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Canadian Rail 278 1975

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Canadian Rail 278 1975

Canadian Rail a
No.278
March 1975

r
IN
-.-….
,
s
UNIT TRAINS
Duncan Haimerl
(
anadian National Railways definition of a unit-
train is a train that handles consistently a
volume of traffic of uniform commodity with
equipment of a uniform type. The train contin-
ually cycles between single loading and unloading
points, with customer and carrier committed to
maintaining the defined cycle. The shipper and
user are responsible for maintaining specified
loading and unloading times and the carrier is
responsible for meeting the specified transit ti­
mes for loaded and empty equipment. Finally, the
shipper is obligated to ship a minimum volume of
the commodity over a specified time period.
While this might seem to be a rather complicated definition, a
serious consideration of the various criteria will lead to the con­
clusion that each of them has to be observed if the agreement is to
be successful and profitable for both the carrier and the shipper.
The first Canadian National train to comply with the above cri­
teria began operation in March 1970, transporting coal from Luscar,
Alberta to Vancouver, British Columbia.
The solid train (trainload shipments) has characteristics sim­
ilar to the unit train, except that the power units and/or cabooses
may be used in other services. In the case of the unit-train, these
elements are integral. The first solid train began to operate ln
1957, transporting gypsum from Milford to Wrights Cove, Nova Scotia,
on CNs Bedford Subdivision.
The strict application of unit-train criteria was first employed
on shipments of heavy Bunker C fuel oil between Imperial OilsMon­
treal East refinery and the Atomic Energy of Canada installation at
Douglas Point, Ontario. The 63-car, half-mile-long train began oper­
ating in late November 1971. Using new jumbo-size insulated tank
cars, this unit-train could carry 950,000 gallons of oil and was de­
signed to operate on a 72-hour cycle, with delivery to Douglas Point
every three days. Transit time was 24 hours each way for the 502
miles, with eight hours available at each end for loading and unload­
ing.
ON A COLD JANUARY NIGHT IN 1955, CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS TRAIN 99
steamed and simmered in the yard at Niagara Falls, Ontario, ready for
an early morning departure for Hamilton and Toronto. Jim Shaughnessy
found engine Number 6076 and the train, and took the picture~
~ A CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS IRON-ORE PELLET UNIT -TRAIN ARRIVES AT
the Dominion Foundries & Steel (DOFASCO) smelter at Hamilton, Ontar­
io, hauled by two 3200-series MLW Diesel units. Photo courtesy CNR.
.-.. –
AT THE MINE AT TEMAGAMI, ONTARIO, THE MASTS ATOP THE 100-TON
cars engaije with the scroll to open the hatches automatically.
square notice on the sides of the ore cars direct their return
Temagami, when empty. Photo courtesy Canadian National Railways.
ORE
The
to
Another oil unit-train was placed in service between Gulf Oil
Companys Montreal Refinery and the International Nickel Company at
Sudbury, Ontario. This project planned for a 42-car train operating
on a three-doy cycle. In 1973, 70,000+ tons of oil were moved by
these unit-trains.
A third oil unit-train was planned for late 1974 operation be­
tween Golden Eagles refinery at St-Romauld, Quebec -near Levis
to the thermal generating station of Ontario Hydro near Bath, Ontar­
io, some five miles west of Kingston. This was a large project,util­
izing 52-car trains on a 48-hour cycle.
There are very particular reasons why the unit-train concept
suits the Bunker C fuel oil traffic. Pipeline transport of this
.
I
CANADIAN 73 R A I L
heavy oil from Levis/Montreal to Ontario destinations would involve
the construction of a heated pipeline, since the oil does not flow
readily below 130
0
F (55
0
C). Marine transport presented problems, due
to the possibility of mid-winter freeze-up of the St. Lawrence Seo­
way or the Greot Lakes. Ice-breakers could have been used, but this
would have been expensive.
Large, insulated rail tank cars offered the advantage of not re­
quiring heating at the point of delivery, since the hot oil from the
refining process retained most of its heat during transport. A
rapid dump system at the point of delivery facilitated quick un-
loading by dumping the contents of the tank car through an 8-inch
valve directly into a giant pit connected to storage tanks holding
180,000 barrels of heavy oil. Returning to the refinery, these in-
sulated tank cars were loaded through hotches in the top of each
car.
Iron ore pellets move from Sherman Mine, north of North Bay, On­
tario, to the DOFASCO smelter in Hamilton, Ontario, in specially
designed 100-ton ore cars. Three sets of 57 cars each run back and
forth on a 3-day cycle. There are 15 additional cars required for
change-out purposes.
Loading at Sherman Mine requires about three minutes per car.
Masts on the longitudinal roof-hatches, which are engaged by a scroll,
automatically open the hatches as the cars reach the loading position.
The pellets fall through chutes from the surge storage bins. The
train can handle one days output from the mines concentrating and
pellitizing facilities. Production at the mine is scheduled so that
there is always a one-day reserve of pellets.
On arrival at Hamilton, the unit-train is run onto the unload­
ing trestle and the diesel units are uncoupled. Six cars at a time
are run over the blast-furnace bins and each takes 60 seconds to un­
load. Meanwhile, the diesel units have picked up the empties from
the previous day, for the trip back to Sherman Mine. Loaded cars are
unloaded by using a pneumatic wrench on the side-dump discharge do­
ors, which allow the pellets to dump outside of the rails.
The following schedule for an iron ore pellets unit-train was
worked out:
Loaded/
~
Location Time
Em~t~ Railwa~
1 North Bay, Ontario LV 0001 EST Empty ONR
1 Sherman Mine AR 0330 EST Empty ONR
1 Sherman Mine LV 0630 EST Loaded ONR
1 North Bay, Ontario AR 1000 EST Loaded ONR
1 North Bay, Ontario LV 1100 EST Loaded CNR
1 Toronto Yard AR 2030 EST Loaded CNR
1 Toronto Yard LV 2330 EST Loaded CNR
2 DOFASCO-Hamilton AR 0330 EST Loaded CNR
2 DOFASCO-Hamilton LV 0500 EST Empty CNR
2 Toronto Yard AR 0830 EST Empty CNR
2 Toronto Yard LV 1330 EST Empty CNR
2 North Bay, Ontario AR 2200 EST Empty CNR
Why all this detailed planning and specialized equipment? The
answer is simple. The shipper, wanting to obtain the lowest possible
freight rate over the longest possible time is willing to accept
certain conditions and to agree to a number of particular terms
specified in the contract. The terms and corre.ponding freight rates
are then published by the Canadian Freight Association and ratified
i IN THE SHADOW OF THE ROCKIES, CANADIAN NATIONALS COAL UNIT-TRAIN IS
l loading at the Cardinal River Coal Mine in western Alberta, prior to
its long journey to the Pacific coast. Photo Canadian National Railways.
by the Canadian Transport Commission. Otherwise, the rate
might discriminate against other Canadian carriers who might
that they could provide the same service at the same rate.
quoted
feel
Obviously, the detailed arrangements essential to the establish­
ment of a unit-train service are so specific that it would be very
di f fi c u 1 t , if not imp 0 s sib 1 e , for another carrier to do t he same job
for the same rate per ton.
The Sherman Mine-Hamilton unit-train operation began in March
1968. During its first two years of operation, a near perfect record
of performance was maintained. In the first year, one million gross
tons of iron ore pellets were moved, with a good on-time perfor­
mance. 94.8% of the empty-car trains arrived at Sherman Mine within
the specified schedule. Similarly, 97.5% of the loaded trains were
delivered to DOFASCO in Hamilton within the specified schedule. It
all added up to reliability in performance and this was what the
system was designed to provide.
From the chart which follows, the scope and diversity of Canad­
ian National unit-train and solid-train operation can be appreciated.
While these trains are more common in some provinces of Canada than
others, there is hardly an area that does not profit from their op­
eration. And the potential for unit-train operation in all of Can­
adian Nationals regions has only begun to be developed.
CANADIAN 75 R A I L
For the future, here are a few possibilities:
Quebec newsprint unit-trains;
Ontario iron ore pellet unit-trains;
Manitoba ) ga:ain unit trains,
Saskatchewan) prairie elevator to seaport;
Alberta oil unit-trains, west to east;
British Columbia coal unit-trains, Terrace to Prince
Rupert, B.C.
FROM THE PRAIRIES OF THE WEST TO THE PORTS OF THE EAST: A CN GRAIN
unit-train of Government of Canada bath-tub coyered hoppers just out­
side Toronto, Ontario, in April 1974. Photo Canadian National Railways .
.
COVERED HOPPERS OF CANADIAN GRAIN COMPLETE THE FIRST PART OF THE TR­
ansportation cycle from the western prairies to the eastern seaboard
at the elevators at Thunder Bay, Ontario. Photo Canadian National.
t
AN 8S-CAR POTASH UNIT-TRAIN ROLLS ACROSS THE PRAIRIE NEAR MELVILLE,
Saskatchewan, on its thousand-mile-plus journey to tidewater at Van­
couver, British Columbia. Photo courtesy Canadian National Railways.

-. ~
…… U·.
Train numbers
440-441 527-528 597-598
One-way
miles
(CNR) (ONR) (CNR) (CNR)
270 236
34 20
819-820
(CNR)
319
U829-U830(CNR) 329
U850-U851
(CNR)
U852-U853(CNR)
(ONR)
U 8S4-U 855(
CNR)
(ONR)
U856-U857(
CNR)
U858-U859(
CNR)
(ONR)
U860-U861
(CNR)
71
399 82
420 243
502 841 325
455
U862-
(CNR)
48
(CPR) 145
U864-U865(CNR) 396 613
U866-U867(CNR) 91
~f~Y;;~:~r
Origin
Terminus
Temagami/Dane
Hamilton
(North
Bay)
Ontario
East
Milford,
Wrights
Cove,
N.S.
N.S.
River
Denys,
Point
Tupper,
N.S.
N.S.
Bruce
Lake,
Ontario
Thunder
Bay,
Ontario
Tachereau,
Quebec
Fitzpatrick,
Quebec
Valleyfield,
Massena,
Quebec
New
York
Copper
Cliff
via
Tracy~
Quebec
North
Bay,
Ontario
Kidd,
Ontario
vio
Courtright,
North
Bay,
Ontario Ontario
Montreal,
Quebec
Ferrier,
Ontario
Copper
Cliff/Kidd,
Belledune,
via
North
Bay, Onto N.B.
Montreal,
Quebec
Wyman,
Quebec
via
Montreal
Clara
Belle
(S
udbury)
Ont.
Contrecoeur,
Quebec
Com­modity Iron
ore
pellets Gypsum
Gypsum Iron
ore
pellets
Corsi train
57 50 41 64
Trains/
year 350
482
240
( summer)
336
Wood
chips
125
(limit)
313
Aluminum
ingots
Sulphuric
acid
10
36-56
365
50
Sulphuric
36-56
varies
acid
Bunker C
42-63
100
oil
Sulphuric
56
varies
acid
Bunker C 42
44-68
oil
I ron
ore
pellets
35 52
Coteau,
Quebec
Atlantic
Region
Ballast
(various
points)
74
24
Uhthoff,
Ontario
Millikens,
Crushed
Ontario
stone
50
78 (summer)
_
:V
…..
1973
net
Shipper
tonnage
Sherman
1,973,256
Mines National
2,371,485
Gypsum Bestwall
699,425
Gypsum STELCO
1,471,521
Can.
Intl.
Varies:
Paper
up
to
0.85
mil.
ALCOA (USA)
not
defined
Can.
Indus-
169
,8
64
tries,
Ltd.
Can.
Indus-
69,888(est.)
tries,
Ltd.
Imperial
Oil
124,396
Limited Can.
Indus-
87,828
tries,
Ltd.
Gulf
Oil
29,739
Canada Hilton
Mines
Meloche Quarry Limestone Quarries
31,000
143,856 331,500
I
U868-U869(CNR) 372
U870-U871
(CNR)
1,192
U872-U873(CNR) 277
(PC) 15
U874-U875(CNR) 469
Sudbury,
Ontario
Thunder
Boy, Ontario
Marmora/Belleville
Ontario
Goderich,
Ontario
Trenton,
Ballast
Ontario
Montreal/Quebec
Grain
Quebec
Fort
Erie, Ontario
St.
Lambert, Quebec
Iron
ore
pellets
Salt
70 13
80
21
(
winter)
48 60 (
winter)
C.
Fielding
73,710
Company Can.
Wheat
4-6
million
Board
bushels
Marmoraton
244,000(G)
Mining
50 24
DOMTAR
(
winter)
54,707
U876-U877(CNR)
1,714
Thunder
Bay,
Ontario
(Saint
John,N.B.
(Halifax,
N.S.
Grain
60-65
varies
Can.
Wheat Board (
varies)
U878-U879(CNR)
1,087
U882-U883(CNR)
1,320
U884-U885(CNR)
1,500
U890-U891
(CNR)
690
U892-U893(CNR)
U894-U895(CNR)
U896-US97(CNR)
U898-U899
Extra trains
(CNR) (CNR)
675
200
885
28 42
Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan
Cutarm/Yarbo,
Manitoba
Winniandy,
Alberta
Luscar,
Alberta
Winniandy,
Alberta
Cadomin,
Alberta
Wind
f
all/Ka
bob,
Alberta
Limehouse,
Ontario
CNR

Canadian
National
Railways
ONR

Ontario
Northland
Railway
CPR

CP
RAIL
PC
-Penn
Central
Vancouver,
Potash
British
Columbia
Vancouver,
Potash
British
Columbia
Thunder
Boy,
Coal
Ontario
85
85
100 200
CANPOTEX
1.7
million
200 I
nt.
Miner-
1.7
million
als
&
Chemicals
44
McIntyre-
625,000
Porcupine
Vancouver,
Coal
65-85
150
Luscar
Coal
1,265,272
Mines
British
Calumbia
Vancouver,
Coal
65-85
286
British
Columbia
Bissell,
Alberta
Lime-
47 100
stone
Vancouver,
Dry
sulphur
60-90
60
British
Columbia
50-55
130
McIntyre-
1,608,418
Porcupine Inland
389,850(est)
Cement Company TRIMAC
720,000(est)
Sulphur INDUSMIN
Pinecrest/
Crushed
Scarborough,
Onto
stone
( summer)
323,731
(G)
Gross
tons:
first
quarter
1974.

WHILE
IN
ALBERTA;
A
CANADIAN

NATIONAL
RAIl,WAYS
U;MESTONE
UNIT-
,
troi

n,

bP~rote

d
,
for
the
Inlo
c
ndC.ementC;ompany,
moves
lj,rii,
estone
200
miles
frol!l
C9
,domj,n
onthed6or~step
of
,the

Rocki
es,
,to
B
,
iss~l,l.;
Albe
,;r­
to
,_
Pho
:
toc
,6urtesy
Goni:Jdiori
National
Roi:l:w<;Iys _
I
#
Part II
Hal Reigger
Photos by the Author
I
n the first part of ~his article,
a description of the national N­
scale layout, called NTRAK, was
given, together with some histor­
ical data on the two railroad oper-
ations which provided the ideas for
the module. I explained that I
would be discussing my own module
which formed a part of the total
layout. Let us now proceed to a
consideration of the 4 by 8 module.
There are various aspects to modelling, all of which are taken
into account when the model is the best that a person can make. Back­
ground, including historical and other data of the prototype, are im­
portant in achieving a feel for the model. There are the broad cat­
egories of mechanical construction, electrical, and operation to con­
sider, in relation to the prototypes and space available to the mod­
eller, along with budget and the modellers ability as a craftsman.
This is not a discussion of scratch-building or kit-bashing of motive
power or rolling stock.
More or less in logical order, these are the things I had
think about in planning and building a model: 1. model size and
2. prototype operation and era; 3. model operation; 4. geology
scenery, plus materials and methods for the model; 5. whether
make everything, or to draw fram commercial kits; 6. finally –
to me the most important consideration -model aspects that must
inate to give the illusion of space.
to
scale;
of
to
and
dom-
Item 1 above was decided when I chose to be part of the NTRAK
effort. In resolving Item 2, the decision was based on the facts that
the two prototypes appealed to me and I had adequate information and
photos for both of them. Moreover, I wanted to include some opera­
ting catenary in the model. Item 3 was mostly predetermined by the
entire NTRAK operation of main line and collector tracks that had
to coincide with modules on each side of mine, and the limited space
left to me to do with as I chose. My resolution of this point was
just a loop-over with about 4 feet of track and a grade of about 8%.
Item 4 was basically determined by the geology of the prototype areas
selected, and was mountainous. Scenery materials and construction
methods were my own choice,which was to use natural materials as
much as possible, in the knowledge that they would result in a more
realistic-looking model.
CANADIAN
82
R A I L
Item 5: I chose to make everything myself, this being my nature
and I had a fine assortment of materials which I hod been collecting
for just such a project. The aspects of illusion, required by Item
6, would evolve as the model took shope. This point was to occupy
the major portion of my planning and effort.
Except for the brief description necessary to form the frame
for this article, I will let the pictures and captions convey the
ideas. The following are some notes about the module as the
struction progressed:
con-
Canmore Mines Limited uses a small General Electric locomotive
fitted with a trolley-pole, slider type, and operating from overheod
wire. Unless I used Z-scale, which was not practicable at the time
I could not follow the exact dimensions of the prototype in making
a mine locomotive for the model.
Instead, I chose to modify the body, but to design it in keeping
with the feel of the prototype, using on N-scale motor and frame. The
body had to be fabricated of styrene, necessarily, and included a
micro-miniature bulb, with necessary diodes, for the headlight. Al­
though the original trolley pole I made was fairly close to prototype
in scale, I found later that a pantograph would result in more fool­
proof operation: at a showing, this loco would be run bock and forth
constantly and it was too awkward to turn the trolley pole each time.
In tests, the trolley pole did operate beautifully, tracking per­
fectly under intentional wire variations of as much as t each side
of centre.
Following a simple sketch of the track plan, mountains and road-
bed for the mine track were installed. Chunks of styrofoam formed
the largest port of the mountains, with a pre-cut, pre-formed piece
of t plywood for the mine track fitted into the terrain. This track
was hand-laid with ties cut to scale from pieces of real railroad
ties from the Milwaukee Road and using code 40 roil. The roil, in
turn, was soldered to small spikes spaced about 2 aport for correct
gouge and actually not attached to the ties. I was happy to find that
the ties could be sanded level without any colour change, since they
were already impregnated with creosote. The odour added reality to
the model, as well.
Rocks, which formed the major geological features of the model,
were real, coming from the actual mine location in Alberta. They
could not have been more authentic. Theywere located on the model
and tentatively glued. Core was token to locate them in a manner wh­
ich was logical geolo~ically. After they were fixed to the model, dirt
and cloy from my own ~California) property were mixed with white glue
to make a stiff paste and applied over the styrofoam. This SGrt of
mixture shrinks on drying and crocks appeared, necessitating a kind
~ AN EARLY STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION OF THE MODEL. STYROFOAM AND ROCKS HAVE
been placed, earth added and provision mode for the trestle. At this
stage, it looks like some small stones set in dirt~
WHEN THE MODEL MINE TRAIN IS PLACED IN THE SETTING, IT IMMEDIATELY
gives a scale to the layout. Rocks become cliffs and mountains, sty-
rofoam-dir~ mounts become hills. It is important to check the pro-
gress of the work every so often with a model, the prototype size
of which are known and familiar to the modeller.

• THE INSTALLATION OF THE TRESTLE, PLUS A COUPLE OF TREES AND THE PL Y­
l wood mountains immediately makes the scene real to the eye and accep­
table to the mind. If the essential features are convincing at this
point, the remainder of the work will be largely details. These de­
tails usually add to the effect, but occasionally one may detract and
changes must be made, or the detail should be eliminateu.
HEIGHT, A DERIVATIVE OF VERTICAL SCENERY, IS A RESULT MAINLY OF THE
angle of viewing. Unfortunately, the derailed coal car was not
ticed until after the photograph was taken and the enlargement
The position of the elements of the model is important, from
no­
made~
both
the operational and photographic points of view. You must imagine
yourself as an N-scale viewer, looking at the scene from the ground­
not from an aeroplane~
CANADIAN 85 R A I L
of re-work of the terrain to eliminate the cracks. The first results
were encouraging; the resemblance of the material to actual earth
was remarkable.
The building of the earth-rock part of the model proceeded sim-
ultaneously with the construction of various buildings and other
railroad-related items, some not planned originally, others always
in my mind. In other words, the development of the model was open
and new ideas could be accepted as they arose. In the original plan,
there was a trestle, 100 scale feet, that I modelled, using scraps
from a local veneer plant, scale ties from real ties and poles made
of Japanese barbecue skewers of bamboo~ These resulted in an extreme­
ly strong, tough structure and, fortunately, were already in scale.
Two structures, a shed and connecting unit, were built from
scale lumber and scraps from the above-mentioned veneer mill. The
interesting and successful aspects of these structures were in the
use of scrap metal, which I found at the site of an abandoned ore
concentrating mill at Ymir, British Columbia. Cut properly, the met­
al made scale sheets for roofing. A modeller is always well advised
to take note of rusty, weathered metal, which can be found almost
anywhere: tin cans, metal boxes and pieces of galvanized roofing.
A third building resulted from the use of my talents as a pro­
fessional potter. I made a coal transfer shed from clay from my own
property, imagineered, as they say and formed to fit the contour
of a hill to achieve realism. It was made larger than scale to allow
for about one-sixth shrinkage in drying and firing. Roofing to sim­
ulate corrugated aluminum was, in fact, corrugated aluminum foil
sheets which I made and glued over beams of scale lumber.
Through a strange coincidence, while I was searching for some
chemical that would tarnish or weather aluminum foil, I discovered
that an application of liver of sulphur in solution, followed by a
solution of copper sulphate, did a wonderful job of simulating
weathering on aluminum. This chemical weathering was quickly sprayed
with a dull fixative to preserve the effect obtained.
Poles for the mine railways overhead wire were fabricated from
1/16 brass welding rods. Brackets, hangers and trolley wire came
from .02, .015 and .010-gauge phosphor-bronze wire. Electrical con­
nection was made to only one end, because of the short length of the
entire trolley wire. Only one rail was electrified, which permitted
operation of the electric locomotive without the trolley and on two
rails.
Other structures used on the model included two tell-tales ,
made
of scale brass channel, plus cyclone fencing. For both of
these structures, I used some fine stainless steel screen scraps
which I had collected at a now disused Crowsnest Pass (British Col­
umbia) coal mine.
A stairway was constructed of scale lumber, scrap lumber and
plane shavings. Two operating switch-stands were made of scale brass.
The mine ad it was built from scrap wood from an actual mine in Brit­
ish Columbia, plus some rusty metal for the roof, collected at the
same location. A small power substation was made of scale plastic
bricks, with an aluminum foil roof. One short tunnel was made from
part ~f a mailing tube, which imitated the rounded inside form of a
cement-lined tunnel.
The greatest visual impact of a model is a result of not only
the thought given to the aspect of space illusion, but also from the
tt~ . ;.
, -~, ,::CI ~~i:
.~. ~~~. ~L; ~
. • •. .i ~: .• , .:~,,> … ).;::,~
.~ ~ . …~ .. t …. : ~: . ~
. ,~.} .. ,. . ~,;, ….. ,.,
,–. . . •• ..;,:llfi,:,.
~~, l~ ,
, A 4-INCH ROCK HAS ASSUMED THE DIMENSION OF A 300-FOOT CLIFF~ THIS
l detail photograph, taken before the catenary was installed, demon-
strates dramatically the increased size of objects when the model is
placed in the setting. The timber crib-work for the embankment was made from mine
scrap wood found at Ymir, British Columbia. It is al­
ready beautifully weathered .
.L A DETAIL PHOTOGRAPH OF TROLLEY-POLE CONSTRUCTION. COMMON GLASS BEADS
, were used as insulators. Note the double-wire support at the end of
the bracket, which facilitated the use of a wire-slider on the loco­
motive pole collector without snagging. Although these poles are not
true to prototype, they have a realistic appearance and were not too
difficult to make.
CANADIAN 87 R A I L
ItD/!
——
:::J ….
————————————–­
._—–_._—-,———
Mrt/NLINE: ~
DANTONS COAL COMPANY
NTRAK module.
Hal Riegger.
careful placement of the mountains, the rocks and the two plywood
mountains, attached about t away from the painted sky. Recognizing
that hills, trees and other objects, painted onto a diorama back­
ground, become distorted if viewed from any angle other than str­
aight-on, I chose not to point any scenery, but only sky, on the
background. The results were very gratifying. The plywood mountains
are convincing from any viewing angle.
Details of geography followed. Sand and fine gravel were judi­
ciously used in places where they would, logically be found in nature,
allowed to slide naturally and were then spray-glued in place. This
-l A CLOSE-UP VIEW THROUGH THE TRESTLE SHOWS THE EFFECT OF DEPTH AND DIS­
I~ tance achieved, even though only 2t inches separate the locomotive
from the mountain in the background. The photograph also shows the
undesirable effect of the earth-latex paint mixture used on the ply­
wood mountain. This granular surface was removed. Such textures are
not seen at great distances. An improvement was immediately apparent.
IN THIS VIEW OF A PORTION OF THE FINISHED MODEL, WE SEE THE SHED WITH
the connecting, covered passage to the end of the fired-clay transfer
building. Note the roof of weathered, scrap zinc metal. The mine adit
is just visible behind the rock at the right-hand side of the trestle.
The catenary has been installed and the stairs are in place, both de­
tails that heighten the impression of realism.

CANADIAN 9 0 R A I L
process had to be repeated in some places to build up a realistic
rock-slide. Water in small quantities was trickled over a few places
on the model to produce actual erosion of the earth and this, too,
produced considerable realism.
From twigs and moss gathered in the area around my home, I made
about a dozen conifers. In addition to these, I used 2 and 3-long
lichen-covered twigs, which I had gathered in southeastern British
Columbia and some smaller, differently-shaped,lichen-covered twigs
found near my house. These provided the large trees for the model.
They were placed as they would occur in nature, a requirement not
to be overlooked if realism is to be achieved, for the helter-skelter
arrangement of trees, too often seen on models, can and does detract
from an otherwise admirable model layout.
A TYPICAL TWIG, SELECTED FOR USE TO SIMULATE A TREE. ITS OVERALL
height is two inches~
~ ON THE LEFT-HAND SIDE OF THE MODULE, THERE ARE THE TWO MAIN LINES
and the collector track, with its connection to the mine spur. The
mine track appears above on the side of the mountain. Rocks and
trees help to form a very realistic scene. The catenary suspension
adds to the realism.
THE CENTRE OF THE MODULE CONTAINS SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT DETAILS
of the layout. The rock in the right centre was chosen particularly
for that position to create the illusion of depth and space. It has
live, orange lichen growing on it and its physical form was ideal
for small-scale use.

CANADIAN
92 R A I L
Lichens of four different types and from three different loca­
tions, all in their natural colour, formed the remainder of the
smaller flora on the model. These, too, were placed with strict at­
tention as to how and where they would be found growing in nature.
The larger, brighter lichens were used towards the front of the model,
while the smaller, more subdued specimens were placed to the rear.
This helped to create the illusion of depth and space. Leaves, dead
foliage and other small growth on the ground were simulated using
redwood sawdust and dry, ground lichens.
Some of the theories of fine-art painting were of great advan­
tage in building the model, perhaps overweighing considerations of
perspective. Since few man-made structures had been used, I found
that I was faced with the creation of country scenery. Representing
a mountainous terrain, the subject presented some advantages as well
as some problems. The use of plywood mountains in the background has
already been mentioned. The judicious placing of rocks and trees did
help in creating the illusion of depth and distance, as did the lo-
cation of the wooden trestle with a track running under it. I also
discovered how the illusion was heightened by seeing a train dis-
appear into a tunnel, run under a trestle or disappear out of sight
momentarily behind a mountain, not to mention the essential factor
of true scale, very slow, prototype speeds of operation.
Telephone poles and trees were diminished in size as they were
placed further away from the viewer -and this within a range of only
14 inches~ Of equal importance was the use of brighter, more contrast­
ing colours in the foreground foliage and structures, as opposed to
the more subdued, neutral colours in the background.
When the modeller approaches scenery modelling with the eye of
an artist, constantly reviewing what he has created to determine wh­
ether or not he has achieved realism, he may find himself demolish-
ing and rebuilding some of his work. Any review will surely mean
repositioning various ob jects, rocks, hi11s, foliage, etc., as the
model develops. Thus, the thing to keep in mind is that the model
must be built in a way to allow for this eventuality, as the model
grows and develops. Most of the pieces on the model should not be
permanently fixed until the model is nearly completed and is con-
sidered to be the best that can be produced.
One accessory which I used in building the model, the results
of which were truly delightful and encouraging, was photography. I
took many photographs of prototype railroads, their associated struc­
tures and equipment, and I was able to find the correct scale to en­
large various signs and other items for the most satisfactory use
on the model. The railroad crossing signs, the Substation #23 and
Stop Engine signs are made from photographs of the real signs on
the prototype railroads.
The NTRAK module which I built reflects my current concern in
model railroading that not enough attention is paid to making the
scenery convincing, to achieve the essential impression of depth and
space. To me, other characteristics are not difficult: such aspects
as laying track, wiring, etc., are purely technical, requiring logic
and an understanding of mechanics and electrical. circuitry: But the
creation of good model in any scale demands the eye of an artist, if
not the artist himself; an eye that is imaginative, discerning, dis­
criminating and one which sees and understands what it observes. In
any representation of the real, be it a painting, a sculpture, a ph-
otograph, a drawing, a diorama or a model, acuity of observation is
essential and its proper employment is nowhere more obvious than in
a model in NTRAK.
March 1975
WIIIILLS
CANADA POST OPENED THE NEW NATIONAL POSTAL MUSEUM AT CONFEDERATION
Heights, Ottowa, Canada, on September 29, 1974 and, to
mark the occasion, published a series of coloured post-
cards portraying the various means of carrying the moil from 1887 to
1928.
The set of five postcords, os day of issue items,
for about $ 1 and depicted the following transportation modes:
sold
– a view of the Cariboo Stage at Clinton, British Columbia,
in 1887: a stage-coach in the traditional style, drown by a
six-horse hitch. five greys and one chestnut;
-Ottowa Electric Railway Royal Moil car Number 1, in front
of the main postoffice (Sappers Bridge) in Ottowa, 1894;
-the interior of a railway postoffice car on the Grand Trunk
Railway of Canada in 1909;
– a fragile-looking biplane which inaugurated air-moil service
from Ottawa to Toronto, Ontario, on August 26/27, 1918;
– a one-horse, two-sled tandem lash-up crossing the frozen sur­
face of a lake on the moil route at Semour Arm, British Col­
umbia, in the winter of 1928.
The attention-getter for the railway enthusiast may be the in­
terior picture of the Grand Trunk Railway moil cor, but, in spite of
the appeal of the Pintsch-gas, globulor overhead lighting fixtures
and white cotton sleeve-guards, there are not too many details which
Juggest a moil car of the turn-of-the-century.
What does catch the eye is the excellent colour postcard of
Royal Mail cor Number 1 of the Ottawo Electric Railway in 1894, re­
produced herewith (regrettably) in black-and-white, with the permis­
sion of the National Postal Museum. The basis for the artists ren­
dering of this car in green, cream and gold, is the photograph in
black-and-white (Number C-18684) of this cor in the Notional Archives
of Canada. This some photograph was used to illustrate the article
Right-of-Way for the Mail by Mr. O.S.A.Lavallee in the January 1963
issue Number 140 of CANADIAN RAIL.
The information sheet for this postcard, supplied through the
kindness of Mr. J.E.Kraemer, Manager, National Postal Museum, states
that the origin and disposition of this car and its two sisters is
not knoHn for certain. Mr. Lavallee wrote that, about 1895, the Post
Office Deportment, Government of Canada, contracted with the Ottawa
Electric Railway Company to undertake the transportation of mail from
the three railway stations in Ottowa to the central Post Office at
Sappers Bridge. The OER converted and electrified three former horse-
cars and numbered them 1, 2 and 3. The accompanying photograph of
car Number 1 reflects this conversion.
CANADIAN
94 R A I L
While Mr. Frank Mayrs, the artist who designed the series of
commemorative postcards, determined that the original colour scheme
of these cars was green to the belt-rail, with a cream upper portion
and lettering in gold, Mr. Lavallee wrote that these converted cars
were painted white and red, carried the Royal coat-of-arms and the
inscription Royal Mail, very prominently displayed on the sides and
ends of the cars. These latter embellishments are visible in the pho­
tograph. Mr. Mayrs believes that this white and red colour scheme was
adopted at a later date.
By 1906, wrote Mr. Lavallee, the requirements of this service
had rendered obsolete these first three converted horse-cars. The
Ottawa Electric Railway Company therefore decided to scrap the old
converted cars and to purchase three new ones, specifically for the
mail service, from the Ottawa Car Manufacturing Company of Ottawa.
These were specially-designed, single-truck cars with closed plat-
forms, monitor roofs and single, baggage-type doors centered in
each side of the car, with flanking windows. The bodies were mounted
on Taylor single trucks and were, apparently, double-ended with
walk-around trolley poles. The new cars were numbered 423, 424 and
425 and were painted white or cream, with gold lettering and stri­
ping, outlined in black.
Although neither Mr. Lavallee ror Mr, Mayrs comment on the point,
it is probable that these new cars also were painted with the Royal
coat-of-arms and the designation Royal Mail.
Number 424, said Mr. Lavallee, disappeared at an early date, its
precise fate being unknown, while cars Numbers 423 and 425 were con­
verted to work cars when their days of usefulness as Royal Mail cars
came to an end in 1911. Mr. Kraemer notes that the OERs contract to
carry the mail ran from November 9, 1894 to September 1, 1911, which
dates establish the interval when special electric railway mail cars
were in use in Ottawa. Needless to say, cars Numbers 423, 424 and
CANADIAN 95 R A I L
425 were displaced by the internal-combustion engine and rubber tyre
as motor trucks took over the service after September 1911.
Mr. Lavalle wrote that Number 423s roof was altered from its
original monitor type to a deck type, while Number 425 s body was
sold in 1957 to an unknown private individual.
What happened to Number 423? Well, in 1959, it was retired af­
ter participating in the farewell procession of streetcars which mor-
ked the end of nearly 89 years of tramway service in our Nations
capital city. The Canadian Railroad Historical Association soon
thereafter made overtures to the City of Ottawa to acquire the car,
but, at that time, it was thought that this car, together with sev­
eral others, would form the nucleus of a streetcar museum or display
in Ottowa.
In the spring of 1961, through the good offices of the then-Ma­
yor, the Honorable Charlotte Whitton, Number 423 was donated by the
City of Ottawa to the Canadian Railroad Historical Association for
the Canadian Railway Museum. This unique car left Ottawa on November
26, travelling by flat-bed semitrailer down Highway 17, and arrived
at the Canada Creosoting Companys plant at Delson, Qubec, on Sat­
urday, December 1, 1961.
It was a memorable occasion, not only because of the unique
nature of this acquisition, but also because of the method by which
it entered the Museum. There was, at that time, no entrance from St.
Pierre Street in Saint Constant, Qubec, for the Little St-Pierre
River had yet to be bridged. It was therefore necessary to unload
this precious acquisition in the yard of the Canada Creosoting Comp­
any onto the rails of the Canadian Pacific Railways industrial si­
ding, after which the members of the Association energetically but
laboriously pushed ex-OER Number 423 all the way down to the switch
for the Seaway Spur, then all the way north to the switch for the
Canadian Railway Museum and -finally -all the way into the Museum
and Building 1.
Number 423 was the first streetcar to be placed in the Museum.
IN LATE OCTOBER 1974, PAT WEBB OF LETHBRIDGE, ALBERTA REPORTED THAT
CP RAIL sulphur trains originating at Gulf Oil and Shell
Oil natural gas plants, south of Pincher (Creek) on the
Crowsnest Subdivision, were run east to Coal hurst and north over the
Aldersyde Subdivision to Eltham and Aldersyde and thence over the
Macleod Sub to Calgary. At Calgary, the sulphur trains took the main
line for Golden, Revelstoke, Kamlops and Coquitlam to Vancouver. The
Crows Nest Pass line was very quiet, as a consequence, the coal unit­
trains for Roberts Bank originating at Sparwood, some 20 miles west
of the pass,
FROM JOHN WELSH OF DORVAL, QUEBEC, THIS MONTH •••.••.•.•..••••••••••

Id rather drive an engine than
Be a little gentlemani
Id rather go shunting and hooting
Than hunting and shooting.
Daniel Pettiward – A BOOK OF BRITAIN: compiled
by John Hadfield.
IN NOVEMBER 1974, IT WAS REPORTED THAT AMTRAK HAD SIGNED AN AGREE­
ment with the State of Michigan which enabled the intro­
duction of the Rainbow Express passenger service fro~
CANADIAN 96 R A I L
Buffalo, New York to Detroit, Michigan, via Welland, St. Thomas and
Windsor, Ontario. It was thought that the new passenger service mi­
ght operate via Erie, PA, Cleveland and Toldeo, OHIO, but the Sta­
tes of Pennsylvania and Ohio were apparently not receptive to the
proposal.
In fact, the new Rainbow Express service is an exten-
sion of the Empire service from New York to Buffalo. This service
departs New York at 08:30 hours, arriving at Buffalo at 17:00 and
at Detroit at 22:05 hours. In the eastward direction, departure from
Detroit is at 07:45, arriving at Buffalo at 12:45 and New York City
at 21:50 hours.
At the time of the announcement, it was not known whether
or not passengers would be entrained or detrained at the station st­
ops in Canada, but the three southern Ontario cities were printed
in the first timetable for the new passenger service.
The first day of the new service was reported to be Oc-
tober 30,1974. S.S.Worthen.
THE EDITOR AND THE PUBLISHER OF CANADIAN RAIL WOULD LIKE TO THANK
most sincerely all of the members of the Association who
were throughtful enough to send Christmas cards and mes­
sages, expressing their satisfaction with the magazine during 1974
and their encouragement for 1975. These messages are very much ap­
preciated. Any reasonable suggestions for changes and/or improve­
ments in CANADIAN RAIL are always welcome, as are cantributions to
our publication.
Reader-members are reminded that the success of Canadian Rail
depends largely on the quantity and variety of material received for
publication and they are therefore encouraged to send to the Editor
pictures, news items, reports and articles, which would be of in­
terest to readers.
Our sincere thanks is due to those members who have contribu­
ted material for Canadian Rail in 1974.
IN MID-DECEMBER 197~, THERE WERE TWO CHANGES IN FARES AND FARE-COL­
lecting procedures affecting citizens in the Montreal,
Canada area, which were worthy of note.
Canadian National Railways announced that new rates for commu­
ter travel on its Montreal-Deux Montagnes and Montreal-St. Hilaire
runs would come into farce on January 1, 1975. These new rates, the
second increase in four months, will result in an average increase
of 22.2%. A 15% increase had been made on September 1, 1974. CNs
Manager of Regional Passenger Marketing, Mr. Adrien Levasseur, said
that, even with this increase, commuter operations in 1975 will show
a
record deficit of $ 4.41 million, about $ 430,000 more than the
anticipated 1974 deficit.
Near the end of December, the Montreal Urban Community Transit
Commission announced the introduction of the exact fare system
on city bus lines. This meant that bus drivers would no longer be
required to sell bus and METRO tickets and would not carry amounts of
money necessary to make change. Passengers are now required either to
deposit a ticket or a cash fare of 35¢. Should re not have the 35¢
in change, the passenger must deposit a larger amount of money from
the change in his pocket, whereupon the driver issues a receipt for
the overpayment, which the passenger can use to claim the appropriate
refund from the MUCTC offices.
Books of bus and METRO tickets may be purchased from the ticket
booths in the METRO or from designated dealers, such as tobacco shops
and news-stands.
CANADIAN 97 R A I L
CONTRASTS NEAR CRESTON, BRITISH COLUMBIA, ON SEPTEMBER 21, 1953, ARE
thoughtfully provided by Mr. W.R.McGee, our member in Livingston,Mon­
tana, U.S.A. Canadian Pacific Railway engine Number 2378 heads Train
67 in the first picture, crossing Goat River canyon, while the con­
trast was provided on the same day by CPR engine Number 4055, an
easily recognizable FM-CLC product on Train 12, the Kettle Valley
Express, bound for Cranbrook, Crows Nest, Lethbridge and Medicine
Hat, Alberta, with a three-hour connection with The DOhlinion, east­
bound to Sudbury and Montreal.
CA NAD I AN 98 R A I L
READER JOHN A. MACINTOSH OF GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK, WAS TAKEN ON HIS
first train-ride at the (very) tender age of two months by
his mother. The train was the Dominion Atlantic Railways
Bluenose Limited between Yarmouth and Windsor, Nova Scotia. This
early experience enabled Mr. MacIntosh to look at Carl Sturners pic­
ture on page 318 of the October 1974 issue Number 273 of CANADIAN RA­
IL and to state unequivocally that the location was (and is) Windsor,
Nova Scotia, not Windsor Junction, there being an intervening dis­
tance of 31.6Iililes. Moreover, Mr. MacIntosh points out, the train is
not headed for Truro, unless it intends to back up for 56.9 miles~
–The train, writes Mr. MacIntosh, is stopped in front of the new
station at Windsor, facing west toward the causeway over the Avon
River and the main line to Kentville. It is probably mixed Train 22,
which came off the Truro Sub earlier in the day and is being forwar­
ded to Kentville as an extra, after the crew had worked the Windsor
yard, beyond the bridge in the background.
Mr. MacIntosh suspects that the freight is waiting for a meet
with Train 2, the RDC Dayliner, or possibly 4th. class freight Num­
ber 24 from Kentville.
Mr. MacIntosh likes the DAR. His HO-gauge reproduction is cal­
led the Diminutive Atlantic Railway -Route of the Flying Bluenose.
THE JANUARY 1950 ISSUE OF THE ASSOCIATIONS NEWS REPORT (EDITOR: E.
Allan Toohey; Publisher: R.J.Joedicke) reported that the
through passenger service from Montreal to Boston, Massa­
chusetts, USA, operated jointly by the Canadian Pacific Railway and
the Boston & Maine Railroad, had been dieselized on Friday, December
2, when diesel locomotive Number 1800 of the CPR took Train 212, the
Alouette to Farnham, Quebec. Regular service with diesel-electric
locomotives began on Thursday, December 15, 1949, when CPR E-8 Num­
ber 1800 took Train 212 to Boston, while Train 211 arrived from Bos­
ton in charge of B&M E-6 Number 3819. Trains 213-214, the Newport
Local were handled by CPR Number 8404, class DRS-15a.
Our member Rod Peterson of Baltimore, MD, USA, sends us three
pictures to remind us of this important transition. In the first of
the photographs, CPR engine Number 1802 (EMD E-8), rolls Train 212
south out of Woodsville, New Hampshire, past the B&M engine terminal
on April 21, 1951.
In the second picture, MLW FA-1 and FB-1 Numbers 4007 and 4403
rumble across the switches just north of the junction with the B&M
at Wells River, Vermont (just across the Connecticut River from Wo­
odsville, New Hampshire) on April 21, 1951.
The last photograph shows CPR engine Number 8403 on the south­
bound wayfreight at St. Johnsbury, Vermont, on April 21, 1951. Num­
ber 8403 was one of five 1500 hp ALCO RS 2 units (Numbers 8400-8404)
built in Schenectady, NY. Number 8404 made its first trip from Mon­
treal to Newport, Vermont, on Train 214 of September 15, 1949. In
Mr. Petersons picture of Number 8403, 0-6-0 steam locomotive Num­
ber 27 of the St. Johnsbury & Lake Champlain Railroad can be seen
switching in the background.
Mr. Petersons kind cooperation in sending in these photographs
is very much appreciated.
BEFORE THE DAYS OF TRAINMASTERS AND C-LINERS, THE READY TRACK AND
lead to the coal chute at Nelson, British Columbia, could exhibit a
considerable variety of steam power. Jim Hope photographed Canadian
Pacific Railways engines Numbers 3458 and 3456, 2-8-0s, 5207, a mi­
kado and 3677, another consolidation. All this on August 22, 1948.
CANAOIAN
••
R A I L.
Cana is pU:)i:shed monthly by the
Canactian Railroad tistoricaIAssociation
P.O.8o<22,St..tion B,MontreIII,Ouebec.ean.t./H38 3..15
Edito<; 5.5.Worthen Production; P. Mlrphy
Association Branches
C4LG~RY & SOVT~ WESTERN
t.M.Unwln, Secretory 1127 2J.d. A,vi N.W.Col~ory, Alto,T2M lY6
OTTAWA
W.R.Linlty,Stcrttoty P.O.80. 141,5totion A Ottowa,Canada KIN BV1
p.l.ClnC COAST
R.N.Heyer. Secretory p.e.Box loo6,St ROCKY HOUNTAIN
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TORONTO & YORK DIVISION
P.Sk~rgold,S .. rnory P.O.Bo~ S849,r.r.inol A Toronto, Ont.M5 …. TO … ,.
, .. ,
-, …. .,00( ….
lOT :_,1:4
. .. … ~ …. ,.
,U,UNOt<.,.,O
It[~ ,
Association RepresentatiYes
visit the Canadian Railway Museum St.Conslanl,Ouebec, Canad.1.
-More than KJO pieces; 01 equipment on dispIay-

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