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Canadian Rail 097 1959

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Canadian Rail 097 1959


l
NEWS REPORT NO .9~ F~mWAR Y 195(3
CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICALASSOCIATION
INCORPORATED.
P.O. sox 22 . STAT ION S
MONT R EAL 2. QUESEC
The February meet ing of
the Associat ion
llotice of llee t ~n_g ]

wi ll be held in room 202, Mont real Trans­p
ort ati on Commi.esLon Building, 159 Craig S
treet West , on Wednesday, Februar y 11t h,
1959, at (3:15 PM. The entertainment had not been announced at
time
of pri
nting.
———–_…..
—-,
THIP COI!I]1ITTEE­
Associat
ion News I Members are asked to p art ic ~
ularly note the dat e of the spring tr i p, Sunday,
May 10t h, 1959, when a special , doubl e­he
aded steam train wil l be operated from Bel levi l le, Ontari o to B
ancr oft, Ontario and return. Complet e details may be obtained frOM a
circul ar is sued by the Commi t tee, which is at t ached.
HAILVJAY DIVISIONrHIP The
members of the Railway Divisi on are organ­
lZl ng an excursion over the Canadian National Rai lways I Montmor ency Di v
isi on, to mark the cessati on of el ectric railway ser vice linking Que
bec, Montmorency Falls, Ste.Anne-de-Beaupre and St.Joachim, on Sun
day, Mar ch 15t h. Special train, comprising car 401 and combin­
ation car 105, wi ll leave the St.Paul Street st ation in Quebec, at
1:00 PM, on March 15t h, and wi l l return shor t ly after 5:00 PM. P
arti cipants fromMont real and poi nts beyond may go to Quebec fr om
Mont real on CPI1. train #150, arriving Quebec at 12:20 PM. Return to
Mont real may be made on cpn. #155, leavi ng Quebec 6:00 PM and due in
Mont real at 10:00 PM, where connections may normal ly be made for Bo
ston, New York and Toront o.
TIC
KETS •••••••• $2. 50 (adult s) CHI LDREN •••..••• $1. 25 (ages 5- 11 ) Chi
ldren, accompanied, under 5, •••• f r ee.
Pr oceeds from the excursion wi l l go toward the preservation of some
of the for mer QRL&PCo. rol ling stock.
RESBRVATIONS a
re not mandatory, but as the Rai lway Di vision may adver ­
tise thi s tr
i
p locally in Quebe c, those who reserve will be given
pref erence in seating should it be nec essary to operate additional
eq
uipment. The trip wi l l. mar k the cessat ion of seventy years of local
train service on the Beaupre coast, fifty-nine of it by electri cit y.
Railw
ay Divi si on restorat ion work is goi.ng f orward at Youvil le Shop;
M&SC car /104 is pr esent l y undergoing heavy platform repair s, while
r es
toration of jj?611 i s under way, and a start has been
made on MTC #859.
NEWS R£PORT NO. ;;J FJ:i;BiWARY 1958
CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
INCORPORATED.
t Notice of ~leeting ]
1959 , at 8: 15 PJ1. Th e of
printing.
P.o. sox 22. STATION s
MONTREAL 2. QUESEC
The February meeting of the Association
will be held in room 202, Montreal Trans­
portation Comilission Building, 159 Craig­
Street West, on Wednesday, February 11th,
entertainment had not been announced at time
———–_ …..
1lU P CDr-gUTTEE-Members
are asked to partic~
ularly note the date of the spring trip, . S
unday, May 10th, 1959, when a special, double­
headed steam train will be operated from Belleville, Ontatio to
Bancroft, Ontario and return. Complete details may be obtained frOM a
circular issued by the Committee, which is attached.
Association New~
( RAILWAY DIVISION TRIP
The members
of the Railway Division are organ­
lZlng an excursion over the Canadian National Railways I Montmorency
Division,to mark the cessation of electric railway service linking
(~uebec, Montmorency Falls, Ste.Anne-de-Beaupre and St.Joachim, on
Sunday, March 15th. Special train, comprising car 401 and combin­
ation car 105, will leave the St. Paul Street station in Quebec, at
1:00 PM, on f,larch 15th, and will return shortly after 5!00 PM.
Participants from Montreal and points beyond may go to Quebec from
Montreal on CPR. train ~l150 , arriving Quebec at 12: 20 PM. Return to
llontreal may be made on CPR #155, leaving Quebec 6:00 PM and due in
Montreal at 10:00 PM, where connections may normally be made for
Boston, New York and Toronto.
TICKETS •••••••• $2.50 (adults) CHILDREN •••..••• $1.25 (ages 5-11)
Children, accompanied, under 5, •••• free.
Proceeds from the excursion will go toward the preservation of some
of the former QRL&PCo. rolling stock.
RES~RVATIONS are not mandatory, but as the Railway Division may adver­
tise this trip locally in Quebec, those who reserve will be given
preference in seating should it be necessary to operate additional
equipment. The trip will mark the cessation of seventy years of local
train service on the Beaupre coast, fifty-nine of it by electricity.
Railway Division restoration work is going forward at Youville Shop;
lVI&SC car ,;104 is presently undergoing heavy platform repairs, while
res toration of ~,L611 is under way, and a start has been made on MTC #859.
C.R.R. A. News ReQort -1959 Page £)
The fo1101-1ing resear ch paper ,
THE STORY OF lIUNNELS i
whi ch tlii 11 appear in sever a1
consecutive par t s , was originally
del i vored to the Aasocl e.t.Lon by
the author on December 8th, 1948, as a lecture. vlhi le it is
not confined to Canadian- subject matter , the tunnels
which have been selected for el aborat i on are chosen because
the author feels that they illust rate stages in t.he dev­el o
pment of this engi neer i ng field whi ch wi l l enable the
reader to grasp the topi c comprehensivel y.
Orner S.A. Lavallee
ANCIENT AND ~~DIAEV AL Tm~NE LS
For t he origin of man-made tunnelling, it will
be necessary to go back far before railways, even in their
most primitive form, wer-e ever thought of. The earliest
tunnel recor ded by hist ory was built, as might be expected, in Babyl on. As one of the
ear l i est seat s of cul t ure,it
is only natural t :tJat the BabyTonians shoul d have devel oped the
original arti f icial tunnels. lie have al ready ascri bed
to them the distinct ion of haVing er ected one of the first
man-made brid~e s ; Babyl on was al so the supposed sit e of
the Tower of Babel or Temple of Bel us, which is reputed
trr have reached a height o£ 600 feet —the world s first
Il skyscr ape r
ll
Thus we see that as enginee rs, the Babylon­•
ians wore ha rdly to be considered as amat eurs. Thi s early
tunnel was qulte an ambi t ious pr oject . Its very magni t ude po
ints unmi s takably t o some previ ous experience on the part
tifits constructors, and though itis hi st orys first
recorded tunnel, it is unquestionably not the first eve r const
ructed nor even among the first.
Th
is particular tunnel was situated under the Eup
hrates River whi ch div ided the city of Babyl on into two
parts. Br ick lined, as we know fromour knowledge of the
const ruc t ion methods o£ these ear ly people, it is est imat ed to
have been no less than 3,000 feet in length. The porti on und
er the River was apprOXimately 600 feet long, and the tunn
el connected the Royal Palace ilith a Temple.
i The method of construction was qui te inter­e
sting. The Euphrates , like the Ni le, varied in its
volume of water from Season to Sea son, and ranged from
a near-flood stage in the wet season to 8, mere br ook connect i n
c; a aer Les of st i ll ponds, duri ng the dry
~eriod . It is apparent that the river was diverted
into a temporary channel duri ng this dry sea son and t~e
tunnel construc t ed under the bed of the river by the cut
~nd
cover method which is pr esent ly used for underground ra
ilway const r ucti on in modern cities. The br ick used f or
the tunnel lining was joined t o ~ether wi th asphalt, and
the resul t i ng br i ck tube was covered over with the river­
Thed material.
The dimensions o.re· siven
as having been twelve
(
C;. R. ,,o..:;H..:…. A;;..:…:…. ____ _ News Report -1959
~
THE STORY OF lUNNELS
The following research paper,
which wi 11 appear in several
consecutive parts, was originally
delivered to the Associatiop by
the author on DecembGr 8th, 1948, as a lecture. vlhile it
is not confined to Canadian subject matter, the tunnels
which havG bccn sclected for claboration are chosen because
the author feels tha.t they illustrate stages in the dev­e
lopment of this engineering field which will enable the
reader to grasp the topic comprehensive ly.
Omer S.A. Lavallee
ANCIENT AND MEDIAEVAL TUNNELS
For the origin of man-made tunnelling, it will
be necessary to go back far before railways, even in their
most primitive form, were ever thought of. The earliest
tunnel recorded by history vas built, as might be expected,
in Babylon. As one of the earliest seats of culture, it .
is only natural t:t~at the BabyTonians should have developed
the original artificial tunnels. lie have already ascribed
to them the distinction of having Erected one of the first
man-made bride;es; Babylon was also the supposed site of
the Tower of Babel or Temple of Belus, which is reputed
trr have reached a height of 600 feet —the worldts first
IIskyscraperll. Thus we see that as engineers, the Babylon­
ians were hardly to be considered as amateurs. This early
tunnel was Quite an arnbi tious project. Its very magnitude
points unmistalmbly to some previous experience on the part
Qf its constructors, arld though it is historyl s first
recorded tunnel, it is unquestionably not the first ever
constructed nor even among the first.
This particular tunnel was situated under the
Euphrates River which divided the city of Babylon into tivO
parts. Brick lined, as we know from our knowledge of the
construction methods of these early people, it is estimated
to have been no less than 3,000 feet in length. The portion
under the River was apprOXimately 600 feet long, and the
tunnel connected the Royal Palace with a Temple.
j The method of construction vras quite inter-
esting. The Euphrates-, like the Nile, varied in its
volume of water from-Season to Season, and ranged from
a near-flood stage in the wet season to 8, mere brook
connectinc; a series of still ponds, during the dry
period, It is apparent that the river was diverted
into a temporary channel during this dry season and the
tunnel constructed under the bed of the river by the Hcut
~nd cover
u
method which i3 presently used for underground
railway construction in modern cities. The brick used for
the tunnel lining was joined t6~ether with asphalt, and
the resulting brick tube Vias covered over with the river­
Thed material.
The dimensions o.re· given as having been twelve
C.R.H.A. Hews Report -, 1959 Page 9
feet wi de and fifteen feet high . It is interesting to obs
erve that a modern subway train might pass through this
tube vlith ease! Sufficient evidence r-emaLns to show, how
ever, that this tunnel was bui l t some time between 2180
and 2160 B.C. Thus we pi ct ure the first underwater
passage known, StranGel y, four t.housand years wer-e to
elapse before t.ho second l!D.Q&~~irat G r.: tunnel, t he Thames
Tunnel, was c omp1~ tGd at London, Engl and in 1843.
The ar t of t.unncIIing, and ot.her-engineer i ng s
kills, passed n at.ur-aLIy from the Babytcnt.ans and. Egypt ­ians (who con
struct ed tunnels into hills for use as temples
and tombs, et.c , ) to the Greeks and the Romans, Bef or e
looking at the works of the le.tter, let us exami ne some tunn
elling at tempt s of the Hebrews .
E
veryone is acqL1ainted with the Bibl i cal story
of the fall of Je richo, accompl ished by the marching of the
Israelites, under the leadershi p of Joshua, ar ound the wal l s
of the city for a week, af ter whi ch the wal ls
Tere 8Ed d to have fallen f l at. The theory has been
advanced t hat whi le the great er- part 01 Jashua I s forces w
ere mar chi ng about and creating a general noise, a smal ler
number of men wer-o undermining the walls. The weight of
logic is lent to this interpretation as it is known that
this method had been uaed in contemporary warfare to hast en the
fall of walled towns.
~1bi le the Jericho-i ncident is simple conject­
ure, a tunnel was discovered about fift y years ago whi ch
was used to carry water to the i300l of the Virgins ins ide
the waLLs of ancient Jerusalem, from the Pool of Siloam whi
ch was Located out side. Though the pools Here only a
little over one hundred feet apar-t , t he t unnel i s some
600 feet long 8, S it is laid. out in the formof the letter S.
This structure was small, about two feet wide, and was pr ob­ably
bui l t in the Eighth Century B.C.
PaasLng to
the 0,reeks, we find a tunnel si t uated on the i
sle of Samos almost a mi l e in length, and some six
feet square in sect ion. Thi s bore vias described by Hero­d
otus, and i s estimated to have been built about 68T B. C. The tunn
el passes through a limest on(,3 mountain 900 feet high . It appear s
to have been wor-k ed f romboth ends, as it is qui t e s
traight wi th the except ion of rrbend which mi ght suggest that
the wo.rkmen empl oyed in its const ruction coul d hear each
other
1s
hammor s and were consequently able to effect a joi ni ng of the t
wo headings by altering their respective cour ses.
One of the more outstandi l1g tunnels in the Roman Em
pire vias that carrying a road thr ough the PoaLLj pe -Hi l l n
ear Naples. This tunneI was about 25 feet 1rlide and 3,000
feet long. Ita por tal s were about seventy-five feet high and conv
erged t.owar-ds the middle for pur-poses of illumi nati on.
It is said to have heel) bui l t during the reign of August us .
Ment i on is also made ofa number of t unnels used i n conn
ection wit h the many Roman aqueduct s, some as much as t
hree and a hal f mi les in length. One of these Roman aq
ueduct s , moderni zed , is still used in the ci ty of Athens.
C.R.B.A. News Report –1959 Page 9
feet-wide and fifteen feet high. It is interesting to
observe-that a ITmdern subway train might pass: through this
tube with eas-e! Suffic ient evidence remEdns to-show,
however, that this tunnel irms built some time between 2180
and 2160 B.C. Thus we picture tbe first underwater
pClssage known. Strangely, four thou-sand years were to
elapse before the second }2nQ:§_~iTater:. tunnel, the Thames
Tunnel, was compl~ted at London, England in 1843.
The art o-f tunne lling, and other engineering
skills, passed naturally from the Babylonicms and Egypt­
ians (who constructed tunnels into hills for use as temples­
and tombs, etc.) to the Greeks and the Romans-. Before
looking at the works of the latter, let us examine some­
tunnelling attempts of the HebrevlS.
Everyone is acq1Jainted with the Biblical story
o-f the fall of Jericho, accomplished by the marching of
the Israelites, under the leadership of Joshua, around
the walls of the city for a week, after which the we.IIs
ITere se,id to have fallen flat. The theory has been
advcmced that while the greater part oi Jo-shu8.! s forces
were marching about and creating a general noise, a smaller num
ber of men were undermining the walls. The weight o-f
logic is lent to this interpreto.tion as it is known that
this method had been U,SC-3d in contemporary 1-varfare to hasten
the fall of wglled towns.
Wbile the Jericho-incident is simple conject­
ure, a tunnel was discovered about flfty years ago whlch
was used to carry water to the i3ool of the Virgins inside
the walls of ancient Jerusalem, from the Poa-I of Siloam
which iTaS located outside. Though the pools vTere only-a
little over one hundred feet apart, the tunnel is some
600 feet long 8,S it is laid out in the form of the IE3tter IfSIf.
This structure was small, about two feet wide, and was prob­
ably built in the Eighth CenturT B.C.
Passing to the (,reeks, we find a tunnel 8i tuated
on the isle of Samos almost a mile in length, and some six
feet square in section. This bore vIaS described by Hero-­
dotus, and is estimated to have been built about 687 B.C.
The tunnel passes through a lil1leston(,:3 mountain 900 feet high:.
It appears to have been ilOrkecl fronT both ends, as it is quite
straight with the exception of ~ bend which might suggest that
the workmen employed in it-s-construction could hear each
other
1
s hammers and were consequontly able toeffect a joining
of the two headings by altering their respective courses.
One of the more outstanding tunnels in the Roman E
mpire vias that carrying a road through the Posilips Hill
near Naples. This tunnel was about 25 feet wide and 3,000
feet long. Its portals were about seventy-fiVE feet high and
converged towards the middle for pur-poses o-f illumination.
It is said to have been built during the reign of Augustus.
Mention is also made ofa number of tunnels used in c
onnection with the many Roman aqueducts, some a8 much
as three and a half miles in lenGth. One of these Roman
aqueducts, modernized, is still used in the city of Athens.
~R. H.A. , News Repo rt ~ 1959 Page 10
A
nother tunne lling unde rtaking of great magni tttde, constructed
by the early Christians, was the Roman catacombs. These con­
st i t.ut.ed an Lnnumer-abLe number of pa ssages in as many as seven
ti ers of gal leri es. Their length has been estimated at no
less than six h11tndred miles .
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the r ~ World
Sta te in A. D. 476, the perLod of intel l e ctual at.agnat.Lon
known as the Dark Ages fe ll upon the wor l d, and the grea t s
tructural ac complishments of the Romans arid Gr eeks were
al l owed to crumble into rui ns, to remain but fe,intly in the
m
ind of Nan .
Ten cent u
rie s elapse be fore we reach the next
st
age in our story of tunnels. In the middle of the fif­
teent h centur y, Anne, Duchess of Savoy, known by her oont.emp­
oro.ri es as one oi the outstanding intellectuals of her time,
caused a tunnel to be commenced on the important road over
a pa ss known as the Col di Tenda, 6, 158 feet in altitude,
b
etween Fr-ance and nor t hwest Italy At that ti me, ari d f or
250years af terward, thi s pass was considered one of the bes t
and eas i es t , and the tunnel was projected trr be built approx­
ima tel y
thi:rteen hundr ed feet beLow the summi t of t he pass
and was to have been almost two mi l es in length. It appear s
b
eyond doubt that the pr o ject vras begun, but at Anne I s deat h
in 1
463, i t was abandoned. The excavations were resumed be­
t.ween 1782 and 1794 at the ins tance of VictOr Amadeus III,
the King of Savoy, but in the la tter year, due to,the invas­
ion of Savoy by the French, the work was st opped once agai n .
By
this time, appr-oxl ma t.e Ly-8 , 200 f eet cf t unnel had been
excavat.ed, Shor t l y aft.er, l:apoleon caused the r-oad over the
pa
ss to be improved for carriage traffic . With some al t er ­at
ions, the works wer-o carried to a successful conclusion
in 1883 by the completion of a tunnel about a mile and a haJ-f
in length, st i l l used for road tr affic.
Up -t.o t he time of the beginning of t he CrrI di
Tenda Tu
nnel, the work 01boring tunne l s was accomplished
almost enti rely by hand hammer s and chi sels, though the
ancients knew the method of da shing water over rocks that
had preViously been heated by bUi l di ng fires against t hem,
cau
sing the rocks to spl tt , t hough t he resulting debris was cl ear
ed away: by hand. The first use of an explosive in the
const r
ucti on of a tunnel was on the occasion of building the Langue
doc Canal Tunne l in Fr ance about 1680, when gunpowder
w
as used, having been placed in holes in the r-ock, This tunnel
was dr i l l ed through softlime s t one. The Languedoc Tunnel
was the forerunner of a wave of tunnel-bUilding whi ch ensued
during the next two-and-a:…half cent ur i es prLma.r-I Ly f or canals,
as the levels of wa terways were nece s sar ily required to be
uniform, the use of Lo c ks for grade changes being made only
toa ver y limited extent .
The cana l S a
nd tunnel s predominated :1.11 England,
and were quite numer ous jon Arnerica. They cont.Lnue d :,0 mu l ­
tiply unt i l the advent of the r-a i Lway , whi ch p r-ompr.Ly sei zed the i
nit i ative in tunnel-bui l d.ing, and has heLd It c;ver si n ce.
Before passing to the rai l ways, let us revi ew the construct i on
(
News Rep-ort 7 1959 Page 10
Another tunnelling L1ndertcHdng crf great magnJ.tude, constructed
by the early Chtistians-, wag the Roman catacombs-. The se con­
stituted an innumerable number of passages in 8,S manX as seven
tier~ of galleries~ Their length has been estimated at nO
less than six htitndred miles.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the ~World
Ste. te in A. D. 476, the per10d of inte llectua1 stEigna tion
known as the Dark Ages fell upon the world, and the great
structural accomplishments o·f the ROIDtU1S eond Greeks were a
llowed to-crumb~e into ruins, ta remain but fe.intly in the
mi
nd of Nan.
T
en centuries elapse before we reach the next
stage in our story of tunnels. In the middle of the fif­
teenth century, Anne, Duchess of Savoy, Imov.m by her contemp …
oro.ries as one o-:f the outstanding intellectuals of her time,
caused a tunnel to be commenJed on the important road over
a pass known as the Col di Tenda, 6,158 feet in altitude,
betvreen Frmlce and northwest Italyo At that time, and for
250 years afterward, this pass was considered one o·f the best
and easiest, and the tunnel was projected to-be built approx­
imately thirteen hundred feet below the summit of the pass
and was to have been almost two miles 1n length. It appears
beyond doubt that the project vms beSuTIs but at Anne I s death
in 1463, it was abandoned. The excavations were resumed be­
tv …. een 1782 and 1794 at the instance of Victo-r Amadeus II!,
the King of Savoy, but in the latter year, due to the invas­
ibn of Savoy by the French, the work was stopped once again.
By this time, apprOXimately 8,200 feet o-f tunnel had bee-n
excava t~eo.. Shortly; aftel, Napo leon caused the rOB,d over the
pass to be improved for carriage traffic. Wlth some-alter­
ations, the works were carried to a successful conclusion
in 1883 by the completion of a tunnel about a mile and a half
in length, still use~ far road traffic.
Up-to-the time of the beginning of the Co-I di
Tenda Tunnel, the work o-f boring tunnels was accomplished
almost entirely by ha..no. hammers and chisels, though the
ancients knew the method of dashing water over rocks tha-t
had previously been heated by building fires against them, c
ausing the rocks to split, though the resulting debris was
cleared away by hand. The first use of an explos:i_ve in the
construction of a tunnel vias o-n the occasion of building the
Languedoc Canal Tunnel in France about 1680, when gunpowder was
used, having been placed in holes in the rock. This tunnel
was drilled through soft limestone. The Languedoc Tunnel
was the forerunner of a wave of tunnel-building which ensued
during the next two-and-a-half centuries primarily for canals,
as the levels of waterways v[ere necessarily required to be
un.iform, the use of loc!-:s for grade changes being made only
toavery limited extent.
T
he canals: and tunnels predominated 1n England,
and were quite numerous in Arne rica. 1hey cont~~nl).8d t·o mul­
tiply until the advent of the r8.ilway, which prompc,ly-seized
the initiative in tunnel-build.ing, a.nd has held: It sver since.
Before pas-sing to,the railways, let us review the construction
C.R. H.A. News ReQort -1959 Page 11
of t he Thames Vehicular Tunnel, whi ch was ment i oned earlier
and whi ch mar ked an important stage in the development of the
subject of t his paper .
Fir st pr ojectg for bor i ng under the Thames were
made about 1800, and wer e foTl owed by Lrmumez-abLe al ternative
suggestions. The first ac tual work was begun i n 1807 when a sm
all bore t.unne1 was begun fr om 80 shaft at Rot herhi the. This
tunnel, pr ojected to run-to Llme}]ous(), }?roceeded for 1,01.r:6 feet
(about two-thirds of its planned length) at whi ch location the
pressure of the river br oke through and flooded the whole under­
t aking.
In 1824, the final and successful at tempt was ma de
by r1r. (a f t erwards Sir) Mar c Br-uneL, Brunel had patented a
primi tive form of squa re shiel d in 1818. On four occasions,
the fi rst on the 18th of ~…ay , 1827, t he river broke i nto t he
trunne1 and was responsi ble for the suspensi on of the wor ks dur ­iDg a
seven-yea r per i od fr-om 1829 to 1836 but the tunnel was
fi nal ly completed in 1843 af ter havl.ng cost t he equival ent cf
~;2 ,350 , 000 .. 00. EveD wi t.h its completion, t he tunnel was used
only for pedestrian purposes , its end.s being located in shafts
at ei ther end reached by spiral stai r cases. Eventually, in
1866, it was sold to the East London Rai lway for the use of
tra i ns, being enlarged and opened on Docember 6th, 1869.
EARLY RAI LWAY TUNNELS
Among the e
arliest ra ilway t.unne Is, we find that we must awa
rd the distinction for the fi r st one to a small horse­
tramro ad i n France running bet,een Roanne and Andrezieux, near
Lyons. In 1826, a tunne1 was begun near St. Etienne t.o: se rve
this line and it was known as-the Terre Noire (Black Ear th)
Tunne 1 ..
The first s team ra i Lway tunnel was built shortly
afterward, and was located in Great Br i tain on the line of
t he Canter bury and villi t st able Railway. This line was operated
by a variety of mot ive power : steam locomotives, three stat­
ionary engines ~ and horses . The st eam locomotlve was Stephen­
son s IIInvi cta I and was operat ed for a shor t time onIy, Loco­mot
ive oper ation was suspended and was not resumed unt i l 18 4 1..~
when the li ne was lea sed to the South East ern Rai Iway, The t
unnel, whi ch was dr i ven through Ty ler
1s
Hill , in Kent, was very
narrow at the v11.itstabl e end andits dimensions restricted the
size of roll i ng stock in use for the whole period of its opBr­
ation whf.cb l a sted unt i l 1933 when t.he passenger service was wi t hdrawn .
It has an aw~s i ng story c01U1ected with its construct­
ion, and t he r easons t herefore,
The surveyar of the line was one John ~ Di.xcn., -. w
ho wa s later associa ted with Georr;e Stephenson in the construct­
ion of the Liverpool and I>ial1chest er RA,ih·my. Dixon chose what w
as described a s an easy , aul t.abLe route through Blean; but­
~

when the route proposals were put bef or e t.he Cant erbury Commititee,
one of the members asked Vlhat, no furmel ?fl. The!: the other
members of the Committee object ed voc Lfe r-ouaLy , dNo t unnel?
vle must have a t unne l! ! –and , since the Canturbury people
insisted on haVing a tunnel, DixonTs plans wer e rejected and
(
C.R.R.A. News Report -1959 PMe 11
of the Thames Vehicular Tunnel, which was mentioned earlier
and which marked an important stage in the development of the
subject of this paper.
First project~ for boring under the Thames were
made about 1800, and were folloirfcd by innumerable alternative
suggestions. The first actual work W2S begun in 1807 when a­
small bore tunne 1 was begUll from I?o shaft at Rotherhi the. This
tunnel, projected to rlm -to Llmeb.ouse, J?roceeded for 1,OLr:6 feet
(about two-thirds of its planned length) at which location the
pressure of the river broke through and f100ded the whole under­
taking.
In 1824, the final and successful attempt was made
by r1r. (aftervmrds Sir) Marc Brune 1. Brune 1 had patented a
primitive form of square shield in 1818. On four occasions,
the first on the 18th of JYi…ay, 1827, the river broke into the
tunnel and vas responsible for the suspension of the works dur ….
in.g a seven-year period nom 1829 to 1836 but the tunnel was
finally completed in 1843 after havtng cost the equivalent (Jf
~;2,350,000.00. Even vrith its completion, the tunnel vlaS used
only for pedestrian purposes, its ends being located in shafts
at either end reached by spiral staircases. Eventually, in
1860, it Vias sold to the East London Railway for the use of
trains, being enlarged and opened on December 6th, 1869.
EARLY RAILWAY TUNNELS
Among the earliest railway tunnels, we find that
we must award the distinction for the first one to a small horse~
tramroad in France running betvreen Roanne and And.re zieux, near
Lyons. In 1826, a tunnel was begun near St. Etienne to serve
this line and it was known as-the Terre Noire (Black Earth)
Tunnel.
The first steam railway tunnel was built shortly
afterward, an.d Ims located in Great Britain on the line of
the Canterbury and Illti tstable Railway. This line was operate-d
by a variety of motive power: steam locomotives, three stat­
ionary engines(: and horses. The steam locomotive was Stephen­
sons lIInvicta
l
and VIas operated for a short time onry. Loco­
motive operation was suspended and was not resumed until 184L{.
when the line was leased to the South Eastern Raihray. The
tunnel, which vIaS driven through Tyler!s Hill, in Kent, vas very
narrow at the v11.i tstable end and its dimenSions restricted the
size of rolling stock in use for the 1:[hole period of its opBr­
ation which lasted until 1933 when the passenger service vms
wi thdravrn. It has an ann.lsing story connected with its construct …
ion, and the reasons therefore.
The surveyor of the line vms one John ~ Dixon:,,··.
who was later ass-ociated with George Stephenson in the construct­
ion of the Liverpool and I>Ial1chester Ra:ilvay. Dixon chose what
was described as Ilan easy, suitable route through Blean
l
; but·
when the route proposals IIJere put before the Canterbury Committee,
one of the members asked flVlhat, no furmel?ll. TheY! the other:
members of the Committee objected vociferouSly, ilNo tunnel?
itle must have a tunne I! ! II –and, since-the Canturbury people­
insisted on having a tunnel, DixonTs plans were rejected and
r! P B. A.
Paf,e 12
Stephenson himself was askcd to journey to Oanterbury and plan o
ut a route ,Tith a nice tunnel in it. As aI tered, the route w
as undulating and pi c ture sq~B enough to pl ease anyone who di d n
ot mi nd paying for it , and it contained everythi ng no di scr i m­
inat ing railr oad should be without.
Eng
land t ook t he Lead in rEd Il,ray building
and in trunne 1 oonat.r-uottorr and. in 1845, the Woodhead
Tunnel on the Shef field, AShton-uDder -Lyne and rv:Ianchester R
ailway, wi th a length of t.hr-ee mi les and thirteen yards was opened f
or traffic. It rete.ined the distinction of bei ng the longest tunn
el in the kingdom unt il the Standegge Tunnel on the Hu
ddersfiel d and Manchester Raihray was opened in 1848. Thi s tunn
el had a length 01 3 mi les and 60 yar ds and wa E!. not
superseded in l ength untTl 1886 when t he Severn Tunnel was complete
d. The Stcmdegge T1.mnel consists of three paral l el tunneIs, one
ca r-ryLng a double line and t he other t wo each car rying a
single track , fourtracks in al l. The double tunnel is 3 mi l es 60
yards in length and the o-ther two 3 mi Le s 57
yards. There is al so a fourth tunnel ca rrying a canal of
appr oximately the same lEmgth, whi ch wa s begun in 1794 and compl
eted in 1811. vie are told that the bargemen it/ere
accustomed to laying down on the barge decks and pr opell i ng the c
raft forward by pushi ng against the low tunnel roof
with their feet. After the opening of the origi nal railway t
unnel in 1848, the second single line tunnel was opened in 1870
and the double t.r-ack tunnel in 1 89L~ . The doub le
track tunnel is the only railway tunnel in the world in
which track wat er troughs have been laid; they ar e si t­uat ed
just inside the western ent rance adjacent to Diggle
Stat ion. This unique locat i on was compelled by the fact tha t the st
ret ch of ra ilway in the tunnel is about the only apprec­iable len
gth of level tr ack al l the way from Manchester ta
Leeds .
Th
ere is al so-the Bramhope Tunnel be­tween H
arrogD,te and Leed.s , whi ch wa s opened in 1849. It
is 2 miles and23# yards in length. The country through whi
ch the li ne is carried is very di f ficult and the bore
pierces the ri dge between Aireda le and VJharfedale. The const ruct ion
of this tunnel was considered one of the most
dif ficult af it~ t ime by its engineer~, and bef ore it was complete
d, twenty shaf ts had t o-be sunk with dept.hs ranging from 70
to more than 400 feet. Dur i ng the const ruction of
this doub le track st ructure, it is estimated that some 1,560
,000,000 gal lons of water had to be pumped f rom t he
workings. Standing in a churchyard. nearby is a monument
t D 30 men who-were drowned by the penetration 01 watel? int o the vrorki
ngs. The monument is a small sca Ie reproducti on
of the northern portal of the tunnel .
THE SEVERN TUNNE ~
Proposals for the constructi on of a tunnel
under the Severn estuary to shorten the then-existing c
i.r-cuttaus route between London and the south of va1es were
first madre in 1863. Several attempts were made to
(
~C~.~R~.~H~.~A~. ____________ ~N~u~cw.s Report -1959 Page 12
Stephenson liimsslf was asked to journeY to Oanterbury and plan
out a route Iri th a nice tunnel in it. As artered, the route
was undula tine; and picturesq((;le enough to please anyone who did
not mind paylng for it, and it contained everything no discrim­
inating railroad should be without.
England took the le[l,d in raiI:IEty building
and in itunne 1 conEltructlon and in 1845, the Woodhead
Tunnel on the Sheffield, AShton-under-Lyne and rJIanchester
Railway, with a longth of tb.ree miles and thirteE:n yards was
opened for traffiC. It rete.inod the distinction of being the
longest tunnel in the kingdom until the Standegge Tunnel
on the Huddersfleld and Manchester Rai1vray was opened in 1848-.
This tunnel had a length 01 3 miles and 60 yards and WEllf:! not
supersedec1 1n length untSl 1886 when the Severn Tunnel was
completed. Tll8 Standegge TunlQel consists of three parallel
tunne Is, one carr-fing a double line and the o·ther tlro each
carrying a single track, four tre,cks in all. The double tunne 1
is 3 miles 60 yards in length and the otrter tlro 3 r.1iles 57
yards. There is also a fourth tunnel carrying a canal of
approximatelY the same len8th, which vms begun 1n 1794 and comple
ted in 1811. We are told that the bargemen vlere
accustomed to laying dOlm on the barge decks and propelling
the craft forward by pushing against the low tunnel roof
wi ttl their feet. After the open1ng oi the original railway
tunnel in 18L.j·8·, the second single line tunnel was opened
in 1870 and the double track tunnel in 189
L
}. The double
track tunnel is the only railway tunnel in the world 1n
which track water troughs have been laid; they are sit-
uated just inside the western entrance adjacent to Disgle
Station. This unique location was compelled by the fact that
the stretch 01 railway in the tunnel is about the only apprec­
iable length of level track all the way-from Manchester to
Leeds.
T
hero is a1so-the Bramhope Tunnel be­t
ween HalTogate and Leeds, which was opened in 1849. rt
1s 2 milos and 234 yards in length. The country thrOugh
which the line is carried is very dj.fficult and the bore
pierces the ridge between Airedale and ~vnarfedale. The
construction of this tunne 1 W2,S considered one of the most
difficult o-f its time by its engineers, and before it vms
completed, twenty shafts n.o,d to be sunk with deptb.s ranglng
from 70 to more than 400 feet. During the co-nstruction 01
this double track structure, it is estimated that some
1,560,000,000 gallons of water had to be p-u.mped from the
worlcings. Standing in a churchyard. nearby 1s a monument
to 30 men who-wer.e drowned by the penetration 01 we.. tel? 1nito
the workings. The monument: is a small sC?Jle reprm:1uction
of the northern portal of the tunnel.
THE SEVERN TUNNEL
Proposals for the construction of a tunnel
under the Severn estuany to shorten the then-existing
circu1tous route between London and the south of Wales w
ere ftrst mac!fe-in 1863. Severc.11 attempts were made to
g.R. H.A. News R~ort -1959 Page 13
undertake the construction of this ambitious project but they failed
for economic reasons.
On June 27th, 1872, however , necessary legislation was
passed enabling the Gr eat Western Hai lway to construct such a tunnel
and its app r -oache a and the preLfm l nary wor k of explori ng the strata
by driving­ headings under the river was begun in March 1873.
Up until 1879, ra:111tmy traffic between Landon and South
Wales went by way of Gloucester. Th.l.::1 route had been completed in
1852. In 1879 a Severn B:r:~d3e was completed crossLng the river at
Sharpness, some 15 miles aout.hwe at of Gloucester
s
but it wa s real­
ized that the completion o~ a tunnel woul d cut ahother fifteen miles
from the Severn Bridge r-out.e and const ruct.j on p:roceeded wi t h vigour.
There was some apprehenBion on the par t of the engineers in charge
01 the tunnel construction cor.cer-ni ng pos s i bl e infiltration of water
from the river, eapecLa LLy under a particularly deep channel cf the
river known as liThe Shoots. At this point, the path 01 the tunnel
l ay some 44 feet beLow t he bed of t his channel.
Their fears were unfounded, however, and indeed it was
later found that relatively little trouble had been experienced from
the Severn itself, though there were two very serious floodings.
These inundations strangely enough did not come from the Severn but
from an underground river af t erwards known as the Great Spring, the
presence of which, until that time, was unsuspected. The fissure
through whl.ch this spring flows cuts acr oss the line of the tunnel
(

approximately one-quarter mi le Ln Land from t he west, or rofonmout hshi re , b
ank.
The first flooding occur-r-ed on t he sixteenth of October,
1879 when the headinga drivon from each side of the river were within
four hundred feet of each other. In spite of this serious setback,
it was decided to proceed wi t h the construction and the work was
given into t he charge of Sir John Hawkshaw who had , until that time,
acted as construction engineer . Sir John had had previous experience
in sub-aqueous tunnel constructio-n in the extension of the East Lon­
don Railway under the London docks .
T
he works wer-e not free o-f water until December 1880 and
the construction which had come to a hal t , was taken up once mOre. A
second flo-o-ding from the IlGreat Spring
if
was experienced on October
10th, 1883 but it was not of so serious a nature as the first, even
though the act ual opening of the tunnel was delayed for the complet­
ion of add!tional pumps to deal with the Imt.er-,
In April 1885, the la st length of brickwork was finally
completed, in spite of the serious set backs, and the tunnel wa s
opened for goous trains on September 1st, 1886. Passenger service
wa.s inaugurated on the following December 1st. Of t he five working
shafts used dur i ng construction, two have been retained for ventil­
ation; one at the Sea Wall on the Gloucestershire side, and the
o-the r at Sudbrook 01.1 the Monmouthshi re shor e, The draf t through the
tunnel is increased by a fan i n the Sudbroolt shaft. Far many years,
a suction fan proved quite satisf actory but the increasing number
and weight of trains made conditions pr ogr essivel y wor se . In 1924,
an induction fan 27 feet in diameter and driven at 60 r.p.m. by an
800 horsepower steam emgi ne was installed. This fan can clear one
(
9.R. B.A. News R$port -1959 Page 13
undertake the construc.tion of this ambitious project but they failed
for economic reasons.
On June 27th, 1872, hovrever, necessary legislation was
passed enabling the Great Western Hailway to construct such a tunnel
and its apploaches and the prel:l.minalY work of exploring the strata
by driving headings under the river was begun in March 1873.
Up until 1879, lallway traffic between London and South
Wales went by way of Gloucester. This route had been completed in
1852. In 1879 a Severn Br~~d8e was oompletod crossing the river at
Sharpness, some 15 miles southlies-G of Gloucester, but it was real­
ized that the complE~tion of a tunnE:11 would cut abbther fir-teen miles­
from the Severn Bridge rou.te and construction proceeded with vigour.
]here was some apprehenfJion on the part of the engineers in charge
01 the tunnel construction concer-ning possible infiltration of water
from the river, especially under a particularly deep channel of the
river known as liThe Shoots. At this point, the path 01 the tunnel
lay some 44 feet below the bed of this channel.
Their fears were unfounded, however, and indeed it was
later found that; relatlveIy little trouble had been experienced from
the Severn itself, though there were two very serious floodings.
These inundations stra:ngely enough did not come from the Severn but
from an underground river afterwards known as the Great Spring, the
presence of which, until that time, was unsuspected. lhe fissure
through whj.ch this spring flows cuts across the line of the tunnel
approximately one-quarter mile inl[md from the west, or r.1onmouthshire,
bank.
The firE3t flooding occurred on the sixteenth of October,
1879 v1hen the headings driven from each slde of the river were wi thin
four hundred feet of each other. In spite of this serious setback,
it vms decided to proceed with the construction and the work was
given into-the charge of Sir Jonn He~wkshaw who had, until that time,
acted as constructlon engineer. Sir Jotm had had previous experience
in sub-aqueous tunnel construction in the extension Of the East Lon­
don Railway under the Londem docks.
The works vrere not free of water until December 1880 and
the construction whj.ch had come to a halt, was taken up once mCJre. A
second flooding from the IIGreat Spring!! was experienced on October
10th, 1883 but it was not 01 so serious a nature as the first, even
though the actual up-ening of the tunnel was delayed for the complet­
ion of addItional pumps to deal with the water.
In April 1885, the last length of brlckwork was finally
completed, in spite of the seriouB setbacks, and the tunnel wa-s
opened for goous trainer on September 1st, 1886. Passenger service
was inaugurated on the following December 1st. Of the five working
shafts used during construction, two have been retained for venti 1-
ati011; one at the Sea Wall on the GlouceStershire side, and the
othe rat Sudb rook on the Monmouthshi re sho rO . The draft through the
tunnel is increased by a fan in the Sudbrook shaft. FCJr many years,
a suction fan proved quite satisfactory but the increasing number
and weight of trains made conditions progressively worse. In 1924,
an induction fan 27 feet in diameter and driven at 6rr r.p.m. by an
800 horsepower steam emgine was installed. This fan can clealE one
–=-P.:::::.J14 C,R.B.A. News Report – 1959
___ _ Cl.g§
mile of tunnel on each side of its shaft i n about five minutes .
Dr-aLnarre is anot.he
r-serious problem and calls for special
arrangements to me~ t its special cotldi t i on s. The water from the afore­menti
oned Great Sprj.ng is intercepted beforeit reaches the tunne1 a
nd is led away through a brick li ned culvert to a weII-shaft at the Sud
brook pumping station. It is at th is poi nt pumped to,the surface
and discharged into the Sever n. Thi s water is of no negl igi bl e quan­ti t
y. Its dai l y average is somevThere in the neighbourhood of 20,ODO,
000 gal lons .
viater ente r ing the t.unne1 by means of the approach cutti ngs
at each end and b~ seepage thr ough th~ ro~f and wal l s is car~i ed away
by means-of a 26 inve:p.t cu l vert, wh.ich l S connected to wel l-shaf ts
and pumps a;t Sudbrook, Sea Vial l , and a third shaft situated abou t
It mi les from the wes tern end of the tunneL
Mo-st of the tunnel is completely dry, inclUding the port­i
on under the af orementioned. deep channel, which is under a ITO-f oot
head of water at hi gh tide. Its excellont condition requires a thor ough insp
ection and the effect i ng of minor repairs whi ch ar e ca r­
r i ed out on cons ecutive Sundays f or several weeks oach year . At such
times, the br ickwo rk is ex amined thoroughly and is st ruck with hammers
at intervals of about one square ya rd. Any areas wi th a hol l ow sound
aro, o-f cour se, noted , and ar rangement s are then made to have the par­ti cul
ar secti on of br ickwork rcnewed,

Hai l corr osi on is heavy and the average track li f e is less
than three years. About, l~-mi les of complete re l aying and l-i miles of
rerai l ing ar e car r ied out ach year. New steel wor k is gi ven a coat of carbon t
ar before use.
The Severn Tunnel is 4 miles 628 ya rds in lenp;th, and i s the long
est tunnel on British Ra t Lway s, It, i s the longe st underwa t .er­
tunnel in the wor Ld, At high tide , two and one hal f mi l es of tunnel
are under water, but at low tide a cons i derable expanse of rocks is
l
eft uncovered and the channel i8 about one-quarter of a rm Io ride . The
easte rn or Gloucestershi lo bank errt.r-anc e to the Sever n IunneL is
3/801 a mi l e fromthe riverbankanddes condsona 1%gradG toits l ow
est pourrt , 45 feet below the bed 01 the river. A l evel soction of tr
ack 800 feet in length sepa rates this grade from the bogi nni ng of the
ascent to the Monmout.hahjre 0-1 weste rn crrt r-ance of the tunnel vTith a
grado of 0.9%. Nearly 12-miles of the tunnel on tho wGst ern end are
under land. The tunnel carries a double tr ack throughou·tits length. The ma
ximum vlidth at seven feeta-bo!etra ck level is 26; feet, and the c
Lea r-anoe in the centre, 20 feet. .L t i s used by approxl rnat.e Iy 150
trai ns per day , and it s const ruction cos t the Great Vlestern Railway
nearl y ~-2, OOO~ OOO ~
(t o be continued )
Hembe
rs ancl subscribe rs who have not
yet remitted for 1959 ar e respct fully remi.nded that t
his is the la st is sue thoy will receive.
MG
mb er~ who have not yet pai d for 1959 should
remit $3.00 and subscribers should remi t $2.00 to: C
.R.B.A . , Box 22, St ation B, Hontr>eal 2.
(
C,R.B.A. ,. NevIS Report -1959
Page ll~
mile of tunnel on each ~ide of its shaft in about five minutes.
DrainaV8 is another serioti~ problem and calls for special
arrangements to mr:)ct its ,spec ial co:hc1i tions. The water from the afo-re­
mentioned Great Spring is intercepted before it ~eachG§ the tunnel
and is led away through a brj.ck lined culvert to a lNe II-shaft at the
Sudbrool{ pumping station. It is at this polnt pumped to- the surface
and discharged into-the Severn. This vra tel is of 110 negligible quan­
tity. Its daily average is somewhere in the neighbourhood of 20,0-00,
000 gallons.
Wat
er entering the tunnel by means of the approach cuttings
at each end and ~~ seepage through th~ ro~f and walls is car~ied away
by means-of a-2 t 6 . invert; culvert, vhlch lS connected to well-shafts
and pumps at-Sudbrook, Sea Wall, and a third shaft situated about
It miles from the western end of the tunnel.
Mo-st 01 the tunnel is completely dry, including the port …
ion under the aforementioned deep channel, which is under a ITO-foot
head of water at high tide. Its excellent condition requires a th
orough inspsctioTl and the effecting of mino! repairs which are car­
ried out on consscutivG Sunday~ for several weeks each year. At such
times, the brickwork is examined thoroughly and is struck with hammerS
at intervals of about one square yard Any areas with a hollow sound
are, of course, noted, and arrangements are then made to have the par­
ticular sectlon of brickwork rone-vied.
Rail corrosion is heavy and tbe average track life is less
than three years. About. I~-miles of complete-relaying and l-,i miles of
rerai ling are c2,rried out ach year. Ne111} stee 1 work is glven a coat of
carbon tar before use.
The Severn Tunl1el is 4-miles 628 yards in lenp;th, and is
tlJe longest tunnel on British Haillvays. It, is the longest underlHater
tunnel in the VIorTd. At high tide, two and one half miles of tunnel
are under water, but at low tide a considerable expanse of rocks is
left uncovered and the channel i8 about one-quarter of a mile -vride. T
he eastern or Glouoestershiro bank entrance to the Severn 1unn81 is
3/8 01 a mile from tho ri VOl bank and de sconds on 0,, 1% grade to its
TOtll}est ponmt, 45 feet below the bod. 01 the rivor. A level soction crf
track 800 feet in length soparates this grade from the boginning of the
ascent to the :r.lonmouthshire or 1<-restern ontrance of the tunnel -vri th a­
grado of 0.9%. Nearly 1% miles of tho tunnel 011 tho WGstorn end are
under land. The tunnel carries a double track througholrt its length.
The maximum width at seven feet a-bove track level is 26 feet, and the
clearance in the centre, 20 feet. It is used by approximately ISO
tralns per day, and its constructio11 cost the Great Vlestern Railway
nearly, i.-2, OOO~ 000 ~
(to be continued)
Members and subscribers who have not. yet
rom tted for 1959 are respctfully rem:i.nded
that this is the last iSBue thoy will receive.
Members who have not yet paid for 1959 should
remit $3.00 and subscribers should remit $2.0rr
to: C.R.H.A., Bm{22 , Statlan B, r!ontreal 2 •.
(;~L i~ .!~ . News Hepqr t .- 1,959 Pa&EL15
/li;) /I !J 1.7l../1 oJ:.:. ~ /.-J_-/7-. ..
,. . .•.••••. •Q/.::.?r-t.~z:f/ c/. >:X//~E:f
J
~.~;i.,e.~ ett)%~.,/ .-/
Rai lf oad Sect i on
1
1879 Divisi on, by Lor ne C. P
erry.
IN A
GAS-LIT OFFICE at No.202 St. James Street in the Mont real of eig
hty years ago, there sat a man who aLmost dai ly wr ot e epistles suff­
iciently barbed as to strike fear into the hearts of the recipients. M
ost of these poor people were dependent upon himfor their jobs.
Thi s ou
tspoken man was C. Fredck Si nn, Auditor of the old Sout h Ea
stern Rai l way, employer and cr it ic of numerous station agents in the
Easter n Townships of Quebec. His lot t ers, hand wri.t.t.en either by him­se
lf or by secretar i es, were cop.i.ed int o a letterbook whi ch recently came
to light and whi ch has been present ed to the Canadian Rai l r oad Hi
storical Association.
. The poor ,
unsuspecting station agont would first hear fr om Mr ~ Sinn
in a lettel exuding sweetness and light Such was the let tel wr i, tten to Thom
as Chapman at Brome, Que. , on September 9, 1879.
I t r eads a s follows :
II
Dear Si r , I am inst
ructed to inform you that it has been d
ecided to appoint you agent for the Company at Brome Corner Stat ion.
If you wi l l let me know what day it will suit you, I come and me
et you and instruct you. It would be well if you could go to Sut t on f
or a couple of days with Mr.Shepard and p
ick up t he rout ine of Station Agent wor k so that you wi ll n
ot be entirely green at it when you do take charge . Vi
This was fol lowed by another friendly let ter nine days lat er.
?1
Dear Si r , You will r
eceive this eveni ng a table and t op for your station
ery and an office chair. I have writ ten the super
intendent to furnish you wi th scales, stove and lamps. Boo
ks, tickets and stationery wi ll be sent to you tomorrow. Tr
usting that you wi l l soon learn stat ion wor k and try to
keep everything neat and tidy, I am your-s truly, # .
But in Decombsr, the blow fel l. Mr. Chapman, by then firmly en­
trenched as an agent, recei ved this lettGr from Mr. Sinn:
n
Dear Si r, How i s i t you r ep
ort as haVing i ssued from Br ome C
orner to Sut t on Flat in October onlyticket number !lOI? . The
re have been collected by conductors also numbers 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, lli 12, 13, 14, 15. Mostl y al l
these tickets have boen made good to return. How is this. S
ay who author i zed you to do so, and why are all the tickets
.not reported for the month they were sol d. 11
And many other ~low s fel l on many other heads ~ It is per haps wel l t h~t
there was no long dist ance !phone at the timo; the wirss would have
melted. As it was, tho Sinn envelopes must have been warm to handle; . I
and wi t h a name like Si nn, I imagine he was well supplied wit h nicknames .
I
(
C.~Li~.A. . News Hepqrt,_.-1,959 , , PaRs.l5
/)?/J / …. ~ .~. c:7.l.,,,/ ,J~ -AifI/ £.~~;c-/;b-.,.,j J .. ~
••••••••• Q/,.,.H.~ ett.J[!/ A7!.,/ ~1–t~/r c-< : ;:X /V~ ~.t../ o..,y
Railroad Secti6n
1
1879 Division,
by Lorne C. Perry.
IN A GAS-LIT OFFICE at No. 202 St. James Street in the Montreal of
eighty years ago, there sat a man who almo,3t daily ilJrote epistles suff­
iciently barbed as to strike fear into the hearts of the recipients.
Most of these poor people were depefldent upon him for their jobs.
This outspoken man was C. Fredck Sinn, Auditor of the old South
Eastern Railway, employer and critic of numerous station agents in the
Eastern Townships of Quebec.. His letters, hand writtGn either by him­
self or by secretaries, were copied into a letterbook vThich recently
came to light and which has been presented to the Canadian Railroad
Historical Association.
The poor, unsuspecting station agGnt would first hear from Mr~Sinn
in a letter exuding sweetness and light ~ Such was the letter vTi tten
to Thomas Chapman at Brome, Que., on September 9, 1879.
It reads as follows:
Dear Sir,
I am instructed to inform you that it has been
decided to appoint you agent for the Company at Brame Corner
Station. If you will let me know vIhat day it will suit you, I
come and meet youand instruct you. It would be well if
you could go to Sutton for a couple of days with Mr.Shepard
and pick up the routine of Station Agent work so that you
will not be entirely green at it when you do take charge. VI
This was followed by another friendly letter nine days later.
Dear Sir,
You will receive this evening a table and top for yo
ur stationry and an office chair. I have written the supe
rintendent to furnish you with scales, stove and lamps.
Books, tickets and stationery will bG sent to you tomorrow.
Trusting that you will soon learn station work and try to
keep evorything neat and tidy, I am yours truly, # .
But in Dec8lilbsr, the blow fell. Hr. Chapman, by then firmly en­
trenched as an agent, receivad this letter from Mr. Sinn:
D
ear Sir,
How is it you report as having issued from Brome Co
rner to Sutton Flat in October only ticket number f10i1 •.
There have been collected by conductors also numbers 1, 2,
3~ 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 111 12, 13, 14, 154 Mostly all
these tickets have boen made good to return. How is this,
Say who authorized you to do so, and why are all the tickets
not reported for the month they were sold. 11
And many other ~lows fell on many other heads~ It is perhaps well that
there was no long distance Iphone at the time; the wires would have
melted. As it was, the Sinn envelopes must have been warm to handle;
and with a name like Sinn, I imagine he was well supplied with nicknames.
C.H.H.A. News
HeDor t – 1959 Page 1&
Here is o
ne what wust have set Agent Cleavelandls knees to knocking
when he read it in the West Brome depot all. t he 22nd day of June, l S79.
II

Dear Si r ,
As an e
mployee of the Sout h Easter n Railway Company, you ar e exp
ected to keep your communicat i.ons from the Head
Office to yourself and should not in any case bo sent to foreign
roads. You Jere very wrong when you sent my let ter respe cti ng sal e of Gr
and Trunk i ssue of t.Lcket s to Grand Trunk Agcmt and should s
uch occur agai n in future, it will be sufficient cause
of your dismissal . II
The Agent at Sut ton, ment ioned in the first l otter quot ed above, came in
for his share of IVIr . Sinn s ire. Tho Mr. Lover ing in this letter was the G
eneral Agent of the Passumpsic Rai lroad, Lyndonvil le, Vermont.
·,, ·
1/

Dear ci.r , Eve
ry month I ammore or less bother ed by your exch­
ange reports, but this mont hs crowns al l the rest. The last . l
etter I recei ved fromMr. Lovering today is rat her showi ng too much c
arelessness on your part and i s causing one a deal of t
roubl e. You must be caref ul when you get or -der-s to exchange. It wi l l not do to p
ut an imaginar y number after the harm is done. You c
ause Mr . Lovering as wel.L as mysel f a great deal of annoy­ance and h
unting up er ror s, which can be avoided if you do your
work wel l . I trust you wi l l not leave yourself open to be reported agai n.
Ii
He considered it necessary to write very clearly ~nd careful ly to
the Agent at Acton on tho subj ect of pr oper balance sheet prepar ation.
II
••.•• I noti ce you put in one item the whole amount for the m
onth whi le there is a placo providud on the balance shoet for
the cash remit ted at the end of each week . Passenger money goes under the
headi ng Passenger . Fr eight money goes under the head­
ing Freight. The balance sheet is so simple that it requires caref
ul reading it over and anybody can make it out correctly,
only fol l ovy: !-..h£ r eadiq,g. 11
Somet imes, Mr. Sinn employed sarcasmto get his point across:
II

Agent, Water loo.
Dear Si r ,
I received a letter from Cowansvi l le complai ning
that he wrote you three times and telegraphed once about des­
crepanfies between your st ation and his, and he can get no repl y . I wr
otehimsome time ago about these descrepancies and get ti ng
no reply felt annoyed and was somewhat severe on Cowansvil le for
not repl yi ng. He is certainly not to blame if he cannot get you
to even acknowledge hi s let ter s. Do like a good fel low take the tr ou
ble and reply to letters you receive fromagents (t here is none of us pe
rfect) and maintai n a good spiri t amongst the
empl oyees . 1l
Every so often he had to wr ite pacLfy i.ng his opposite number on
the Passumpsic Rai lroad with whi ch the ,South East ern did a considerable
busines s. The subject was always, late passenger reports. all. October
7, lS79, he wrote a gem of a lett er, no doubt with tongue in cheek.
.
,�
(
C.H.H.li.
News Report-1959 Page 1&
Here is one what must have set Agent Cleavelands knees to knocking
when he read it in the v~est Brome depot on the 22nd day of June, lS79.
Dear Sir,
As an employee of the South Eastern Hailway Company,
you are expected to keep your COrYl.illUnications from the I-lead
Office to yourself and should not in any case be sent to foreign
roads. You were very IrJTOng when you sent !;Jy letter respecting sale of
Grand Trunk issue of ticket~3 to Grand 1runk Agent .J.nd sh
ould such occur again in future, it will be 6ufficicmt cause
of your dismissal. n
The Agent at Sutton, mentioned in. the first lotte! quoted above, came in
for his share Of :Vir. Sinns ire. The Mr. Lov-ering in this letter was
the General Agent of the Passumpsic Railroad, Lyndonville, Vermont.
II
Dear Sir,
Every month I am more or less bothered by your exch­
ange reports, but this months crowns all the rest. The last . le
tter I received from Mr. Lovering today is rather showing too
much carelessness on your part and is causing one a deal of
trouble. You must be careful when you get orders to exchange. It w
ill not do to put an imaginary number after the harm is done.
You cause Mr. Lovering as vIell as myself a great deal of annoy­
ance and hunting up errors, vlhich can be avoided if you do your
work well. I trust you will not leave yourself open to be reported
• 11
agaln.
He considered it necessary to write very clearly alnd carefully to
the Agent at Acton on the subject of proper balance sheet preparation •
11
••.•• I notice you put in one item the whole amount for the mo
nth while there is a placG provided on the balance shcGt for
the cash remitted at the end of each week. Passenger money goes under
the heading Passenger. Freight money goes under the head­
ing Freight. The balance sheet is so simple that it requires
careful reading it over and anybody can make it out correctly,
only follo~ .!-he Fe~d iqg. 11
Sometimes, Mr. Sinn employed sarcasm to get his point across:
Age
nt, Waterloo.
Dear Sir,
I received a letter from Cowansville complaini~g
that he -wrote you three times and telegraphed once about des­
crepanfies between your station and his, and he can get no reply.
I wrote him some time ago about these descrepc:mcies and getting no
reply felt annoyed and was somewhat severe on Covmnsville for
not replying. He is certainly not to blame if he cannot get you
to even acknowledge his letters. Do like a good fellow take the
trouble and reply to letters you receive from agents (there is
none of us perfect) and maintain a good spirit amongst the
employees. 11
Every so often he had to write pcccifying his opposite number on
the PassumDsic Railroad with which the ,South Eastern did a considerable
business. ~The subject was always, late passenger reports. On October
7, lS79, he wrote a gem of a letter, no doubt with tongue in cheek.
fdLH .A . Nf:Jws Herort -1959
P . C~ h-_Ol ..l.7
t?

Dear Si r , You are
right in pr esuming that it is beyond my�
cont rol that my passengcr reports r -e ach you late ~ The Grand�
Trunk and other railways we do busLness wi t h, send their r et ­�ur ns hard
ly ever and in fact I have even received rGports from� you not much ear .
i ier than the lat t er part of the month. They� we
re always welcome when received ~ I am sorry t o be obl i.ged to�
accept the name of a tardy scholar, but noyol mind ~ the most� innocent
have to suffer for the si ns of the sulprits at times�
and I dare say, as long as I am will ing to stand the blunt my�
friends vi ll put it on. 11
Bal ance sheets were again the sub ject of a latter, this time to the Yama
ska agent :
11
Dear Si r , I am
sorry to find that you do not pay the attenti on you
should do to your mont hly reports. Your balance sheet for May
shows lack of neatness. I am obliged toreturnitand must ask you
to check over the frei ght you forwarded from your copy book wi t h
your abstract book. When everything is correctly enter ed, go to work
and make out a new Balance Sheet.
I
did not thi nk I would have any trouble with you
having been with Mr. 1-fil ler so long and under Mr. Phelps. I r e
commended you to take charge of Yamaska and I trust you wi ll do your b
est in futurG·to keep your position. Anything but
car elessness II ii­
The last phrase seemed to be his motto. But look at this cute
let t er he was obligod to wri te to his boss, at a lat er date:
11

A.B. Chaffee, Esq. , Se
cretary-Treasurer, S.E .Ry. , Mont
real .
,.
Dear 011 ,
Encl osed pl ease find our ticket report to M:i.ssisquoi Railway
corrected. It seems ridiculous that I should have made such an
error in footin[. When Mr. Alden askod me to make out
this report I was busy with other accounts and in the hurry o
mitted carrying the hundreds into the total amount . I am sorr y
this mistake occurred. ,1
This is the only recorded Sinn sin.
—–_._ —– —— — —-;
Dur i ng the nont h of January, Canad­
NEW YORK CENTRAL SLEEPI NG ian Pacific Rail way took delivery
CArlS SOLD TO CANADIAN PACIFIC of eight sl eeping car s from the New
York Central Rai l road. Four of
._—-_._—­
the cars, of lO-r oomet t e 5 double­bedroom
design, named CA:3CADE FAUN, CASCADE LANE, CASCADE MI ST and CASt
CADE RUN, are fLni.shcd in NYC two-wone grey pai nt scheme, whi l e the
ot her four fars , equipped w.i. t .h 5 double-bedrooms, buffet-·solari um- l ounge a
re of the bcavcr-t.aLl. design and are finished in stainless steel flut­in
g. The l at t er car s bear names FALL BROOK, SINGING BROOK, PLUM BROOK
and BABBLING BROOK. They are pr esently being shopped at Angus.
(
C.H.H.A. News Report -1959 Page 17 +
11
Dear Sir,
You are right in presuming that it is beyond my
control that my passenger reports ~i:~each you late ~ The Grand
Trunk and other railways we do bu.:liness with, send their ret­
urns hardly ever and in fact I have even received reports from
you not much eariier than the latter part of the month. They
were always welcome when rec(;ived~ I am sorry to be obli.ged to
accept the name of a tardy scholar, but ne¥or mind, the most
innocent have to suffer for the sins of the sulprits at times
and I dare say, as long as I am willing to stand the blunt my
friends vvill put it on. II
Balance sheets were again the subject of a latter, this time to the
Yamaska agent:
11
Dear Sir, I
am sorry to find that you do not pay the attention
you should do to your monthly reports. Your balance sheet for May
uhows lack of neatness. I am obliged to return it and must ask
you to check over the freight you forw-arded from your copy book
with your abstract book. When everything is correctly entered, go
to work and make out a new Balance Sheet.
I
did not think I WOUld: have any trouble with you
having been with ]VIr. 1-filler so long and under Mr. Phelps. I
recornmended you to take charge of Yarnaska and I trust you will do
your best in future to keep your position. Anything but
carelessness II Ii
The last phrase seemed to be his motto. But look at this cute
letter he was obliged to write to his boss, at a later date:
A.B.
Chaffee, Esq.,
Secretary-Treasurer, S.E.Ry.,
Montreal.
D
ear Si.r,
Enclosed please find our ticket report to
Railway corrected. It seems ridiculous that I should s
uch an error in footin[. When IvIr. Alden asked me to
this report I was busy with other accounts and in the
omitted carrying the hundreds into the total amount.
this mistake occurred. H
This is the only recorded Sinn sin.
r:Iissisquoi
have made
make out
hurry
I am sorry
During the raonth of January, Canad­
ian Pacific Railway took delivery
of eight sleeping cars from the New
York Central Railroad. Four of
the cars, of la-roomette 5 double~
bedroom design, named CA:3CADE FAUN, CASCADE LANE, CASCADE NITST and CASt
CADE RUN, are fini.shed in NYC two-wone grey pE.:.int scheme, while the
other four fars, equipped with 5 double-bedrooms, buffet-solarium-lounge
are of the beavertai1
11
design and are finished in stainless steel flut­ing. The l
atter cars bear names FALL BROOK, SINGING BROOK, PLUM BROOK
and BABBLING BROOK. They are presently being shopped at Angus.
C.R.H. A. News Repo r t – 1959
-page 18
• • ••Hi ~h wheels whi ch roll no more

by For 3 te r A.Kemp
CA~rAD IAN PACIFICS LAST 3000 SCRAPPED]
E
A R~Y IN THE YEAR 193 6, at the east-end Montreal plan t of Mon trea l
pl a
nt of Mon treal ~o como tiv e Work s ~imited , there rolled into th e day­
light a loc omo tive of a type not found previously in Canada. Stream­
styledfrom pi l ot to tender coamins, its smoot h- topped jacketinG conceal­
ed a smaller boiler than mi~h t be supposed, but when steam was raised,
the ~ a uge ne e dle rose to 300 Ib s. Th e whe e ls at t rac te d much at ten t i on
for there were only four drivinG whe Is of Box-Pok desi gn and of 80 inches
diame t er t This immediately calle d to mind the Atlan t i c s of 1899 , but
beh ind them fo llowe d 2n id l er truck almost ~s l ar Ge ~s that of a Hud son
t yp
e. Th e r eRson for thi s could be S66m only upon close examination , f or
the engine had a ca st-stoe l engine bed. Cylinders were fairl y .sma ll an d
al l rod s we
relightweigh t and of molybdenum stee l . Familiar at tr ibute s
such as Whist le, bell an d san d dome were look ed for in vai n ; they were
c
onceale d un der the c o ~ling. Even the front cou pler was discreetly
hidden under the gr ent , metal -banded pil o t .
H
ere, then , wns nn innovation on the CPR ; an cngi ne bu t Lt to heuI
P[
:ssene er tr~in s at gr eat spee ds: semi-streaml i ned and of a r a re Wheel
ar r
angement . As the C om p ~ny as 6elebrating th e fiftieth anniversar y
of
the comple t i on of its li ne bet~ e Gn Montreal and V nC QuvGr, the t y pe
was called thc J u b ileo TSpc. In euccec d i.ng mon th s, th ere were (. total
of fiv£, of these 6ngincs ou tsho-ppcd. Dcs ic;ne.tc d C1 ss F~2-a , they bore
works numbers 62822 to 62826 2n d road numb ers 3000 to 3004.
~ight v:e ight pa ssencer Oars hnd becn bUilt to go wit h them, end four
tr ains we re soon marked in public timetables as being semi -st rea mlined
an d air-cond i t ion ed on runs between Mon t real an d 0uebcc, Tor on to ~n d
De troit and Calgar y 3nd Edmon ton. ~c c2 1 tr~ins 349, 350, 351 and 352
were l!oy;e rcd by Gnc inos 3003 an d 3004 (M:;,ntr en.l-nYGbe c), enci nes 3000
an d 3002 wor e ~ s sign ed t o tho Toronto-D~tro i t trains 37 ~n d 38, an d 3001
hau Lc d (J.l t7ary-Edmonton tra i ns 525 an d 526, Th e Oh Lnook v ,
T: ( ou tbre ak of t.e.r in 1939 brough t ebou t ch ange s in both the en­
gi n
cs and th eir tr 2ins, al t houch th ey rcm2ine d in the s(.me ar eas. Trains
37 an d 38 bccamc to o hcav yf or the lJubil cG s rm d they assumed local
r un s b
et Gen T~ r (n to 2nd ~ondon , an d ~o ridon an d Wi n dsor . Th e oqu i pmen t
of th e Mont
real -Quebec locals was roas sign ed, the fast schedu l e s were
lengthened
out (by It hours, in one in s t ance~) and No s .3003-3004 were
heuLing oLa tt erLng, gf,s-li t wooden coa ches. Olll y the Chinool<:: r e taLne d
som
ething of its for mer splendour . Some of the streamlined appe aran ce
of
the engine s al so dis appear e d thr OUGh th e ye~rs . A plain st~ ck wa s
applied; the bell renppGar e d on to p of the boiler shcat h i ng (c ppar ently
for b
etter sou nd pro j cctt on and s LdmLrra t Lon of the snow problem) . The
gr illwork in fr ont of the smok sbox ensing, ~h i ch formed part of 8 smoke
defle cting devi cs, was filled in, ~n d th e cover over the fron t cou pl er
was removed . However , these few changes did little to al ter the engi ne s
distinctive general appearance.
(
Af t or the war , 8 new, fast train serv ice was pu t on betwGen Toron t o
and
~on don, Onto Numbered 629 an d 630, it allowed six hours sh o ppi ng
or bu
sine s s time in T~ronto , wi t h a schedule of 2 hours, 15 minutes, in
6
ach dire ction. This tr ~ in was usual ly haul ed by a 3000 ser i es 6 n~i ne .
New, lightweight coach e s soon appeared on mo st of th e runs of the 3000s.
(
News Report -1959
-page 18
•••• High wheels which roll no more
. . .
by For3ter A.Kemp
CA~rADIAN PACIFI C S LAST 3000 SCRAPPED]
EARLY IN THE YEAR 1936, at the east-end Montrsal plant of Montreal
plant of Montreal Locomoti~e Works Limited, there roll~d into the day­
light a locomotive of a type not found previously in Canada. Stream­
styled from pilot to tender coaminG, its smooth-topped jacketing conceal­
ed a smaller boiler than mieht be supposed, but when steam was raised,
the gauge needle rose to 300 Ibs. The whssls attracted much attention
for there were only four driving whe, Is of Box-Pok desien and of 80 inches
diameter t This immediately called to mind the Atlantics of 1899, but
behind them followed en idler truck almost ~s large ~s thct of a Hudson
type. The reRson for this could be seem only upon close examination, for
the engine had a cast-stcsl engine bed. Cylinders were fairly .small and
all rods WGro lightweight and of molybdenum steel. Familiar attributes
such as whistle, bell and sand domc ~er6 looked for in vain; they were
conccaled under the co~ling. EVen the front coupler was discreetly
hidden under the great, mstal-banded pilot.
Hero, then, w~s r,n innovation on the CPR; an engine built to haul
psssenger tr~ins at great speeds: semi-streamlined and of a rare Wheel
arrangement. As the Company as Oelebratint the fiftieth anniversary
of the completion of its line bct~e6n M0ntreal and V ncouver, the type
V.8..S olllled thE. lI.jubileo Type. In succoeditl.c months, there were total
of five (,f these engines outsho-pped. Disir.;nnted C1. ss F-2-a, they bore
works numb6r~ 62822 to 62826 end road ntimbG~s 3000 to 3004.
Lightv:sight p~sscnGer cars hr~d been built to eo v;ith them, end four
trainS 0erc soon marked in public timetables as being semi-streamlined
and E.ir-c()nditicnod on runs bety.7ecn ~·.TGntr6~.1 nnd o,ueb6c, Tcronto I..nd
Detroit Rnd Calgnry nnd Edmonton. Lcc~l tr~ins 349, 350, 351 and 352
: er 6 110 1.; e red by Gnc inc s 3003 .1.TId 3004 (M;,n tr sn.l-()yc be C), eng in613 3000
and 3002 wore ~ssicned to tho TorontG-D~troit trains 37 ~nd 38, and 3001
hnulsd O~.lt7nr,v-Edmonton trfcins 525 fend 526, The Chinook.
Til:, outbrsalr.: of Y.<.r in 1939 brought [.bout changes in both the en­
gines and their tr~ins, althOUGh they r6m~in6d in the same areas. Trains
37 and 38 became tao heavy for the l)Jubilses and they assumed local
runs bst~Gcn T~rrnto and London, and Loridon and Windsor. The eqUipment
of the Montreal-Quebec locals was reaSSigned, the fast schsdu16s were
lengthened out (by It hours, in one inst~ncet) and Nos.3003-3004 were
h,<:.ulinc: clc.tterinc, gas-lit wooden c02.ch6s. Only the Chinook ret,cinGd
somethinc of its former splendour. Some of the stre2.mlin6d appearanoe
Of the engines also disB-ppearcd thrOUGh the years. A plain stuck was
applied; the bell re~pPGar6d on top of the boiler sheathinG (cpparently
for bGtter souna. projection (,nd elimin[~tion of the snow problem). The
grill~ork in front of the smoksbox casing, vhich formed part of 8 smoke
dEflectinG device, was filled in, and the cover over the front coupler
was removed~ HOV6ver, these few chances did little to alter the engines
distinctivG General appearance.
L
ftor the war, 8 new, fast train service was put on betwGen Toronto
and London, Onto Numbered 629 and 630, it allowed six hours shopping
or business time in T~ronto, v;ith a schedule of 2 hours, 15 minutes, in
6ach direction. This tr~in was usually hauled by R 3000 series en~in6.
New, 1icht,;eiGht cGeches soon appe<,.red on most of the runs of the 3000s.
•••••••••••
C.R.R. A. News Re port – 1959 PE,ge ~
I

!
Of course, these engi nes h ~uled
i
other trni n s from ti me to time ; there
!~
WQ S ~ br~king te st held on the WI n ch e s­
I~ ter Subdivision in ~hi ch an offi c ial
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spce d of 115 miles per hour was re achGd.
Al so remem bered was th e p ~rliam entary
Special . To encoura ge Mon t real and
Quebec MF s to at t en d Fr i
day evenine
sitt i nGS in th e Rouse of Commons, a spec­
ie.l tr r-Ln l eft Ottawa [.t 11:00 PM.
R~u lG d by engine 2927, a 4-4-4 of a lat6r
an d sm~ 116r des ign , it consisted of a
b
~ eGn e c car, cc ach an d two slc6pers (one
n bUf fet -loun ge) . A fast run brOUGht it
t a He:ntr G r. l Yle s t 0.bout 12:45 AM. Rer 6 ,
cngi ne 3004 would be w~itinG ~i t h another
b~ gc agc car and a coach. A sleeper wa s
t r
ansferred from one train t o the ot her ,
an d
then 3004 wou ld leBve for Trois Riv~
i eres, wh cre it wou Ld o vcr t nk e the over ­
night train N0. 358. ThG two trains ~e r 6
combined Bnd conti nued at a mar c leisurely
pace to (u 6bGc .
Th e
F2
~ cl a s s were slipper y
encine s , and ne eded a deft h2nd on the
th r ottle and pl enty of snnd to ke e p the
hi Gh ~h c61s from spi nn ing us elessly.
: l thouCh d esi ~n 6d f or pa s senger service,
they h2uled fr eiGh t tr~in s after being
overhau l od, to al
low new bearings to run
in at moderatc specds. AS may be imag­
ine d, they we re not highly th ought of
by fr eight en8inemen l
S
PECI FICATIONS,
Boiler 9rc ssurc
Fl
ti~bo~ Wi d th ,

lengt h
No. and dia. of
»
Class F2, subclass F2a
inside •••••
•••••
tubes •••••
f lue s •••••
Leng t h of tub es •••••••••••­
Su perh62t cr •••••••••••••••­
CY1 i n(1,c r s •••••••••••••••••
Dri vinG Vlhsc l s ••••••••••••
~e iGh t on dr ivi nG whce l s ••
Lo~de d we iGh t of enci n o •••
Licht weiGh t of enGine ••••
Lorded we ich t of tender •••
Li cht we i ch t of t ender ••••
,Ta t 6 rcA. P P. ci t Y,
I mperial c~ l l o n s •••
Coel cnpacity, tons •••••••­
Tractive Effort •••••••••••­
300:f/:in.
2
70..r.3/16
114-1/16
lt
47 2.1..lt
, 41,
120, 32lt
1810-3/16
lt
Ty pe ltE
17
~x2elt
80
lt
120,000#
26 3,0004f.
243,900#
198,500#
98,000:/f
7,000­
12­
26,500#­
(
C.R.ILA.
ill
>
News Report -1959 page 19
Of courss, thesG engines h~uled
other trains from time to time; there
was ~ br~king test held on the WInches­
ter Subdivision in which an official
speed of 115 miles per hour was reach6d.
Also remembered was the p~rliamentary
Special. Tn encourags Montreal and
0uebec MFs to attend Friday evening
sittings in the House of Commons, a spec~
it:.l tr.·in left ottnwe. i-.t 11:(J0 PM.
H~ulGd by engine 2927, n 4-4-4 of a 1at~r
and sm~116r design, it consisted of a
b~gBage car, coach and two sleepers (one
a buffet-lounge). A fast run brought it
to MontrG~l qest about 12:45 AM. Here,
engine 3004 would be ~niting ~ith another
bnggage car and a coach. A sleeper was
transferred from one train to the other,
and then 3004 would leave for Trois Riv~
ieres, where it v::ould ovcrt:ke the over­
night train N0.358. The two trains were
combined and continued at a more leisurely
pace to ~uebGc.
The F2u class wsre slippery
eng
ines, and nesded a deft h~nd on the
throttle and plenty of snnd to keep the
hirh ~hGels from spinning uselessly.
:lthouCh deSigned for passenger service,
they hpuled freiGht tr~ins after being
o
verhauled, to allow new bearings to run
in at moderate spesds. AS may be imag­
ined, they were not highly thought of
by freight enBinemenl
SPECIFICATIONS, Class F2, subclass F2a
Boilor pressure •••••••••••
FiBHbox width, inside •••••
lenGth •••••
No. and diRe of tubes
•••••

flu6s …..
LenGth cf tubes •••••••••••
Superheater •••••••••••••••
Cylinc.crs •••••••••••••••••
DrivinG Vlhssls ••••••••••••
WeiGht on drivinG Wheels ••
Loaded weicht of encino •••
Licht weiGht of enCine ••••
Lord6d weicht of tender •••
Licht weicht of tender ••••
IT a t 6 r c P. p P. cit Y ,
Imperial callons •••
Coal capacity, tons •••••••
Tr8ctiv6 Effort •••••••••••
300:/1=in.2
70..r.3/16
114 ….. 1/16
47 2..1..
, 4
120, 3~
1810-3/16
Type E
17:1.x28
4
80
120,000:/1=
263,0004fo
243,900#
198,5004/:
98,000#
7,000
12
26,5004/:
———————–
C.R.H.A.
News Re port – 1959
Pa ge 2.0
THE
beginning of the end came for these e ngi.nea in 1953, when a
new speedrival appeare d intheformofthoBuddRai l Dies elCar, wh i ch
b
ecame known on the C.P. R. as the :1Dayl Lner-v , Trai ns 629 and 630 wer e
thefirst trains to bo roplaced by th e s e stainl e s s st ool , self-propel l e d
vehicles, but th e 3000s got th eir comGu ppance on wC6kends , when the
traffic ovcrt a xe d the Day linors c~paci t y. s t eam trains were o. ten sub­
st i t u t ed and those o~t 8n included the RDe units. Si milar prac t i ces took
placo on the Calgar y- Eamon ton and Mon trG~ l-QuGbG c runs after they we r e
ro
placed by RDCs. This ga ve rise to a famous pho t ograph, showing engine
3004 wi th tra in 349 (ty;O Budd cars and [ conch) on a s .. tu r day mo rni ng.
T
his appeared in a la rge US publication, much to the cha grin of the
RDC bUilders ~
As th e numb er of RDCs increa s e d, th o Jubilo6 s wero us ed le ss freq­
uently an G beg an appearing in dead lines at Ogden and An gus . 3002, 3003
and 300 1 foIl befors the scrap- cu t ter s torches. 3000 finishe d ou t her
time on 635 an d 634 bet~Gen ~on d on and Wi ndsor while 3004 langu i shed in­
Glen roundh ouse in Montreal, oc casionally ta king a S~tur day turn to ott~
awe or a tra nsf er to Angu s. On each of these oc casions, she was an object
of much comment. 3004 was ou t toda y; wh ered she gO? ; Ott0wa, on
427, et c . At the end of 1957, 3000 ran her Ins tmilo, was brough t to
Angus and brok en up. 3004 went to Londen to repl ace her , but not for
long, nowever , Me-n.y of us remember whcn she ar r-L v e d ba ck a t st.T,uc.
Shabb y and di r ty, she was haule d ba ck and forth by a die sol swi t ch e r
dur i
ng tho A0 socia t ion ~ visit to St . Lu c on Mar ch 29t h , 1958.
I
Af ter this creme se veral mon ths of ignominious rusting at Angu s Shops.
During October, this last of the F2a s was st ripped of a few mor e acc e s s­
oriGs and took her place in the d Ga d line of engi nes rea dy for scrap.
~~t e on th e even ing of N0vcmber 14 t h, wi t h five other s , No.3004 was
pushe d into tho ya rd of th e reclaim dock . On Monday, November 17th,
th e scrap cuttors bc gan their work a n~ by Fr iday, nothing r ema ined but­
h
er bu i lders plate of ca st aluminum, which was committed to our Assoc­
i
ation in remembrance of a no ble class of locomotive s, considered by
m
any to bG th e Canndia n Pacifics finest achievemen t in engine design .
Ef f ect i ve Dec ember 31st, 1958,
NEW STATUS FOR ELECTRIC ENGINES elect r i c locomotives on two
ON C.N. SUBSIDIARY LINES Canadian Nati onal Railways sub­
sidiar ies , and a diesel locomotive
on a t hird, are to be r eported . wi t h Cana
dian Nati onal s Souther n Ontari o Distr i ct motive power reports.
The engi nes concerned are: Niagara, St .Cathar ines &Toronto Railway
Nos. 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21; Oshawa Rai lway 300, 325, 326,
327, 400, 401, 402, 403. The diesel locomotive is Ihcusand Islands Rail­
way No. 500.
Effect
ive the same date, the St. Clair Tunnel Company engine s in
the Canadian National 150 and 170 series were eliminated fromthe
reports, indicating of ficial removal fromser vi ce.
Sp
eculation continues to surround the po ss i~ le fat e of the six
electri c locomotives operating on the Montmorency Subdivision, Nos. 225, 226, 22
7, 228, 229 and 230, whi ch wi l l become surpl us af ter the
electric operation on this line cea ses on Mar ch 15th. There is some
indication that these engines may find their way to the r emaining lines.
C.R.H.A.
News Report -1959
Page 20
THE beginning of the end came for these engines in 1953, when a
new speed rival appeared in the form of thG Budd Rail Diesel Car, which
became known on the C.P.R. as the :1Dayliner. Trains 629 and 630 wete
tho first trains to be replaced by these stainless steel, self-propelled
vehicles, but the 3000s got their comcuppance on wC6kends, when the
traffic overtaxed tho Dayliners c~pacity. steam trains were oBtcn sub­
sfituted and these oeten included the RDC units. Similar practices took
place on the Calgary-E~monton and MontrG~l-QuGbGc runs after they were
replaced by RDes. This gavo rise to a famous photograph, showing engine
3004 wi th train 349 (tv;o Budd c[,rs and [ conch) On a Sic turday morning.
This appeared in a large US publication, much to the chagrin of the
RDC builders 1
As the number of RDCs increased, tho Jubiloes were used less freq­
uently and began appearing in dend lines at OCdon and Angus. 3002, 3003
and 3001 fell bofor6 the scrap-cutters torches. 3000 finished out her
time on 635 and 634 betwGen London and Windsor while 3004 languishsd in­
Glen roundhouse in Montreal, occasionally taking a S&turday turn to ott­
awa or a transfer to Angus. On each of these occasions, She was an Object
of much comment. 3004 v,as out today; whered she gO?; Ott0wa, on
427, etc. At the end of 1957, 3000 ran her last milo, WRS brought to
Angus and broken up. 3004 went to London to replace her, but not for
long, however. Mc-ny of us remember v,hen she fn:rived back at st .1:,uc.
Shabby and dirty. she was hauled bnck and forth by a diesel switcher
during the AHsociations visit to St.Luc on March 29th, 1958 •.
( A
fter this came severnl months of ignominious rusting at Angus Shops.
During October, this last of the F2as was stripped of a few more access­
ories and took her place in the dead line of engines ready for scrap.
Lete on the evening of 1T0vember 14th, v:ith five others, No.3004 Vias
pushed into the yard of the reClaim dock. On Mond~y, November 17th,
thG screp cutters began thcir work and by FriEny, nothing remained but­
her
builders plata of eRst aluminum, which wns committed to our Assoc­
iation in rem6~brance of a noble class of locomotives, considered by
many to be the Canndie..n Pncifics finost Rchisvemf.mt in enein6 design.
~———————-
NEW STATUS FOR ELECTRIC ENGINES
ON C.N. SUBSIDIARY LINES
with Canadian Nationals Southern
Effective December 31st, 1958,
electric locomotives on two Canadian
National Railways sub­
sidiaries,and a diesel locomotive
on a third, are to be reported .
Ontario District motive power reports.
The engines concerned are: Niagara, St.Catharines & Toronto Railway
Nos. 8, 14, 15, 16; 17, 18, 19, 20, 21; Oshawa Railway 300, 325, 326, .
327, 400, 401, 402, 403. The diesel locomotive is Thousand Islands Rail­
way No.500~
Effective the same date, the St. Clair Tunnel Company engines in
the Canadian National 150 and 170 series were eliminated from the
reports, indicating official removal from service.
Specula
tion continues to surround the possi~le fate of the six
electric locomotives opE-3rating on the Montmorency Subdivision, Nos. 225, 226,
227, 228, 229 and 230, which will become surplus after the
electric operation on this line ceases on March 15th. There is some
indication that these engines may find their way to the remaining lines.
J
L
rl
&C~ ~~ Q~Y tt==-1 0 9
t–.—-t-TF I ~4 I II 00000000000000000
o0 ~ r:=J C::=j d L: j
000000000000
gC~r~CIIH~O
Bcfo-J \_ O~8DbD J
00 0 0 000000000000 IN CNR (ex QRL&PCo)CA
RS 401 AND 105.
up 0 ~Hr,o
?8
~L9~~1y
1; i j: 1·,/ I J11
It=)1 9 59.
~~
tj0 U U 0 D!oooo bD OO o _)
l.-_
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00000 0 000
IN CONNECTION wi th tho cessat ion of elect ri c rai lway se
rvice on the Montmorency Subd ivis ion of the Canadian Nat LonaLHai lways,
which wi l l take effect with the c
los e of opor ati.ons for March 15t h, 1959, a Far-ewo.l.L E
xcur-s i.on 1111 be opcr-at ed on Sunday, Mar ch 15t h,
1959, from Quebec to St . Joachi m, Que _, and retur n,
stoppi ng at Montmorency Fal ls, StQ.Anne de Beaupre, and other phot ogr
aph locations. Trip is being oper­
ated by memb er-s of the Railway Di vi sion, Canadian Hail r
oad Histor i cal Assoc iat i on , proceeds going t.owar-d
the pr eservation of certain of the linefsrolling stock.
0000000000000000
rrICKETS: ,., •••• Adults •••• , •.••••……••• $2. 50
C
hildren, 5-11 •••••••••••• 1.25

11 under 5 •••••••• , free

;3CHEDULE: Jpecial Train l eaves Quebec : 1:00 PM

Ii ret ur ns 11
5:15 PM

P
articipants fr om Mont real and beyond, may go to Quebec on
C
PR trai n 1/150, arriving: Quebec 12: 20 PM.

Returni ng to Mont real , CPR train #15 5 leaves 6:00 PM, has
di
ning car fa cilities, and is due in Morrt rea.L at 10:00 PM.

Pr ovi ded train is on time, connection may be made at
Mon
treal West for Bost on, and at Montr eal for New York and
Tor ont o.
Th
ese times are gi ven for information only, and are not guar ­

anteed, and are subject t o� change wit hout notice.
——————————————~—~—————–~

Reservat i on blank:� Railway Division, C.R.H.A. ,
Box 2
2, St ati on B, Montr eal 2~ Canada.

PLEASE RESERVE� ticket s @ ~2 .50 –D
n ).
if 1.25 -_ ___
Total encl osed (Canadian funds or equi valent ) $
Fr om:� (Name)
(Address)
00000000000000000
0000000000000000 IN CNR (ex QRL&PCo) C
ARS 401 AND 105.
0000000000000000
IN CONNECTION with the cessation of electric railway se
rvice on the f.Iontmorency Subdivision of the Canadian
Nationc~l Haibvays, which will take offect with the
close of oporD_tions for March 15th, 1959, a ilFarewell
Excursion will be operated on SundaJ, March 15th,
1959, from Quebec to St.Joachim, Que., and return,
stopping at Montmorency Falls, St(~. Anne de Beaupre,
1 9 59.
and other photograph locations. Trip is being oper­
ated by members of the Railway Division, Canadian
Railroad Historical Association, proceeds going tovmrd
the preservation of certain of the lines rolling stock.
0000000000000006
TICKETS: ,.,., •• Adults •••• , •••••••••••••••
Children, 5-11 •••••• ~ •••••
11 under 5 ……… .
SCHE
DULE: Jpecial Train leaves Quebec :
Ii returns 11
$2~50
1.25
free
1:00 PM
5:15 PM
Partioipants from Montreal and beyond, may go to Quebec on
CPR train #150, arriving Quebec 12:20 PM.
Returning to Montreal, CPR train #155 leaves 6:00 PM, has
dining car facilities, rInd is due in Montreal at 10:00 PM.
Provided train is on time, connection may be made at M
ontreal West for Boston, and at Montreal for New York and
Toronto.
Thes~ times are given for information only, and are not guar­
anteed, and are subject to change without notice.
~—————————————–~—~——-~——–~
Reservation blank: Hailway Division, C.H.B.A.,
Box 22, Station B, Montreal 2~ Canada.
tickots @ $2.50 –$
—-
PLEASE HESERVE
II 1.25 -_
Total enclosed (Canadian funds or equivalent) $
——~———-
From: (Name)
(Address)
SP~I .~,G E .~ C ILR.. e.IO N
Sponsored by
THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
in co-opera.t ion wi.th
THE UPPER CANADA RAILWAY SOCIETY, OF TORONTO
Sunday, May lOth a MOGUL a.nd a 2-8-0 wi l l doubl e-head
a ST
EAJ:vl rai 1 trip to be ope r-at ed oveI the lines of the

lines of t he Canadt arr Natlcimal RalIwaye, This rare com­

bination of steam power wil l travel fr om Belleville,

O
h t ari~ (113 mi les east of Toront~) through pi cturesque

country to Bancr oft -returning via Trenton Junct i on.
, Sev
eral phot o-stops arid movi e runs ar e planned on a 1ies­
u r-ely schedule. Refreshments will be availabIe• Come
and enjoy a spring day on and about a steam train, a
friendly chat wlth fe LLow rail ent usi ast s , and take home some good
phot os of a never-to-be-forgotten event whi l e t h
ese STEAJ:vl locomotives are st i l l available.
Belleville is readily accessi ble ta thoB8 from the east­

ern United States and Canad.a . The special train will

Leave Belleville at 7:LJS a.m. E.S.T. and return about

6:10 p.m. E. S.T.
So
nd cheque or money order in Canadian Funds -$8 .00 for
adul t s and ~;l~ . 00 f or the junior steam onthusiasts (5 to
11 years of age).
Tickets and add.itiona1 i nforrna tLon ar e aval LabLe from:
Passenger Agent, Canad.ian Hailroad Histor i cal Associat i on ,
P. O. Box 22, Station B, Mont r eal 2, Canada.
v
lELCOHE ABOARD!
NOTE: For the convenience of those travelling tcr Bel l evi l l e
from Morrt.r-caL or t.hr-ouzh Montreal the C.R.B.A.
will pr ovi de a special-occupancy 24 scct i on roomette car
on C.N.R. train Ncr. 19 l eaving Montreal (Central Station)
at S:35 pvm, E. S. T. Saturday, May 9th vli th occupancy in
Bel levi l le until 7:45 a.m. E. S.T. Roomette car will re­
turn on train No. 118 leaving Bel levill e at 12:25 a.m.
(occupancy in Bel levi l l e at 10:00 p.m. ) ar r ivi ng in
Montreal at 6:55 a s m, FARE -$,23 .25 incl udes fi r st class
week-end fare to Bel levi l le and return plus roomette
section for t wo nights . Accoramcda.t.L on on this car is
limited; please reserve early.
TRIF Cm,n.nTTEE
S P ~ I JL G E ~ C :Q R.o ~ ION
SponsoI$d by
THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
in co-operation with
THE U2PER CANADA RAILWAY SOCIETY, OF TORONTO
Sunday, J),iay 10th a MaGUL and a 2-8-0 vdll double-head
a STEAlY1 rai 1 trip to be ope 1a ted ove r the line s of the
lines of the Canadian Nat1cir.o.al Railways. This rare com­
bination of steam power will travel from Belleville,
Obtarlo (113 miles east of Toronto) through plcturesque
country to Bancroft -returning via Trenton Junction.
Several photo· stops aDd movie runs are planned on a 1ies­
urely schedule. Refreshments will be available. Come
and enjoy a spring day on and about a steam train, a
friendly chat w:tth fellow rail entusiasts, and take home some
good photos of a never-to:..be-forgotten event while
these STEAM locomotives are still available.
Belleville is readily accessible to,those from the east­
ern United States and Canada. The special train will
leave Belleville at 7:LJS a.ln. E.S.T. and return about
6:10 p.m. E.S.T.
Sond cheqlle or money order in Canadian Funds -$8.00 for
adults and $L~.OO for the junior steam enthusiasts (5 to
11 years of age).
Tickets and additional infonnation are ava:l.lB,ble from:
Passenger Agent, Canadian Railroad Historical Association,
P. O. Box 22, Station B, Montreal 2, Canada.
WELCOHE ABOARD!
NOTE: For the convenience of those travelling trr
Bsllevi lIe from Montreal 01 through Montreal thc C. R. H .A.
will provide a special-occupancy 24 scct:l.on roomette car
on C.N.R. train Nrr. 19 leaving Montreal (Central Station)
at 8:35 p.m. E.S.T. Saturday, May 9th with occupancy in
Belleville until 7:45 a.m. E.S.T. Roomette car will re­
turn on train No. lIS leaving Belleville at 12:25 a.m.
(occupancy in Belleville at 10:00 p.m.) arriving in
~10ntreal at 6:55 a.m. FARE -$23.25 includes first class
week-end fare to Belleville and return plus roomette
section for tiVo-nights. Accommodation on this car is
limited; please reserve £arly.
TRIP Cm11-lITTEE

Demande en ligne