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Canadian Rail 125 1961

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Canadian Rail 125 1961

P.O. BOX 22.
Now that the Coquihalla Subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Rail­
way has been abandoned. scenes like this. showing westbound
Train No. 11. Kootenay Express at Ladner Creek bridge. are
only a memory. The locomotive is a 5200 series 2-8-2 of class
P-l-n. rebuilt from N-2 class 2-8-0s about fifteen years ago.
–Canadian Pacific Photo.

Street BailWay List: 1889
Current observance of the
street railway centenaries
in Toronto and Montreal has
focussed interest on the subject
of the early development of this
form of~nsportation in Canada.
Hitherto, such research as has
been performed in urban trans­
portation has largely been dev­
oted to the electric railway,
leaving the fascinating aspect
of the animal railways almost
completely unexplored.
With a view, perhaps, to
stimulate sufficient interest
among our readers that they
might be encouraged to take up
the study of such systems in
cities other than Montreal and
Toronto, there is reproduced be­
low a list of no less than twen­
ty-four street railways in exis­
tence in lSS9, extracted from
Poors Manual for lS90; in that
year, this publication carried
its first references to Canadian
street railway systems.
Of the two dozen systems
listed, two are already electric
~ailway systems, while the bal­
ance used animal or steam trac­
tion. At least four gauges were
in use, )6, 4S, 4SI and
410~; the gauges of the sys­
tems in Hamilton and Chatham,
Ontario, are not given. Three
of the systems functioned in and
around Windsor, Ontario, while
two separate railways carried on
services in Quebec. In some
cases, significant dates are
given, giving a researcher a
point from which study might be
We would be glad to consid­
er for publication, any supplem­
entary information, however in­
complete, which our readers
might wish to supply. In per­
forming research in this field,
city and town archives are us­
ually helpful in that they con­
tain agreements between the mun­
icipality and the street railway
respecting the use of streets
and other public facilities,also
financial aspects. In some cases
annual reports of the street
railway were filed with the town
archives. Other good sources
are local guidebooks, in which
routes and service frequency
might be found, while the social
aspects and day-to-day occurr­
ences were usually treated lib­
erally in the newspapers. Weekly
papers are easier to scan for
information, but unless an in­
dividual is prepared to devote
a considerable amount of time to
a research topic, he should not
attempt a day-by-day examination
of daily newspapers, but confine
himself in the use of dailies,
to elaboration of events for
which he already possesses ~es.
Good hunting 1
Main line, 2 miles; gauge) ft.
6 in.· rail 2S Ibs.; owns 12 horses, 5 cars and 5 other vehicles.
DIREC10RS: Horace Yeomans, Manley Roblin, John Lewis, Mrs. David
Lockwood, Belleville, Onto OFFICERS: David Lockwood, Pres.; S.A.
Lockwood, Sec., Treas., and Supt. GENERAL OFFICE: Belleville,Ont.
Main line, 2.75 miles;
gauge, 4 ft. Sl in.; rail, 25 and )0 Ibs.; cars, S; horses, 17;

~Pa~g~e~1~1~4~ ______________________________________ ~C~.R .• H~. News Report
Main line, 7 miles; gauge, 4 ft.
8, in.; rail, 45 to 60 Ibs.; owns 15 cars and 65 horses. Jno. F.
Zebley, Pres. & Treas.; Austin Gallagher, Sec. New York Office,
Drexel Building, New York, N.Y. GENERAL OFFICE: Saint John, N.B.
Main line, 2 miles; gauge, 3 ft.
6 in.; rail, 301bs. Owns 9 horses and 5 cars. J. Griffen, Pres.;
G. Wegg, Sec. & Treas.; W. Palmerton, Supt.; GENERAL OFFICE: St.
Thomas, Onto
Main line, 60 miles; gauge, 4 ft.
10~ in.; rail, 301bs. Owns 1160 horses and 225 cars. Frank
Smith, Pres.; James Gunn, Sec.; J.J. Franklin, Supt. GENERAL
OFFICE: 94 and 96 King Street East, Toronto.
Main line, 1.25 miles;
gauge, 3 ft. 6 in.; rail, 25 Ibs.; owns 1 Van Depoele motor, 15
horse-power engine, 9 horses and 4 cars. W.M. Roomer, Pres.; A.H.
Joseph, Treas. & Sec.; W.C. Turner, Supt.; T .C. Ponting, Man.
GENERAL OFFI CE: Windsor, Ont.
rail, 26 Ibs.;
Windsor, Onto
Main line, 4.50 miles; gauge, 4 ft. 8 in.;
Wm. McGregor, Pres. & Gen. Man. GENERAL OFFICE:
Main line, 5 miles; gauge, 4 ft.
8, in.; rail, 35 Ibs.; owns 100 horses, 15 cars and 15 sleighs.
DIRECTORS: James Austin, E.B. Osler
Toronto, Ont.; A.W. Austin,
R.J. Whitla, H. Archibald, Geo. A. Ioung, M.R. Austin, Winnipeg,
Man. James Austin, Pres.; E.B. Osler, Vice-Pres.; Albert W.
Austin, Sec., Treas. & P.A.; G.A. Young, Supt. GENERAL OFFICE:
Winnipeg, Man.
NOTES: The Quebec Street Railway served the Basse-Ville (Lower Town),
while the Haute-Ville (Upper Town) was served by
the St. John Street Railway Company~ in St. John Street.
(This company should not be confused with the street
railway of the same name in Saint John, N.B.)
The Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg Railway Company and
the Windsor Railway Company were under the same manage­ment, and
both employed the same gauge of 48.
Financial statements have been limited to the capitaliz­
ation of the Company.
On July 19th, 1961, the Board of
Transport Commissioners for Canada
authorized the Canadian Pacific Railway
to abandon 49.6 miles of the 56.6-mile
Coquihalla Subdivision, extending from
Brodie, B.C., to the C.N.R. connection
at Hope, B.C. The effect of the order,
however, was only to lend formality to
fact, as this rugged and difficult stretch
of railway has not been used since Nov­
ember, 1959, when washouts rendered
the line unusable.
Since the Coquihalla was rendered
impassable, trains leaving the southern
British Columbia line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway have used the alternate
though longer route through Merritt to
Spences Bridge, B. C., in the Fraser
Canyon, some 90 miles north of Hope.
The rail journey from Nelson, Pentic­
ton and other southern B.C. points to
Vancouver is now more than 100 miles
longer than formerly.
To the timetable traveller, the
most familiar characteristic of the line
is the naming of the stations after the
drama tis personae of Shakespearian
plays, –Juliet, Romeo, rago, Portia,
Jessica, Lear and Othello –a touch of
gentility which belies the fact that the
subdivision was and difficult rail routes in Canada, and
a monument to the competent engineer
who built it, Andrew McCulloch.
The story goes that the Shakespear­
ian names were bestowed by one of the
daughters of Mr. McCulloch, who was
Chief Engineer of the Kettle Valley Rail­
way Company, when that line was a sub­
sidiary of the Canadian Pacific system.
McCullocn himself is commemorated
by the s ta tion at the summit of the line
between Midway and Penticton, another
project of this dauntless Scot.
Thirty-five of the 49.6 miles of rail­
way affected by the Board order, lie
in the gorge of the Coquihalla River,
and in this distance, the railway desc­
cends just 3500 feet, from an altitude of
3646 at Coquihalla stationatthe summit
of the Pass, to 144 feet at Hope, on the
Fraser River. The· descent is on a con­
stant grade of 2.2% compensated, while
the railway finds its precipitous way
down the canyon through twelve tunnels
and five snowsheds and over thirty-nine
bridges and trestles of assorted types
and sizes. Added to this is the fact that
the Pass experiences one of the highest
average snowfalls in Canada, rnore than
575 inches annually. The gorge is tot­
ally devoid of human habitation other
than the sectionmen, many of Japanese
extraction, who maintained the Coqui­
halla Subdivision until Nature won out
in a constant struggle that has lasted
some forty-five years.
Railway surveys were first made in

C.R.H.A. News Report
COQUIHALLA (continued) •••••
this area about 1910, when two railways
sought to build connections between the
mining settlements of the Kootenay and
Okanagan valleys and the Pacific Coast.
One of these railways, the Vancouver,
Victoria & Eastern Railway 8. Navigat­
ion Company, was the child of the Great
Northern Railway Company ofthe United
States. The other railway, the Kettle
Valley Railway Company, had pursued
a somewhat unsuccessful career as an
independent railway, until it was acq­
uired and supported financially by the
Canadian Pacific Railway, who leased
the railway for 999 years from July 1st,
1913. In 1910, J.J. Warren had been
appointed President, andAndrewMcCull­
och made Chief Engineer, of the KVR.
For a time, the rival CP and Great
Northern subsidiaries carried out sUr­
veys in the Coquihalla, each intending to
effect its outlet to the Pacific Coast by
that route. Eventually, as a matter of
record, the Great Northern did build
from Oroville, Wash., into B.C., via
Keremeos and Princeton to Brookrnere.
while the KVR built from Penticton to
Princeton in 1915. After much discuss­
ion, geography made the contending
parties come to terms, it being clearly
impossible to build two railway lines
down the Coquihalla Gorge. According­
ly. the two railways divided up the terr­
itory, the VVI.E building from Prince­
ton to Brookmere, 38 miles. and grant­
ing the KVR joint section privileges.
while the KVR would build froIn Brook­
mere to Hope according the same priv­
ileges to the VVI.E.
Grading of the railw&y started in
1913 and took quite a while to COInplete
owing to the narrowness of the gorge
and the gener.l inaccessibility of the
line. In the same year. a start w&8
made on a four-span bridge over the
Fraser River at Hope. and a two-Illile
Page 117
section of track from the bridge to the
CPR main line at Petain, B.C., which
was renamed OdIum for political reas­
ons during the second World War.
In 1914, grading was almost com­
pleted between Coquihalla and Hope, and
rails had been laid from Brodie to Coq­
uihalla. Early in 1915, the railway was
completed out from Midway, via Brodie
to Spences Bridge, and on May 31st of
that year, the first train, a mixed, ran
from Midway to Spences Bridge. the
Kettle Valley crew taking the train to
Merritt, and a CPR crew the rest of the
journey to the CP main line. The whole
of 1915 was devoted to work on the Coq­
uihalla, which proceeded slowly, owing
to the necessity of constructing the
many bridges as the railhead reached
each site, it being impossible to bring
in bridge materials by team, as was
normally done. The timbers were cut
and framed, then shipped in for install­
ation. Most of the trestles and some
of the bridges were of wood, but there
were a number of steel spans required.
notably at BostonBar Creek and at Lad­
ner Creek, where the railway was div­
erted out of the main valley up into side
valleys for the purpose of losing altitude
at the established maximum of 2.2%.
Construction was carried out from
both ends, simultaneously. SOIne of the
engineering features were rather int­
eresting, such as the Quintet Tunnels
near Hope, in the lower reaches of the
Coquihalla, where the river pursues a
serpentine course between high rock
walls. The railway was cut through on
a tangent, alternately intersecting the
river and the rock. leaving five sho,rt
tunnels on a straight track, .eparated
by bridges spanning the river. In later
year., one of the tunnels was remov.ed,
leaving four in a row stU! vidble. The,
remainin.g tulIilel$ were tho.e .t mile,
+9.5, +9.55, +1.65 and 49.8. The d.a,.-,
lighted tunnel waa at IIlile +9~ 75.
Page 118


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/ / /

/ / /


/ / /
/ /
/ /

/ /

C.R.H.A. News Report
The winter of 1915-16 was a very
severe one, snow corning early and
stopping all work by the end of Novem­
ber. Track had now been completed to
fYlile 36 from the Brodie end, while the
railhead from the Hope end was only
1. 7 miles away. The snow remained
late inthe spring of 1916, but by the end
of July, the track was connected bet­
ween Portia and Jessica, ballasting
completed and through trains in oper­
ation over the Subdivision. An official
inspection party travelled down the
gorge on September 14th and 15th, 1916,
the party including Lord Shaughnessy,
and Mr. (later Sir) Edward W. Beatty.
These officers were much impressed
by the Coquihalla line, whose complet­
ion fYlarked the termination of work on
the Kettle Valley line through southern
British Columbia.
The Vancouver, Victoria & Eastern
never operated trains through the gorge,
being content to turn traffic over to the
CPR west of Brookmere. In Decem­
ber, 1945, Canadian Pacific purchased
the joint section between Brookrnere
and Princeton from the Great Northern.
The rigours of winter plagued the
line throughout its existence. Frequent­
ly, a particularly heavy snowfall during
the course of a winter would prove to be
lTIOre than a match for the engines and
rotary ploughs, and the line would be
abandoned until spring thaws could be
enlis ted to aid in the reopening of the
For many years, the Gorge was one
of the points of interest to passengers
on the Medicine Hat-Vancouver service
via the Kettle Valley route, served by
Train No. 11, the Kootenay Express
westbound, and No.12, the Kettle Valley
Express eastbound. The RDC car ser­
vice which supplanted these trains used
the Gorge route for a while, until the
washouts in 1959. Occasionally, when
slides obliterated the main line in the
Fraser Canyon, the rrtain-line Domin­
ion would be diverted through the Coq-
C.R.H.A. News Report Page 119
COQUIHALLA (continued} •••.•
2-8-2. two of these engines frequently
heading trains 11 and 12. doubleheaded.
uihalla. giving the passengers an unex­
pected trip through the wild and uninha b­
ited valley. In the days of steam loco­
motives. the gorge. and. for that matter.
most of the Kettle Valley system. was
the especial preserve of the 2-8-0 and
As an interesting appendix. we are
reproducing some physical notes on the
Subdivision. from the files of the Canad­
ian Pacific Railway.
Trestle -45 -Pass Creek
BRODIE -Junction with Merritt Subdivision.
Deck Truss Bridge -108 -Coldwater River.
Through Plate Girder Bridge -106 -July Creek. 10.2
Through Plate Girder Bridge -80 -Coldwater River.
COQUIHALLA -Elevation 3646. High point on Subdivision.
Tunnel -218 •

280 •

180 .
Trestle -150 .
20.7 -405 .
21.0 (eight bents).
21.2 Deck lattice spans and trestle-Bridal Veil Falls Creek.
21.5 Trestle -150.
21.7 -3 15 -. Tack Creek.
22.3 .. -385
Tunnel -250 -22.5
Trestle -630 -Cultus Creek. Largest timber bridge on the Sub-
Tunnel -306 •
23.2 Trestle -135 •
23.3 ,,-195.
23.5 Tunnel -220 •
23.6 Trestle.-330 •
24.1 ROMEO.
24.4 Snowshed -374 •
25.8 Bridge (3 spans: 1 through truss. 2 deck plate girdet}-430 -Slide Creek.
26.3 Snowshed -230 •
26.6 -420 •
26.9 ,,-290 •
27.6 Tunnel -164.
Snowshed -322 •
Trestle and concrete wall -435 -around rock points.
Bridge (3 spans: 1 half deck plate girder. 2 deck plate
Trestle and deck plate girder on timber towers -346
girders)-162 •

Boston Bar
. :r.: .,;-.
C.R.H.A. News Report
Trestle -404 •

-360 •
Tunnel -18 …. .
Bridge (9 deck plate girder spans) -560 -Ladner Creek.
Trestle -135 •

45 •
Bridge (2 deck plate girder spans) -130 -Twenty-mile Creek.
Trestle -285 -Tangent Creek.
Steel span -20 •
Treslle -224 -Fifteen-mile Creek.
-75 •

-458 •

105 •

-360 .

-240 •

-45 .

-285 -Eleven-mile Creek.

-45 .

-120 -Ten-mile Creek.

15 .
LEAR. Water tank -40,000 gallons.
Tunnel -556 .

100 .
Bridge (l half deck plate girder) -75 -. Coquihalla River.
Tunnel -405 .
Bridge (2 spans: 1 deck truss and 1 deck plate girder -174 -Coq-
Tunnel -246 . uihalla River.
Bridge (l deck Howe truss and trestle) -378 -Coquihalla River.
Level crossing -Canadian National Railways.
Trestle -28 .
HOPE. Elevation 144 .
Bridge (4238 -through truss spans) -955 -Fra.ser River.
Trestle -283 .

135 •
ODLUM -Junction with Cascade Subdivision.
Page 122 C.R.H.A. News R~~
Another of Canadas few remaining short-line railways closed for good dur­
ing the month of September, when, in accordance with a ruling handed down by
the Board of Transport Commissioners for Canada in July, the Maritime Coal,
Railway Power Companys railway was abandoned. This twelve-mile railway
extended from Maccan to Joggins, Nova Scotia, twelve miles, and at the time
of closing, owned three steam locomotives: No.5, an ancient 4-6-0, and Nos.9
and 10, two ex-Canadian National Railways 2-6-0s. The railway also owned a
wooden combination baggage-passenger car, and a conductors van, No. 101.
The coal-mining town of Joggins is situated at the head of the Bay of Fundy
near the isthmus of Chignecto. At this point, the forty-foot tides of the Bay can
be seen to advantage. Coal mining has been carried on at Joggins since the time
of the French Regime, and it was coal which first was responsible for bringing
the railway to the town seventy-three years ago. The nearest railway point to
Joggins at this time, was Maccan on the Intercolonial Railway Halifax-Moncton
main line, twelve miles distant, and accordingly, the JOGGINS RAILWA Y COM­
PANY was incorporated in 1883 to build such a line. Raising of funds and con­
struction of the railway took nearly five years, and it was not until J;J.nuary 15,
1888, that the railway was opened. This was the occasion for a lengthy account
in the Moncton Herald, of which a portion follows:

The formal opening of the Joggins Railway yesterday was a success in
every respect. The half dozen who boarded the excursion train at Moncton,
though increased by an equal number at Dorchester and by single stragglers
at intermediate points, were quite indistinguishable when a contingent of
thirty poured in on them at Sackville. These, with a stray Aulackin, com­
posed the N.B. representation at the little Maritime Union, as Mr. Wood
subsequently called it.
The Times went on to enumerate the names of many personalities, including
leaders in social and political life, led by Premier W.S.Fielding of Nova Scotia.

Maccan now acquires the title of Junction, and the Maccaners are duly
elated, though travellers experiences at junctions do not often lead them
to purchase building lots at those cheerful localities. Maccan, however,
will be the exception, its natural advantages will overcome or assuage the
oppressiveness of its assumed dignities. Joggins was born great, River
Hebert has achieved greatness, but Maccan has had greatness thrust upon it.
As the Inaugural Train moved out from the Juncti?n of the two Railways,
our attention was first attracted by a magnificent bridge, the largest on the
new railway, having two spans, each 125 feet in length, with pile approaches
and Howe super-structure. The surrounding country was at first woodland
but before long we were rattling past smiling valleys and fertile marshes,
while in the distance might have been heard the busy mills of all kinds
that dot the countryside, and only await this avenue to transfer their prod­
ucts in large quantities and with greater ease and profit.
C.R.H.A. News Report Page 123
At River Hebert is still another bridge. this one having crib approaches;
one span is 125 feet long. and the super-structure is truss work of the Howe
Pattern. Just past the bridge is the station. a very neat and commodious
building presenting a handsome appearance. The depot at the terminus is
not yet completed. The Track throughout its entire length is in first class
condition provided with the best materials. and remarkably well ballasted
for a new line. It is as well as all the bridges have received the unqualif­
ied approval of the goverrunent engineer. who I am told is not only skillful
and accurate. but also most particular with the details of any work sub­
mitted to his inspection. The rolling stock is of the most approved and
fashionable patterns and has been built regardless of expense.
Having arrived at Joggins. our party rambled over the Mines and watched
the proceedings with great interest;; some of the neophytes expressed a
hearty desire to descend in an empty coal car 1300 feet to the bowels of the
earth. as the poet says. But the veteran dissuaded them, and the secretary
kindly promised us a great treat to have them all conveyed in a coal trolley
of exactly the same pattern to the elevator beside the seashore. We acc­
epted and soon found ourselves drawn by an endles!j chain over a billowy
road at the rate of 60 miles an hour; only fortunately for us it did not last
an hour. the distance being less than two miles. Before we got that far,
however, all doubts as to our being at the Joggins had forever left our minds.
Mr. Fraser said he wouldnt have missed that ride for a thousand dollars.
but he wouldnt take a thousand dollars to go over it again. Below us were
the schooners loading coal for foreign ports. At each side looking out along
the shore we could see those conspicuous geological formations which Sir
William Dawson first disclosed to the scientific world. and by which Joggins
first acquired notoriety. Long after. the Leary rafts once more rivetted the
attention of the world generally on the Joggins shore. But now the railway
has given it a more abiding claim on popular attention. and it will no longer
be said to its approach that the fame rested solely on erratic rafts and very
much ante-deluvium fossils.
On our return. we found awaiting us at River Hebert a sumptuous repast
provided by the thoughtful and generous railway authorities who had secured
expressly for the occasion the fairest maids from the surrounding hamlets
to act as waitresses at the festive gathering.
Following the opening. the name of the Company was changed to the JOGGINS
COAL &r: RAILWA Y COMPANY. On November 1st. 1892. the railway was pur­
chased by the CANADA COALS &r: RAILWA Y COMPANY. which had bean incor­
porated previously in the same year. In May. 1904. the railway went into rec­
eivership and in 1905 sold at auction to the CANADA COAL &r: RAILROAD COM­
PANY LIMITED. The final change of hands took place in June. 1907. when it
was acquired by the MARITIME COAL. RAILWAY POWER COMPANY. a com­
pany which itself had been acquired in 1903-04.
In 1910. the railway was empowered to build other branch lines. and also
street railway lines in Amherst and Parrsboro. but these latter never material­
ized. Branches were. however. built from River Hebert to Minudie. from Maccan
to Chignecto, and from River Hebert to Maple Leaf Mines. The Minudie tramway
was abandoned in 1917. and the Chignecto branch in October. 1934.
In addition to the railway, the Company owned mines in the Joggins area, and
in comparatively recent times built the modern power plant near Maccan, which
utilizes mine by-products to produce electricity.
The official closing of the railway came on Saturday, September 23rd, 1961,
when an excursion, sponsored by the Canadian Railroad Historical Association,
with the cooperation of the President, Dr. N.T. Avard, and the General Manager,
Mr. P.A. McPherson of the Maritime Coal, Railway &: Power Company. The
train consisted of steam locomotive No.lO, one of the ex-CN 2-6-0s, Canadian
National passenger coach No. 4908, a steel-sheathed car, and Maritime Railway
conductors van No. 101. The Conductor was Mr. Herbert Hood, the Engineman,
Mr. Hance Leblanc, the Fireman, Mro Harry Melton, and the Brakeman, Mr.
Austin Brown. Dr. Avard and Mr. McPherson were on board also, while the
CRHA was represented by our President, Dr. Nicholls, the Treasurer, Mr. A.S.
Walbridge, and Mr. Robert H. Tivy of Gunningsville, N.B., the latter making all
the arrangements for the train and operation with the Maritime Railway, and to
whom the credit for organizing this outing must go. In his spare time, Mr.
Tivy is General Superintendent of Transportation for the National System
at Moncton, and he and his associates carried the trip out in the best traditions
of the trips organized out of Montreal. CRHA members in New Brunswick and
Nova Scotia turned out en masse for the trip; several went from Montreal.
The special train left Maccan at 11 :33 AM, after the arrival of CN #4 and
#53, from Montreal and Halifax, respectively. Moving picture runs were made
at the Maccan River bridge at mile 0.3, at Top Hill Siding at mile 3.2, at mile
3.6, and at River Herbert. The arrival at Joggins ·was made at 1 :01 PM, where
Mr. McPherson had thoughtfully arranged to have No.9 moved out under steam,
and No.5 pulled out of the enginehouse for photographs. The special left for
the return trip at 4:01 PM and after a non-stop run arrived Maccan at 4:53 PM.
The officers and members of the Association wish to acknowledge their in­
debtedness to the officers and employees of the Maritime Coal, Railway &: Power
Company, who made this appropriate observance possible. Our thanks go par­
ticularly to Dr. Avard and Mr. McPherson, gentlemen whose names have long
been connected with their railway company, whose passing is viewed with sin­
cere regret by the many railway amateurs who have enjoyed the generous hos­
pitality always proffered at Joggins to visitors. . It is hoped that some suitable
memento of the Railway may be preserved at the CRHA Railway Musewn, and
negotiations are going on as this is beihg written.
NEWS REPORT: Published eleven times annually by the Publications
Committee, Canadian Railroad Historical Association.
EDITORIAL ADDRESS: P.O. Box 22, Station B, Montreal 2, Canada.
COMMITTEE: David R. Henderson
Orner S.A. Lavallee
John W. Saunders
William Pharoah
Anthony Cle gg
Robert Half yard

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