R A I L
ABOVE: Single-axle truck installation. showing section of car.
LEFT: Artists conception of the Turbine Motor Train with the night skyline
of Montreal in the background.
R A I L
seat has an individual window which minimizes the sound of passing trains. The
noise from the turbine engines is also diminished by the low power requirements
and overhead ventilation in the power dome car.
Many of the above-noted improvements to rail travel have been adapted from the
commercial airline passenger aircraft of today. Suspension is one item that
could not be adapted, but had to be thoroughly reviewed and improved upon for
the turbine motor trains by United Aircraft. Conventional spring suspensions
were disregarded because of undesirable coupling; this spring system permitted
the car and its load to be tipped to the outside of a curve when taken at high
speed; the designed TMT suspension supports the car from above and provides a
pendulum action causing the car body to tip inwards on curves at speed. There
are two supporting arms attached to the bearing housings with rubber torsilastic
springs, mounted at an angle, which provides a projected support point near the
roof of the car; the car itself rests on air springs mounted on top of these arms.
When a lateral force is applied to the car body, as in a high speed curve, the two
arms are rotated in the direction of the force. Because of the angle between the
two, one arm exhibits a downward movement, the other an upward one. This
banks the car body against lateral force and adds to the passengers comfort by
keeping him upright in his seat.
The centre of gravity of the car is forty inches above the rail head. The power
dOITle car also has a centre of gravity lower than conventional equipment. The
added height of the dome on the power car is compensated by the weight of the
power plants, fuel, etc., located below. It is claimed that this provides more
comfort than conventional trains on present track and under present speed con
ditions, especially so on present curves, where the TMT is designed for speeds
up to forty percent greater than conventional equipment. The speed of conven
tional trains on such curves may only be raised by increasing the super elevation
undesirable for freight trains with their slower speeds and higher centres of
gravity. The degree of curvature may, of course, be lessened by land exprop-
riation, but this is a costly procedure.
The cars are coupled just above the COITlmon axle by an articulated joint. At
each end of an axle are two bars, each connected to a car. These bars are ac
tually worm encased drag links which guide the axle around a curve; contrasted
with the principle of the leading axle on a standard truck finding its way
around it. These drag links are connected to the cars by a universal joint and
can be uncoupled at the boot on the ends of the axle.
The air brake unit is situated above each wheel of the axle; this brake systeITl is
pneumatically controlled by the engineITlan. Standard emergency systems COITl
mon to conventional trains form a part of this equipment.
RIGHT: (Top) Two Turbotrains in a rural setting.
(Bottom) Cutaway model showing the installation of turbine engines
and ITlixing gearboxes below the dome section in the power
car. The engineITlan sits at the front of the dOITlej there is a
parlour-chair section with ten seats behind him.
CANADIAN 80 R A I L
The number of turbine power plants, as described previously, may vary from
two to six per power dome car. The power plants are evenly distributed on each
side and are connected to a right-angle; rev-ersing gear box on the same .side;
this box is shaft connected to a central gear box which in turn has drive shafts
transmitting power to the axles. As an aid to the operation of the trains through
tunnels or other confined areas –such as Central Station, Montreal –where
fumes might be expected to produce a hazard, the power units can be provided
with an optional direct current electric traction motor conr.ected to the central
mixing gear box, which can draw power from a third rail. As the turbine
power plants can be started electrically, there is no delay in bringing them into
action in a transition from electric to turbine traction, once a tunnel or confined
area has been cleared. Incidentally, the low contour of the trains keeps the
vista domes well wi thin standard clearance.
In summarizing the foregoing, the TMTs are designed to (a) attract more pass
engers through faster schedules, comfort and amenities; (b) reduce operating
costs; (c) eliminate the use of electricity for traction, substituting turbine en
gines; (d) permit higher speeds without radical track alteration, and (e) decrease
equipment inventory by increased utilization of the rolling stock.
UAC engineers claim ,that on the present CN roadbed between Montreal and TOr
onto, the TMTs can travel at speeds up to 125 m.p.h. They also estimate that
with minor adjustments to level crossing signal circuits, the train can cover the
distance of three hundred and thirty five miles in three and a half hours. Just
think back a couple of years when the fastest train between these centres re
quired six and a quarter hours!
The design of the Turbine Motor Trains by United Aircraft Corporation was the
topic of Mr. Thomas R. Wheaton, Manager of Marketing-Rail Transportation
Systems of United Aircraft at our Associations thirty-fourth anniversary ban
quet. The informRtion and some photographs for this article were made possible
through the courtesy of Mr.Richmond, Vice-President, United Aircraft of Canada.
CANADIAN NATIONAL TO USE TURBOTRAINS
On May 17th, Canadian National Railways announced that it had concluded arran
gements to acquire five seven-car turbotrains on a lease arrangement, to be
used between Montreal and Toronto beginning in centennial year. Two trains, to
be constructed by Montreal Locomotive Works (with turbines being built by Un
ited Aircraft at Longueuil, Que.) will be delivered in April 1967, two in May, and
the last in June. The trains will be used in coupled pairs, making available two
fourteen-car trains with a spare seven-car set under maintenance on a rotating
basis. It is stated that the trains will be capable of 160 m.p.h., thus taking bet
ween three and four hours for the 330-mile journey.
Upgrading of track and roadbed is indicated for this projected service, along with
such other refinements as lengthening of signal circuits for level crossings.
NOTE TO READERS: Please bear with us until the magazine is back on sched
ule. For this reason, some of our features, such as Railography will be
omitted, or appear sporadically in the next few issues. At present, the physical
preparation of Canadian Rail is a one-man job.
MECHANICAL DRIVE SYSTEM
OPTIONAL DC TRACTION MOTOR (3RD RAIL)
MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT DIESEL UNIT DATA BOOK
IRLARMIN.I TOTAL IFR.MAX.IREARMAXj TOTAL
Two Sturtevent Mechanioal
T.E. T.E. OPER.
MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT DIESEL
C.G.E. 731 139 P A 3
R A I L
The two railways serving Burlington, Vermont from the south
the present Central Vermont and Vermont systems –first reach
ed the Lake Champlain metropolis in the year 1849. iihile it was
some time before what was later to be the Rutland system extended
its tracks northward across the Lake Champlain Islands, the Ver
mont Central, the CVs ancestor, had already resolved upon a con
tinuation northward to St. Albans and Rouses POint, NY. This ex
tension was opened to St. Albans in October 1850, and since it was
not feasible to carry the new tracks on from the end of the line in
Burlington, the new Vermont & Canada Rail Road took off from the
parent system at a point a few miles short of Burlington, as shown
in the schematic map above; situated in the corporate tovm of
Essex, it was named, quite naturally, Essex Junction.
Train patterns being what they …. ere at that time, it was some
years before a through service was established from vfuite River
Junction through to pOints north of Essex Junction. Most trains
southbound through St. Albans, or northbound through Waterbury
went into Burlington, and corresponding services originated there.
As a consequence, through passengers changed at Essex Junction.
It frequently transpired that two or three trains would be in the
station at once, and the unwitting farmer riding the cars for
the first time in his life, or the nervous lady passenger with
several children in tow could, and frequently did, board the
wrong train in error. A contemporary Vermont legislator, the
Honourable Edward J. Phelps, struck by the basic inefficiency of
such arrangements and the apparent indifference of the railway
management, and spurred on to literary effort after waiting nine
hours for a tardy train, penned the verses which have since be
come far-famed as ~he Lay of the Lost Traveler. These gently
blasphemous lines summed up the situation to a T; it was appar
ent that if the mariners of Greek mythology had their Scylla and
CharybdiS, the Nineteenth Century Yankee drummer had Essex
THE LA Y OF THE LOST TRAVELER
~ITH saddened face and battered hat
~ And eye that told of blank despair,
On wooden bench the traveler sat,
Cursing the Fate that brought him there.
Nine hours , he cried, weve lingered here
With thoughts intent on distant homes,
Waiting for that elusive train
That, always coming, never comes.
Till weary. worn. distressed. forlorn.
And paralyzed in eve ry function.
I hope in Hell his soul may dwell
Who first invented Essex Junction
Ive travelled East. Ive travelled West.
0 er mountain. valley. plain and river;
Midst whirlwinds wrath and tempests blast.
Through railroads crash and steamboats shiver,
And faith and courage faltered not.
Nor strength gave way nor hope was shaken.
Until I reached this dismal spot
Of man accursed. of God. forsaken!
Whele strange new forms of misery
Assail mens souls without compunction.
To hope in Hell his soul may dwell.
Who first invented Essex Junction
Here BOston waits for Ogdensburgh.
And Ogdensburgh for Montreal.
And late New York tarrieth.
And Saratoga hindereth all !
From far Atlantics wave -swept bays
To Mississippis turbid tide.
All accidents. mishaps. delays
Are gathered here and multiplied
Oh! fellow man. avoid this spot.
As you would plague or Peter Funk shun
And hope in Hell his soul may dwell.
Who first invented Essex Junction
And long and late conductors tell
Of trains delayed or late or slow.
Till een the very engines bell
Takes up the cry No go! No go!
Oh! let me from this hole depart
By any route. sot be a long one.
He cried. with madness in his heart.
jlnd jumped aboard a train –the wrong onej
And as he vanished in the smoke.
He shouted with redoubled unction.
I hope in Hell his soul may dwell.
Who first invented Essex Junction.
–Hon. Edward J. Phelps
CANADIAN 87 R A I L
MONTREAL METRO PROGRESS REPORT
Recently, the Chairman of Montreal Metro, Mr. Lucien lAllier, issued a
progress report indicating that the opening of the 4.3 miles of Line No. I, and
the 8.6 miles of Line No.2, will take place sometime in October of this year.
The 3.0 mile Line No.4, serving the Expo 67 islands and the south shore, will
be opened early in 1967, before the scheduled opening of Expo in April. The
Metro system has lately been selecting and training crews and other operating
staff for the line, and a majority of the 369 cars –246 motor cars and 123
trailer cars, coupled in elements of three units in a motor-trailer-motor
arrangement –have now been delivered by the contractors, Canadian Vickers
Limited of Montreal.
Tunnelling is now completed, and is practically all concreted. The com
pletion of all stations is now under contract and work is considered to be on
schedule in every respect.
Some additional information about the Metro system and its equipment may
be of interest to our readers. The cars will use direct current at a pressure of
720 volts. Each motor car is provided with four 155 HP d.c. motors, with the
two motors on each truck being permanently connected in series. Initially,
thirty-three elements (99 cars) will be ass igned to Line No. I, seventy-two
elements (216 cars) to Line No.2 and eighteen elements (54 cars) to Line No.
4. There is no Line No.3 at present; this designation is reserved for the
future, albeit problematical, integration of the CN Mount Royal Tunnel electrif
ication into the Metro system. The motor cars, w,hich are 56 5 Over coupler
faces, 8 3 wide and 12 0 high, cost $134,ClOO each. The trailers, whose dim
ensions are the same except for a shorter 53 11 length, cost $ 77,000 each.
The average station spacing on Line No.1 os 2,260 feet; on Line No.2, it will
be 2,700 feet. Line No.3, 3.0 miles long, has only one intermediate station.
The shortest distance between stations is on Line No.1 between St. Laurent and
Berri-deMontigny, which is 1,480 feet. Longest distance is on Line No.4 between
Berri-deMontigny and Expo (St. Helens Island), 11,036 feet. The twenty-six
stations will contain 123 escalators, which are used whenever the height between
any two given levels exceeds twelve feet. All stations will be provided with pub
lic address systems. All stations are of the side-platform type, with the plat
forms some 500 feet in length, giving sufficient space for a nine car, three elem
The rubber-tired concept is not the only idea which has been borrowed from
the Paris Metro. Another practice which is being adapted to the Montreal Metro
from the French capital is the provision of automatic barriers at the entrace to
each platform, which are operated hydraulically. These barriers start to close
at the approach of a train to a station, and their purpose is to temporarily sus
pend the flow of passengers onto the platform while a train is in a station, elim
inating delays and potential injuryto passengers rushing to board a train which
is about to leave. For this reason, all platforms will be equipped with separate
entrance and exit passages.
LEFT: Photograph shows a line-up of the new Metro trains at the shops.
CANADIAN 88 R A I L
Students of street railway track construction,
may find the following table of interest. It gives us
a glimpse of the streets of Toronto three quarters of a
century ago, just at the close of the horsecar era in
Description of Track
showing different kinds of construction laid on streets
York McCaul Spa
5 x 6
5 x 8
5 x 6
5 x 8
5 x 6
Single f Feet
Gauge of tracks, 4ft. llin.; Devil1s strip, 3ft.
Ties and stringers are of pine. The ties are spaced
5 feet between centres, and are 4in. x 6in. x 7 feet long.
Stringers are spiked to ties with 9in. x 1/2in. spikes,
one through each tie, and placed on outside of stringers
Joint knees weigh 5 Ibs. each and intermediate
knees 2 Ibs. 1 oz. each. There are 9-1/2 miles of iron
rails, the balance are of steel. All curves, switches
and diamond crossings are of cast iron.
CANADIAN 89 R A I L
N~rnER OF MILES OF EACH KIND OF PAVEMENT
The width of single track pavement is 8ft. 4in.
and for double 16ft. 8in.
Cedar and Cobble 1.67 mi. double
Cedar Block 15.39
Asphalt and Scoria Elk. 0.50
Sandstone setts on sand 1.61
Scoria Blocks on Concrete 0.35
Granite setts on Concrete 1. 53
Cobble l1th stone Kerbs 2.71
Granite setts on sand 4.53
The above data was copied from a neatly printed,
but tattered booklet recently come to hand, which contains
all the lesal documents concerning the purchase of Toronto
St:eet Ran~lay Company, by the City of Toronto in 1891.
Three 2rbitrators ~lere appointed on June 18th 1890 to set
a fair valuation. Their report dated April 15th 1891 placed
a value of $1,453,788. on the property, and gives the follow
(c) Sleighs –
90 ho-ho:cse cars (closed) including the
twelve original cars purchased by the
Company; 56 open cars and 116 one-horse
56 buses (Stp.phenson, N.Y. make);
43 other buser:.
40 car sleighs (Speight & Son, makers)
60 car sle:tghs (T.S.R. Co. make)
Resume of 1891 Documents
In November 1889 the CJrporation of the City of
Toronto had notified the COl1pany that it would not renew
the thirty year franchise granted to Alexander Easton,
(under hich the Company had been operating) when it ex
pj.rec1 in 1891. Instead it would assume 0~mer8hip ot the
R A I L
Railway on payment of its value to be determined by inde
pendent arbitrators. This \as done, and early in 1891,
the City offered to sell the Railway and grant a new
franchise to any group submitting the best terms. A bid
was made on May 26th 1891 by Messrs. Geo. W. Kiely, of
Toronto, Hm. McKenzie of Toronto, H. A. Everett, Secretary
of East Cleveland Railway Co. (electric) and Chauncey C. Woodlwrth,
of Rochester, N. Y. Apparently there were no
other serious contenders, because the City asked this
group to amend its bid three times, each time offering a
higher scale of percentages of gross receipts to be paid
to the City. Finally a by-law las passed on July 27th
authorizing a satisfactory agreement, and the neil Toronto
Raihlay Co. came into being, holding a tl~enty year franchise.
A fe … l of the conditions imposed by the new
franchise are interesting:-
That they (the purchasers) will build
and equip —–a car factory within
the limits of the City of Toronto for
the manufacture and repair of all cars
and raihlay plant used on the said
City will construct, reconstruct and
maintain in repair the street railway
portion of the road~TaYs, viz. for double
track, 16-6, and for single track
8-3, on all streets traversed by the
raihlay system, but not the tracks, and
substructure required for the said rail
gauge of the system, 4ft. llin. is
to be maintained on main lines, and
extensions thereof. and branch lines
and extensions thereof;—-
Electric or other nel1 system of motor,
or a combined system, approved by the
City Engineer —-as suitable, shall
be introduced vlithin one year —
Until such changes are carried out in
such a manner as will permit its disuse,
horse power may be continued on branch
and other lines, or parts of same, under
written permit from the City Engineer,
who shall have the right to order extra
horse :p,o,ler to be employed on steep
No cars shall be run on the Lords Day
until a Sunday service has been approved
of by the citizens by a vote taken on
1I1rautin ~ptuttr 11ltUliu
His many friends will learn with regret of the death, at the age of
forty-two, of Francis Spencer Lewin, who was killed in an accid
ent on June 28th, 1966.
Frank Lewin was a past Director of our Association, and in the
first years of construction at the Delson Museum, lent unstint
ingly of his time and talent as a civil engineer to see the project
well on its way. Frank was equally renowned as a miniature rail
roader of consummate skill, patience and precision. He came of
his interest in railroading hereditarily, his maternal grandfather
having been a superintending professional engineer for the Pontiac
Pacific Junction Railway, near Ottawa.
Our condolences go to a grieving wife and children, who will re
member their loving and devoted husband and father as a man who,
in an all too short lifetime, was as successful as a businessman
as he was as a friendly, warm-hearted human being.
Imagine yourself stationed in this tunnel mouth behind an
old-time 8x 10 plate camera on a tripod, gambling on being
able to get a good action shot of a way-freight bearing down on
the tunnel mouth with the engine within reasonable distance,
and still have time to make your exposure, gather up the cam
era and tripod, and run! A first glance at this picture would
seem to indicate that a heroic, albeit unknown disciple of
Niepce and Daguerre accomplished just such a featj closer
inspection reveals, however, that what appears to be the blast
of a labouring locomotive is just the pattern of smoke emerg
ing from the stack at the behest of a blower, during a com
paratively long expOsure, perhaps ~ second or so. An equally
symmetrical plume of steam escaping from the safety valve
confirms this hypothesisj the engine is obviously at rest.
The photograph was made somewhere in British Columbia
around the turn of the century, possibly in the southern Koot
enays on the Crows Nest Pass line of Canadian Pacific.
The locomotive is one of that companys pioneer 2-8-0s,
No. 316, built by C.P.R. in 1886 especially for service onthe
Big Hill between Field and Stephen, but by this time replac
ed by larger locomotives. Note that it is equipped with a hor
izontally-barred pilot, a comparative rarity on CP engines.
Is this what Daddy means when he says the first thing the Cit) must do is get public
transportation back on its feet?.
CANADIAN RAIL: Published monthly (except July/August combined) by
the Publications Committee. Canadian Railroad Historical
Association. P.O. Box 22. Station B. Montreal 2. Canada.
SUbscription includes Associate Membership: $4.00 annually.
PUBLICA TlONS COMMITTEE:
ACTING EDITOR. CANADIAN RAIL:
ASSOCIA TE EDITORS:
ASSOCIA TION REPRESENTATIVES:
D.R. Henderson, Chairman.
Anthony Clegg. William Pharoah
Derek Boles. James Sandilands. Ian Webb.
John W. Saunders. Wayne Hughes
OTTAWA VALLEY: Kenneth F. Chivers. Apt. 3.67 Somerset St. W •• Ottawa.
PACIFIC COAST: Peter Cox. 2936 W. 28th Avenue. Vancouver. BC.
SASKA TCHEWAN: J .S. Nicolson. 2306 A rnold St •• Saskatoon. Sask.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN: V.H. Coley. 11243 -72nd Avenue. Edmonton. Alta.
FAR EAST: W.O. McKeown. 900 Senriyama (Oaza). Suita City. Osaka. Japan.
BRITISH ISLES: John H. Sanders. 10 Church St •• Ampthill. Beds •• England.
Copyright 1966 Printed in Canada on