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Canadian Rail 142 1963

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Canadian Rail 142 1963

r
—–
~ar1adia:n.
)ffi~nn
i
Issued 11 times yearly by
Canadian Railroad Historical Association.
NUMBER 142
MARCH 1963
Sweepers
picture.
type of
in action never failed to present a dramatic
They symbolized, perhaps more than any other
equipment, the struggle against the elements.
Above photo and upper picture on Page 48 from the Notman
Colleotion, oourtesy McGill University. Other snow­
fighting illustrations provided by R.M.Binns, A.Clegg,
and the Montreal Transportation Commission.

I
l
Canadian Rail
Snow -fighting on the
Transit Lines of Montreal.
by Richard M. Binns
V,Iith the exception of Leningrad, Russia, Montreal has a
greater average annual snowfall than any of the worlds cities
with a population of one million or over.
Page 47
So stated Montreal Tramways Company in a series of informative advertise­
ments pUblished some thirty-five years ago. The Company said that it was well
equipped to meet W inter conditions, its snow fighting equipment being capable of
covering all tracks of the system -almost 300 miles -once every hour.
Without detracting from the difficulties of street railways in smaller cities
of North America and Europe which had a more severe Winter climate, it cannot
be denied that maintaining tramway service during Montreals winters was a
struggle of great magnitude, carried out at enormous expense. Many different
devices and types of equipment were developed over the years and met,hods
changed from time to time to meet changing traffic conditions. With the onrush
of the automobile age, the task of clearing and removing snow from the streets
gradually became the responsibility of the Municipalities rather than that of the
street railway.
Before the advent of electric traction in 1892, Montreal Street Railway aban­
doned its tracks entirely during Winter, usually from late December to mid­
March. Snow was allowed to accumulate to a considerable depth on the streets
as all movement of people and goods was by horse-drawn sleighs, the Company
providing service with specially-built conveyances mounted on runners. During
the Winter of 1891-92, the Company had eighty-two of these sleighs in service.
It was the snow, perhaps, more than anything else, which engendered great doubts
as to the feasibility of electric propulsion of street cars in Montreal. Many
people, including some Directors and shareholders of the Company, were con­
vinced that it would be foolhardy to attempt to run any kind of wheeled vehicle on
the streets in Winter. The average annual snowfall was 118 inches, although
there were Winters during which this figure was greatly exceeded –notably the
Winter of 1886-87, when the fall was 174 inches or almost 15 feet. By February
1887, the streets were said to be in deplorable condition, with drifts as high as
ten feet in some places.
Nevertheless, despite the fears of many, electrification was proceeded with
in 1892 and by the late fall of that year, electric cars were running on about 13
miles of the then thirty-mile horsecar system. Right from the beginning, the
Company was obliged, by the terms of its contract with the City of Montreal, to
keep its tracks clear of snow and in addition, to pay half the cost of removing
the snow from curb to curb on stree,ts where the cars ran -this to include snow
which was shovelled from the sidewalks and snow which fell from the roofs of

Canadian Rail Page 49
houses. This clause was also written into the thirty-five year contract between
Montreal Tramways Company and the City. signed in 1918. In later years. heavy
payments for snow re,noval became a somewhat unfair burden. inasmuch as the
streets had to be cleared for autOinobile traffic anyway and the tramway rider
paid. through his fare. half the cost of this work for the benefit of motorists. In
the beginning however. the charge was not unreasonable. The operation of elec­
tric cars in snow-covered streets required that the snow be plowed from the
track close to rail level which. during the course of a Winter. would produce a
deep trench unless the roadway on each side of the track was kept down to a rea­
sonable level. Thus. the Company. because it adopted a vehicle running on rails
in Winter. was obliged to share with the City the additional cost of snow removal
which would not otherwise have been incurred.
For many years. sweepers were the main weapon employed in fighting snow.
Whoever devised this remarkably effective machine succeeded well. because the
basic design remained unchanged throughout the entire tramway era. Sweepers
in action in heavy snow never failed to present a dramatic picture. -almost ob­
scured by clouds of flying snow. and with a most satisfying sound of motors and
whirling brooms. they symbolized. perhaps more than any other type of equip­
ment. the struggle against the elements. The records show six electric snow
sweepers dated 1892. built by the Toronto Railway Company. Three more were
acquired from the same source in 1893. Altogether there have been 55 sweepers
on the records. the greatest number at anyone time being 42 in 1928.
Up to 1912. all sweepers were of the four-wheel type. In that year. a double
truck combination locomotive and sweeper was received from Ottawa Car
Manufacturing Company (No. 40). In the following year. two more were ordered
and another in 1914. The idea was that the broom supports and mechanism
could be removed in Summer. and by the attachment of standard couplers. the
car could be used as a locomotive. What actually happened was that No. 41 was
used as a locomotive from May 1913 to November 1913. and No. 40 was similar­
ly employed from March 1914 to December 1916. Thereafter all these cars be­
came sweepers permanently. Three more were built in Youville Shops in 1920.
The double -truck sweepers weighed 44.500 Ibs •• and were powerful and efficient
machines. Subsequent sweepers were of the single-truck variety. built by Ott­
awaj these had higher speed brooms driven by bevel gears instead of chains.
P. system of sweeper routes was worked out according to the severity of
the storm. Crews were specially trained to work on sweepers and were subject
to call at any time. preference being given to men who lived near the car barns.
Sweepers carried a three man crew: motorman. conductor and a wing operator.
In the early days. two or three ad.ditional men accompanied each sweeper to
pacify and restrain horses. the animals being quite understandably terrified by
these machines. There was a special technique required in operating a sweeper.
particularly in adjusting the height of the brooms to obtain the best results. and
to avoid excessive wear and damage to the bristles. No satisfactory substitute
was found for the rattan used on the brooms. It was tough. flexible and would not
cause injury or damage if pieces were dislodged. This material came from
south-east Asia and during the last war it was almost impossible to obtain. An
inferior kind of reed called Palmyra stalks was obtained from New York and
mixed with regular rattan in order to make existing stocks last.
In the 1950s. the number of sweepers had dwindled to sixteen. With the lib-
Page 50 Canadian Rail
eral application of salt and abrasives to the streets in latter years, and with the
great increase in automotive traffic, snow ceased to be snow. Damages to
parked cars and to pedestrians clothing, from being sprayed with this unsav­
oury mixture, made the use of sweepers undesirable. In the latter years,
sweepers had limited use, mostly in storage yards and certain outlying areas.
Another device used, probably from the beginning, was a pair of rail scrap­
ers attached to the passenger cars. There were various patterns but all em­
ployed steel blades attached to a yoke mounted under the front platform. This
assembly could be lowered by the motorman so that the blades rested on the
rails and threw the snow to each side. At full speed -and if there was a fair
amount of snow on the rails -an approaching car presented the appearance of
a ship throwing spray from the bows. The track scrapers also prevented a
build-up of ice, from wheel splash, close to the rails.
Snow clearing also required a great deal of hand labour, particularly in the
yards and at station platforms on private rights-of-way. A familiar sight
throughout the tramway era were the men with a bucket of salt and a broom,
salting and cleaning the switches. In latter years, this became a hazardous occ­
upation in heavy traffic. Despite the red lantern and the white cross bands
worn, there were injuries and even fatalities. Another group of men was em­
ployed, during the fall and winter, looking after the hills. They were known as
Hillmen and each was responsible for keeping the tracks in safe operating con­
dition on a particular hill. Usually a small hut was installed nearby where salt,
sand and tools were kept, and at the sa,ne time afforded a shelter for the hill­
man on duty.
Cana di an Rai 1 Page 51
This brings us to another difficulty of Winter operation which was not caused
directly by snow, but in most cases by the absence of snow -slippery rails. It
is not clear whether the first electric cars were equipped with sand boxes, but
in the minutes of a meeting of the M.S.R. Board of Directors held on November
17th, 1892., we find:
The Managing Director reported that sand cars being required by the
Company he had ordered from the Toronto Railway Co., six second hand
one-horse cars to be converted.
It is highly probable that these cars were not converted for electric operation,
but were fitted inside with sand hoppers and towed by a motor car. The earliest
existing M.S.R. records, 1902, show ten cars under the heading of Sand and Salt
cars. No data is given; they were all scrapped in 1905. Whether or not some
were the Toronto horse cars acquired in 1902 is not known. After 1905, a fleet
of about ten Salt Cars was maintained, these being invariably old single truck
passenger cars equipped to distribute salt on the rails. The salt was used to
combat a condition known as frozen rail or black rail. A combination of low
temperature, high humidity and no wind, produced a film of ice mixed with at­
mospheric dirt on the rails which could virtually paralY2.e the system. Braking
required the greatest ot care to avoid an uncontrolled skid and usually a couple
of notches of power were applied with the brakes to keep the wheels turning.
Tests conducted many years ago on SLLawrence Blvd. with a 638 class car dur­
ing a very severe condition of black rail revealed that the coefficient of fric­
tion between wheels and rails was so low that it almost equalled the rolling fric­
tion of the car, with the result that the car would skid at the slightest application
of brakes. In other words, the car would slide almost as readily as it would
coast. The problem of black rail was never completely solved. Salt was eff­
ective only in temperatures down to about 50 above zero. The Salt Cars were
also useful at Winter fires to prevent water from the hoses free:dng on the
tracks. Often at low temperatures the rails in the vicinity of a fire would be­
come covered with ice, and a Salt Car was assigned to run back and forth to keep
the line open.
In 1947, car No. 3021. then used as a tool car, was equipped to carry 1,000
gallons of water in tanks, from which heated solutions of sodium chloride or cal­
cium chloride could be made and dribbled on the rails as the car proceeded. E,x­
passenger cars 1175, 1176 and 1178 were similarly converted. The chemical
solution used could be altered to give best results within each temperature
range, calcium chloride being used for temperatures below zero. These brine
cars were quite effective, but there were not enough of them to cover the system
rapidly.
Page 52 Canadian Rail
Upper: The Great Storm in February 1904 brought the
Taunton Plow and a Brill Sweeper to Davidson
and Ontario Streets.
Lower: Wedge Plow by Russell Plow Co. at the Defleu­
rimont SnoVi Dump in March,1916.
Opposite: Single-truck wing plows were effective on
the City Streets. Scene at Craig and Beaver
Hall in January 1948.
Canadian Rail Page 53
Maintaining service on outside suburban lines in Winter, presented an en­
tirely different problem -high winds and drifting snow. On exposed lines such
as Cartierville, Back River, St. Michel and the Terminal line, and later Notre
Dame Street East, conditions required the use of rotary plows. As thes e areas
became inore built up in later years, rotaries were not so often required. In the
early days, however, deep cuts would be formed, with the snow on each side of
the track coming up above window level. Rotary plows were the only effective
means of keeping the cuts clear of hard packed wind-blown snow. During one
February, around 1910, a double truck rotary, No.2, was kept on the Cartier­
ville line for about twenty days without going into the shop. Maintenance crews
were sent out froin St. Denis whenever the car needed servicing or repairs.
The first rotary plow was a single truck machine bought by the Montreal
Park & Island Railway sometime before 1901, from the Peckham Motor Truck
and Wheel Company, Kingston, N. Y. It was originally MP&I No. 16, becoming
No.1 after 1901. M.S.R. purchased a double truck rotary, No.2, from the same
builder in 1901 and in 1905, another single truck rotary, No.3. About the same
time the Montreal Terminal Railway purchased a similar plow which became
No.4. No.5, a double truck rotary was acquired in 1910. The last three were
known as the Ruggles Rotary Snow Plow, built under license by Peckham.
Most suburban passenger cars were fitted with a steel V plow during Win­
ter. A double end, double truck nose plow was purchased from Taunton Loco­
motive Works, Taunton, Mass., in 1904. It was designed for single track use and
apparently was not successful as it became a locomotive on the Terminal Ry.
five years later. Replacing it was a self-propelled wedge plow from the Russell
Car and Snow Plow Co., Ridgeway, Pa. This too appears to have had limited use.
In order to reduce the drifting in snow cuts, a flat car was equipped with a long
wing, which could be raised to any angle. This car was able to shear off the
straight sides of snow cuts to a slope of about 45
0•
The snow thus pulled down
on the track was thrown into the adjoining fields by a following rotary plow.
Several flat cars were also fitted with side wings for levelling the roadway be­
side the tracks. These were called Snow Levellers.
Page 54 Canadian Rail
In 1913 a single truck wing plow was received from Ottawa Car Manufactur­
ing Co. This had wooden retractable wings on each side. and a wood V plow
for the track area. This plow, No. 10, was obviously intended for use on single
track only. In 1920, it was rebuilt with a shear plow for the track area. It was
renumbered 100 and two similar plows were built in Youville Shops. These
plows were found to be very effective on city lines and by 1944 sixteen were on
hand. Like the sweepers. they carried a crew of three -one man being the wing
operator who in the latter years was kept busy working the wing to avoid striking
parked automobiles. The side wing was moved in and out by an electric motor
and it could be adjusted vertically by air. The level of the track blade could also
be adjusted pneumatically. Both the devils trip wing and the side wing had a
wooden dog in the supporting mechanism which would break if the wings struck
any fixed object in the street, thereby allowing the wings to swing back to avoid
damage or derailment. The cars originally had hand brakes, but all were equip­
ped with air brakes after the last war. Ice cutters, a series of hardened steel
teeth, could be fitted to these cars for cutting down ice ruts in the whole track
area including the devilstrip. Before the volwne of automobile traffic dictated
the present policy of clearing snow down to the pavement, the formation of ice
ruts in or near the track space was a serious Winter problem. The single truck
plows, equipped with ice cutters were capable of dealing with any snow or ice
condition. Good traction was obtained by the use of a heavy concrete sub-floor.
Weights varied from 38,860 to 41,700 pounds.
After 1944. several more double truck flat cars were converted for snow
fighting by the installation of a Frink plow on the front and a levelling wing
on the right side. Two flat cars, 3053 and 3056, were equipped with Willitt
graders. In 1945-46, the double-truck sweepers were equipped with Frink
plows at one endj in this period, sweepers were giving way to more specialized
equipment.
Canadian Rail Page 55
In order to prevent damage and wear to motor casings caused by riding on
accumulations of snow and ice in the centre of the tracks, the Company develop­
ed an ingenious device, about 1917, for attachment to passenger cars. This con­
sisted of a yoke carrying a series of steel teeth, and attached to the rear of the
truck frame. A few cars on each route were so equipped each Winter. The
parallel marks in the centre of the tracks made by these scarifiers were a fam­
iliar sight in Winter.
Visibility for the motorman was sometimes a problem in Winter operation.
Before about 1925, there appears to have been no mechanical means of keeping
the front window clear. About 1925, all cars were fitted with a hand-operated
window wiper with blades inside and outside. In the 1940s, automatic air-oper­
ated wipers were installed. A defrosting device for use in freezing rain or sleet
was also developed, consisting of a metal frame with resistance wires between
two pieces of glass. This could be hung on the outside of the front window and
plugged into an electrical outlet on the dash. Sufficient heat was generated to
keep the glass clear.
Sleet on the trolley wire was occasionally a serious problem. For this con­
dttion, devices known as sleet cutters were attached to the trolley wheels. No
tools or fastenings were required and the device, consisting of a grooved scraper
and a spring, could be quickly attached or removed. It was held in place by loop­
ing the trolley rope over a hook at the back of the scraper. A raised platform
was provided at Cote Street car barn for attaching sleet cutters, quickly without
delay to service. Occasionally a few cars had to be operated all night on out­
lying lines to keep ice from building up on the wires.
Page 46-St.Catherine at Peel —­
February, 1944.
Page 48 -No.8 was one of the earli­
est pieces of snow fight­
ing equipment operated by
the M.S.R. No.
40, the first double­
truck sweeper on Glen Rd.
in 1912. Rattan broom can
be clearly seen.
Page 50 -One of the original Level­
lers shown on St.Denis St
North, Feb. 2nd, 1910.
Page 51 -Double truck sweeper #-45,
equipped with Frink Plow,
Ville St.Laurent, Dec.28,
1946.
Many suburban passgr.cars
were fitted with V plows
during the winter months.
Page 54-Scarifier, applied to rear
of front truck.
Page 55-Business end of a Rotary.
Defrosting device for use
in freezing rain. Hes­
istance wires generated
enough heat to keep glass
clear.
Page 56-Winter scene near Vertu OD
the single-track line be­
tween St.Laurent and Car­
tierville, showing nose
plow on 1038, & scarifier
marks in the snow between
rails.
Rotary plows were the effective means of keeping cuts clear of
hard-packed wind-blown snow. No.2 and No., were fighting to
keep the St.Michel line open when this photo Was taken, Jan.26
1928.
A great deal of extra work was thrown on car barn staffs during the late
Fall in getting the passenger cars ready for Winter. Fender gates were raised
to seven inches above the rail, truck scrapers and scarifiers were attached and
heater fuses inserted, not to mention putting on the double windows. On the
whole system, some twenty-five thousand double windows were installed in mid­
November and removed in mid-March.
It is impossible, in a brief outline such as this, to cover fully the many as­
pects of operation during the sixty-seven winters of the electric regime in lvlon­
treal. Even the most casual examination however, must elicit a tribute to the
hundreds of men, -engineers, shoplnen, operating crews, hillmen and shovell­
ers, -who over the years have worked day and night to keep the cars running,
all in the spirit and tradition of Canadian railroading.
An all-time listing of snow and ice equipment follows.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The writer is indebted to Mr. D.E. Blair, Mr.
L. Brook, Mr. J .A. Foisy, Mr. W.P. Kierans and Mr. V.A. Linn­
ell for certain information contained in this article.
R.M.B.
Page 58 Canadian Rail
M.S.R. -M.T.C. SNOW AND ICE EQUIPr.1ENT
S w e e e e r 5 :
No.
~
Builder Date Scraeeed Notes
1
ST Toronto 1892 1919 2
II

II
*
Burned 1898
2/2

Brill 1898 1929 3
II
Toronto 1892
*
Burned 1898
2/3

Brill 1898 1929 4
II
Toronto 1892
*
Burned 1898
fl
2/4

Brill 1898 1929 5
II
Toronto 1892 1924 6
II II II
*
Burned 1898
2/6

Jvl.S.R. 1898 1929
I
7
II
Toronto 1893
*
Burned 1898
2/7

N.S.R. 1898 1926 8
II
Toronto 1893 1926 9
II

II
*
Burned 1898
2/9

M.S.R. 1898 1929
10
II
Lariviere 1894 1938
11
II II II
1938
12
II

c1896 * Burned 1898
2/12

M.S.R. 1898 1950 13

Lariviere c1896 1948 14

M.S.R. 1899 1950
15

II

1948
16

1950 17

1948 18
II

11
1938 19
II II 11
1950
20

Ottawa 1903
II
21

McGuire 1904
II
22
II II

11
23
11
Brill 1905
11
24

II II
25

II
26
II
McGuire 1908
II
27
II II II II
28
II
Brill 1910
II
31
II
Ottawa 1903 1938 1908-Ex Terml.Ry.#l
32
II II
1907

II

2
34
II
Lariviere 1950 1901-Ex MP&IRy. #14
35
II II II II II
15
36

Ottawa 1926 1953
37

II

38

II II II
40 DT

1912 1957 )
41

II
1913

)
42

) Frink Plow installed
43
II

1914

).. on one end,
44
II
lVi.T.C. 1920
II
)
1945-46.
45

II
)
46

II II

)
50 ST Ottawa 1928 1957
51

II

Preserved.
52
II

1957
53
II

60
II II
1914

1935-Ex Trois Riv. III
61

II II rr
3
I
I
Canadian Rail Page 59
Double Truck Flat Cars Converted to Plows and Levellers
Original Date
No. Builder Date Converted Scrapped
30 M.S.R.
3050 3051
3052 3053 3054
3055 3056 3057 3096 3097 3150
3152
Dom. Car
If
If
If

If

If
If

C.C.& F.

1907
1908
If
If
If

If
If
If
1910

1925

1910
1928 1914
1928 1945 1914
1944 1945 1950 1950 1950 1929
1929 1929
1938 1959
1938 1959 1959
1959 1959 1959 1959 1959 1959 Equipped as Leveller, 1910
Re# 3030, 1914.
Leveller.
Leveller, Frink Plow added
in 1944.
Leveller.
Villet Grader.
Leveller, Frink Plow added
in 1950.
Frink Plow and Leveller.
Willet Grader.
Frink Plow and Leveller.
rr rr
II
Leveller, Frink Plow added
in 1950.
Leveller, Frink Plow added
in 1950. Sold to Cornwall
in 1957.
San d and Sal t Car s.
(All former single-truck passenger cars).
No. Re No. Date Converted Retired or
ScrapQed
~
(fen
cars, frior to 1902) 1905 No data.
8 18 1914) 1905 1948 16 76 (1914)
If If
20 220 (1914),
20 (1924)
If
1937 48 332 (1932) 1925 1948
Ex MP&IRy.Psgr.Car #6.
186 1905 1915 188
If
1937 190
If
1910 198

1911 268 1916 1948 274 1912
To C.R.H.A., 1950. 318

1924 332 1910 1932 354 1905 1948 374 1910 1948 432 1915 1948
B r i n e
Car s
3021 1947 1957
Ex DT Tool Car.
1175 1948 1959
Ex DT Psgr. Car) Built
1176 1948 ¢
)
M.T.C.
1178 1950 1959

)
1943
¢-Held for Seashore Electric Railway, Kennebunkport, Me., U.S.A.
~-Hochelaga Carbarn fire, September 16, 1898.
sue.
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Canad ian Rai 1 Page 61
P 1 0 w s:
No.
~
Builder Date
Scral2lZed Notes
–before 1907 1919 Terml.Ry.Snow Car,no data
–before 1902 1911 Ice Digger, no data.
Dom. Car 1909 1912 Snow Car, no data.
DT DE Nose Plow Taunton 1904 1913 Converted to Locomotive
DT DE vvedge Russell 1908
No.2, 1908.
1936 1 ST
Rotary Peckham 1950 1901
ex MP&IRy. 1116
2 DT

1901 1950
3
ST

Ruggles 1905 1950
4 ST.
II II
1950 1908 ex Terml1 Ry. 5
DT

1910 @
10 ST Wing Ottawa
1913 1959 1920-Rebuilt and re# 100.
101

r-l.T .C. 1920
II
102
II

1920 1958
103

1926 1959
104

1928 1957
105
II

1929 1958 106
II II

II
107

1959 108

1957 109
II II II
1959
110

Ottawa 1932
II
111

1958
112

II

1957 113

II

114
II
M.T.C. 1944 1959 115

II
1957
@-Held for Branford Electric Railway Assln, Branford, Conn. , U.S.A.
C. P. Timetable Changes –effective October 28. 1962.
Mr. F.A.Kemp, author of The Winter Timetables Page 218 last
year, has informed us that, to the best of his knowledge, there were
no changes in Canadian Pacific schedules last October, other than
the routine revisions to adjust to winter conditions.
DIAGBAM
The diagram this month is of Canadian Nationals S-2-a class,
locomotives 3527 and 3531. These engines were built in 1923. by
the Montreal LocOI:Jotive Works –builders numbers 64477 & 6448l.
They were part of an order for 35 engines ( 3525 to 3559 inclusive)
but were subsequently modified by the substitution of extra-large
cylindrical tenders built 1924 by the Canadian Locomotive Company.
At the end of 1952, both units were based at Melville, Saskatchewan No.3527 was
scrapped in April 1960, while 3531 met a similar fate
in Augus t 1961.
(Diagram courtesy C.N.R.)
Page 62 Canadian Rai 1
by Stephen Cheasley
The Membership Committee announces that the following persons were
recently elected to Associate Membership in the CRHA.
Eric Clegg
Peter Lambert
Michael Whitehead
Charles Moore
Eliot Sterling
David Hanson
Robert Bales
Donald Robinson
Norman Morris
George Holman Edward Emery
Ralph Conrad
James J. Greer
Gerald lapointe
Bernard Patterson
Ernest Holliday
Lindsay Ward
Harvey Dust
Lupher Hay
Mrs. G. Lorin
Harry Vallas
E.C. Eddy
Mrs. J.L.D. Mason James
Shetler
Dav1d Knowles
Douglas Carlyle
Charles Thompson Anthony
Careless
Worden Phi1l1ps
Donald Sm1th
Ronald Ball
James Leworthy
Mrs. E. Bridges
Lyle McCoy
Bruce Ballantyne
G1lle s Dupre Henry
Preble
W1ll1am Rossiter
John Montgomery
Patr1ck H1nd
George Thompson
R1chard V1berg
Robert Sandusky
Charles Massey
Joseph Mold B.
Brant
Co11n Williamson
John Tynan
John Coughlin
Brian McCarrey James
Sandi lands
John Rollit
Peter Hall
Robert Tennant
Albert Bremer
John Eagle
John Jones
Kenneth Godwin
Osborne Taylor
In addition, Mr. Wyatt Webb was elected to Regular Membership.
Continued on Page 64
.! –
Canadian Rai 1 Page 63
New Brunswick Exhibit for Museum.
by Fred Angus.
Saturday, Dec.8, 1962 saw the arrival at Delson on CPR flatcar
300570 of Saint John N.B. streetcar No. 82. While its appearance
indicated long suffering by vandalism and weather, and the need for
very extensive rebuilding, the main roof and structural members are
in sufficiently good condition to render this task feasable. No.
82 consists of a body only, but it is planned to use a single truck
and other equipment now being held for the association.
This car was built in 1906 by the Ottawa Car Manufacturing Co. one
of six similar closed cars, Nos. 80-90, even numbers, ordered
by the Saint John Railway Co. Twelve open cars built at the same
time, were later converted to closed cars resembling 82, but these
have now completely disappeared. On one of the bulkheads of No.82 can
still faintly be seen the name of the Ottawa Car Mfg. Co.
These cars were all deSigned for operation on the left side of
the street, as the left hand rule of tile road prevailed in New Bruns­
wick until 1921. A photo of car 84 taken in 1906 shows this feat­
ure clearly, and it is planned to restore No.82 in this way.
About 1921
or 1922, 82 and her sisters were rebuilt by the New
Brunswick Power CO
J
which had taken over the St. John Ry. in 1917.
Whether this was done concurrently with the change to right hand
operation we do not know: at any rate, the curved wooden sides dis­
appeared under flat sides of sheet metal. At this time also,these
vehicles were converted to one-man cars, the doors became narrower
and the right hand door at the end away from the motorman was remo­
ved and the space filled in. In this altered form, the 80 class
remained intact until 1948, the year that streetcar service ended
in New Brunswiok, although the last few years saw their use in the
rush hours only –the base service being provided by the twenty-two newer
cars built between 1914 and 1930.
At the time of abandonment, the trucks of the cars were scrap­
ped, and many of the bodies were sold for use as sheds, chickenbou­
ses, etc. No.82 left the Wentworth Barn for the last time on June
24th, 1948. Subsequently, this car was purchased from Fowlers
Transport of Saint John, and on July 17th, it was moved to Rothesay
N.B., where it remained for fourteen years. In the interim, most
of the other cars had been completely destroyed. In 1958, No. 82
was donated to the C.R.H.A., in the first week of December four
years later, FowlerS Transport moved it to Saint John, from whence
it began its rail journey to Delson.
This car is one of the few survivors of Maritime trolleys. The
only other Saint John cars known to exist are six arch roof bodies
of later· vintage, used as sheds. All the other deck roof cars have
long since gone. When, eventually, No. 82 is restored to running
order, it should be a unique exhibit in the Transportation Museum.
~ N.B. Power Cos Number 82, shown just prior to its final
departure from the Wentworth Barn, Saint John.
Page 64 Canadian Rail
Association News -(continued)
The followlng persons were recently accepted as Regular Members by
the Edmonton Chapter of the CRHA.
Dale Coombe Peter Portlock
John Slmpson
John Ash
All members and subscrlbers to Canadlan Ral1 are reminded that dues
for 1963 are now payable. You are urged to facilltate our book­
keeplng by sendlng ln the amount indlcated on the lnvoices sent to
you, as soon as possible.
It is hoped that many members and subscrlbers will include with
their dues, some support for the museums 1963 financial campaign.
You can extend museum trackage one foot for every #10 that you don­
ate. We hope that you will use this chance to partiCipate in the
museum.
The members
of the Building Committee, as well as many other mem­
bers and guests, were on hand Saturday, November 24, to witness
Quebec North Shore and Labrador locomotive No. 1112 become the
first piece of equipment to enter the museums first building,
trainshed No.1. It was a happy moment for the many members who
donated so much time and energy to construct the 1000 feet of track
necessary for the movement. We congratulate all who took part in
this project.
Actually, the first piece of eqUipment to enter the museum building
was motorlzed section car Kalamazoo from the London and Port Stan­
ley Railway. Thls dramatlc event took place one week previous at
exactly 5:05 in the afternoon. Unfortunately, no photographs are
available of this truly historiC event because total darkness was
prevailing at the time. It is reliably reported that there was
considerable elation in the many members in attendance as engineer
p. !>1urphy and PropulSion Attendant F. Angus guided the vehicle,
under its own power, safely into the building.
Following the arrival of the first englne ln the building, the
subsequent weekends saw the placing there of the following:
Engine No. 25 from Old Sydney Collleries
Car No. 423 from the Ottawa Transportatlon Commission
Car No.6 from the Ottawa Transportation Commission
Engine No.5 from the Maritime Railway
Car No. 401 from the Quebec Railway Light and Power Company
The
construction of trainshed No.1 draws to a close with the com­
pletion of the aluminum sheathing on the extension. The doors are
under construction and when completed will assure complete protect­
ion of the exhlblts inside. The completed building will give pro­
tection to 1320 feet of track, i.e. about i-mile of track. It is
of interest to note that the building is as long as a regulation
Canadian football field.
All members and subscribers, whether in the Montreal area or not,
are invited to visit the museum. It is suggested that you write or
telephone Mr. C.S, Cheasley at 484-6262, in advance, for instruct­
ions to get there, We hope that you will visit the museum this
year.
Canadian Ra1l
Page 65
Notes and News
Edited by W. L. Pharoah
* CNs original diesel-electric switcher No. 7700, more recently
operated under No. 77, was retired from active service at the end
of 1962. The diesel engine, which is not the original powerplant,
will likely be removed for service elsewhere but the locomotives
frame, cab, and trucks may well be preserved as one of the first
diesel powered units in North America. (ELM)
* CN 4-6-2 No. 5588 was sent to Windsor, Ontario, for preservation
during December, 1962.
* Portland Maines last railroad station is being closed. CNoffices are
being moved to an adjacent building and the 59-year-old stone
station will be sold or leased. The large Union Station which
served the Boston and Maine and the Maine Central was torn down two
years ago and a shopplng centre now oncupies the site.
* Metropolitan Torontos transportation problems are not likely to be
solved by railway commuter service in the opinion of Mr. E. Wynne, CNs
Great Lakes Region vice-president. Mr. Wynne said that railway
commuter service would not be practlcal because of the great volume
of passengers that would have to be carried. one alternative
we are going to look at ls that lt may be pOEslb1e to use the ral1-
ways right-of-way for rapid translt, but it would have to be on a
separate track. We feel that using our present line for extensive
commuter service would spol1 both our regular operatlons and the
commuter services. I dont think either would be able to operate
on time. (Surprising as this may seem to those who have heard
that the railways main claim to fame is ability to cope with
high-density traffic! -Ed.)
* For rent: one first class railway coach available for immediate
occupancy. Cost: slightly more than walking, states a release
from CNs public relations office in Montreal, which goes on to say
thls is the latest weapon added to CNs arsenal in its all-out
efforts to attract more travellers to trains. CN ls offering any
group the opportunity to own a railway coach for the duration
of a trip, coupled with huge prlce reductions. One example:
sixty persons can charter a coach from Montreal to Toronto and
return for $8.85 per person. The regular coach fare is $24.35.
The scheme is not in effect during peak holiday periods, nor during
the period June 1 -September 30 at which times the Railway is
hard pressed for the equlpment.
* Mr. V.C. Wansborough, vice-president and managing director of the
Canadian Mining Assoclatlon sald recently that Canadlan railway
engineers are studying routes for a new railway from the Yukon –
Northweat Territories to the Pacific Coast, sparked by the discov­
ery of a giant hematite iron-ore deposit 320 miles northwest of
Whitehorse.
Page 66 Canadian Rail
From the CREA News Report -March 1953.
Q.N.S.! L.Ry has purchased Ontario Northland Ry. locomotive no.701.
Overhaul of this engine before before shipment started at the ONRy
Shop, North Bay, in January.
Budd RDC-l no. 2960 suffered an unfortunate accident on Saturday,
February 21st, near Mont Laurier, Que. The car is presently under
repair at CPRs Angus Shops.
There have been rumours that either, or both, of the transcontin­
ental railways are contemplating improvements in the transcontinen­
tal sohedules.
On Saturday, Feb.14th members and friends of the Associa tion par­
ticipated in a visit to Angus Shops of the CPR. During March it is
planned to opera te an excursion in MTC artioula ted Duplex 2501.
NO oms an d NEWS -oon t d.
;t An average of eight locomotives per year for the next ten years
will be acquired by the Mexican National Railways from the Montreal
Locomotive Works. The order for eighty diesel-electric units is
part of Mexicos plan for overhauling its railroads. The purchase
will be made through the Canadian Governments Export Credits
Insurance Corp.
* The Boston & Maine has applied CN passenger tactics of lower fares
and imoroved service to its commuter service and has come up with
the same encouraging results. Under the influence o~ more frequent
service coupled with reduced fares, an 18.4 per cent increase in
passengers was reported for the first day of the experiment. Dr.
Joseph F. Maloney, executive director of the Mass. Transportation
Commission which is directing the programme, termed the jump in
B & M commuters truly amaZing.
a Essex Terminal Railways locomotive No.9 has finally reached the
end of her line because of natural gas. For five years she pro­
longed her life by heating the Railways enginehouse at Windsor,
Ontario. Now, however, the company has switched to natural gas
heaters. For thirty-four years the locomotive pounded the 2l-mile
line between Windsor and the limestone quarries on the outskirts of
Amherstburg.
Photo of Essex Terminals
No. 9 beSide natural gas heat­
frrs which forced locomotives
final retirement.
A D & H Railroad advertisement
which appeared in the Montreal
Star during January. Will
the public patronize the service?
What do our readers think of
this type of ad?
CAN RAILROAD PASSENGER
SERVICE BE MAINTAINED
BETWEEN MONTREAL AND NEW YORK
.:.
.
4mf»
Publics Desertion of Trains
for other Modes of Transportation
Threatens Service
It is difficult to im~gine Montreal
and
New York, the largest cities in
Canada and the United St;ltes, with the
importam inrcrmetiiarc ciries ;Inti vil­
!;,ges, without connecting ;lilroad pas·
senger service. Yet this
is a distinct
possibility if the present rate of the
publics desertion of the railroad is nor
only stopped, bur reversed.
-Vhen railroad patronage flour·
ished hetween the two cities there
waS
little if any competition from other
modes of transportation.
Today. with
900,JJ I automobiles registered in the
Province of Quebec and
4,596.827 in
the State of New Y ori<. to mention but
one l)tovince and one stat
e. and with
greatly improved highways paralleling
the railroads, the private utomohile
h;ls become the railroads greatesr com·
petitur. Next to it are the airlines.
There are 27 scheduled flights daily
bctweCll Montreal
;lnd New York. the
jets n,hing the
344 mile trip in 72
Ipinutes. There afe also 14 scheduled
ous rril a day.
All of this competition h:ls result­
ed in a reduction of 40 per cent in the
IllIl11ber of pas..iengcrs· cflrried ill rhis
service bv The D. & H. Railroad since
1955, with the desenion of the trains
incre;l~ing in rempo c,·ery year. d,C
sharpest losses in p::uronagc occurring
dming the I);ISt tlO yeals.
The D. & H. has striven to attract
~nd Illaintain its passenger business. It
offers what is considered one of the
finest scenic railroad trips
in the United
States along the shores of beautiful and
historic Lal,e
Chomplain and the lordl)
Hudson River.
It uses twO o( the tin·
es{ railro;ld terminals on the 1orrh
Amcric tion in :lolltre,,1 and the Grand Cen·
tral Station
in ew York Citv. Its
equipment
is modern and comfortable.
On the day train. THE LAUREN.
TIAN, it consists of air·conditioned
co;u.:hcs, parlor-ouservation car and a
top·notch dining
service. Its night
train,
THE iVlONTREAL LIMITED,
offers air·conditioned coaches. room­
ette
s, bedrooms, compartments and
dining
service. Special reduced family
and group fares are available.
The revenue from tllis operation
during the
pm year. including receipts
from
m~il and express service, failed
s
ubstantially to meer the out·of·pocket
expenses of providing it.
(Out-of·
pocket expenses do not inelude SUell
items
s ntaintenance of roadbed or
srfllccures, interest
911 investment or de ..
preciation on property ,tnd equipment
used in the service, station expenses,
etc.
They illclude ouly those expe1/ses
u)hicb Cfln be emirely eliminated if the
traillS are discolllillued.)
These heavy losses cannot be sus·
tained much longer withol!! destroying
the economic health of the railroad.
hether or not railroad service
can be lllaillClincd between these two
great cities is obviously up to the pub·
lic. I f it wants and patronizes the serv·
icc ill sufficient numbers (O warrant irs
continu,Hin it will be provided. As
railroads were designed and bUlir for
heavy daily
lIlass rransportation service
the), cannot
be operated economically
with light or sporadic patronage.
leither can they be maintained as a
stand·by
service to be used only when
lcather conditions ground the planes
or m
ake highway travel hazardous.
The D. & H. wants to continue
to serve the public with good
passen­
ger rrallsl)orr;trion.
The question is nor -Does the
public
WANT the railroad …. but.
will the public
PATRONIZE it?
DELAWARE HUDSON RAILROAD
CORPORATION
The Bridge (ine Connecting the South and West
with
New England and Eoste, Canada
A 40-hour weekd be nice, but what Id really like to sec the Commission come up with is an answer for me to
give taxidrivcrs who holler Take that antique to the museum!
-Doug Wright, Montreal Star
CANADIAN RAILROAD HISrOPJCAL ASSOCIA rrON
es/a6lisheJ 1932 • :Box 22 . Sia/io/l :B . :MOIl/real 2 . Q,6ec • 8I1corpora/,J 1941
CANADLAN RAIL: Published eleven times annually by the Publications
Committee, Canadian Railroad Historical Association.
CHAIRMAN, PUBLICATIONS
COMMITTEE: David R. Henderson
EDITOR:
ASSISTANT EDITOR:
DISTRIBUTION:
COMMITTEE:
Anthony Clegg
William Pharoah
John W. Saunders
Robert Half yard
Omer S.A. Lavallee
Frederick F. Angus
Peter Murphy
PACIFIC COAST REPRESENTA TIVE:
Peter Cox, 2936 West 28th Avenue,
Vancouver 8, B.C.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN REPRESENTATIVE:
William T. Sharp, Apartment 11,
11544 St. Albert Trail, Edmonton, Alta.
SUBSCRIBERS!
BEFORE YOU MOVE-WRITE!
At least 5 Week!l before you
move, send us a Jetter, a card,
or n poat.olfice chnnge-of.
address form telling us both your
OLD aod your NEW addr ……
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