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Canadian Rail 092 1958

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Canadian Rail 092 1958

Activities for the 195$-59 season >1ill resume
Notice of Il
eeting with the September monthly meeting of the Ass-
ocation, -/hich will be held in the Pro.iection
Room of the Canadian National RailwaysT Photo­
graphy De
$$4 St, James Street Ilest, on VJednesday, Sept.ember
10th, 1958, at $: 0 PM. Another programme of 16 mm. films has been
arranged by Hr. Lorne PerrYj a short business meeting, including repor­
ts from the various committees, etc., will precede the entertainment.
As most members are a, … arc, it was necessary
Trip Committee to cancel the projected July 20th outing to
Hervey via Canadian National Raihlays, due
to a surprisingly limited response. The
Committee p
lanned this midsummer excursion as an experiment, but
this can~ellation has made it
evident that the midsummer months,
,Then many people are absent on holidays, are not practical for
excursions such as 1e plan.
As usual, however, our ANNUAL FALL FOLIAGE outings have been
planned, and a circular giving details of the two trips involved
is enclosed with this issue of the News Report. The dates this
year are Saturday and Sunday, October 4th and 5th, and it will
noted th~t, with the gradual disappearance of the steam loco­
motive from Canadian railways, and out of a desire to make the
weekend as profitable as poSSible, especially for our out-of-town
visitors, two steam trips have been planned on the succeeding
days, one on the Canadian PaCific
, the other on the Canadian
National. The Nqtional system very graciously agreed to provide
the 5700 c13ss 4-6-4 type locomotive which was promised for our
July 20th excursion which was cancelled, and thus we will have
one of these very iistinctive locomotives on our Sunday excursion
on the Fall Foliage weekend. The Saturday trip, over Canadian
Pacific lines, will be handled by a light steam locomotive, but
the Company has, as yet, declined to commit itself to any par­
ticular engine, other than that a steam locomotive will be on
our train. It is hoped that the members will make every effort
to interest outsiders and ensure that our Fall Foli
age weekend
/ill be successful.
cooperation with the McKinley
Trip at Quebec, September 13th Chapter of the Electric Railroaders
Association, our SOCiety will oper­
ate the first railway enthusiasts
charter train over the Montmorency Division of the Canadian National
Railways, an electrified interurban line formerly operated independently
by the Que bee Railway, Light &. Power Co.
C.R.H.A. News Report -195G Page 104
Ne,;s Report No. 92
SepteIober, 195e
Editorial Address:
Box 22, Station B,
J .. lontreal 2, Canada.
The special train will consist of
ELECTRIC CAR, No. 401, the oldest unit on
the line, and probably the oldest elec­
tric passenger car operating in North
America. This car ms built by the
Ottawa Car ~bnufacturing Company in 1902,
and has been in service continually sirtce
that time. The trip will leave the St.
Paul Street 3tation, Quebec, at 1:30 PM
Editor: Omer S.A. Lavallee EST, Saturday, September 13
/; 1958,
shortly after the arrival of PR train
Asst.Editor: Forster A. Kemp #154 from 140ntreal. The trip «ill arr-Publ
isher & Distributor:
William L. Pharoah i ve back in Quebec between 5: 30 and 6: 00
Committee: Douglas BrOoJll., PM, and participants may either return
Anthony Clege. to l40ntreal on the overt;ight train, #157,
at 11:00 PH, or rema~n ~n Quebec over­
night and return to 1.lontreal on #149 in
the morning. On Sunday afternoon, September 14th, the Association will
operate a trolley trip leaving Youville Shops at 12:30 PM, EST for
M.ontreal North, using one or more units of the Historical Collection as
attendance demands. Tickets may be obtained by I:lriting the Passenger
Agent, CRHA, Box 22, Station B, r·Iontreal 2, Canada. Our United States
readers may wish to remit to the ~kKinley Division, Electric Railroaders
Association, c/o Mr. II.Lupher Hay, 130 -35th Street NE, Canton, Ohio.
Tickets for the Saturday ;..;uebec trip are .ji2.50. The same price will
apply for the Sunday, 1>llC trip to ~,fontreCll North. Here is an electric
raihray weekend you will not l.lant to miss. Reservations should be
made imrr,ediately.
. . . . . . . . . . qy Omer S.A. Lavallee •
AS WE PROACH TEE C3NTURY-AND-A-C in Canadian railroading, it is interesting to
look, in retrospect, pt the development of the raih,ay terminal in and around the
Canadian metropolis to see what facilities the railway traveller enjoyed in the past
as compared with the two remaining terminals, Central Station and Windsor Station,
of today.
Castellated and antique in appearance, liindsor Ste.tion in its historic setting
looks acrose Dominion Square and the Cathedral to the modern configuration of the
Central Station, nucleuG of a civic centre /hich is already in the making. Each of
these stations has its situation, its advantages and its disadvantages; they repre&­
ent together, the culmination of the railway terminal as it has developed for Mont­
realers and for their visitors, !ho mey compare them with the eleven raih,ay pass6Ilg&r
terminals which have preceded them.
Properly speaking, there have been eairteen railway passengers terminals in and
around f·10ntreal
in the course of a century-and.-a-quarter. These thirteen terminals
have occupied nine separate and distinct sites in the perimeter of the city. Three
of the sites (Laprairie, l-ioffat B Island and Longueuil) erB DO longer used for rail
terminal purposes, but the othersix still support terminal facilities of ODe type or
another. Let us take them in chronological order.
LAPRAIRIE, 183&-1852 4 Bt gauga
The first railway passenger terminal, if by
such a title it may be dignified, waa erected for the use of the Champlain & Saint
_ ,/1 10
.)5 .< ..

• v
Pa e 105
News Report -1958 Page 106
Lawrence Rail Road at Laprairie, across the basin of the Saint Lawrence River from
Montreal, in 1836. l10t only was it ~iontrealla first railtlay terminal, but it was also
Canada! s first, and it ,as opened for the use of the public on July 21st, 1836. The
facU! ties are not presently known in detail, but there was a: liharf, at which the ferry
connoction to Montreal tied up. There was also a hall or station building of sorts,
with a locomotive shed nearby.
The steamer ferry service to Montreal was governed by the conditions of the river,
and operation was liJ!i.ited to daylight hours, to the dangerous shoals of the
Lachine Rapids and the St.Haryls Current. As a matter of fact, the opening day fest­
ivities endured to such a late hour at Laprairie, that the first steamer used on the
service, the uPrincess Victoria, had to put back into Laprairie until the following
morning, due to darkness falling before the crossing could be made.
The terminal at Laprairie was used only b,y the Champlain & Saint Lawrence Rail
trains leaving there for St.Johns, ~ue., and, in later years, for Rouses Point
and connections with the Northern Rail Road of New York. It was discontinued in 1852,
when the railway facilities were moved to a better site at South Montreal. (q.v.)
LONGUEUIL I. 1847-1859 56 gauge The second
terminal to be erected in the Mon­
treal area was the wharf station at Longueuil, whence the St.Lawrence & Atlantic Rtil­
way commenced laying its 5
6!! gauge track in the year 1847. It was in the spring of
that year that the line was opened initially to St.Hyacinthe, eventually reaching
Portland in July, 1853. The terminal here consisted of a combination train shed and
station, close to the shore, whence a steam ferry, the IITransitll and other veesels took
passengers to Montreal.
1853. the St.Lawrence & Atlantic was one of the constituents of the Grand Trunk
Raihray of Canada, and Longueuil became the south shore terminal of that railway. This
was only a temporary expedient, however, pending the co~pletion of the Victoria Tubul­
ar Bridge by the Grand Trunk Railway, The function of this first terminal at Longue­
uil ceased upon the completion and opening of the Bridge in December, 1859, and from
that time GTR trains arriving at the ItSouth Shore II crossed the river into the Pointe
St,Charles station which had been opened in November 1855.
BONAVENTUllE. 1847-1948 4 Sin. 56 go..
The oldest railway terminal within the
city area of Montreal is that of Bonaventure, at Chaboillez S~uare. now used as the
Canadian National Railways principal freight terminal in Montreal. The site at Bona­
venture has been in use for III years, having been first opened in November, 1847. when
the Montreal & Lachine Rail Road first inaugurated its line to the suburban town of
achine. The railway enabled boat passengers to avoid the difficult passage of the
LaChine Rapids by steamer, The original station at this point consisted of a trahshed,
not unlike that at Longueuil. alongside St.James street fronting on Chaboillez S~uare,
about two hundred feet east of Windsor Street,
Trains originally left here for Lachine and steamer connections at that point.
In 1852, however, after having become the l-fontreal & New York Railway through amalgam­
ation with the Lake St. Louis & Province Line Rail-Road in 1850, a service was inaug­
urated from Bonaventure through to Plattsburgh, N.Y., where steamer connections were
available through to New York, using other railway ilporto.ges
, Upon arrival at Lach­
ine, trains were taken across to Caughnawaga Yharf by the train-ferry illroqu.ois,
may have been the first such on the continent. They then proceeded via St.lsi­
dare, Hemmingford ana Mooers to Plattsburgh. In 1857, the Montreal & New York, and
the Champlain & St.Lawrence were amalgamated as the Montreal & Champlain RR.
the early Fifties, the Bonaventure Street station, as it was then known, had,
as a neighbour on its south Side, th9 ~ork6 of the pioneer Car~dian locomotivs-build-
Nos Report -1958 Page 107
Ing firm of Klnmond Brothers. After 1857, the area taken up by the locomotive company
was obtained by the railway, who thus acquired the whole area facing on Chaboillez
Square, from St.James to Notre Dame.
Bonaventure renained as a standard-gauge statton until January26th, 1862, when, 8S
a result of the completion of the first part of a reciprocal agreement with the Grand
Trunk Railt-my, a third rail was laid in the station to accomodate the GTR B 56 gauge
trains, which thereafter used Bonaventure in lieu of Pointe St.Charles. The second
part of the agreement came into force provlsion~lly in April 1863. when, 8S the result
of the GTR laying a third rail across the Victoria Bridgo from St.Lambert to St.Henrl,
standard-gauge trains of the ~lontreal & Champlain, which heretofore used South l-iontreal
enabled to come into BCIlaventure. Ilhile an announcement was made in the press
that the Rouses Point trHins of the ~~C would use Bonaventure station after April 1863,
they did not actually begin to do AO until December of that year. The combined traff­
ic of the GTR maln lineo to Toronto and the west, and to ~uebec, Richmond, Island Pond
and Portland, of the M&C: Lecnine-Mooers line, and the l~C St.Johns-Rouses Point line,
gave Bonaventure a schedU:e of soms twelve daily train departures, and a corresponding
number of arrivals, by December, 1863. In 1864, the Montreal & Champlain was leased,
and in lB67, purchased, by the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, and the ter­
minal remained until the abolition of the broad-gauge on the GTR in the early 1870s,
when Bonaventure became once
~ore a one-gauge station.
On December 15, 1880, the train ferry service Lachine-Cnughnawaga, 8S well as the
Caughnawaga-St.lsidore section of theformer Montreal & New York Rail Road was discon­
tinued. and thus the or:iginaJ. function of Bonaventure as the terminus for the New York
route via Lachine, Mooers ar.J. Plattsburgh, was discontinued. During this period, a
larger, typically Victorian station, with all of the elegance of the period, including
stained-glass windows in the waiting room, was erected, and this structure remained
until the end. One of th~ stained-glp-ss windows is preserved in the CNR Museum Train.
The station remained as the GTRts cnly passenger terminal in Montreal, until 1923.
passing to Canadian National Railways, it became ons of three stations, but
retaining its status as the principal one. Trains of the Canada Atlantic Railway used
it, until the CARts absorption by the GTR in 1905, as did those of the Central Vermont,
until the end. Until about 1917, the Delaware & Hudson service into Montreal arrived
at Bonaventure, but at that time. the D&H changed places with the Rutland Railroad,
the D&H replacing the Rutland at Windsor Station, vice-versa at Bonaventure.
station was eclipsed by the new Central Station. opened by the Canad­ian
National in ~uly. 1943, but locnl trains continued to run into and out of Bonaven­
ture until August 1948 when a disastrous firo complot~ly destroyed the freight sheds,
and damaged
the passenger station. Thus, at the age of 101, the original M&L station
site lost its passengor service, and all trains originated thereafter at Central. With
the rebuilding following the fire, the improvement of the site was put in hand, the
line of the new buildings moved back to correspond with ~l1ndsor Street. The ne Bona.-.
venture terminal buildings which rose on the site of the old station presently house
freight. express and perishable traffic offices, as well as the headqUprters of the
Canadian National Telegraphs.
SOUTH MONTBEAL 1852.-6) 4 % gauge
Because of the navigational difficulties
incidental to the Laprairie-Montreal ferry route, the Champlain & Saint Lawrence was
led, about 1850, to consider the advisability of a new terminal nearer Montreal, off
the abore at Saint Lambelt. Accordingly, a trestle-pier was constructed out from the
St. Lambert shore to Moffats Island, whence 1 nyn shaped pier gave access into the
river. This new terminal was ina1J€llrated in January 1852, and was known as South
Montreal. At this time, the line into Laprairie was discontinued. This terminal
proved to be much superior to Laprairie. being but n short distance offshore from the
city harbour. However, fo1lo.,.,ing completion of the Victoria Bridge in December 1859,
the Montreal & Champlain Rat (successors to ~he C&StL) began negotiations with the GTa
for the use of the bridge, and from December 14th, 1863. trains be~an crossine the
Hews l1eport -195$
Page 108
Victorie Bridge into Pointe St. Charles and Bonaventure stations, and the use of
South No:p.treal o(as discontinued. It may be of interest to observe here, that the
Montreal & Southern Counties Railway, opened in 1909, used the old Montreal & Champl­
ain roadbed in St. Lambert. froc Ranelagh through to the M&SC curve juet beside the
railway embankment. BAfore 1863, the ~~C had an underpass at this point, carrying
it underthe GTR mainline, then around a left-hand curve ar~ so out on the Moffat
Island p~er. Traces of this pier were noted and obliterated in 1956, when~e
Sai~t Llwrence Seaway Authority cut its channol parallel to the Saint Lambert shore.
Concurrently with the construction of the
Victoria Bridge, the GTR prosecuted the building of its railway to Toronto. On Nov­
19th, 1855, the first section of this line, to Brockville, was opened for traff­
ic, trains arriving at, and departing from, a station then situated at the intersec­
tion of the GTR with Hellington Street. This terminal continued to be used for the
Toronto and western traffic after October, 1856, and for trains to ~ebec, Riviere­
d~Loup and Portland, after the completion of the Victoria Bridge in December, 1859.
January 1862, hOtfever, feeling thnt a more centrally-located terr.1inal would
be desirable, the GTE arranged with the Montreal & Clk-unplain RR for the use of the
Bonaventure Street station, l~ying a third rail to accomodate its broad-gauge trains
in the standard-gE.uge statton. Accornodation trains continued to use Pointe St.Charles
for some little ti~e Rfterward, but eventually, all passenger trains were ooved into
HOCl:illLAGA 1876-1882
Heretofore, in this account, the railway
terminals dealt with are those which belonged to constituents of the Canadian Nation­
al Railways. The first station belonging to a Canadian Pacific constituent, was that
at Rochelaga, which tTaS opened for traffic by the ProvinCially-owned Q,uebec, Montreal
& Occidental Rallio(ay, on October 16th, 1876.
This station las situated approximately at the corner of St.Catherine and Harbour
Streets, and was used by the Q,MO&O. In 1881. part of the QMO&O was sold to the Canad_
ian Pncific, but the other part, from St.Martin Jct. to Quebec with branches, known
as the North Shore Railway, remained independent for some time. After acquiring the
Hochelaga property, the Canadian Pacific embarked icmediately upon an extension to a
teroinal closer to d~fntown, and from about December 1st, 1882, CPR trains used the
new Q,uebec Gate Barracks, or Dalhousie Square station (as it was variously known),
ituated at Berri and Notre Dame streets. North Shore Re.ilway trains continued to
use Hochelaga for some Donths, but by the early part of 1883, Hochelaga was completely
superseded as a passenger station.
LONGUEUIL II 1877-1883 _4
Eighteen years after the removal of the first
railway terminal at Longueuil in 1859, the l~ontreal Portland & Boston RailWay complet­
ed its connection through to Montreal frOm New England, and chose Longueull as its
terminal. For a time, passengers ,.,ere trnnAferred from Longueuil to Montreal by ferry
but freight cars were moved in interchange over tbe Vil.t,orln Bridge by the GTR.
Later, however, due to the new lines rivalry with the GTR for New England traff­
iC, arrangements were broken off giving rise, in the winter of 18??-.110
to the famous
raHway across the ice of the river, t.,hich continued for four winter sea!;>onA. trans­
felTing cars from the MP&B, nOt~ the South Eastern Railway. at Longueuil, to ;he Q,MO&O
yard at Hochelag~. Du.ring the open river sdR~on, the car ferry South Eastern
in the Cantin shipyard at Hontreal, provide~. the service& In the of 1883,
the South :5l?,st~rn being no … : controlled by the C .. nudirm Pacific, an amice.b~e
arrangement was entereo. into with the GTR by the CPR who had tither cares, and the
second terminal at Longueuil was closed.
C.;t.H.A. NeVIs Report -1958
Page 109
PLACE VIGER 1898-1951 4
8! gSW;8
Superseding the Hochelaga station,
the Canadian Pacificts new station at the Quebec Gate, Berri and NotreBame Streets,
becRme the Montreal terminal for the new tr~nscontinental, from about the beginning of
Dece!:lber, 1882, until February 1st, 1889 …. ,hen Windsor Station opentid and took over
traffic for the Ontario and iiestern division trains. During this period, the Canadian
Pacifics general offices IIrere at Victoria Square. The early use of Dalhouse
saw trains of the North Shore Railway, as well as by the CPR, but in 1885, the North
Shore was acqui(ted, as well, by the CPR. Perhaps the most significant date in the
history of the DalhouLde Souare station was the departure, at 8:00 PM on the evening
of June 27th, 1886, of the first passenger train ever to cross Canada from the Atlantic
to the Pacific. A plaque, still affixed to the original station building (now part of
the CPR freight shed), on the south side of Notre Dame Street just east of the bridge
over Berri Street, perpetuates this occasion.
~hile the original areH of the Dalhousd!e Square station was confined to the south
side of Notre Da~e Street, it was later enlarged and extended to the north side, the
tracks curving fl.n-jlise under Notre Dame Street, and ending up almost at right angles
to Cr … ig Street at the corner of :Berri, whf.,rc the hotel … ras later built. In 1898, the
CPR constfucted and opened the ~lace Vjger Station and Hotel, in August of that year.
Some years later, the tracks weIe nUllRDged on the north side of Notre Dame so that
the platforms wore parallel to C.C.lJ.g Stl0t, rather than at right angles. and this
arrangement obtained until the e:tat.ion closed. From that date, the station and hotel
remained virtually unchanged. TIaf:ic for Laurentian Division points used this station
but, little by little, as train ~ervices were removed, Windsor Station absorbed them.
The r:lovement
of the business I3.rea of Montreal, by evolution, westjlard tojlard Dominion
Square was largely responsible for the decline in patronage which resulted in the clos­
ing of the beflutiful but misplacl::ld Loire-Chateau style hotel, in 1930. The station
continued on for more than twenty years, until May 31st, 1951, when the last train
pulled out of Place Viger, for Labelle. Your author becane the last person ever to
board a passenger train at Place Viger, when our Association observed the event by rid­
ing the last train to Park Avenue. The station and hotel buildings were taken over by
the Montreal ~unicipal government, and still stand in their old positions.
8t;.11 gauge
As we have seen, the first Canadian Pacific
trains into and out of Montreal, used the ~alhousie Square station in the east end of
the city. This was not originally inqonve~ient, owing to the fact that the original
main line westward to the Pacific was by way of Lachute and Ottawa, the old Q,MO&O line.
In the mid-Eighties, however. following closely upon the completion of the transcontin­
ental, the CPR opened new routes into the citJ. particularly those from Toronto via
Smiths Falls about 1886-87, and from the East£l:!n Townships and the f.faritimes, over the
flying cantilever bridge nt Lachine, :n 1887. Thus was born the idea of a
west end terminal for Montreal, and this proje:t was fostered and put into effect per­
sonally by the indefatigable Bir !illiarn Van H,rne. The edifice which resulted, of
the tldeveloped RomanesCl,ue
style of archi tectu:,e was occupied oy the CPR general offices
on February 1st, 1889. and trains started using the station on February 4th. The
station, of antique but pleasing lines, has become one of Montreal~most distinctive
structures. I t is imposing, yet dignified and, and has typified, to many
people, the conservative thinking of the Company whose headq,18.rters it h01Ises. The
architect was Bruce Price, (1846-1903), who, ,.,rith his daughter, Emily Pos1;, the arbiter
of manne!l.s and etiquette, II ••• i~their respective ways did much to k<:lep aiive some of
the standards of last century. 11
The original station occupied only a small part of the corner of {indsor and
Osborne Streets, sharing its locale with tourist houses on sites since cccu~ied by
1_ Meeks, CarrollL. : THE RAILROAD STATION, New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 195~.
C.R.H.A. NeNS Report -1958 Pag;e no
its extensions. Since that tine, the station, built on the site of a garden in which
th~ St.Jean :Baptiste SOciety was founded, has expanded to take in all of the buildings
in the block bounded by Windsor, Osborna, Mountain and St.Antoine Streets. Even a
small street, Donegana., roughly a ,,,estwerd continuation of deL~-€auchetiere, has been
cbli terated. About 1912, the najor extension, including the tower which mounts fif-
te~n storeys above St.Antolne Street, ms built and the station DOW encompasses some
eleven tercinal tracks, with further office extp.Dsions bui+t in the intervening period.
The station nOl.-I handles all Canadian Pacific Rnil,vsy passenger traffic in and out
of Montreal, and still houses the headquarters st~ff of the Company and its nany ~b­
sidiary enterprises such as hotels, sloeping and dining cars, etc.
ST. CATHERINE ST!@T EAST , 190}=1943
In 1903. when the Great Northern
Railway of Canada decided to connect it s Laurentian railway network ,i th the city of
Montreal, it found its approach in along tho north shore of the Saint Lawrence, from
the east end of the Island. At Hochelaga, the route of the new railway was obstructed
by the Canadian Pacific yards. and further proeress beyond the yard into the tm~n
seemed to pro~ise much more in the w~ of expense than the comparatively impecunious
GNRC was prepared to handle. Accordingly, just short of the CPR Hochelaga yard.
the railway established what was, in later years, easily the most impoverished-looking
raili-laY station to be found in any Canadian r.mtropoUs of city size. Knoi·m more
familiarly as l1!1loreau Street, from the street which intersected St.Catherine just at
this point, all Great Northern, and later Canadian Northern trains from Joliette, Q.ue­
bec, L?~e St.John and northern Q,uebec points used this little station.
The station, in its finest period, boasted only A. r.lUlti-storey brick station lith
three or four terminal tracks and. a couple of lIur.JbrellaY platforms in the back. Until
its demise as a passenger station in 1943, when the CanadianNational completed its
loop line around the back of Montreal th.rough Ahuntsic and Montreal North, linking the
lines coming into the eastern end of the city tIi·lth the ~tount Royal Tunnel and the new
Central Station, the atcosphcre of the old uGra.tlr:l. Nord always seemed to hang about
the St. Catherine Street East station. The site is still occupied by freight team
acks, but the station building has been dis~~~ntled.
To the same extent as
Bonaventure was the Grund Trunk1s entry into Montreal, Rnd Windsor Station that of the
Canadian PaCifiC, the remaining member of the litriu.lvirate, the Canadian Northern,
chose a midtown site for its Montreal terminal. Huch has been and written about
the extravagance of those intrepid raihtRy adventurers, Sir ~Hlliam Mackenzie and Sir
Donald Mann, in selecting Mount Royal, the only appreciable hill for some miles around,
through which to bore a 3.3 mile tunnel, but history and traffic have vindicated their
judgement. The
finest site of all seems to have been kept by Fate for the last comer,
as the Tur-nel Termir~l-Central Station site is just at the threshold of being the basis
for a city-centre developcent which will rival anything of its kind in the Co~onwealth.
W:~en ~he Canadian Northern planned its links with Montreal before the first World
Wer, the choice locations for railway entry had all been taken up by its rigels.
Accordingly, bringing a line in from the Ottawa direction along the north Shore of the
river of the same name, it las found that the expeditious course would be to tunnel
Mount Royal, and establish a terninal in the heart of the midtown area, bet,reen Dorch­
estel and deLagauchetiere streets, halfway bettleen the shopping area of St.Co.therine
Street and the financial district of St.Jame.s Street. i10rk t~es started in 1912, but
I it wes not until 1916 that the tunnel was co~ploted and the first train had passed
through the 3.3-mile bore., ThiS, inCidentally, also mArked the only example of nain-
line electrification in l>!ontreal. The first st&.tion established, called the tlTunne1
Terminal!!, for obvious reasons, was at deLagauchetiere and Inspector streets, and was
gre.dually expanded over the years, at the cost of v2.iou:-:; old Ttl:::idtlncss and churches
adjoining, on both sides of Dorchester Street. During the peliod 1916-1943, this
__________ ~Ne1Cs Report -1958 Page 111
station sorved only trains on the Call1..dian Uorthern (after 1918, Ccnadir.n Uational)
lines to the Laurentian mounta.ins at Lp.c Reli, and the Otta~m Valley at Eawkesoory,
~.nd Ottawa. Little by little, however, excavation IS.S carried out for the newer
and larger station 11hich had been envisionod from the beginning, and property exprop­
riations made south of the station, between it and the Wnterfront, enabled the gradual
construction of an elevated structure carrying railway lines to a connection with the
old tracks co.t the west ond of the Victoria Bridge.
Concurrently, wark jas begun on ft. Dt1W stution just north-east of the old one,
in the centre of the Dorchester-deL~lluchctiorc-~lani3field-St.Genevieve rectangle, and
this ne>1 building, Central Ste.tion, conploteily superseded the TUnnel Terminal in
July, 1943. Its opening resulted in the conplete closing of the St.Catherina Street
East facility, and the restriction of local trains for Lakeshore points to Boneventure
station. After the fir of 1948 at Bonaventure, the remaining local service was tra-
nsferred to Central. The present st,tion is of the through type, fen.turing high-
level platforms, escalators to a concourse which spans the tracks. The building
itself is rapi&ly being obscured by stl~cturos erected around it, including buildings
such as the
ICAO Building, the newly-opened CanP~ian National ~ueen Elizabeth Hotel,
and the soon to be stnrted Place Ville f.!E.rie Th3veloprnent. All Canadian National
passenger trains into and out of Montreal, use Central Station.
not properly a part of these notes, there are some interesting other
non-terrnilW.l stp,tions in Montleql. Probably the !Jost spectacular is the Canadian
PacifiCs Italian-Renaissance Park Avonue StAtion, which was opened on November 1st,
931, superseding Mile End Stetion which had been opened in October 1876. Canadian
acific opened stations at Cote St.Antoine (later Westtlount) and Montreal Junction,
(later Montreal llest) in 1889. The l·tontrcal & Lpchine Rail Road established a stat­
ion at the Ta.~neries Village in 1847, and this station, later known as St.Henry, wae
in use until Bonaventure closed in August, 1948. ~le Canadian Northern-Canadian
National had e sto.tion at Meiaonneuve, on tho Mor011u Street line, until 1943.
The Ca~l.dian National statione on the line vin the Mount Roys.l Tunnel we~e largely
in 191&-18, Val Roy-e.l being knom orieinally as Lazerd. The station at Portal
ehts on this line still exhibits tho foundation of a station which was once meant
to be fin exchange station beti~een the CUR, and the Canadian Pacific which passes
directly over the west portal of the tu.~nel.
Lorne Perry iI;te~ -abo:~-;-:–:-:-:-:.: ••••••• LI __ S_O_V_T_H __ D_O_R_S_E_T __ R_A_IL __ T_O_V_R __ ..JJ

!;,),F1r HEN I viAS IN ENGLAND in June, I made a point of riding a rail-
.~~:;j way enthusiasts excursion and observing similarities and
..::!I:£. differences to operating such tours here. lhe tour I took
was an all-day meander over little-used or goods-only branch
lines in the Poole-1eymouth-Dorchester area of South West England. It
was sponsored by the Hallway Enthusiasts t Club, a smallish club with
r.lOS~ of its r.lembership concentrated in the iarnborough area, south-west
of London.
It is an energetic group whose interests cover most of t.he field
of railwayist endeavour. There are students of r.:lih·laY history, laco­
mo ti ve experts, ardent photographers, branch line addicts and a large
nucleus of individuals iho just maintain a general interest in raihmyw.
For our tour, which took place on Saturday, June 7th, British Rail­
lays provided a steam-powered Ilpush and pull if set. This might be
c~lled the predecessor of the RDC. It consists of a tank stea~ loco­
motive, a combine and a coach and does not have to be turned at the
end of the branch line. In fact, the locomotive doesnt even have to
be moved to the opposite end of the train. The IldrivG!,ij simply t:!ans­
fers his base of operations to a compartment at the rear of the train,
Q t l~-·
l~eW:; neper -,/)0 Pae 112
SOUTH DOHSET ilAIL TOUR (continued) •••••••••••
passes air whistle s:Lrnals to the fireman back in the locomotive.
driver works the air brakes and the fireman works the throttle.
Hpuah and pull set was waitinl1 for us at Poole on the South
Coast ~ncn we arrived by regular train rat excursion rate) from London
and Farnborough. The fare for the 85 miles and 7! hours we rere using
the special train as £1/6/-. or ~3.64. Considering the length of time
involved and the fact that we had only 70 passengers, the fare was ext­
remely reasonable. Tickets were specially printed by British Railways
and could be retained by the passengers as souvenirs. The fare didnt
include meals J but a very efficient commissary department u-Tlder the
management of several of the club members catered to all our needs at
reasonable prices. The variety of food brought aboard las nothing short
of startling. They set up shop in one of the passenger compartments and
their display overflowed into the baggage compartment. Dinner was avail­
able at group rate in the British Railways refreshment car included in
the regular train back to London.
English enthusiast clubs have found that British Railways officials
are very pleasant to deal with in the initial stages of planning a trip,
but when it comes to the detail work, they tend to be drifficult and S10,I,
It seems to ~ake a long time to get minor points cleared up, such as the
length of time at ~hoto stops, the routing through junctions, whether the
train will be ilpushol or lIpull
going down branch lines, etc.
oto stops were a feature of the trip, and the locations were Good
but not excellent. In most cases they came at places where the train
was required to stop anyway for operating purposes, and at no time were
we permitted to disembark where there was no platform. Density of traffic
even in south Dorsetshire, seemed to be the main reason for the first
characteristic, and the second was due largely to B.R.s reluctance to
let any passenger, even a railfan, attempt to negotiate the high step
from carriage t;.., glound. IIRun-bys, quite common on North American en­
thu.:.lddt. Cvurs, are rolat:–dly rare in Encland due to the objections
raised by railway officials. Hm1ever, at one stop, the ocean lapped at
the rail embankment, and at another we photographed t.he train standing
in a picturesque abandoned station complete ,/ith weedgrown platforms.
schedule prepared and published in advance was not adhered to
very closely. One 01 the delays was caused by the derailment of a goods
locomotives at an important junction which we had to pass, /e waited
while more urgent traffic was routed over the one remaining track, and
tihen our turn finally came, de ran sev~ral miles on the right-hand (or
wrong) track. During the day tales were told about the more eccentric
of British rail,tay enthusiasts. One chap has made it his burning desire
to ride over every foot of trackage on British Railways. On one excur­
sion he was overjoyed because a seldom-used leg of a wye was to be used,
but later in the trip his joy turned to gloom when the train was backed
through the portion of a certain double-crossover that he had already
Not so many
ladies take part in e~thusiast excursions in England. On
ours, there were only two, but they were evidently old hands at the
game. As is usually the case on either side of the Atlantic, if a rail
excursion is to be successful, it is due to the time and effnl-t. of ded­
icated committee members and iaterested railwayt!len~ The SOllLh Dorsot
Rail Tour was in that exalt8d jsuccessful
category ..
C.n.H.A. NelIS ,{oport -195$ Pap,c 113
~ HE HUNDRED i~IILES, or slieht1y more, north of Toronto, lies an
~. ~ area of lakes and forests which has been a vacation resort for
.,~.~ almost one hundred years. This is the land of 1.1uskoka, a land
of lakes, laree and small, where the ancient rock of the Canad­
ian Shield shows through in the rounded hills and rocky islands in the
lakes. Alth——
Qugh its per-the summer months
lI.anent popul-TH,lOUGH r·IUSKOKA S NA:l.101l CHANNELS by thousands of
ation is quite 6~ ~ (./ city-dwellers \fho
small, it is by Forster A. Kemp ………… ~.:…:..>l…–…..~…..-migrate northard
swelled during ~060MtJ~K()I(-O I to escape the
—–heat of the cities
and bathe in the cool lake vraters. Some of these remain during the
whole summer; others join the vleek-end rush, while still others spend
their vacation period in the area. loIany hotels and summer cottages have
sprung up to accomodate these su~ner visitors, and they have given rise
to the areats largest industry, that of catering to vacationers.
Today, most of these people come to Muskoka by automobile, with
smaller groups travelling by train, bus and aircraft. In former years,
however, the railv/ay was the main travel route to the Iofuskoka country. The
first railway to reach into the area was the Northern Railway, which
constructed to Gravenhurst in 1875. This railway had originally been
built from Toronto to Bradford in 1853, and had constructed a branch line
from Lefroy to Belle Elart in order to connect with steamboats on Lake
Simcoe and Lake Couchiching. In 1855, it built on to Allandale, where
it also touched Lake Simcoe, and then turned Iestlard to Collingvlood, on Lake
Huron. It was content to be a connection for the Lake Simcoe steam­
ers, which could go as far as the nort!1 end of Lake Couchiching, a point
now called Washago.
there, it is about fifteen miles overland to the southernmost
point on Lake f.juskoka, and a.lthough a tri!, of this length by road was
an uncomfortable experience in those daYD! there was apparently enough
business for a steamer service to begin operation on Lake Muskoka about
1860. The wheel of this pioneer side-wheeler is displayed in a restaur­
ant in Gravenhurst.
the railway reached Gravenhurst~ it served as a complement to
tbe steamer line, and it was only a year ~a~er that a one-mile spur was
constructed from Gravenhurst to the wharf on rJIuskoka Bay, which later
became known as ~1uskoka lharf. Prom this pOint, steamers ran to all
pOints on Lake .i~luskoka, and connecting lakes Rosseau and Joseph. The
steamers were of all sizes, from the small, covered steam launches, to
larger vessels with staterooms and dining saloons. Hotels and summer
cottages sprang up around the lakes and r.early all had landing stages at
which the steamers could stop to unload passengers, mail and supplies.
vther railways were built through the l-1uskoka country in the years
immediately preceding the first iorld War. These were the Canadian Pac­
ific and the Canadian Uorthern and they built convenient connecting
stations at Lake Joseph, Bala and Bala Park. The Canadian Pacific built two
stations at Bala, one on either side of the track, and only a few
hundred yards apart. One of these was used in the summ,,T., heing closer
to the wharf, while the other was used during the winto.e rt.·):l:.l.:J. This
arrangement was continued until recent years. Rot.h r.:-..iJ ., ,… h(rmght
additional traffic to the srnall steamers, but ·t!-:.e blll rh:lF. ,., roads into
the r,Iuskoka country during the interval bet>Jeen thCil …. rD CCHlS-3d some
C.R.H.. News ;teport -195$ Page 114
reduction in the munber of passengers and also in the number of steamers.
Surprisingly enough, there Here still five vessels left at the end of
World War II! Highways northward from Toronto vlere improved after the
second war, and more roads were pushed in around the bays and inlets, so
that there ,,:ere feu places inaccessible to automobiles. The Company oper­
ated a bus service between major points on its system for several years
in addition to the steamer service, but at t.he emi of the 1954 season the
mail contract was annulled, and the vessels lost their designation of
!lR.N.S.1 A new company Vlas formed, under local management, to operate
the service in 1955, and has done so since that time under the name
Gravenhurst Steamships Limited
• Former names used had been ItHuskoka
Navigation Co. II and 1he Nuskoka Lakes Navigation and Hotel Company Ltd. n
as the company had, at one time, operated its own summer resort, known
as HRoyal i ~uskoka ,/.
There are tvro vessels presently in service. The larger of the two
is SS SAGM.10, a large vessel for these vlaters, over 400 gross tons. 3he
is three decks high above the hull, and has a Single, tall funnel. lhe
lower deck tis used as an entrance, and provides space for cargo. Aft
of this is the boiler and engines, which are mounted on the bottom, but
extend through the lower deck. Then there is the galley, and finally,
the dinine room reached by stairs from the passenger deck above. The
dining rooms of these steamers are noted for good food, and afford a good
vLnl of the passing scenery through many ,,/indows which extend around
the stern of the vessel.
passeneer deck
reached fror.1 the freight deck, by two stairways.J
has an open dE!ck forward, extending up to the bow. There is a passenger
cabin, dth a number of cushioned wooucn benches; these will hold about
eighty persons. Aft of this is a passage with staterooms on both Sides,
and then 02. covered promenade deck, which extends to the stern. Stairways
fore and aft lead to the upper deck, which contains a number of deluxe
staterooms and has a small observation deck forward and another promenade
deck aft. The promenade portion is open to all passengers, but the for­ward
part is restricted to stateroom passengers and those who rent deck
eha.irs. Like parlour car seats, these are available at an extra charty-e.
rhs iheelhouse and boats arc mounted atop the vessel.
SS SEmlUN is somewhat smaller, and has only one passenger deck,
but still possesses staterooms and il dining room. Both are powered by two
propellors, each one of which is driven by a small, triple-expansion
reCiprocating steam engine. This arrangement is deemed to add to their
maneuvera~ility in the narrow passages of these waters. There is another
vessel in the fleet, SS CHEHOKEE, but, although it is the nelo,est of the
three, it lacks stateroom accomodation, and is therefore not operated. It
is tied up at r.Iuskoka Uharf, boarded up, l;!it!1 faded paint peeling from
schedule ,mich as usually followed until the SEGIIUN was slightly damaged
by Erounding during July, called for the SAGAMO to start from
)·iuskoka Ilharf at 9: 30 A1~ hile the SEGHUN started from Bala. The two
vessels met at Beaumaris where they tie up on either side of a wharf.
The SEG/uN continues to Muskoka Iharf (Gra venhurst) while the SAGAMO
sails on up the Indian ~iver to Port Carling. There is a lock at this
location in a very picturesque setting. The lake levels are carefully
regulated by dams and sluices, so that there is a three or four foot
difference between Lake Nuskoka and Lake Hosseau. The steamers pass
through a large, electrically-operated lock. A separate small lock, wi
th hand-operated gates, is used by small boats. Boat owners do their
own Illocking through l/.
~C~.~R~.~H~.~A~.~ ____________________ ~!~ie~-~,,~s~rl~e~p~o~r,ct~-~1~9LL5~8 ____________________ ~P~a~g~e 115
The SAGANO continuos on the winding channel into Lake Rosseau. On four
days of the .reek, it. went to Rosseau, of the lake, while on the remaining three days ~ it Tent through to Lake
Joseph throueh another short canal at Port S0.nafield vlhich is at the same
level, and on to ,IUatural Park!l, a woodland area at the north end of this
lake. This swruner, however, since the 38GlUNs accident, the SAGA~IO
.;:!.ppears to go throUBh to Natural Park each day. A utop of r,;.bout an hour
is made at the end of the Iun, and this allows a numb(:r of the crew mem­
bers, (mostly high-school studonts from Cravenhurst) to have a s-I1in in
the lake.
Gn the : …. sturn trtp, the 3AGAI~IO talces a slieht1y-different course
through the lakes, but most, of course, pass through the canals at Port
Sandfield an..1 Port Carling. At Port Carling, the 3EGIJUN is normally met
and passengers transfer for Bala. The 3AGAI·10 arrives at !-1uskoka lharf
about 6:00 Plo!, while the SEGlUN arrives at Jla about 7:00 PM, ending
the 1100 lUlc Cruise I.
In an age when steamer operation is economically feasible, it
may seem unusual that thGSO steamc:rs continue operation. The answer to
this is that many of the employees are st.udents, .,;ho can be paid a lower
rate than would full-time employees. fhis problem of wages was respon­
sible for tho demise of the S8 CAYUGA, was resurrected with great
hopes in 1954, but fell victim to a combination of Circumstances, includ­
ing bad vleathcr on weekends, resulting in a decrease in receipts although
the cre…,1 was being paid all the ti!,lC.
Persons interested in steamers tlho wish to cain an blpression of vlhat
took place before the steamers left m03t Canadian lakes, and those ,,~ho
want a relaxing holiday trip, are urged to take a Muskoka Lakes cruise.
Besides the one-da.y trip, a. variety of all-expense tours are offered,
includi~g passage to all pOints served by the steamers, staterooms, Boals
and dock chairs. Gravcnhurst can be reached by CNR or bus from Toronto
or Horth Bay, and is on Highvray No.ll. Bala is on the CPR Toronto ,Sudbury
line and is also on HiehNay 69. Inforr.1ation on steamers is available from
Gr.s.venhurst Steamships Limited, Gravenhurst, Ontario .
by Faul R. McGee.
•••• 300th Anniversary of St.Anns Shrine
makes operation even more interesting
than usual •••••..
A SLIGHT HAZE PREVAILED as we entered the
ancient St.Paul station of the CaRs electrified Montmorency Subdip:ision.
few minutes later, after purchasing tickets, the gatos were s … rung open
to the announcement of ,; Ste.Anne –Ste.Anne It and people crowded through
the cates to secure seats in the three-car electric train which v,aited to
take them to Ste. Anne do Beaupre or, in a feVl cases, to one or other of
the 45 other stntions aloIlg the 25.1 mile long electrified system. About
the yard, various oth0r units of the 450 series were standing by marked
STB.ANIIBj, ST.JOACHHI or MONTl,!OR8NCY. The 401, which will be used on ou.r
September 13th excursion, and oldest regularly-used electric car in North
America, was standing ready as Vms a seven-car train powered by locomotive
230, one of the railways heavy steeple-cab electric locomotives.
procured a seat in the lead car of the train, onc of the l~50 ser­
ies electric cars, in itself a locomotive. Behind us, two of the former
Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co.s trailers followed ar:; we left the stub
• ~ ; , .• >, ,1 1
switches of the station behind. Today W:lS to be no speed run, G:.S pass­
engers waited at a.lmost every ste,tion along the line, for today was the
Feast of Stc.Anne and furthermore, the 300th Anniversary of the famous
shrine at 3te.l.nnc d03 Bellevue. Advance publicity sf the celebration
stated that 100,000 Roman Catholics were expected at the basilica over
the weekend. At a couple of stops, vIe p2.uscd just long enough for the
irCNR Motorman ,/ to kick off, or handout the newspapers for each village.
the snaIl station of Limoilou, 0.6 r,1iles from Quebec, we acquired
green flags and joined the order of the morning. .lith the exception of
an inbound train which we passed on the double track between Limoilou and
Montmorency Falls, every train we saVI until about ten 0 t clock bore green·
flags, indicating that there was still another section following. AtSte. Anne
Church, people were waiting for trains in much the same manner as one
vTould wait for astreetcar. 3tanding on the platform therE:, one could see
trains st.:tnding by at Ste.Anne Station, a half-mile away. Presently, the
230 came in haul inc as a train, one clerestoried, open-platformed combin­
ation car, circa 1889, as a buffer car, and six flat-roofed, open-plat­
formed second class cars of the same vintage. I read the casting on one
of the ..,lood beam trucks –dPatented 188111. It would be interesting to
know hm-: many types of br.::.king systems these cars have beon outfitted
with!. Presently, an eastward train came and we boarded this riding in
onG of the trailers to the end of the line at St.Joachij brakes hissed
into emergency as we Gathered speed leaving Ste.Anne Church, presumably
to avoid hitting a pedestrian, then we picked up speed, and to the fre­
quent sound of !l14-Llf, proceeded tOl./ard St.Joachim. A slow order was in
effect where an overpass …. ;a5 beine built over the line east of Ste. Anne
Station. 1e were under the catenary now, which, suspended from brackets
on new straieht poles presented a different appearance to the hodge-
podge of bent lood
ihich serves to keep the trolley suspended sOmehOll or
other on the rest of the line. iven the old poles have been removed!
Construction work for the completion of catenary is progressing ilith the
new poles now standing along a fair ;.lortion of the line, making it a
night mare for photographers at the present.
Contrary to usu.:tl practice, this train went straight into the stat­
ion at St.Joachim, discharged its passengers, then turned on the wye. The
steam train from La 14albaie was expected shortly, so our train rem­
ained at the tip of the wye. The tail tracks were empty, all the coaches
usually stored there presumably geing in service. 1he La l·ialbaie train
presently arrived, a few minutes late, only to have the entire engine
crew and others make an intense examination of some displeasing item
under the pilot. Ie boarded the train to ride back again to Ste.Anne
Church behind CNR light Pacific No. 5071. At Ste .Anne Church
the crew
again spent timo inspecting the bearing of the front track. ne of the
crew doctored it temporarily by sloshine the drinking ,·,ater over the
bearing, then all got on board and proceeded slov-11y to Quebec.
Presently we boarded a train which was vlaiting in the station, and
0:1.1y after we were u..l1der way did 1;Ie discover that we were on the extra­
fare tourist special, but nothing happened ·,hen the conductor collected
our tickets. Apparently, anything goes on any train on Ste.Annes Day.
lhi1e the conductor had announced that there would be no stops, we soon
heard communicatinc signal 16m, and the train slmved down and entered a
siding. After a longer wait than usual, the sound of an air horn was
heard; obviousl: our meet had been delayed by 5071 limping in to Quebec.
~!e went to Pa1ais Station in -:uebec in the afternoon to latch the
La Malbaie train depart. Departure time came and w0nt ,ith no sign of
C.R.H.A. Page 117
an eng~ne. The 5071 evidently just couldntt recuperate in tline. After
a while, CNR ten-wheeler No.1406 appeared on the scene, coupled, and
after a great deal of steQm had been emitted in blovriIlG out the cylinders
it went off down the line with its two baega~e cars, coaches and a parlour
car. Has anyone else noticed a 4-6-0 pullinG a train including parlour
cars recently ?
The only unfavourable note that I observed on the system this time
was Cl way freight which made a return trip, hauled by a diesel-electric
locomotive. No electric freiehts were operF… at all, although this
may have been due to the heavy passenge:c demands. Counteracting this,
however, was a large sign in front of the St.PO-ul Station, advising
the public to travel via CNR Electric Train to Montmorency and Ste.Anne
Church. lhilc advertising the tourist specials, this sign actually
emphasized the electric portion of the operation t!
9 On July 29th, 195$, the Yard Office at Joffre, Que;,
outsid.e of LeViS, was moved from mil. 10).0 to 102.), Armaeh Su
bdivision, in connection iith the opening
of the new C!IR yard at that point.
On June 6, 1958, Canadian National 0-6-0 No.7439 was sold to the Inter­
national Harvester Co., !brnil ton, Ontario.
9 During June, tlw Pacific Great E:J.stern Railway opened the following
stations on the Peace JUver extension, for carload frei~ht only.
(Station numbers represent lIlileage from North Vancouver J:
466(Princc George) 517 Davie 570 Kennedy 615 Lemoray
474 Fraserview, BC 523 Angusmac 576 Caslcll 622 Bickford
479 (luaw
530 Tacheeda 580 Bijoux 628 Crossie
486 3almon Valley
540 Anzac
591 J4urray 635 Hulcross
498 Odell
592 Azouzetta 644 Hasler
505 Averil 552 Hodda 602 Garbitt 653 Doakie 512
McEwan 562 Chinka 608 C.::l.llazon 660 Chetwynd,BC
9 Canadian National R.::l.ilways opened its diesel shop at the new Cote de
Honday, July 28th, 1958. Liesse yard in Nontreal at 7:30 AM on
e During AUgURt and September, the following Canadian Pacific train
services vlere/will be cancallcd:
August 5th, 1
Sept ember 2nd,
Trains 362, London-Toronto and 365 roronto-Windsor
n 6th
n 121-122 McAdam-St,Stephen, NB
?r~ins 23-24 Ottawa-Toronto.
II 563-564, NcAdam-St • Andrews, Nll
(yard) .
On Sunday, July 13th, the first outing in the
newly reconditioned open car, No.S, was held, operating between Youville
Shops ,:md Ilontreal Harth. Several trips ,:cre made between the City Lim­i
ts and the rJ.ontreal North terminus. On StLl1day, August )rd, this car was
taken to Lachine, suffering a Ilhot hox on the way back which delayed
the return t.o Youville until 1:15 prI. On Saturday, August 9th, the serv;!.cc on
the MfC Lachine J91 route terminated, being replaced by a bus
sergice. On the following day, Sunday, Im[:ust lOth, the Association ran
Car ),1046 to Lachine, terminating a service which had bean started in
1$96. Further details on this trio. next month.
— F E A T U Ê I N G —
8: 30 AJ`,,,ï
with approximately two-hour layover at destinationfor aut-n co|ouËAËo??5:î¥ï: …………. $ 4oo ±
ÎÎ=h::Ïè_ .Ë:_:Î, s::= gThali:Ï;LudîaEË;i:te ursule Fall.s and thel¥FARE …………………. $ 6.00 ±—–1————

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