EXACT FARE SYSTEN, ADOPTED BY MANY URBAN
transit authorities, has been blamed by Torontos TTC
for decreasing productivity. Chief General r~anager I~ichael Warren
said March 14 that between 1970 and 1976 there was an 86 percent
increase in operator wages but a drop of two percent in product­
ivity in terms of hours of operation per employee. Introduction
of exact fares in 1975 forced the TTC to establish a Metro-wide
agency system, pay commissions to agents and hire additional staff
to distribute the tickets, rather than have the drivers sell
tickets and tokens. He estimated that this single reduction in
operator productivity now costs the commission almost one million
additional dollars a year.
-Toronto Star
TRAIN SERVICE CUTS -THE CANADIAN TRANSPORT COMMISSION HAS RULED
that CN and CP Rail may drop seven passenger services
because of declining use, according to a March 22/77 news report.
CP Rail is permitted to drop the daily Sudbury-Sault Ste. Marie
run (197~ loss -$384,523) and to cut back the Montreal-Mont
Laurier service to two days a week from the present three days a
week -this service lost $197,690 in 1975 and unless a satisfac­
tory proposal is developed, this weekend service will be discon­
tinued after six months. CN is permitted to drop the tri-weekly
Winnipeg-Thunderbay North service on which it lost $802,136 in
1974; the weekly Dauphin-Winnipegosis mixed service, which lost
$~l ,381 in 1975; the tri-weekly mixed service, Prince Albert­
Hudson Bay, Sask., which lost $39,468 in 1975; the daily RDC ser­
vices Edmonton-Grand Centre and Edmonton-North Battleford which
lost $751,928 and $907,602 respectively; and the daily RDC service
Ste-Foy (Quebec)-Clermont which lost $471.477 in 1975. CN is al­
lowed to suspend its Richmond-Lyster-Ste-Foy service for six months
after which it will either discontinue the route or order it re­
sumed; loss in lY75, ~347,871. CN has been ordered to continue
services Edmonton-Drumheller and Jasper-Prince Rupert.
From the CRHA Archives, the Late E.A.Toohey caught San Francisco
Cable Car No. 509 climbing up Powell Street on August 14, 1950.

EAT IN STYLE -CENTRAL TORONTO WILL SOON SEE A $40-MILLION DEVEL-
opment near the Art Gallery of Ontario which will in­
clude five restaurants, one a replica of a street car barn where
diners will sit in two Peter Witt cars restored under the guidance
of the Ontario Electric Railway Association.
-Toronto Globe & Mail
COOKS BIBLE -THE TIIOtMS COOK INTERNJiTIONAL TIr~ETABLE liAS BEEN
enlarged (and re-named. from Continental) to include
details of principal rail services in most countries outside
Europe. effective with the January 1~77 issue. Additional informa­
tion covers North. South and Central America. Africa. the Middle
and Far East. Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan. Australia and New Zealand.
The monthly guide had been giving CN (in summary) and Amtrak ser­
vices in recent years.
-The Railway Observer
BURLINGTON NORTHERN -$6 MILLION HILL BE SPENT OVER TIlE NEXT THREE
years to increase capacity on B-Ns access 1 ine to
Vancouver. which also give CN its entry to the city. Improved
CTC. a 12,000 ft. extention of double-track line and 10.400 ft. of
new sidings will help to speed traffic.
-The (Pacific Coast Branch.
CRHA) SANDHOUSE
IN DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER -CP RAILS 4,579 FT. TUNNEL, BUILT IN 1931-33,
will remain in use after the railway closes in Drake
Street roundhouse and yards to make way for a housng project.
The tunnel provides a connection with the Vancouver and Lulu
Island line (CP-owned) which B.C. Hydro has leased for its freight
operations.
-The SJiNDHOUSE (Pacific Coast
Branch, CRHA)
CANADIAN 151 R A I L
VIVA VIA! -VIA RAIL CANADII INC., THE NE~ILY-FOR~lED CROlm RAIL PAS-
senger corporation, will not become operational until
the Canadian Transport Commission declares which passenger routes
are to be continued, emphasized Frank Roberts, president and chief
executive officer of VIA, in a Toronto Globe & Mail interview of
~Iarch 17/77. Tllis process of determination will likely take two
years. The Government may also decide that a service should be
continued even though the CTC and VIII determine that it is a heavy money
losing proposition.
However, that will be a governmental decision. Any recommendations
made to government by VIA to expand or contract services in the
future will be based solely on commercial reasons, he said. VIA
will take over marketing, research on new equipment, set schedules
and establish a common fare structure. It will take over most of
the present passenger equipment (except locomotives) either through
purchase or lease. Ilowever, when VIr. begins buying its o~n e<1ui p­ment
it will own this outright, including locomotives.
Budget, according to estimates introduced in the House of
Commons, is not to exceed $240-million in setting up the operation.
Since VIA will negotiate contracts with CN and CP RAIL
(no word yet from Ottawa about Algoma Central, Ontario Northland,
British Columbia or TH & B) to operate trains over their tracks,
an unaswered question remains -who pays, and how much, for track
maintenance and improvements required to meet VIIIs standards?
G.C. Campbell, CNs vice-president of passenger marking, raised
Our member and friend Mr.Oliver McKee caught VIA CNs newly painted
Turbo sifting through Cardinal/Ontario back in November 1976.
CANADIAN 152 R A I L
this point in a Financial Post article, March 26/77. He noted that
the railways must build and maintain tracks while competing with
transportation modes that only finance their vehicles. Keep in
mind that billions of dollars have been spent on highways and more
billions on airport infrastructure, he said.
Figures released by the CTC show that CN carried 3.3 m
illion inter-city passengers in 1976, all but one million of whom
rode trains in the Quebec-Windsor corridor. CP RAIL carried
349,000 inter-city passengers.
Photo courtesy eN.
S K YT 0 P S 00011 E 0 – C N S S I X SKY V IE l~ S LEE PER -LOU G E C 1 R S, B 0 UGH T FRO 1,1
the Milwaykee Road in 1964 (Pullman-Standard built the
cars in 1948 for the Olympian Hiawatha) have been moved to Montreal
for scrapping. The 8-double-bedroom lounges were named Mahone,
Malpeque, Fundy, Trinity, Oaddeck and Gaspe. They were used on such
trains as the Ocean, Scotian, Chaleur until the early 1970s.
All thoughts of placing them back in service were dropped when the
Canadian Transport Commission ruled they could not be used in re­
venue service because each car had only one exit.
II~ TilE WEST -CP RAIL IS STUDYI;JG THE FEASIBILITY OF A 20-tlILE-
plus tunnel as one means of securing a one per cent
grade on new track planned between Beavermouth and the eastern
portal of Connaught Tunnel, according to an interview with John
Patterson, CP RAILs assistant general manager of operations and
maintenance, Pacific Region. This appeared in Train Talk by Mark
Wilson, published in a Vancouver daily and forwarded by Jim
Shaugnessy. The new track is intended to take westbound traffic
which now faces heavy grades. CP RAIL has received CTC approval
to double track for grade easement at two other locations -between
Revelstoke and Clanwilliam and between Tappen and Notch Hill; these
should be completed in 1982 or 1983. Double track is also planned
between Lake Louise and Field, according to this article.
CANADIAN 153 R A I L
CREDIT VALLEY PROGRESS -ONTARIO RAIL ASSOCIATION AND CN HAVE SIGN-ed a
20-year lease on 7.4 miles of the old Beeton Sub­
division. giving the Credit Valley Railway its long-awaited right­
of -~I a y to C h e It e n ham Par k. R e n ton the 1 i new ill b e ~ 1. 00 aye a r .
It runs from about one mile north of Cheltenham Park to a point
about one mile north of the old Georgetown station. CN was per­
mitted to abandon this stretch of lille by a 197!i order of the CTC
but the commission stipulated that CN must retain ownership of the
right-of-way so service can be reinstated if the need arises.
-The INJECTOR
IN THE GOLDEN WEST -THE ONE-YEAR-OLD SASKATCHEWAN RAIL COMMITTEE,
with membership of 110, held its first annual general
meeting in Regina Feb. 5/77. Branches have been established at
Saskatoon and at Melville (named the QuAppelle-Parkland Branch).
Already the Committee has presented a brief to Regina City Council
and to a committee of the provincial cabinet, urging retention of
Reginas downtown Union Station as an intermodal rail-bus-air ter­
minal and re-study of the proposal to move the CP main line from
that area. Moose Jaw members are pressing for consideration of
a possible Moose Jaw-Regina commuter service. Saskatoon members
are behind the suggested reopening of the downtown CP station for
intercity passenger trains. The committee is affiliated with
Transport 2000; address is P.O Box 3~94. Regina, Sask. S4P 3L7.
~·IOODSTOCK (r~.B.) GRIDGE OF CP RAIL HAS BEU! RE8UILT AFTER TilE
spring floods of 76 washed it out. The 449-ft. bridge
is one of the longest on the Saint John Division. Its loss meant
disruption of service on the lOS-mile line between McAdam and
Aroostook although trains were operated over sections of the se­
vered line. CP Rail is operating approx. three trains a day on
the reopened link and CN has running rights into Woodstock.

CP Rail News
B.C. STEAM TRAIN WITH ROYAL HUDSON 28GO LEFT VANCOUVER MARCH 20 ON
a pror.lOtional tour through Cal ifornia, Oregon and
l~ashington, making display stops in 14 cities. Called the Ju­
bilee Tour in recognition of Queen Elizabeths 25th anniversary of
her coronation. it boosts B.C. tourist attractiolls as Hell as dis­
playing replicas of the Crown Jewels and wax reproductions of the
Royal family. Was handled by Sid Claridge, a CP veteran retired
since 1974 and Larry Debo of Southern Pacific. Sid served as
engineer north of the border and as fireman in the U.S.; Larrys
roles were the reverse. First stop was San Francisco. March 24-26, and
the scheduled route was San Jose, Los Angeles, Bakersfield,
Fresno, Sacramento, Redding. Klamath Falls. Eugene, Salem. Port­
land, Tacoma, Seattle and Bellingham. Canadian Rail expects
to have photos and complete details for an early issue, with the
co-operation of Norris Adams, Rick Shantler and others of CRHAs
Pacific Coast Branch.
CANADIAN 154 R A I L
THE SUTHERLAND BOYS HAVE BEEN AT IT AGAIN IN AND AROUND TORONTO AND
it is a pleasure to present some of the scenes which they
have recorded on film.
What better way to start than with Johns photograph of CP RAIL
Train 321, composed of RDC Dayliners Numbers 9115 and 9103, passing
through Sunnyside, a few miles west of Toronto Union Station, kind­
ness of Canadian National Railways, over whose tracks CP RAIL has
running rights. The time, 08 51; the date, 19 April 1976; the des­
tination of Train 321, Hamilton.
A week or so later, Andrew recorded on film two 3000 hp. diesel
units from two Canadian builders moving a Canadian National Railways
freight eastbound near Pickering, Ontario, on 28 April 1976.
CANADIAN 155 R A I L
.. , …. , .. t.
The following month, Andrew photographed a full compliment of
plates, adorning the left side of CP RAIL FA 1 Number 4019, then
stored serviceable at St-Luc Yard, Montreal. The stencilled legend
above the plates states that the unit was painted at Angus Shops,Mon-
treal in October 1974 using Pittsburg paint: It is hard to realize
that Number 4019 is approaching 26 years of age.
A foreign flavour was added when John discovered Duluth, Missabe
and Iron Range Railway C-630 units Numbers 907 & 903 leaving CP RAILs
Toronto Yard on freight Train 916 of 04 April 1976. These units, you
will no doubt recall, have been around and about. They were original­
ly Union Pacific Railroad Numbers 2907 and 2903. On this April occas­
ion, they were bound for the Cartier Railway Company of Port Cartier,
Quebec.
FROM HIS COLLECTION OF RAILWAY PHOTOGRAPHS, CHRIS ANDREAE HAS SENT
in for presentation three photographs of the locomotive
and tender shops at Stratford, Ontario, taken about 1904.
The Stratford Shops were opened originally in 1871 by the Grand
Trunk Railway Company of Canada, to service their locomotives which
were used on the main line between Toronto and Sarnia, Ontario.
When the Great Western Railway Company of Canada was amalgamated
with the Grand Trunk in 1882, and the Northern and North Western Ra-
ilway was acquired by the GTR in 1888, the GTR had to expand its
locomotive shops in Stratford to cope with the added work. The new
addition was opened in 1888 and increased the total floor-space from
38,000 sq. ft. to 94,000 sq. ft. The following year, the Grand Trunk
closed the former Great Western shops in Hamilton and transferred the
equipment to Stratford.
The Stratford shops were again enlarged in 1904, the floor-space
in the tender shop increasing to 103 feet by 342 feet. This appears
to be the tender shop shown in the accompanying photograph.
The building or purchase of larger steam locomotives in the
early 1900s required further enlargement of the shops and rebuilding
took place in 1908, after which the totol shop area wos 275,510 sq.
ft.
The last additions to the Stratford shops were to the erecting
shop annex in 1948-49 and the locomotive lighting-up shed in 1950.
This latter facility was used to test steam locomotives indoors.
Canadian National Railways dieselization program had begun to
have its effect on the steam locomotive population and, in 1960, so
much floor-space in Stratford shops was excess that 60,000 square
feet was leased to Cooper-Bessemer Corporation.
Stratford shops were officially closed on April 1, 1964, having
been sold to Cooper-Bessemer Engineering Corporation. However,before
they closed for good, one final class 1 repair was made on the one
surviving operating steam locomotive on Canadian National Railways at
that time: 4-8-4 Number 6218. The restoration was completed in Decem­
ber 1963 and was the last heavy repair carried out on a steam loco­
motive in Canada.
FROM SUSSEX, NEW BRUNSWICK, OUR DISTINGUISHED SENIOR MEMBER,C. WARREN
Anderson sends us the news that the former Canadian Na­
tional Railways station at Rothesay, New Brunswick, has
been preserved and restored by the Rothesay Area Heritage Trust.When
the station was judged to be surplus to CNs operations on September
13, 1975, the Trust was quickly formed under the presidency of Mr.
Sydney Maskey. The station was thereafter purchased for $ 1 and a
lease of the land at $ 60 per annum was arranged.
The Rothesay Area Heritage Tru~t then joined the New Brunswick
Heritage Federation comprised of six Trusts interested in preserving
properties in New Brunswick of an historic or aesthetic value.
The Rothesay group are the first Trust to actually own a build­
ing. Mr. Maskey said that the Rothesay Trust will also join Heritage
Canada, a foundation provided with $ 12 million annually by the fed­
eral government of Canada. A mortgage of $ 40,000 was to be applied
for. This money was to be used to renovate, repair and re-establish
the station.
When the European and North American Railway reached Rothesay in
1858, the station was known as Kennebecasis. The station was built by
Alfred Harris at a cost of $ 2,500. The contract wos dated October 3,
CANADIAN 158 R A I L
eN STATION at Rothesay, N.B., built in 1858 for the European and North
American Railway, now owned by the Rothesay Area Heritage Trust which
kindly supplied this picture.
1857
and required a two-storey passenger station, 50 x 28 feet and a
platform 100 x 30 feet. The station was to have both a ladies and a
gentlemens waiting room and a station~masters office. For some
reason, there was also a magistrates office.
On the second floor, there was a large four-room apartment with
a kitchen and cold running water and four fireplaces. This was with­
out doubt the station masters living quarters.
Mr. Harris was awarded another contract on April 3, 1858, to
build a pump-house, 18 x 18 feet, and a wood-shed.
The first E&NA train arrived at Rothesay station on June 1, 1858.
Mr. Marianus Cuming, the first station master, took up residence at
Rothesay the following November. He was an extremely talented man ,
being a competent veterinarian, an amateur inventor and a former news­
paper editor. However, he did not live very long after accepting the
position at Rothesay.
The Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII of England, visited
Rothesay on August 4, 1860, when Miss S.E. Davison was station-
mistress. The E&NA was an equal-opportunity employer.
On January 26, 1977, the annual meeting of the Rothesay Area
Heritage Trust was held in St. Pauls Anglican Church Hall and the
society members were glad to hear that the renovation of the station
hod just about been completed. According to Mr. Hamish Murdoch, a
Rothesay architect, the renovation of the station, the retirement of
the debt and the establishment of a museum in the station will take
about five years.
Major C. Warren Anderson provided the information for a full-
page report on the project in the Saint John, New Brunswick TELEGRAPH­
JOURNAL of April 17, 1976.
–_ ..
ROTHESAY. H.B. STATION Of TlfE EUROPEAN & NORTH AMERICAN RAILWAY about
1871, the year after Hs nft had been changed (rom Kennebecasls.
Courtesy -The New Brunswick Muse~
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS Rotllesay Station built In 1858, pictured III 1972
with a private dwelling once the pulllP house. Photo taken by Don K4150 just
prior to station renovation.
Un one of Ilis photographic rOI~ps the late R. Wyatt Webb caught 1.4
C,P.R. Ten IoIhecler 110. 2013 at Sutton Qu~t.ec in 1)32. The photo isV
~rescl1tl!d throl.HJh the courtesy of Ian Webb who has selected the
best-from his Late Fatllcrs collection for Ilresentatlon from tine
to tine 1,1 tAllADIAl1 ~All.
Canadian Rail
ISSN 0008 -4815
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by the
Canadian __ ftstoricaIAssociation
P.o.&:22.StatIonB,~o..bec,c:.n.wH383J5
Editor;SSAbrthen _;P.-Uphy
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