Consulter nos archives / Consult our archives

La majorité des documents conservés par le Centre d'archives et de documentation de l'ACHF sont disponibles pour consultation.

Most of the documents kept by the ACHF Archives and Documentation Center are available for consultation.

CRHA News Report no02 august-1937

Lien vers le document

Canadian Rail no02 august-1937

Number 2 August,1937
of the
de Ramezay.
The first number of the Bulletin
of the Association
April, 1937. It was frankly
in nature.
The fact that it
was favourably
and that it appears
to be firmly seated among
the activities
ot the Association
would seem
to make it desirable
the Chairman
of the Editorial
to otter to the members a
of its policy.
Since the birth of the Association
in the Spring of 1932, the
even necessity,
of issuing a bulletin
has been apparent
to all. It was rightly
that it would serve to preserve
and reports
of the societys
and to
contact members
unable fram distance,
or other reasons,
to attend the
regular meetings.
The Railway
and Locomotive
after which our Association
is patterned,
has published
a bulletin
since 1921, one year after its founding.
it was not until
this year th.t we have been able to follow suit. In February,
that a mimeograph
was available,
and in March he was
to prepare
the first issue, which would-form a
for disc~sion.
No.1 appeared
a month
It was found
and at the May meeting
he was chosen to head a three4nan
Committee_ The Committee was
voted funds for the first year.
It is planned
that the B~lletin
will appear four times a year,
in February,
June, September,
and December.
For the present
its size will be confined
to six or eight pages, and the oirculation
to about seventy-five.
As has already
been remarked
the Bulletin
will publish articles
by invitation,
the more important
at the
of the ASSOCiation,
of the minutes,
of ex­
news items, locomotive
lists, and so forth.
For the
it will be mailed to all classes
of members
With the coming year, however,
it would appear to be necessary
to re­
vise this method of distribution,
and Out-of-town
may be
charged a nominal
sum. Copies will be sent to the Archives
of the
and Canadian
to the more important
to aSSOCiated
and to contemporary
the Montreal
Postal District
are earnestly
to inform the Editorial
Committee on
of this Number
they desire further
issues to be sent to them. The budget
is so confining
that it is necessary
to reduce the issue to a size as
small as is consistent
with full coverage,
and also it is desirable
to revise our mailing
lists. Comments,
and suggestions
the Bulletin
be reoeived
with interest.
W. M. Spriggs
Note: This article is condensed from a lecture of the same title,
delivered -by Mr. Spriggs before the Association, on November 18th,
To begin with it may not be of the Charter of the St .Lawrence
amiss to refer to the possible & Atlantic Railway, 1845. The
reasons why the G.W.R. together American gauges were the 4ft.8-1/z
wi th other leading railways of in. touching Eastern Canadas
Canada used the-rail g2uee of five frontier, and also coming into
feet six inches. DetrOit, and the 6 ft. of the Erie
Some sourGes state that the use coming into Buffalo,1I This idea of
of the 5ft .61n. gaup:e was c.aused invasion which to us seems so un-
by an attempt on the part of the founded was not 50 at that time, as
legislatures of Upper and Lower the international feeling was none
Canada to render more difficult an too good. The fact that the United
invasion of Canada by the United States portion of the line was laid
States, but on the other hand it is by the Americans also to the 5ft.
stated that when the two railways 6in. gauge did away entirely with
namely the Canadian St.Lawrence & the protective possibilities of the,
Atlantic and the American section 5ft.6in. gauge to Canada.
of the Atlantic & St.Lawrence to It seems probable that this ques-
Portland, Maine, were being promot-tion 01 a new gauge being brought
ed, the Portland sUP:Dorters of the into prominent notice, may have been
scheme were so anxiolls that their the cause of the.appointment of the
city should have a monopoly of Committee in 1845by a Royal co~.
transportation between :Montreal and mission to enquire into what wouta
the Atlantic, that they urged the be the most suitable gauge for
5ft.6in. gauge to prevent Boston Canadian railways.
from sharing in the business. It may be noted that this year ,;
(Boston, I believe, at the time was 1845 was the same year in which the
already ser/Od by some local lines Charter was granted to the St.
of the 4ft.8-1/z in. gauge.) Lawrence & Atlantic Ry., the in-
Personally I agree with the auguration of the litie was in 1846
opinion expressed by Mr. Loye 1n and although the junction with the
his interesting articles on the American section the Atlantic & St.
Grand Trun~ Railway in Bulletins LaITrence Ry. at Island Pond did not
Nos. 18 and Z5 of the Railroad and take place until 18 June, 1853, I
Locomotive Historical Society, in believe I am correct 1n stating
which he intimates that fran parti-that the two railways were in work­
culars on record the views of the ing order for some distance inland
British military element carried from their terminal pOints about
considerable weight with the Govern-1B48, in which year the important
ment, and their idea evidently was bridge over the Richelieu River at
that a break of gauge would mater-Beloeil was completed and a number
ially hinder any attempt at in-of locomotives were delivered to
vasion of Canada by the United both railways.
States. He says, The British Apparently it took this Committee
Authorities adopted the 5ft 6in. as six years from 1845 to 1851 to do
the Canadian gauge, because it was anything and in that year a large
a well defined medium between the number of professional men Engineers
prevailing gauges tn the United and others, were called up before
St~tes at the time of the issuance the Committee to state their views
and opinions. either side being carried across
Tackabury in his Atlas of the it, will deprive Canada of the
Dominion at Canada: I8??, quoting greater part of said travel.
from the 1:Ra tlways of Canad~1f by Tackabury cont irues, -nThere
~.M. and E.Trout, in referring to is something prophetic in some of
the Committee appointed by the these reasons. The Great Western
Royal Commission of 1845, to report Ry. which was practically compelled
on the most suitable gauge for the by the Legislature to adopt a 5ft.
railways of Canada, 3ays:-1liany of 61n. gauge was obliged to reduce
the persons examined br-rore the it by means of a third rail to en-
assembly Committee in 1851 were not able AmeTican cars to pass over
in a position to form the best their line. The section of the
o:!Jinion as to the relativJ3 values Main Trunk Line east of Montreal
.of different gauges, Mr. Harris, had been commenced with a broad
President of the Great Western Rail~ gauge and that circumstance may have way must
be presumed to have given had some influence in determining
the question some consideration and the decision of the Committee.
he gave his opinion in favour of And so with all the evidence be-
the narrow gauge, vh ich the Great fore them and all the c ircumstanc as
Western Ry. had then adopted. He to be considered the Railway Com-
said that all their calculations, mittee on the 31st July 1851 de-
plans and specifications were then cided in favour of the five and a
bllsed on a four feet eIght and a half feet gauge.
half inch track, and he gave the Of Course a great deal more evi-
following as his reasons for its dence both for and against the 5ft.
adoption. First: Its established 6in. gauge was brought before the
character Second: The saving of Committee, than what I have quoted,
money in the superstructure, ties but it seems to me that the balance
and rails requiring extra strength of opinion was in favour of the 4ft.
for the broader gauge. Third: 8-l/2in. gauge.
saving of expense in running In spite of the fact that two
machinery for all time to came, railways between Canada and the
Fourth: To form an easy and econo-United States, the 5ft. 6in. gauge
mical junction with the railroads line between Montreal and Portland
of Michigan and New York from which and the 4ft.8-l/2 in. line Montreal
the Company expects to receive very to New York were in full operation
large additions to the traffic on and that either of these routes on
their road, a considerable portion which there was no break of gauge
of which is expected to folloVl a would have been available for in-
Grand Trunk Line through the Pro-vas ion purposes, I still believe
vince to Montreal. He added,-that the fear of invasion loomed
ITI consider the adoption of a large to the military authorities
broader gauge than 4ft.8-1/2in. and this together with the fact as
would prove injurious to the in-mentioned above that not only on
terests of the Great Western Ry.Co., the railway to Portland but on the
as well as to the Main Trunk Line Main Trunk Line east of Montreal
as far as Montreal because I feel the 5ft.6in. gauge was already es-
that every inducement possible will tablished, led the Committee-to –
require to be made to secure the decide in favour of the 5 ft.6in.
principal part of the travel from gauge, even in the face of the ob-
Chicago, etc., through Canada, in vious drawbacks of change of gauge
preference to the various channels during transportation.
now being opened on the South side Whether the foregoing opinion is
of Lake Erie; and I feel convinced correct or not may be open to ques­
that an~ ~auge that will not admit tion, but the Government made its
of the oae€age cars of the .l~ads decision in 1851 that the National
joining the Great Western Ry., on railway gauge of Canada should be
5ft.6in., much to the annoyance of American business drove the Direct­
the Directors of the Great Western ors of the G,W.R to petition the
Ry., who had evidently made all Canadian Government for permission
their plans for a railway of the to change the gauge, and in the
4ft.8-1/2 in. gauge. meantime they gradually mixed the
Although this law did not affect gauge or in other words laid down
some of the earliest railways in on most of their track a third rail
r,,~o.da, such as the Chemplain &; St, to accommodate the 4ft .8-1/2 in.
l … :··::::,~~ce, he Montreal &: Lachine, cars of the United States railways,
l!,e Lanoraie and tbe coal railways so that they could pass fran one
01 Nova Scotia, which Vlere 4ft. point to another of the United
8-1/2 in. gauge it may be noted States over the G.W.R, without
that after the lawvas passed a change.
graa t many 1 ines wer13 la id to the It is interc st ing to note the
5ft.6 in. gauge in Nova Scot ta, No, gradual way in which th is change of
Brunsl1ick, Quebec and Ontario and gauge took place on the Great West­
scnae of the smaller ones ha.d to be ern Railway, and it was rather
subsequently assisted financially unique in this respect compared with
by the Dominion Government when the numerous changes of gauge which
the Dominio!! Government repealed have taken place in various parts
the 1851 la~, whioh it did in 1870. of the world. In most instances,
The Great Western Railway owing once the work of change was put trt
to its geographical position was hand, it was carried through as
from the first very dependent on quickly as ~ossible, the operation
throu~h traffic fran and to differ-after considerable time spent in
ent pOints in the United States, preparation was only a matter of a
in fact the railway ,ractically few days, sometimes only hours,
formed a linc in the est and West Vhereas on the ~.W.R. it was a
traffic of that country. Now, matter of years. The Great Western
none of the United Sta~es railways Railway of England had a somewhat
directly connected with the G.W R, similar experience with regard to
were of the 5ft 6in. gauge, most mixing the gauge on a large part of
of them being of the 4ft.8-1/2 in. their road but when the change of
gauge) wh ich was already at that gauge came they had to clos e a large
time ra;:>idly becoming the standard. part of their main line, which the
An eyceution however was the Erie G.W.R. of Canada did not have to do,
Ry. whioh ~as directly concerned the only part of the line actually
with the C .~:. R at Niagara Bridge, closed was the branch line between
but as this line and its connect-Hemilton and Toronto which was
ions was laid to a gauge of six closed for eight hours, as shall be
feet the break of gauge difficulty mentioned later on. was
equally bad if not worse, The following are notes extracted
As can be imasined t.le transfer fran the half-yearly reports of the
of all foods from the .~..m.erican Great Western Railway.
gauge trains to the 5 lt.6in. G W.R. The Great Vlestern Railway of
trains at Niagara Bridee, and the Canada was opened on 18 Nov. 1853
retransfer fram G II R. to American with a rail gauge of 5ft.6in. in
trains again at qiadsor or Detroit accordance with the law passed by
was an endless source of confusion. the Canadian parliament in 1851 to
breatage delay and dissatisfacticn that effect.
to everyone concerned, and the Nearly eleven years later at a
United States lines at last took meeting of the Company held on 24
~p the question of an alternative Feb, 1864, the President, Mr.Thomas
route through United States terri-Da tory on the 4ft.8-1/2in. gauge to and loss incurred owing to the break
avoid this trouble. of gauge between the American rail-
The fear of 1osi!l.~ this veluabl! roads and the G. W.R., recommended
that the G ~ R should at once lay was just commencing in November,
an intermediate or third rail of Mr. Robinson says on 23 Aup;.
4ft .8-1/21n ga~ge to acconunodate 1870 that the f1rst two narrow
fl~erican cars, which ~ould then run gau~e frei~ht engines are already
over the G.ry R without change. at work and that more are in hand.
Cost esti~ated to be ~?OO,OOO. A Some B.G. engines are being sold,
year and a half later on 26 i.flarch some broken up and one small one
1866, The President refers to the converted into a N.G. shunting tank­narrOl1
gau@:6 traok about to be la1d enlline. Mr. Reid reports on a3 Feb.
down on the main line and in August 1871 that the th1rd rail had new
of that year, Mr. G. L. Reid, the been removed from 100 miles of the
Companys engineer, reports that main line and from station sidings
50 miles of N G rails are laid. between Windsor and Komoka, and also
The President on 28 March 1857 that in December last the track of
says that the N.G track is oom the Toronto branch, 38 miles, was
plated between Suspension Bridge successfully changed from broad to
and W·indsor. tha..,t it came into standard gauge by an organized force
operation on January 1st last, and of trackmen under Mr. Weatherton
that the new car ferr:r boat, which with an interruption to traffic of
will ta~e 14 or 16 cars, also ran only eight hours.
on that date. Further mixed gauge On the same date the Looomotive
sidings were badly wanted. Superintendent explains that the
Mr. Robinson. the Companys alteration of the gauge being put
mechanical superintendent, reports in hand more rapidly than antici­
at the same time that 198 N.G. cars pated has left him with a shortage
of all kinds are now in use out of of N_G. engines. The Company is
a total of 1511, and toat 2 of the buy1ng a large number of these loco­
new Palace Sleeping Cars, built by motives, both freight and passenger,
the Pullman Company, are at work from the Rhode Island Locomotive
and others are in hand. Works and he is oonverting G.!f.R. From
now on the Vlork of convert-B ,G eIl@:.ines to narrow gauge at the
tng the cars from broad to narrow Companys works as rapidly as the
gauge went stead ily, though the fac 11 i ties will allow. But this con-
locomotives did not seem to be version of the locomotives was
taken in hand until the Spring of attended with difficult1es for Mr. 1870. The
President on 28 Sept. Robinson remarks, Many of the
1870 says that the traffic has been enRines which were considered worth
handled by broad gauee looomotives, reconstruction with new boilers on but
the system of wor
{ing on a their present gauge are found un-
mixed gauge has been found to be suitable to convert to N.G., while
unsatisfactory and expensive. Pra-others, notably the Norris class,
parations are now, therefore, being originally considered not worth re­
made to take up the outside rail -construct10n, are the most practical
Parliament having sanotioned the to convert to N .G. For these
chanpe of gauge -and it is pro reasons it is now intended to re-
posed to purchase some narrow gauge construct the six Norris engines,
locomotives. It is also proposed numbered 17 to 22 inclusive, with
to retain the broad gau?e only 50 new boilers and cylinders, make
lon~ as it is necessary to obtain them N,G., and select good tenders
sufficient N,G locomotives. for them fram other engines, which
The Pacif1c Railroad in the on account of age and difficulty of
United States is spoken of on 13 conversion will be broken up. Five
Oct 1869 as an imnortant source of Slaughter ene:ines, Nos.65,66,68,69,
through traffic for the G W.R now and 72, and the Fairbairn engine,
that the narrow gauge is available, No.32, all being too old and worn
but more mixeCi. sidings are wanted, out to be worth conversion to N .G.
and the use of Bessemer steel rails are being broken up.
Note by lr :.1: S.: According to
t~e 1362 list the six Norris en­
p,1nes were, No.1?, nVenus, No.1S,
ilMinerva, No.20, Jupiter, No.21,
Mercury, II No.22, l1~ars,;i and the
five Slaughter engines were No.55,
lIPython,n No 66, Lion, No.G8,
11Tiger,fI No-59, Ttgros,H and No,
72, !lVulcan,!f The.Fairbairn engine
was No.32, IIS!,)itflre.
The Report continues -The en­
gine stoc~ has been increased by
rive new N.G freight engines
buH t in the Company s shops. The
remaining portion of the en~lne
stock has been somewhat altered
durinR the half year both in point
of numbers and gaUFe. In addition
to the two shunting engines (Nos.
91 and 93) as sold and one shunting
engine, No.92, as having been con­
verted to N· G. in last half years
report the following alterations
and temporary additions have been
made -One freight engine, No.54
(Titan from BirkenheRd) and one
passenRer engine I NO.5 (Wlndsor
from Schenectady have been sold.
Four shunting engines, No.86,
aOntario,H No.S8, IISuperior,
No.89, If.,Hchigan,fI No.90, St.
La.Irence, II from the Globe Works,
Boston, have been converted to N.C.
,One shunting engine, No .87, IrErie, II
is in hand being converted.
Thirteen new N G Passenger en­
gines and nineteen frei~ht enr,ines
have been purchased from the Rhode
Island Locomotive Works and also
one shunting engine. fram Baldwins.
The stock of engines at present is
as follows -77 B G., 43 N .G.;
13 being converted, total 133.
In consequence of this temporary
shortage of locomotives, the
Directors were obl ied to change
their plans somewhat and to retain
the mixed Gauee between Hamilton
e~d London so that narrow gauge
t=ains cou:d be opera~cd by brond
gauve loco~otives Tho Directors
report in April 1872 that by 31
January the whole of the Companys
car stoc k had been converted to the
standard gaupe, but that the broad
gauge is still ke~t between London
and Hamilton on which to run the
rem.-lining broad ga~e locomotives.
Mr. Robinson on 28 Feb. 1873 re­
ports that only 24 B.G. engines
noVi remain out of a total of 17?
The Report of 26 March shows that
the supply of locomotives is still
insufficient and that the outer
rail between Hamil ton and London .
must be continued for the present.
The new steel rails are giving
great satisfaction both 1n use and
in decreased track expenditure.
The Directors in their report of
16 October announce that at las~
this outer rail has been removed
at the end of June, that the system
1s now entirely of standard gauge.
and that at the close of the pre­
vious year only 30 miles of iron
rails remained on the main line.
It is mentioned in the same report
that freight trains of 27 cars are
now run on the main line whereas
24 cars were formerly the maximum
and then extra engine help was
often required. By 1874 the
Westinghouse Atmospheric Brake was
beginning to be installed.
To conclude I may again refer
to the process throup.h which the
Great Western Railway went during
the period of the change of gauge –
First, the layin/Z dovm of the
narrow gauP:e ra 11 primar Uy to
accommodate the American cars, at
that tUne there being no narrow
gauge stock on the G.W.R. N.G.
rail Niagara to Windsor, in opera­
tion, 1 January, 180? Second,
the gradual conversion of the G.W.R.
cars both passenger and fre ight.
First N.G cars running Spring,
186? Third, the conversion of
the locomotives. First N.G.engine,
a shunter, was net run~i~ until
the Spring of 1870.
Locomotive List, I.
Broadgauge Locomotives of the Great Western Railway of Canada,
Compiled by IV .1.1. Spriggs
Cylinders Dia.Drivers Builder Date
Noge3 4-4-0P 15×22 72 Lowell 1853 14
(24) Canada~ 2 (27) Niagara, 5 (28) London, 6 (25) Hamilton
4-4-oPF G.W.E.
(28) London, (27) Niagara, (26) Samson, (94) 1
None 4-4-0::. lGx22or24!f 72
3 (23) lIercules
6, 4
(~6) Samson.
Schenectady 1853
14 4-4-oS 15x200r22 560r60 Globe 1853-4
7 (85) Ontario, 8 (87) Erie, 9 (88) Superior} 10 (89) Michigan/
11 (90) St. Lawrence, 12 (91) St. Clair, i3 (92) Huron, 14 (93)
None 7 4
-4-oP 14×22 56 Lowell 1853
15 (11) Essex, 15 (12) Kent, 17 (13) Elgin, 18 (14) Norfolk, • 19
(15) Brant, 20 (15) Wentworth.
2 4-4-0F 16×24
600r65 G.VI.R. 1867-8
(11) Sir Thomas Dakin, (12) Sir Thomas Faulconer, (13) Sir William
Weir, (14) Brackstone Baker, (15) Brant, (15) Vlentworth ..
3 4-
4-oP 16×24 72 . Norris 1853
21 (17) Venus, 22 (18) Vesta,23
25 (21) Mercury, 26 (22) Mars.
(19) Minerva, 24 (20) Jupiter,
B 4-4-
0P 16×22
72 Amoskeas
27 (44) Reindeer, 28 (45) Elk, 29 (46) Gazelle, 30 (47)
31 (48) Antelope, 32 (49) Greyhound.
7 4-1-0P
(44) Reindeer, (45)
(49) Greyhound.
Elk, (45) Gazelle, (47)
G.W.R. 1858-9
Stag, (48) Antelope,
1 4-4-0P 15×22 56 Schenectady 1853-4
33 (None)9 Oxford, 34 (1) Middlesex, 35 (2) Lightning 35 (3) Detroit
37 (4) Lincoln, 38 (5) Windsor, ~.9 (6) Chatham, 40 (7~ PariS,
41 (8) Woodstock, 42 (9) felland, 43 (10) St. Catherines, 44 (None) 1.
45 (58)
49 (62)
0-5-0F 15×24 60 Slaughter 1854
Atlas, 16 (59) Pluto, 47 (60) MilO, 48 (61) Ele:,hant,
Rhinoceros, 50 (63) Buffalo, 51 (64) Bison, 52 (65) Python.
6 2-4-oP 16×24 72 Fairbairn 1855 53
(32) Spitfire, 54 (33) Firebrand, 55 (34) Fireking, 56 (35)
Firefly, 57 (35) Hecate, 58 (37) Hecla.
5 2-4-0PorF 16:.:24 66 Birke.,head 1855 59
(53) Ajax, 60 (54) Titan, 61 (55) Minos.
62 (66)
66 (70)
70 (74)
74 (29)
77 (38)
81 (42)
83 (50)
12 86 (78 )
89 (56 )
67 (81)
92 (84)
0-5 -OF 16×24 60 Slaughter 1855-6
Lion, 63 (67) Lioness, 64 (68) Tiger, 65 (69) Ti~re.s,
Leopard, 67 (71) Panther, 68 (72) Vulcan, 69 (73) Etna,
Stronboli, 71 (75) Styx, 72 (76) Castor, 73 (77) Pollux.
2-4-0PorF 16×24
Mazeppa, 75 (30) Medusa, 76 (31)
Medea. 1856
2-1-oP 16:r.:24
?2 Fairbairn 1856-7
Gem, 78 (39) Ruby, 79 (40) Emerald,
Diadem, 82 (43) Diamond. 80
(41) Sapphire,
2-4-0P 16×24
72 Stephenson 1856
(51) Oberon, 85 Ariel, 84 (52) Prospera.
Erebus, 87 (79) Cyclops,. 88 (80) Ixion.
0-6-0F 16×22
? 60 Gunn
Achilles, 90 (57) Bacchus
0-6-0F 16,,24
George Stei!henson
, 90
Sarnia, 93 (85) Saxon.
60 G.If.R.
(82) Scotia, 91 (83)
None 4-4-0F 1 ?x24T1
(95,217)il unnamed, (96,218)
Unna~ed, (99,221) Unnamed.
(97,219) Unnamed, 1868 (98,220)
1. This classification appears in the Official List of 1869.
2. P -Passenger, F -Freight, S -Shunting.
3. Locomotives tlNiagara, London, and Samson replaced in 1852.
4. Original number.
5. Number as it appears on Official Lists of 1862 and/or 1869.
6. Rebuilt by G.1.R durillfl the period, 1861-6.
? Removed frol:l service in 1867. Hercules became locomotive
fire engine.
B. Removed fram service in 1869,
9. Oxford was mvol,ved in the Desjardins Canal Accident,
!.larch 12, 1857. It was probably scrapped.
10. What locomotive, first of the coelburners, this replaced in 1860
1s uncertain. It may have boen No.67, Panther, but this
appears in the 1862 List.
11. These locomotives were renumbered soon atter purchase.
Special SU1mlement: Through the courtesy of Mr. Freeman H. Hubbard,
Editor of Raflroad ~:lagazineU, we arG able to mail to the members
with Bulletin No.2 a re;..rb.t of liThe Railroad !Ian Movement!, an
article v;rhich apleareo. in the Jaly issue of Railroad Stories.
The Railroad Fan Movemenl

« – ï`
IN 1820 the first steam
railroad in North Amer-
ica was built and operated
b} Col. ]ohn Stevens on
his estate at Ïloboken,
`-. ].. where the Stevens
lnstitute of Technology
stands toda.`. It was a privately-owned
mrTütrTgaLæ line which ran around àn
qTal shape.. but it had passenger carsdraïn b}- a real steam locomotive, so it
dtfinitely marked the birth of steam trans-
portation in this countTy.
You might think that the . movement began about the same time-but
it didnt. That did not come until exactly
a hundred years later. .lt least, no serious
effort was made to organize a group of`
railroad hobbyists until the fall of 1920,
although the photographing of locomotive,s
and trains for the purpo.æ of making and
exhibiting picture collections dates back for
at least fifty years, and in New England
there was quite a group that held one or
more meetings to display their treasures
and èxchange reminiscences.
The old RAiLROAD }IANs MAGAziNE,established in October, 1906, served as a mouthpiece for the hobbyists as vœll as the `
railroa,d men themselves until ]anuary,
1919, when it suspended publication. This
lef.t a ùide gap which only a railroad jour-
nal could fill. Moreover,twhile Charles E, `
Fisher,, a railroad-minded Bostonian, Was `
wr. inéttils Histàry of the o,d Co,ony Rœj:l-
roŒd, he became painfully aware of the
need of some kind of organization to pre- i
serve the documentar.y records of railroad
history. So he got together with two ;
possibilities of such a society.
Mr. Fisher had_ railroading in his blood i
for three generations. His grandfather had
helped to finance the.`old Boston & Provi-
dence and his fathérhad worked for thirty
yeais with William Mason, the locomotive
builder of Taunton, Mass. Charies Fisher,
carrying on the family tradition, began his
rail experience at an early age, working at
the loc,al £reight station in Taunton during
summer vacations. After graduating from
university he worked for the Pennsy, then
at a s`teel plant and in the U. S. Bureaï
•S PioJt}H :iott}m3 `[[çJJew .M utiof :}œp
•çS9Id 90!A `UO|8Umm Â9UP!S 918 SlaoB30
Joqîo .ÂJt}tsJO9S S! SqœBf .JW .Sst!Eq. `©1]
-ugo uoiAÀ9N `i99Jts J(mqAA9N TS ]e S9Ai|
9H .Â10PoS 9tit ]o tu9P!S?id eqt, se ÏioAisœ
%#aff7¢g sm }o ]oî!p.:pq| sç, .]9t|s!d .sJaqusu
i{q i(Pjpœ ugi]iJAA tiagq sœq sÂt}jhiœ puB s!
`psns`si su!9q iips s! qotqjM« ;#?ja?f7¢g gq3 ]nq
:pgddoip st}AÀ iœugi!hbai it2q] `i9A9AAoti`9up iiotis e u!ui!ÀÀ .iz6i `t|isI U.J
pgqs!iqnd st2AA %.¢ja?2#g isig gqi Puœ `ÂJ01
•siq pt}oJi!t}i io gsetid gtnos qi!, 8uçiB9p
gp!iJe ug ituqns oi p9J!nbgi sBm diqs]9.q
-uigu Joi git?ptpuî39 t|3t}9 13Slno 9U1 ]V•9u[ZEst2U
io ^iios guios snss! oi pgp!39p pué Â39!o
-OS [t}3!Jots!H 9At|Oulœ0| ZS Ât?AA|!t!ü 9UI
pgz!œsio dno]8 [ims sçqi qotqAA iœ `.Ss
~`9iiugo uoiAAeN u! 9uoq Stm}Jmo .JW lt2
Ppq SgAA su!|99u V .OZ6T Uç sU!||OJ t|Bq
– 8qi P9ÎJt}is Sqœt}f PuB `ueJmo `Jatis!H
•UO!1t}1S qînos 9qt I0 S]auAAo `.oo tt?u!tn
-J9L UO|Sofl gtp tp}AÀ P9t.9uuœ AAOu S!PUB` `Pt}OI|çœH ÂU0too P|O 9q| 0| J9AO ]U9A
9q I9m .Sst!W `Ulgq|| lg I9tst!Uplt2Â
sœjp giui!] euo iœ puœ Pt}oJiçt2¥ 8mqu31H
pio« 9qi uo ]æit!o i!t?J s!q tre89q `sqœt}f
œ`iit}jvL `uopt!Z!m}8JO Ut}] Pt}oJ[!t2i isJu
gqï, p,9mlo} oqAA oI]t gq] }o PJ!qî aqLsŒOLS
c[voüTivH `Jossa3ms Si! PUB HNIZVOVW
StNVW C[vomv`| P|o 9q] ]ol sg|3!Îlœ
}o sugzop ugti!m aou!s st}q aq :8up!]AA
10} }U9[tzi t2 8U!dopA9P S€jM 9U 9tp!| 9Ult3S
9qî IV |tzuitma] tt!qi io ]no put} u! utu
qoTqAA suit2i] 9qi q.t oi i(i!umioddo ue
ui!q 9Atzs Uo!]t?]S ieJiœo Put?JO ,aq| 9Aoqt}
9uoTi s!H pui2 :sutt!i} put} seApouiœoi
U! P9]S9I9ÎU! Sj{|g St!AA 9q `Sl{Oq ||euIS
/{ut}u it29]8 t} aï!ri .i(]!SJ9A!un uoJ] 8u!itm
-ptzJS Joi}e sHioA 9Aitouœoi SJ980H aqi
tii!AA pgioguuœ gmt!.9q Œ}JJno Jnt|IJV•9ut?8 Âtddns
ÂtzAA[!tz] 9UI OIU! 8Utos l(|[t3mu9A9 `.HZ9
•H.N.Â.N at|] IO Sisai Io iusuîit}dgp gqi
UIPA P9|.9Uuœ SEdl au Jt?M P|Jojn at|| io
gsop gq] it> PuB :uO!ÏonpgJd ?jBJ.J!V ]0
^+!sJa^!uri put3^jeH }o ÂJeJqH J9*tza m u! oui `Æ
}o!oos ieo!Jiois!H e^!`ouuoooi
g ^eMi!ea eu} io }!q!iixE }ueut}iujed u! peoJi!ed ^uoioo pio
Œ o} ÂiaBJt;i pe}o^9a JeuJoo v
SHlt[OLS ŒVotlllvH
-u! oitz otiAÀ suosigd ot eiqt2t!t2Aœ î! 8u!Ht}u
pug it2!i3]t3u pt}oii!€i it}o!iois!q su!A]9seid
]o 9sodmd ii3ui8!Jo si! oi dn paA!i uetit
a]OU St!q Âte|OOS aq] `S8}t!]S PSÎ!Un gt|I U!
S9!Jtuq!i ]S98Jt}t gqî }0 Âîju U! 9|Ü UO îd9H
AÀou s! q3tqln `%??a?f%g s3t qSüom Pue
sgo!Aiss gsgqi qsno]qi, .9o~!]d` 9iqBuost}8i
}B P3US!umi 3Jœ tp!uAA uioii s}u!id `s®Ap
-t389u io uo[]33i[œ su!inois puœ 88Jt}i E SBH
PUP `.3,.d .H .| 9t|I Oi suipuods9Jiœ `}ugu
-Îit3dgp 98uetpx9 Se Stzu .S.H.|Z8.U 9tlL
„.J{|9!30S Siui u! snooi e o]
iTisnoJq [[œ eiœ j(9qi inq„ `J9ustH . sÂt!s
„`j{it!A s]9queui ]no ]0 S}S3J9]U{ euL„
•ooS punoit?
S! .S.H.T9.ti gt|1 ;0 d!tisJequgui [t!io} 3tiL
•Â]tzî9Joes S! `ost29!tio `.Ju J9is9tpIOG 91 IS
`i9Â9usun .M .Œ .Âiiui.tA atn ui ts9]9i
-uÇ ]o siuiod oi suo!smox9
8uiiosuods Â[9Ap3t? s{ pm3
« 3S!T dït[SJ9quigu Poz!s-poos
t} sist}Oq i{pt39i[t2 `oBe sip9{
9idnœ e pgz!ut!8]ô `dno?-?
ost30!tio 9t|L .J(}}3 ïJCIÂ
AÀ3N `X3UUV TtzJIU93 Put:J9`7ç7 xos st ss3Jppe it2Pu
io s{I9|dt}u. 9tm .uospnH
29 9Jt?AAt}|3Π3t|} }0 Ut3!JO]S!H
9tit s{ ouM `ÂJiusnoo .f .A
i{q p3p383.ns St}AA J9qt?L .JW
`]9]dt?u3 3tp }0 mzttEtic> isJU
9UL .9u!Zt28t3u SEut ui dn uo]
•||JAA U99q 9At!q J(Pt39J|t} S9I|
-çAçi3t? 9SOHAA `.f .N `UOS!Pt?W
}o u3ZP!3 E `J9qt?J, .L .L JO
SÎJOH9 3U] 0| 9mst?9u 98]tzi
u! 9np sgjm `p[o sjt39Â ]noi
AÀoü `J9idt?tp Â|!3 ïlo AA9N
3ui ]o 8u!punoH .o8txJ!u3
Pug Ât!o qJOÂ AA9N U| SJ91
-dt3Ho su!Tis[[qt}is9 `JAOJ8 oi-xa pm3 8Hp.aitœ `spu!H srio!Jt}A ]o stoqs
ptzoJiiB] uapou su!ïœu io sgçqqoq gti] ti!
]sgiaiui it}tndod gsnoiB ot j(.u98œ gisu!s
igu]o Æœ Ui2ui 3Jou sdt3uied guop stzti ii•Bpt;tn;D pue s9Îtzts paim Qq] ut Âitsoui
inq piiojn 3qi ]9Ao iiB pgigiïæos `s]9quiatH
ooo`oi ]noqB sigqunu AÀOU .0.d.H.| 9qL
•SElüoLS C[VOü
-UVU ]0 Ioltp9 }U9S9Id gtn +plt!qqnH .H
uBuaoJd J{q „`sgmio!d suisuH su!io9iTOo„
pai]pœ StNvW avoüTivH uç gio!im uB
tisnoJti] `ïç6i `i{Jmut2f u! P9tioumzi st2Ai
S!qL .qn|O 9m13!d ?u[8uH it?uo!it}uJ9iui
gqi sBjn iuetnoAoui ut}i aqi ut doîs ixgu
gq], .sm2] puœ sitt}J q]oq ;o Îq8!tap gqî Ot .
qonu `poAtAal sæA HNIZV0VW StNVW avoü .`-TIVH Pio at|1 `6Z6ï `JoquI909ci u! `ugqL
•suœiad paputu-t!t}i, 9iqtsuodsoi iaq]o `
Âut3 o] ositz Înq .S.H.T8.U
ieo!joi§!H peoJi!et] up!peueo
gu} |o }uep!seJd `OÆo| uuor
P9nupuœ Set| .S.H.T9.ü 3qt `9|!t|AAŒi9W
-t2z!uEBJo P9JPutï Pm! .S.H.T9.ü 3t|? t|1}AA
uopœigdoœ u! suo!sm.xg ut}i su!iosuods
uasq st}q .o.d.H.i aqt s]t}9Âi iugogi ui .ugtii
u! iœuiito]œ pm} suo!it}z!tresJo J9tiio
;0 uO!tt3Ulioï 9q| P9]t3inui[ts pui2 Stœu-9Aou ut}} oi sniadu! igjAod E u9A!8 sEti
ii .sÂt}p guosJ{q ]o 8u!pt}oii!t3J ]o so]oqd
gupuos9Jd Pue `stmi3r!id uons Buput?Tp
çZ9tp IO SJ9qu9U 0} i([UO
|ou ugdo 3Jtz uingsntH puE
jt]t3]q[t Sm ]0 t§9!1!||Ot;ï gqL
pio `so]oqd `sîœun3op
`Sio[udued `sïooq st} Tpns
it3!J9ltzu tt}.TJots!q PtzoJut?J
}o uo!togiiœ B suiu!tziu!m
ui gsn stt Joj `4z6i `tp9
J3qui3AON UO Â19çOOS 3tp
o} ]9Ao pgum1 9I9AA Âlt3Iq
•Ïr| J9Ht!a gqi u! Suiooi oAAt
1€U11[ns9J 9Ul tii!Aï `uo!i3is•uœ io gsmœ u! uaqi `iootps
SS9U}SnΠj(1[S]9Atun pJt}AJt3H
9Ui }0 ÂJt3]q!ri J9Ht}a gq? jo
Ut!EJt!Jq}[ `uoit!H .o Sa[Jt3ti3
9it2i gut }0 uotiugiiæ gtii 0}
itisnoiq st?AA uo!io9[[œ ototid
tsqœt?f . 8utqtJoS9P 9[3!iit;
]3dtzdsAA3u e J3it3i s]tz9Â
JnoH .S1]9Snu0t2Sst}W }0 SAAt}[ 9U} Jopun
P9it}iodJœu! St}M .S.H.|29.t[ 6Ul çZ6T UI
•3doJnH pm3 t}ptzmo `sgit!1S P91!Un
gqt înoqsnoiqi Paigîitzgs u9Aas AAou gie _
9igqi teqî os `poÎu!oddB 9JSAA SOAçÎBitias9J
-dgi `ït}uÔ!i!ppœ uo lœAA aup sœ puB `pui2i
•8uH u! sts9Jeiui si! J9}}t} Hooi oi 3A!tBttias
-9idai t; P9Îu!oddt} Â}9!00S arql ZZ6| U|•I9mstz9I| `J9ï.3a
•d 98Jœo Puœ :J(]t3|9IO9S îut}1S!Sst}-`J9œA| >«
`8u!AABJP S!q|, .9A!10UlœoF ISJB Stt}PœüBO
`/9js9¢./oo ati] }o 9pt}u. 9q su!int3Jp 8 qiçMi
poît}J}sn `Âtmi!BJ isJÜ stt!piut}3, ]o  œ
`9s!tB9n it}o!ioîs!q isJu s!q p?zi/aÆ foaJ{%o#
Ôu} u! pgusçièin`d `eÂot . to6[ ui
•Hum], Pm3JO `eq) uo poAI9s 9Atzq
soA!]t!io] esq!? igqto et!qA^ `SJt!9Â 9Au-Â}]!q}
9q qsnoqî|V ….9Iaqt S9A!| |ms Puœ `ja2AIueu
ïU], PùtzIO 9m, ]0 .8U!Ssom |9Aa| Îælts
U!œlunow srqt }0 ]qsts U! SPUBÏS t|.!qJn
esnoq p q! `i88Ï `qls J9quaîd9S .UO `199ils
X!|9d .]S` Z|4 tœ |tzaJ?UçW U!ruioq St2Ai
aH .uo!ssa,]o]id i(q ts!i]œ ue s! 9Âoi .m .Uopt?çOOSSv pt!OI[!€U, 9q}
!o iugp!sgid Â]t2iouoq osie s! sut2!]tmb!Î
-UV 9qt ;o ti!iow tœptsûJd aiçqin `st!qçti
-x9 `pt}o]|!BI lo] p9AI9sal s! ulool œ al9qm
`Ât2Zauit2H 9P nœgit}qo 9q] `SJOÎJtmbpt29q
•S.N29.V 9q] Ü! Ppq aiü aunf o] J9qm9]
dos uo]Ï uot3t2çr3oSSV Pt2o]ttt,t[, 8q„ §8ut
. -}99U Âm-UOW.a.U!S J9A9 P5te!ÏÜ]8 4|9SoP`u9®q giÀœq suopœztut}8io oAu gqi `paep
-ui `pup suçi89U uo!tt!Z!UtzsIO .V.H.t|.O9tiî Îœ ut}uii!œp sBin `Ât9PoS uB!]t}nb!i
-uv gqt }o }uep!S9]d `uçJow ]oio!A•Âlt!,9J39S
UJhoJa H tJsqoH puœ tugpçsaid sB 9Âori
uqof qtçAÀ `PauJo} S .V.H.H.0 9ql `Zç6I
`qîs| qûJt}W `UOP!q!qx9 9q} }0 9SOP gq| |V
•Âtopos O!]t}uistunN ïg ut}!Jt}nb!iuv stit
}0 S]aquau Âpt3a]tB 9]9A Uom }0 }SOUI
`sut}!pt}m2o }o drioJ8 9!tst;!sntiiœ uB Jeti]e8
•o) ttisnoJq s!q], .oo4i ot tsouie q.t!q su!`
-it!p `t!ptzo u! ssÜ!pi!nq ]sapio gm io auo
`it}9JÎuow u! umgsnu Ât}z`eut}H Op nB9tœqD
arq} u! Soioqd Puœ `S}ugtmJoP `iB!i9)Bu
Âtzjhi!t2] ]o ptgq sœiA Üo!iiq!qxa 9!iqnd e`.|.1S 8.0 3t|1 }0 J{Jt!U3]U9. 9U| 8U!ïlt}W
• Z çs T
`UISZ Ætm]qgd P3131it3UO `30U9IMET .1S 8
u}t}iduit}qo sqi `pBOJ ut!ais ]SJu stœpt!mo
}o `qt]!q gqi ]9]iB Âintu83 8 pgpuno] uoii-t!poSSV it}3!Jois!H Pt;Oiut2H m2!Pt}Ut20 9qî
st}in os `pt}oJi!t2] uB9]S |SJU Stt!3H9UIV JO
.dçusJsquigu i9]dBtio!œs m
*o!un! Joi sanp it}u!uou o} uo!i!ppœ Ü! `0]!|
JO} OSS 10 `Jœ9 œ ç$ 9JB sgnŒ .P9ts9J9i
J9nu9AV Ïoola sTT ]o `Uo]9s .v pJt2uœi
•sn. `pAAOŒto t?uuv ss!w puB :XnoJJ9i.
•| .0 `Pm3u3ü .V .i `Snsuv .H .Œ `SJoÎ
-39Jtp [t?uO!iEPpe :it?9J?uow `uoitt?z!uo[œ
pm uo[it!J8!uui! io tœuiit?dop StoU!3eci
ut}!Pt}ut}3 9ul ]0 `U013U!A98 .H .W .SIW
`J9inst}9J1 :it}9Jluow `1S3M `133J]S 9ïOOJq
-I9t|S 74TZ `S[[Otp!N .A .A .U ÂJt)t9J03S
:9Jt} S]90U}O J9t|IO .®aq3nô IO 9.U!AOJd
`9nA9[[9a 9P 9UUV .9ts `| T T Xoa 90U]O isod
`Sss[Ids .W .A| St lu9P[Se]d 9.!A 9tm
•1U9P!S3Id AAou S!
9Â0| .JW tp!UAA jo `UO!1t3T30SSV |t3.[IO]S!HPt?OJ|!t}H Ut2ÏPüut}0 9qi io su!punoç aqi puœ
UO!}Tqçux3 Âdt!SI9AtuuE lalJt!qo .Tls29.3 9m
u! P9iins3i uo!}B!oosse i!9q], .ueHo]s!ti Âen
-i!æi m}tpt}ut2o unouï-ipAÀ Aiou 9t|i `uJnoiH
.H ]]9qot[ tpçjvL ,Ot3,uœ o,uç sÂor[ .]Ït
]qsnoJiq 1! înq `Jom u! st}Ai osit? igpou
StqJ, .4Z6T Uç Uopt}J9P9H Utz!Pt}ut}o 9tii
]o }ut!98t}d 99i!qnf puout2!c[ 9m u! pasn
gq oî /a?5`a¢.JOGr eqi }o [Ûpou gzisiTt}q tJ
uS}sgp o] uitu p9Hst} Tt}uotlt!N ut2!Peut23 9t|1
`i3®!qns eqi u! isoJ3iu[ s!ti }o i[ns9J t} SV3uÏ}
9U1 1œ 3|qt?Ut}Ae gütsœ it}u1 }0 9ini3!d
igtigq ou sœAi ®igq} tisnoqiiü `ait?mo3t3u!
•^ezôiuet] ÔP nee}t3UO el|} }0
ÂJ9iit}o u!6iE 9ui u! `epeut!o u! una o} e^!}ouoooi
iut?e}s isju „`jo}seiioJoa„ m io eo!idaü
•uinotis s! is9J9iu! 1u3!3Hns
I9A913t|AA `S9!1I3 9sl€[ ]eqto U! SUO!SÏA!p
Su[ziu€S]o 9Jt} Sist?ïsnt|IUH 9tp `.S.H.129.ü
aHi gïiii `J9A9AÀOH .suo!smgx8 9tp pugiit!
Io SigtJtmbpt}3u i!s!A oî giqt?un git! oq.M
J{J]Unœ 9UI IO SuO!|99S J3uio u! sJ9quieui
]o }ugugq gtii Jo} Â[it}[09ds9 `¢Jz7?J78¢7e¢z
a¢LZ `9uizest3u t} Sôtis!iiqnid dnoJS Sçui
`suoiii3z!ut?8Jo is!Âiqqoti J9ti]0 3tp 9H!T
•OOç Ut?tp 3iom s[
d!us]9qugu gtii ÂtzpoL .uoisoŒ `uo!ieis
Ât2a ïptzfl u! i[t}ti t? pgiiddns .H29.H.N.Â.N
9ui ÆJt?ss839u gtm399q si9?itmb i38]t!i
iips uguAÀ Put! :UO|Sofl `UO!1t3]S t|IJON U!
uioo] t! io 3sn gtp P9}t?uoP 9u!ew Z9 uoisoŒ
8tp OS `Popœu St?AA 93tzid sU[]99U I98It![ V
•Sist3!SnuiuH Pt}oJ[{t2u et[L s`e P9it?JodJœui
Âoui uooS Put! `M9JS Sut}] io Âpoq gtiL•d!tisigqugu Jo] eTq}8ÏP S{ u99ixis
i9A0 uosigd Âut! :Jt?9Â t? Z$ |t} |9S 3J9AA
sgnG .uo!it?z}uESJo it?uopt?u t? i[ SuiHBu
joi uist!!snqiœ uonu St?AÀ aJ3uL .J9mstzoJ}
JÂit2igi39s ÂugdÂuow uiE!i[çAA Pue `1œp
i[S9Id 9.IA 9IotH[IO .JW `|U9P!S6Jd U9S0tp
si?M upuod .Jw .pgpu3]ie SùoSJad J(iJitiL
•sst3i[ `uo}Sofl Ui 9.t]]O O!HO E 9H€9dt?S9t[0
9tii u[ `8JOuiço .w .H io J(S9tJnœ eqi o]
Sïut3tI| `P[9t| St?JA SU!|99U ÎSJU 9t|L .8tl!Pt20J
-[}tzi u! pgisoJ9iu! sÂ.oq put} ugu ioi qnpi
t} 8u!uloI ]0 €3Pï gt|| P9A!9.Uœ `.Sst}W`uols|iv !0 J9tidt}JSoiotid 9A!iouœoi pu€
uEu pt?oJ[teJ t? `upuod .AA 9.tzJOH .SU!8q
o]u! 9tHt!3 dnoJs isïÂqqoti lut?iJ0d
-ui igtiîouE `çç6i U{ `HIIHANVHW
o 99i uo!it?!]Eti! ue Âiuo Ât3.d su!i39u
9J 9t|t PUÛ++t? 0} [t?3J}UO|[ UIOJI JEI
A[[ otiAA sigqugu uAAo1-}O-ino .JE9Â
Z$ 9ït} SJ8qu3u lt}|ns9J IOI S9nc[•igqunu J9STBi t3 0} j{]IU jo |U9U
-i|OJU9 9H} 9S!t?i 0| S9dou li .[t39ddt? it?uoP
-t}U. 9IOU t2 UO{]t!!OOSSV 9t|t 9A?S 0| J3PJO
u{ `%g¢a??2gg e suinss! Jnou Sç `.S.H.TU
9ti} 9ï[i[ `put} `uoïitzmoiui Suisut?}
put} 8uiioaiiœ u! Âou3!3g]9 ]3it?9i8 ]88 o]
sgmst?9u 9Apt;iedoœ pgidopt! st}ti iT :SuçB
Si! ]o tueuiu!t2iit3 pit2Moi sdgis AA9u oAAt
U9ïei Seu .V.H.ti.3 8tii Jt?9Â S!tp isnf
`f .9US!SUI stuo!lt3toossv 9t|] uoi}
a®[iou jh no st? `uo[]E8?At?u tt?oquit}9is
oi œAF si uo!]ugi}e it?}3ads «.t2Pt}ut!Duç Âiois{q uo!it}iJodsue]] Jouio putz 9Apou
-oûoi `Ât?in[!t!J oi 9A!tt}[9i ®i3 `stidtzJBo]oHd
`s]ugumop `so!pi `uo!it!uiojui io uop
-nq!J|S!p gti] Put? `uop!qitix9 9q] `uo!it}AJ9
-S9Id gtp `UOP.9||œ 9H|„ S! `Smo9dso]d S|!
ot Su!p]œ.e `3sodind Stuope!®oSSV eHL•sdotls
it!uopg.N ut!!Ptztit?o 9tp ui sut?[d stuop
-t2poSSv gq] 01 i[!nq `JafJa¢O/oo gtp jo
t}.!idgi J9tiiout? st}jn suït?JÎ esgtp u! pgpnpu!
:.r].]sB.. P[o 9t]t ]:o [UÇu]]9] tÂPA[to9ds3j
`9iJ!t?Jdt?i o} putz Sutiof .ÎS oi }u9Jn it?9J]
-uoi{ uioij su!t2J] it!!93ds `t|}6| PtlB H18I
Âinf uO Ï12!]91I [t30!J01S!u Jatiio tiiçAi
J9til9SO1 .n€31tzuo 3t|i lœ gç6[ ]o J9utHns
gtii u! Poi!q!Hxg st}n S!Ti, .Jajfa!/JJOŒ
9Tp io t?oHd3J 3[tz3S t? ]içnq `i{19Pios 3ç}tJm
-siun_-S ut?!it3nb!]u- aqJ .io .pngmH –i
Put3 UnoJg[ -ü iJ9qoü ;j{itzua]ua. aq] m]
•|tz3]]uo|t .Io ]no `=uop]nm tlE.[
iE-uo!stæm um oi süeid ptie edk}Js >i! pm
-Ptzo]q!S SEU ]| .9ç6| -.{mr U! Parluq
-9[a. stzn qJ!qn `Pt?o]HeH aJ[anLtr| -)S
28 u!gidui3T. ap .io 8u!uado ep .io .ùBtia}
-uo. eT] Jo.i suopt?]t?daJd u]iii p3uia.uœ
Â[!iEuç]d 3J3n s]3qu3u uo!]t!z!uESJo 3ui
eou3isçi-3 >i! ]o SJ€9J{ JnoI ISJU 3H] JOI•Uoptzpossv 3t|] jo ÂJE]9IO9S 3T]
oi pgss3ippt2 3q pinotis s9!]!nbui .t3pput!]
UI 9SœTJ|-9 JO 3|tzs JOI 9|qtz[!t!At? SudEJS
-0|0Hd ]0 ]S!i 3igiduœ J{iJ!t!i t? 3iU UO Sd33H
tpitijh .3ai]!uiuœ 38utzti3xg tidt?Jsoioud
gtii io utzuJ!tzH. S! `is9M itz9J]uoW `t|lnos
eABq p|noA` 9jn .It!Û alt|t U! SUI9|Utî| aalqt
dn sunq ain os `s}q8!i ou pt!q q.eœ aqL
•9|npaqos pu!qsq smoq 9IOAl aAÀ
]o] `t!œm suoi œ pœq Âoq,i, .ioutini Dt?sooH
tt? PiaT u!t}Jt i{oJL oq] aAœq o} pÔsutmt>
j{8q| |nq `ap!I p|o,o æ pgq sAtzq }snu
uau gsoq], .]ti8!u ]t?q} uO]soH o} Ï.t2q t98
pinœ gin os sn io} oinî-j{]x!S JequnN uPJt
Pm 01 .N29.8 0qt ]{}!lou Ot U038U!U|m
]oj ¥3t}q p3?J€]s [n3J3 UO!33®§ 9qL .ïJ€P
su!AAols puœ j{|mo ÆOA su!t]as s ||„
•psiit}]ep st}AÀ osiB qoBœ .WJ9.8 9qt JO
ï3mi Pitzjn]oi sq} put? `puno]8 aq} uo stzin
Â88nq gq} `ï.t?ii ati] #o ai9AÀ iopu9} 9u!8u@
9ti} ]0 Sïomî o.m} 9qi, .pgddots gj puB
S9ït}]q atit ]u9AÀ uo Âiuappns .9tu!i aqt iip
H.q su!Ïooi s J88u!8ug aqi .tzq] pa.!tou
sAi aAm d]tzqs œ uo apt2]8 d89# aqi su!
•qul!p aJaAÀ aAÀ sV .sn q]!AÀ qt}. au!8uo 9q}
U! aJ9fl (.S.H.|29.Ü iaq] jo SJ9punoj sq} ]o
ouo jo e]!ÀÀ) ut2JJnD .SJW P`UB a]!Jn J{W„
•d!J} it?H} uo 9uo-Â?ugini,
8q. P9JU S]9quau Jno ]o atio .suiÉiunou
pu@ sÂ9iit}A in]]opu 9ti} A`@!A pinoo ajn oss]!etp ti}!A^ Pa]]U Sit}® it}U OJnl Put} `H3œœ
ti9PO .wP8 t! `ÂSsnq }ti8!9i} t} `euo
-Â}u3iwL J®qunN `J9i®atiAÀ-ueî uiaq}nos
UEstq®!W 29 9JOuS 9Ït}i Pio ut} jo pasod
-Uœ St?AA U!€i| ino .ai!ul 9qt 0} ]a6] p3]p
-unq oint `9pt!]S dœ}s t! qu!p o} pt?q 3jh
`tno s9|!u a9]t|} |noqt; `s|m u!t2tunow su!
.Aœ®r] .3uoq ]o, PÔ,]t2,S ®AÀ ,,uou]ÛA tuù+
-8u!ui!A u! u]9Aei, stpi!u3 te J3uu!p 3tig
t! ieijti put} `iiaA 9uos pt}u su!tiîÂJeAH„
:SÆt}S ii!JJ®W .JM `3}n9J O!u9.S 3t!t|?
io^o suo!s]n3xo 9Hi ]o 3uo inoqg su!ii9L
]3^o sd!]t ol] 5pt!ul 9AÀ « }.t?] u! `Jt2al{ }s]Ù
at|L .9uoP 9^t?u 3Ai S!tiL .Jtæj( ÂJ9A9 u!BSE
@igqt os oi po]oA 3AÀ ?tzti] eu!} poos g
Tpns PEti 9AI PuE `UAî ®HÎ 0} SÂ9Ï 9q] Sn
9At}S ti]oq ub]Su!uii!AA Put2, oJoqspt!3ti ]o
::ç:apuoat¥àà. s:#
•AA Uqof SÂt?s «`ss33ms }t!ais t} sBAL }i„
•tç6[ `u]9Z },Snsnv tio pt}oJi!éù
uoisu!uim zs iguunL .BsooH aq} ]aAo st2A
suo!sin3xo 4S}St2!SntpuE 3t|] ]0 tsJU 9TL
.a.t]„ poit}! 86 .u.M }oi!d aq} uo .g96i u! uo}Bu!iui!M
p iguun| opsooH .o^o sist!!§nii}ua pt2olipu m p uo!9jnox3
ue poinüH UO!UM leD PIO 9ql
u?m;pooD .a ouoa nq oîoyd
•uO{it?iJods!J} [{EJ isooq
oi (ç) puœ `8uiio9u!8ug igpou 98mœ
-œ 0| (Z) `[t}J9u98 U! uopt3|Jodsut}Ji PuB
`sÂt!ini!t2i oiiiogia püœ uit!8is io i{Jots!ti gqî
su!i9Aœ Tt}tigit}m puœ t2tt3p to9|[œ OL (T)
:9iB .S.H.t[.N eql jo SuiiB P9JhoAV .f .N`uoiu9JL io `uoSuuof («uno-9uiuo€W„)
S9|]t2qo Pue :I9tsBOutzr| lo `Ut!Unt|S
sgut2f :. .N `uÂiHooia io Îugpms jnt!i
œ `.|i| `UOulBH .d Ult?iA :.t;d `J91St}3
-Ut?| IO îUBtuno.Ot3 Ut3 `SquœiH .H uœri
:üBuiiçd . 9i9AA sJ9puno} [t!ui8!io gqL
•t!d `J{Jtv .]W IE `.Jf
`tlt}tH11td .V S9TJt3qo IO Suioq aqi tii -8uT]99ui
t! ït; Âigtoos it?oiJoisiH Ât}AAT!tzH itzuoilt?N
9qi, P9Punoi-qnTo Â9[[oJ]j gtt}Îsigitii gti|
Put}€> Â|9!oOS igist?oueri gqi suipn[Oui `sqnio
Pt?OIiit?J it?J9ASS ]0 SJ9quI9UI-Sut?| Â]JO] io
dnoJs t! `Sç6T `t[}bT J9q
-opÔ uo Pue :pszTuesio
U99q Pt3q Â|9POS |t?OIJO1
.sçH 9APotHœor[ 29 ÂœAA
-i[t2ti igist?0ütz| eul bç6T
tl]8T JtJtmut?f
•y.2r.Er |tzoïpo[I9d gtp 9A[939|
Âoqi `uôiitppœ ui .8utuiBii ioj
S3it33`up]9. dttisJoqu3ui pgnssE
9Jœ Put?, `SPJBO TIoltœoU!|U9P|
ÂHtzo `suoiinq .v.ti.H ©zuoJq
it3eA sigquigw .Siu83i[ddt}
AA9u JO] œj UO!]T2t]Iut Jt}|TOP
t2 U|tM `Jt39 œ Jt?[[OP 9uO `AAo[
Îidgï 9Jé sgnŒ .o3siom}JH m}s
Pm}, `Sinori .is `o8tz0itio `t?|UB|-}V lt: P91B00[ sJ98t3ut2m uois
•TAip Âq pa}ugmgiddns Si `Âiïo
3iJOÂ Al9N `199Jts qîss ]St?H
0T Z lt! SJ9iJt3nbpt38q .V.ti.H
•Suït2ii TE[oads sui
-JïU S9UP9UIOS `SÂt3AA|it3J O[Ji
-09[o snotitm JOAo SdiJ] Pigu Jo
Suo[slmxg ut}I sgz!ut3Slo l|es
-}I UO||t}POSSV 9q[j .SÂt2AA[|œJ
3!JÎ39P IO Splœ9J 3IJOîslt|
igqio pue Soioqd iœiTœ SJ9q
-HI9UI .V.H.H 9ql IO Âut}W
•ûio `iugmdinbo 8uitioit}d`p[o sit3a 99iqî j(i[uo si UO!tt}POSSV
ts]9Pt30]|!t3H O|]109|H 9ql HonoHLT•sip u!t}it sgmioœinuæu tt}qî Âut}duœ € ioi
sqiojA Jnou pue pt2oJt!t3H 1!Sut2JL P!dt}H
Â9SJ9f q}ioN 9qî uo uguiJotoui ï2 sB i99itzo
s|q po|jt2]s oqAA lagu!8u9 |tzo!I|39|9 uœ s!`J(qutnô Ât3f .H `J{iei9J.9S 9t|L .PB0JT[t!¥
8uipt39H 9q] ioi iuesg J98ugsstzd suTiaAtzJ}
œ S! `.Jf `9Hooo .S uB!À `tugp!said
gqi, .sitt2i gq-o|-9ïii-PinoJn UI9q| I0 ||œ
PUB `S||t3I-X9 9tllos `S|!t}I usqî lo gtnos `SUB|
9oiçn! io dno]8 2uis œ Âiq `bç6i `]snsnv ti!
pgqsçtqt}isg sœAA .v.H.H aqL .ÂÎ8PoS it30iJO1•S!H 9Aiîotnœor| B Ât}AÀUt2H aq| }0 tBt|Î
siBnb9 Âpt39iiB `ooS inoqe `ditisigiqui9Ui Sii
•8p[a lsn]L |B!ol9ululoo ç|:8 `uBuo|B8:
•H .i, io d!tisut!mit3H. 9tii J9pun t?{tidi3p
-t?Tiqd Uç ÂUuoogJ Poziut:8io seAA uoÏs!A!p
v .uo!s|ATΠpm3tsuH AAeN 9t|| }o 9molqt
gqî tg si `.Sstzw `SnsnBS `i99its X9SSH
TÇT `SutH|IM .0 .V .tioTsiAÏci uo]8u!qst3AA
9q] io ut?uJ!t?qo osiB Si 9H .0 .Π`uoisui
-t|St?AA `.M .N `Î99JIS H bç7T `uosduotiL
•ri .H Si 7sZJ?f7¢¢fc/Er a¢[ }0 JOITP9 9qL
-istssg Su!qpnf Sinori Put}, J9mst29Ji SÏ Âugd
isBîo9ouss€e#B:o°:::.ood[:] P8:iu;::Îutâ:t?;.„;t,T£
Ë :à°ù°oDri uà;Lïrïi;À~..`:;B+ri t]9]su
[uœT t„ ,
—— ^–^J ^,T^ ^^t« ^T
tii zçzT `siJJBH tiôsJàuiHs}Jt?ci 6ui^oW
oN si(oidw] uo!uM
ieii6!s *ooia o!u}oei]
o!}eLuo}nv ue 6u!Je^oo
euo si !H o} penssi
s}ue}eci .is.n eu} 6uoiuv
uo!}e!oossv {sjept?oJ
-i!et] o!j}oeiE }o i(Je}eJoes
ieuo!}t?N `^qu!nô ^er .E
oÇ0iid O?J,?O02E UJZ)Ç88M
§HIHOJ,S c[votrllvH•V ST ÂJT319I0es 9qL .ÇSo?S7¢¢Çr
<-%g gyj; I0 JOÏ`ÏP9 9?t?I00SSB ST
PW `SButJds JOAiis jo `Seit!H
•G 9.nla `Pltu1 9U .Uots
-[A{Œ ï[JOÀ AA9N 9U| ]0 Ut3tH
-iiœqo `Â}io HJO« ivioN `9nu
-9AV Hlt}d OT `JAOUS tlI[qutzIH
9UO .Stu9PTS9Jd 90iA 99Jq] 9+t?
9J9qL .o8g S]e9Â moj Înoqe
sŒiuoJ,S avoü[ivti u[ pgiuiJd
gptiJg ut3 Tisno]ui Sist!tsntii
•UH 9qL ]0 P9mt29[ }SJU Oqin
`uiAApooD .ci t!üt?C[ SI IUlno
siqi io igiqo sEq iœsaid sqL
pooS 8 PBq [[8 9AÀ :SIUEt?|d-uœ ou 9]9AA 9Jeqï |n8 .J9}egtï
JaHtza gm U[ 9IU t3 nq
àAA tt3tii pioo os gtmogq Ïi
`ÂT[t!UçH .uigtp Su!sn eioAA AA9].
8uiHoeiAi gq] ]nq giotn pB.ti

•e]SBi itmpTA!Pu! stti oi îsoui s[t?9d
üg it?tp guo atn u!o.f oi p3iiAuç s! sdnois
gsgtp io Âm2 ti}!AA pgi.9tiuœ Âpi29JTt} ]ou
S[ Ot|AÀ ]SÏÂiqqoq J(UE `]t}tp ]0 SS9|Plt?S9ü
iou JA Â9t|1 |t3t|1
9]t? Suoçit?otpui iues9Jd .ssgns stÂpoqÂutz
s! uo!1t?z[ut?SJoi 3!8Jt?[ 9uo oiuç J6uiasoI
posi3u gq j(i[tmiu9A9 AA `ugtp }o isou
io `S9!i3i30S 9S9tp IO ||t? ÎOU JO J9t|19UAA
•t2Pt!Ut30 PUB S9|t!1S P91Iun gtp 13AO
p9J9]Ît?®s sqnp Peo]iit?J igpou ppo-ÂiœAas
6u] put!-sdnoI8 [t3oo[ 9t|l mz gpnptl!
OÎ 3J3AA |i I[ Â[9iiuU9Pu[ pgnti{]tiœ gq pinœ
suo!]t3z}ut}Sio ut!] Pt?OJi!t2J lo ÎSïT S!HJ,
•J8Jnst36Ji S! J!t?is Ât?f Pm? `iugpisgid go!A
SÏ i[9no ut?iiv :i(Jtz19J.9S S! tidieu J9UIOJq
S!U :SJ9|SOOŒ Pt?OJ|!t}ü 9U1 }0 |U9P!S9Jd
s! `se[98uv Sori `i{nusunc[ t|lnos 87b[
io HJ9p su!dd!HS t3 `8U!tpT9W 9UJ{t?`AA .V
•9U!UI9l9P 01 9ImnI 9tp IOI S!
pt}9Jds AA ii Jt;i AioH isn.f :uoiit?z!ut?BJo
it?Ooi t? Âi9Sit?i u99q SEU SJ91S008 9tp
Jt?| 0S .ÂJt}SS939U U9TlAA SIU9uiss9Sst? Âq
}9U sU[eq S9SU9dx9 mz `P38Ietp 9Itz S9np
it2[n89J oN .sd}Jt uo[iogdsu[ putz suo[sm®
-xg ut?] io ieiqunu t? p[9ti ÂpeeJ[E st?ti putz
3!]st}!sntiiœ put! 9A{igæ S[ dnoJS su| `3AU
-Âtu9,mi Â[uo sJ9qunu 9]t2p oi dçtisigiqugu
9Ul t|Snot|]iv .S.H.¥.N aHl putz S]st3!srLTii
-UH 9UL IO Ssotp OI Jt}i!ui{S Su[t2 tpçAA`9ç6I `tpJt2W U! 1St}OO IS9M 6Tit UO P9ZT
-Ut38IO `SI9lsooΠPtzoI|!t!t| 9m S! dnoI8
tri2i [tt}i gtii u! [tzAiJit! |S9AAeu HH
•Ht;is it?iJol!P9 ©Hi ginipsuœ `.Jf
`J98uipow .W ut3çA Puœ Z19UIU!91S .H .H
•igmst}9i] si `.Jf `SçAÀ9i U!JnpH .0 .Slu!Jd
put? seA[itz8-9u ]o 8itzs io 98ut!tiox3 et[i ioj
m}9Jnq e+tii ioi 38Jt3u.i u! put! J{Jt?i8Jœs s!`.t}d `9[epsm?ri io uo]SumJOM .d [9nuit?S
•siugp{sgid 83{A aJt} S!AA9| .0 .U Put!
`J9dooH .0 .H `SiAAa| .H .f .t?Ït|d[9Pt3[!t|d
`Âi{V .iw `i90J}S uodd{N 4ZT `.Jf `m?ul11!d
•V S9|Jt?t|O S{ 1U9P}S9Jid 3UL .t?d `J31Stz3
-ut?ri `189J|S 98UœJO Ist}H 8çZ `Sïm3IH .H
Uœ| SI .S.H.H.N 9q} io ut2tmitzqo gq],
•9[q{8}i9 S! J9AO J0
u89îx!s s{ OtiAÀ 9uoÂuV .ooz ]noq€ s? Ât}Poi
d!tisJ9qugu 9UL . .N `J91S9tpoü Putz `t;d
`tisinqsîl?d `.t?A `H|O]JON `9Jou[i[EŒ `Eiud
-[ept}i!tid `J9isEout!T `uoiu9JL `Â1!O ïJOÀ
AA9N U[ P3t|S}[qtz|S9 Uœq 9Atzu SJ9tdEUO•senp ig]dt}ti3
it?u!uiou Sn[d `sz.TS `S9np it}nuuv .SdïJI
SJosuods put! `%?f az?7zg i{iti}uou t! pm2 spiE=
d{tisigqm9Πs3nssi pue `sJaqtugu Suout
`.ot9 `sototid io 98uetpxo 9ut 9]t}i![pt3} 0]
?9Jnq suipt?JÎ t? pue m?9inq uopt2uiioj
-u[ it}Jiu9o t} St3Ti `P9|t3JodJœu! S! .S.H.t[.N
9ui `suo!it!Z!ut!8io uE} J9HIO eu1 9Ï!|
seuou! Z/: z }ee} ç `e6eo .sÔu!i }!suejj. ,{ÔusjeH e
u} pue sÀeMi!et] 6unqs!JjeH eLi} Je^o d!j| ue] t3
JOJ .S.H.t].N eu} ^q PeJe}Jt}uo `sÂeMi!eti Bjnqs!jueH eii}
}o eu!| uMo}sieiunH eii} uo oZ .oN Jeo
•k .N `UR00J,8 an,V uOîu?2o LL8 `uoqTPWDH .d .M fbq Oqou

Demande en ligne