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Canadian Rail 524 2008

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Canadian Rail 524 2008

ISSN 0008·4875
Permit No. 40066621
History of the Eastern Car Company, by Jay Underwood and Douglas N. W Smith ………………………….. 87
Canada Photo Gallery, By Stan J. Smaill ……………………………………………. ; …… 102
Car ………………………………………………………………
………………. 118 ,
FRONT COVER: Boundfor Upper Canada, CNRs first FPA-4 6760 is on the point of No 15, the Ocean Limited, as the storied train
Folly Lake, Nova Scotia in May 1975. Stan 1 Sma ill
En route vers lOuest, la locomotive FPA-4 du CN No 6760 est en tetedu train No 15, le« Ocean Limitee »,
alorsquil an-ive a Folley Lake en Nouvelle-Ecosse, enmai 1975. Photo Stan 1 Smaill.
This outside braced wooden Grand Tiunk box car No.1 05000 was the first car out shopped by the Eastem Car Company in 1913.
Jay Underwood collection.
CI-DESSOUS: Ce wagon fe/me construit en bois avec renfOit exterieur en acier, Ie No 105000 du Grand Ti-onc, Jut Ie tout premier a etre
fabrique parlusine de fa Eastem Car Co. en 1913. Image de fa collection Jay Unde/wood.
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Rail Car Building in Trenton, Nova Scotia
By Jay Underwood and Douglas N W Smith
. The closure of the Trenton Works railcar plant at
Trenton, Nova Scotia in 2007 heralded the death
of heavy
metal manufacturing industry
in Pictou County dating
back to the early 1820s.
The county has long prided itself
as the birthplace
of the provinces steel and railway
The first railway in British North America to
operate on standard gauge all-metal rails was in Pictou
The General Mining Association (GMA), a
London, England based syndicate of investors, began
mining coal at Albion (now the present day city
Stellarton) in 1827. Two years later, the GMA built the
Albion Colliery Tramway, employing what were the first
iron rails cast
in Canada.
The Pictou Patriot
of January 29,1829 reported,
The progress of the Mining Company appears to be daily
more important. The foundry is in successful
and railway [rails] are now casting, and will be
ready for laying down in the spring, for the purpose of
facilitating the conveyance of the coals to the navigable
part of the river.
The wharf was built on the East River opposite
the site of present day Trenton.
The railway used
horsepower to move the coal wagons.
The same year, the
GMA opened an iron smelter eight miles from Albion.
One of its products was iron rails -the first to be produced
in Canada and perhaps North America.
These early rails
were produced
in three foot lengths in the fish belly
The original coal unloading wharf proved a
hindrance as the depth of water prohIbIted any vessel
drawing more than
six feet of water. In 1836, as the
tramway and shipping facilities could not keep up with
GMA decided to move the wharf to a site with
deeper water and replace the horse tramway with steam
The following year an order was placed with
Timothy Hackworth at Newcastle-Upon-Tyne for three
locomotives. Weighing twenty tons
and designed to haul
of more than 100 tons, these 0-6-0s were the most
powerful locomotives in
Canada and the first steam
in the Maritimes when placed in service in
1838. Delivered in kit-form, the first
of the three
locomotives to be assembled
and placed in service was the
Samson. As
part of the move to steam power, the Albion
Railway was constructed from the mines to Dunbars
Timothy HackwO/ths Samson went into selVice in Nova Scotia in 1838 and is the oldest Canadian
locomotive preselved today. It
is a prime exhibit at the Nova Scotia Museum of Industry at Stella/ton, Nova
Scotia. Jay Unde/Wood collection.
Point (opposite Pictou) employing both heavier weight
iron rails and with extensive cuts and fills to reduce
The extension brought the rails to deepwater,
thereby eliminating the
need for tenders to move the coal
to shipside. Regular service over the new line began in
September 1839, making it the second steam railway in
North America. The Samson ran until the 1880s
by several fortunate accidents of history, has been
It is the oldest steam locomotive in existence
in Canada and
is on display at the Nova Scotia Museum of
Industry in Stellarton. Also in the collection of the
are rails cast in the late 1830s.
The next railway to enter Pictou County was the
Nova Scotia Railway (NSR).
It was the first main line
railway in the province.
The line from Halifax to Truro
was completed in 1872.
The 51 mile extension from Truro
to Pictou Landing (across the
East River estuary from the
of Pictou) was finished in 1867. The new railway
passed through New Glasgow and the as yet unoccupied
of Trenton. With 112 miles of track from Halifax to
Pictou Landing, the NSR had the longest rail line in the
Maritimes when completed.
It was swallowed by the
Intercolonial Railway in 1875 and then became
part of the
Canadian National Railways
in 1919.
The railway was extended to Sydney in two
The Eastern Extension Railway branched off the
NSRs Pictou line at Trenton and reached the Straits
Canso about 1882. The ICR line opened the line from
Point Tupper to Sydney on January
1, 1891. The rail car
ferry operation between the two segments was term ina ted
in 1955when CN laid its tracks on the Canso Causeway.
The GMA sold out its interests to the Halifax
Company (also knows as the Albion Company) in 1872.
remained the largest coal producer in the county until
The Acadia, Intercolonial (a separate company
from the railway
of the same name) and Vale coal mines
all built short railways in the 1860s and 1870s to connect
with the I
CR and/or the Middle River.
The New Glasgow Iron, Coal & Railway
NOVA s.~onA.
88 MAl -JUIN 2008
Company (NGIC&R) was incorporated in 1888 to exploit
the iron and coal deposits lying east
of New Glasgow. Part
of the companys success was due to the discovery of a
natural source
of iron ore on the upper reaches ofthe East
River, which reduced the companys reliance upon
imported iron.
To connect the blast furnace it established
in 1890 at Ferrona with limestone deposits at Springville
and iron deposits at Bridgeville and Iron Hill, the
NGIC&R built a 13 mile railway from Ferrona Junction
to Sunny Brae in 1892. Once the railway was completed,
the company began into full-scale iron production, with
the iron shipped
by rail over the NGIC&R and ICR to the
foundry at Trenton. After the furnace at Ferrona was
closed and the mineral deposits exhausted, the line
became a financial albatross.
The Nova Scotia Steel and
Coal Company, the successor to the
NGIC&R, could not
abandon the operation given the use made
of the line by
the local populace and remaining shippers.
The February 12, 1909 edition of the Moncton
Times reported on the deliberations of a
parliamentary commission established to investigate the
of adding private roads to the Intercolonials
network stating:
The Ferrona Junction to Sunny Brae
line has lost its iron
ore business, and traffic is now almost
limited to lumber.
The commission doubts if it could be
made a good business proposition.
Politics triumphed over profit and the politicians
ordered the
ICR to acquire the Sunny Brae track in 1911
with the full knowledge that it would not add to the
railways bottom line.
The branch remained in service
until abandoned
by the Canadian National in the 1970s.
In this first decade
of the twenty-first century, the
railway industry in Pictou County struggles.
The Albion
Railway and
NGIC&R tracks have long vanished.
Canadian National no longer operates the railway
through New Glasgow and Trenton.
The entire
Truro-Sydney line was sold in 1993 to the Cape Breton &
Central Nova Scotia Railway (CBNS), now a subsidiary
RailAmerica Corporation, based in Boca Ra ton, Florida.
MAY -JUNE 2008
The Trenton factory has struggled to survive ever
since the British engineering giant Hawker Siddeley
abandoned its Canadian operations in 1988.
The end
came on April
4, 2007 when William Furman, the CEO of
the American firm
Greenbrier Industries that has
operated the
40 hectare (99 acres) plant since 1995,
announced that its two plants in Mexico –
one just
recently opened -could produce railcars at less cost
thanks to a lower Mexican peso, better railway
connections over which to move the finished product, and
lower wages and benefits being paid to Mexican workers.
The announcement meant that 330 workers would be out
of work once the final order for railcars was completed,
and more than 700, who have
been laid off since 2005
would never go back to work.
For Pictou County the news came as the final nail
in the coffin of a 160 year old metal industry that began as
a small forge using pig iron imported from the United
The antecedents of the car manufacturing
company -according to the 1916 book
Nova Scotias
Industrial Centre
published to celebrate the success of
several Pictou County towns -dates back to 1872 when
Pictou County businessmen
Graham Fraser and George
Forrest MacKay started the
Hope Iron Works. The book
states the
Hope Iron Works was started … with a $4000
capital and ten employees, [it was] destined to become in
the next forty-three years the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal
Company with $16,000,000 capital and
7, 000 employees,
whose steel forging and railway car axle plant (employing
more than 2300 people) is located in Trenton adjoining
the town limits.
Initially the company produced iron forgings
such as anchors for use on wooden sailing ships.
product line expanded to railway axles in 1876. The
reorganization of the Hope Iron Works as the Nova
Scotia Forge Company
in 1874, was followed by its move
to a 160 acre site about two miles below New Glasgow on
Smelt Brook in 1878.
The three partners in the company
profited from the sale of the land around their plant for
residential and business lots as
the town of Trenton grew
up around the plant.
The adoption of the National Policy by the
Dominion Government
in 1879 erected protective tariffs
that spurred the development of domestic manufacturing
industries. Behind the tariff wall, Canadian producers
The gross value of iron and steel products for
the country increased from $34.1 to $55.9 million from
1880 to 1890.
The number of employees almost doubled
from 10,000 to slightly over 16,000 in the
same period.
While growth slowed during the recession
of the 1890s,
the literal explosion of railway construction
in the first two
decades of the twentieth century saw the value
of iron and
steel production almost triple.
Fraser and MacKays company rode on the crest
of this boom. The two men were resourceful and
relentless, and
their business grew exponentially,
undergoing a
number of name changes as finances were
reorganized. They established the Nova Scotia Steel
Company in 1882 to supply steel to Nova Scotia Forge.
The Nova Scotia Steel plant, which built beside Nova
Scotia Forge, produced the first steel in Canada using the
Seimens process in an open-hearth furnace in 1883
thereby giving Trenton the proud title of
the birthplace
of steel in Canada.
The two firms merged to form the
Nova Scotia Steel and Forge Company shortly thereafter.
The growing industrial complex not only
absorbed the labourers thrown
out of employment by the
of wooden ship construction, but also attracted
men anxious for work from all parts of the province. The
employee wages were not lavish, running from one to four
per day. It was reported by The EnteJprise of
October 13, 1888: J.H. Bartlett, of Montreal, has
contributed an article to the Canadian Mining Review
Steel Manufacture in Nova Scotia, and describes our
steel works … The steel works payout nearly $100,000 a
year in wages.
When the additions to the works are
completed, 300 men will be employed …
A dispute over securing coal from Cape
larger deposits led to a schism between Fraser and
MacKay over just how big the company should become.
Fraser favoured an integrated approach whereby the
company would own the somces
of iron, coal and other
ingredients needed for the steel mills. He founded the
New Glasgow Iron, Coal & Railway Company
(NGIC&R) in 1888 to secure and exploit the iron deposits
in Pictou County after his partners disagreed with his
integrated manufacturing approach.
The NGIC&R built
an oxygen blast furnace at Ferrona with coke coming from
local coal mines in Stellarton, Westville and
limestone from Springville and iron from small mines in
Pictou County and Londonderry, N.S.
The venture
proved a great success for Fraser. When the NGIC&R
was taken over by Nova Scotia Steel in 1895, the assets of
the two firms were of equal value.
The next development in the Nova Scotia Steels
came almost as an accident, when it was
discovered that ballast used
by ships arriving at Sydney
from Newfoundland, to take on coal from the
Breton collieries, was iron ore from Bell Island near St.
Johns. Nova Scotia Steel was bringing coal in from
Sydney as
the Pictou County coal was found to be of poor
quality for making coking fuel. The company was faced
with a choice: to bring the Newfoundland iron and
Breton coal to the Trenton mills or to relocate to the
Sydney area. The decision was made to construct an
integrated steel mill at Sydney Mines.
The new steel mill
and coal mines in Cape Breton, along with the Bell Island
ore mine, and the steel mill and forge in Trenton and blast
furnaces in
Ferrona were all merged into a new entity in
1901 called Nova Scotia Steel and Coal
Company, popularly known as
of the com pany had
migrated to R.E. Chambers, his son
A.R. Chambers and
partner Henry
Ritchie. From that year on, the Trenton
fate lay in the hands
of owners
from beyond Pictou County.
By 1909
SCOTIA had moved almost all its
steel-making operations to Cape
Breton, but kept the Trenton plant
90 MAl -JUIN 2008
75 on Special Pit C:lr For Canadian Govl!rnm!!1l1 R:J.i~ … a)s.
open as the foundry for producing
railcars and other heavy products.
We make a speCialty of l~,la.t Cars, ,~abooses and Mine Cars for .both H6ine ~.nd Foreign Markel$­
In W.ood, Steel Frame or AlieSteel and shall be pleased to quote against all capacity require­
ments and quantities.
The opening years of the
twentieth century were marked by a
sharp jump in population as Canadian
industry began a rapid expansion based
upon bountiful electric supplies and
. East~rn Car Company, LiDlited
Geller.l Office. and Worl. New GI …. ow. N.S. Montreal Office. Room 14 WiDcUor Hotel
Canadian agriculture lands expanded as settlers poured
into the prairie provinces. Manufacturers and farmers
joined together in berating
the railways monopolistic
tariffs and service breakdowns as the surging tide
of raw
materials, manufactured goods and agricultural products
swamped the railways.
The popular solution was the
of more railways and the politicians -both
federal and provincial -were more than ready to
accommodate the demand
by voting charters for
of railways and lavish subsidies.
By 1907 railway construction boom was in full
as two new transcontinental railways -the
Canadian Northern and
Grand Trunk Pacific-National
Transcontinental-raced to complete their lines. So rosy
was the outlook that the Dominion Minister
of Railways
and Canals predicted yet
another transcontinental line
would soon
be needed to carry the flood of western grain.
Each of the transcontinental railways thrust out branch
lines to tap the others territories across the prairies. brought rail service into large areas. Between 1900 and
countrys total railway mileage almost doubled,
while the
amount of freight and railway gross income
tripled (see Table 1).
The opening of new territory and the consequen t
of trade and population created a brisk demand
for rolling stock. Between 1900 and 1912, the number of
cars rostered by the railways doubled with the number of
new cars being added averaging 6,000 cars per year -this
a remarkable
jump from the 1,200 cars per year added
during the 1890s. As Canadian car builders could not
keep up with their needs for freight car cars, the railways
turned to American firms for timely delivery of urgently
needed cars.
This situation lead to the decision
by the Nova
Scotia Steel Company to create a new subsidiary, dubbed
Eastern Car Company. The $100,000 paid by the
Dominion government to NSS&C in 1911 for the Sunny
Brae rail line helped
SCOTIA to fund the construction of
Canadian Pacific
began to double
track the key parts
of its main lines
Central and
Western Canada.
New railways such
as the Halifax &
Sou th Western;
Atlantic, Quebec &
Central & Hudson
Bay; Temiskaming
On tario; Kettle
Valley and Pacific
Great Eastern
Change Change
1900 1912
1917 1900 to 1912 to
1912 1917
Tra~k Miles In Operation*- 17,824 34,629-50,253 -94% 45%

Tons of freight (millions) 35,946 89,400 121,900 149% 36%
Net Earnil1gs(rrrillions) $23.0 $68/1

$87.9 199% 28%

Railroad Investment (millions) $998.3 $1,588.9 $1,985.1 59% 25%
Number of Freight Cars 64,979** 140,-218. 203,499 1-17% 44%
Countrys Population (thousands) 5,301 7,389 8,060
39% 9%
• Track mile count includes all yard, siding and double track
** Count may be lower than actual due to reporting standard
MAY -JUNE 2008
two new rolling mills, acquire new equipment to forge and
machine heavy forgings, and pay for the new car building
SCOTIA incorporated the Eastern Car Company
in 1912 to serve the booming rail car market in
competition with other established firms such as Rhodes
Early photo of the Winning Pit coal mine
and coke ovens at Sydney Mines, Nova
Scotia. Jay Undelwood collection.
Curry in Amherst, N.S. and Canada Car in Montreal.
This was
the same year that American interests, with the
backing of the Magor Car Corporation of Clifton, New
Jersey, launched
the National Steel Car Corporation rail
car manufacturing plant in Hamilton, Ontario.
The head office block of the Nova Scotia Steel /
Eastern car Company in Trenton, Nova Scotia.
Undelwood collection.
A view
of the Nova Scotia steel plant from the west
of the East River, what is now known as the
Ambercrombie Road, from roughly the area where
Albion Mines Railway once ran. Jay
Undelwood collection.
Eastern Car, the most significant incarnation
ofthe Trenton, NS rail car plants modern life, was born
amid almost anti climactic press coverage, despite
irivolvement of one of the provinceS premier
industries .. –
The Halifax Herald of Thursday, May 30th
1912 covered the announcement
of the creation of the
company in a front-page story:
Presidel1t R. E. l-larris Announces the
Organization At New Glasgow of the Eastern Car
The Capital is $2,500,000
Nova Scotia is to have a new industry, the
Car CDmpany, having been organ:ized in New
Glasgow. yesterday, with a capital
of two and a half
million dollars. This companyproposes to construct
steel freight cars, and willshortlyerect a plant probably
at New Glasgow, for this r
ui:pose, with it is stated an
initial dapacity of twenty~five cars a day, givillgo
employment to eight hundred
toa thousand men.
IUs generaily understood that the Nova Scotia
SteehndGoal company is deeply interested in this new
company. If the Scotia corporation
is not actually
behind the car works, many
of the men· on the big
boar-d are connected withthec~r builqing
project. _ Following a meetirig
of the Scotia direotors,
thNew Glasgow yesterday, President Harris gave the
following statement to the
Halifax Herald on his arrival
in Hilifax lastnight:-.
The Eastern Car company was organized at a
meeting held in New Glasgow today.
!twill at once
proceed to build a plant for the construction
The new car manufacturing plant was located
adjacent to the SCOTIA facilities in Trenton. Designed
by an American, Horace Lane, from ground breaking to
the production
of its first car occupied 22 months. The
first car -Grand Trunk steel-framed, wood sheathed box
car number 105000 -emerged from the plant
September 1913. It was part of a massive 2,000 car order.
Almost all the steel used
in these cars was rolled next door
the parent companys mills, including the heavy bar
stock for the arch bar trucks.
The plant turned out its first
all-steel car – a gondola -in 1916.
In 1912, SCOTIA also established the Dominion
Wheel Foundry to cast iron railway wheels (Dominion
Wheel) beside the Eastern Car plant.
The following year
it added a bolt and rivet factory
as the competing foundry
at Londonderry, N.
S. had failed. The Acadian works at freight cars.
The capital of the new company is
$2,500,000 and it will erect-a plant with an initial
of twenty-five cars per day. A master car
builder, formerly with the American Car and Foundry
of Detroit, has been engaged to construct the
plant and
is now preparing plans. The exactJocation of
the companys -works has not yet been determined as
several properties are now under consideration
by the
of the new company. The whole of the bonds
and preferred stock
of the company have been
Further than this, Mr. Harris would say
nothing, as the organization
of the company was, of
course, not comple~edyetaild any other details would
be premature.
Advice to
The Herald from New Glasgow last
night were
thatthat town was deeply stirred by the new
proposal and
that high hopes were entertained that it
would be located there.
The chief industry of New
Glasgow now
is the works of the Nova Scotia Steel and
Coal company, at which are employed some twelve
hundred men. Should
the Eastern Car company also
locate there, it would give a tremendous impetus to the
town and would mean one
of the busiest summers that
Glasgowhasknowil .. Much is hoped ftom the
evident close cOIiriectio
il between the Scotia company
andthe newconcer~; =
The directors present were President Harris,
J. D. MacGregor, General Manager
Cantley,Senator Jaffray and W.I).Ross,
of Toronto, G.
F. MacKay, R. E. Chambers, J. C. McGregor, G. S.
Campbell and FrankBtanfield. The meeting was the
:..busineSs tra.nsactedin the new head office building
: _ c–
_ ->Courtesy Art Clowes
Londonderry had been
one of the principal suppliers of
cast wheels to the Intercolonial Railway.
The First World War brought new challenges and
opportunities. The Trenton steel plants and associated
foundries in New Glasgow
turned to munitions
production, mostly artillery shell casings. The car plant
also expanded into shipbuilding, producing
six steel
steam-powered cargo ships (totalling 10,395 tons) and
rebuilding one sailing ship as well as continued railcar
production. During the war,
the railway line from Sydney
to Truro was
as busy moving steel and coal as the line from
Halifax to Montreal was carrying troops.
During the early
part of 1915 the Czarist Russian
Railways and the French government were in the market
for a large number
of cars. After demonstrating the
position the Eastern Car Company Limited was in to
MAY -JUNE 2008
A boxcar built for the
Intercolonial Railway, perhaps
the first
in a series of federal
contracts awarded to the Trenton
railcarplant throughout its life.
Two views of Intercolonial Railway 100,000 series all steel bottom / side dumping coal cars. These photos figure prominently in
corporate promotional literature
of the time and may have been the first all steel cars produced by the plant. All three photos Jay
Undelwood collection.
An Edge!ton electric tramway car
awaits workers coming
off shift at the
Eastern Car
plant in this First World
War photograph by Rice. Employees
came from all over Pictou county, most
notably from the upper reaches
of the
East River
valley, beyond the companys
original blast furnace
at Ferrona
fCR and CNR railway
timetables were arranged to meet shift
rotations. The Edgerton tramway was
of the Pictou County Electric
Railway which operated from 1905 to
Jay Underwood collection.
deliver cars by their own steamers to any port desired, the
first order was secured from the Russian government for
2,000 forty-ton steel frame box cars.
The Russian car was exceptionally large and, in a
number of ways, resembled a Canadian Pacific Railway
It was unusually long -43 feet -and had a
carrying capacity
of forty tons of grain. Built to run on the
Russian gauge
of 5 feet, the wheels were cast iron –
41-3/8 inches in diameter.
The roof followed the design
generally used
in Russia, consisting of sheet steel on pine
boards. There were no holes whatever through the sheets
the lap of the roof, therefore no danger of leakage. The
running boards were protected by a railing, thus
safeguarding the trainmen, who are not in the habit
walking along the roof of the small two axle cars common
in Russia.
94 MAl -JUIN 2008
This idyllic aerial postcard view of the
rail carplant pays a high compliment to
the East River
of New Glasgow, which is
shown as a vast sheet
of wate!: Jay
Underwood collection.
The knocked down cars were shipped to
by ship from Pictou Landing. One vessel,
carrying 175 cars, was torpedoed
by a German submarine
in the Mediterranean Sea.
Eastern Car sent a supervisor
to Vladivostock to oversee the assembly
of the cars that
was performed
by Korean labour.
Eastern Car established a factory at LaGarenne,
near Paris, France,
in August 1916 to fill an order for one
thousand 20 ton box cars from the French government.
These were built to the famous French design capable of
40 men or eight horses. Five Eastern Car
employees supervised the work
in the factory. Later an
assembly yard was established at Tours. Material for the
cars was shipped from the
Eastern Car Trenton factory
and assembled at these two locations
by prisoners of war.
A total
of 3,000 box cars and open-end gondolas were
built for the French.
Description of the Plant in 1916
The directors of Nova Scotia Steel Company
t-hat Canadas demand for railway
equipment was increasing faster than its car-building
capacity, and
as keen business men they also saw that a
car-building company in close alliance with them could
not fail to prove a good customer for their Sydney
Mines ingots and for the products of their New
Glasgow forges.
The Eastern Car Company was the
result –
_ A splendid site for it, of
65 acres, on the east
bank of the East River, Pictou, was first secured. This
is within a few miles of all the collieries of the
Pictou coal field, thus insuring a supply of cheap fuel,
and it possesses the further advantage of adjoining the
northern boundary of the property of the Nova Scotia
Steel and Coal Co.,_ upon which the latters forges,
rolling mills, finishing mills andengineering shops are
By means of the tidal waters of the East River,
The axleforge building at the west ([tidal theEastern
Carplant,a sight deemed scenic enough to grace this
1910 era Valentines
Company postcard. Jay
Underwood collection.
heavy materials, stich as southern pine timber and pig
will be delivered directly to the Car Companys
plan t
by ocean -going steamers.
The Eastern Car Company, Limited, began
operation in September 1913, and has since that time
a system of manufacturing capable of
producing thirty cars daily.
Thereis a market for these
cars capable of absorbing the entire output. All types
freight cars of wood or steel are bein
The shops in which the cars are built are the
last word in industrial construction as to light, air
and convenience of arrangement. They consist
of four parallel buildings, each 1,100 ft. long and 90 ft.
all of steel, with concrete foundations and
reinforced concrete walls, and are so arranged
as to
permit of progressive construction, so that the raw
material enters at one end of the range and leavesit
completely finished car at tbe other end.
An early post card view afthe Eastern Car / Nova
. Scotia Steel
plant when it was located in what was
New Glasgow,[qter Trenton, NOva Scotia.J~y.
Underwood collection. –
Two scenes from the Trenton rail car plant dUling the First
War, showing the jamllia(lowlying buildings and
an Intercolonial Railway locom()tive entering the yard. Jay
Undelwood collection. .
The firts building contains air brakes, forge,
and rivet machine and truck departments. In the
next two buildings all the steel is prepared for the end­
of cars. The machinery consists principally of
punchers, shears, riveters and hydraulic presses. The
railway tracks upon which the cars are built are located
here, and in connection with each track
there is an
crane runway. On each of these runways are
located twelve 5-ton hoists, or two hoists for each
position reached by every car ,,!S it
approaches completion.
The fourth shop is used
exclusively for wood-working machinery. The floors of
each of the three last mentioned buildings are
controlled throughout the whole length by two 10-ton
The central powerhouse provides current for
t!).e electrically-driven machines throughout the plant,
also water for the presses
at a pressure of 1,500 lbs., arid
airof200 lbs.
the shops are equipped throughout with
the most modern car-building machinery, each piece
being fitted with individual drive,
thus doing away with
all line shafting and belting. In
order to handle material
between the different shops, two outside crane­
runways running-across
the end of the four buildings,
The erecti1jg shop:at the Eastein-Car Company in
1916. CRHA archives.
Four wheel
20 fan export box car in product jon at
Car Company .in 1917. Nova Scotia
Museum-Images Nova Scotia No.
96 MAI-JUIN 2008
have been provided and equipped. The paint shop to
the north ofthe main building is 1,100 ft.long by 150 ft.
wide. It is not only used by the paint department, but
also as a storage for cars; it has room for about 250 cars.
In addition to
the travelling cranes, each of the
buildings has a system of narrow gauge tracks, with
at intersections, thus giving a very flexible
transportation service.
The foundry department consist of two
one containing the wheel foundry and the
other the steel and gray iron foundry, with floor areas
of 60,000 and 30,000 square feet respectively. The
capacity of theiron foundry is 400wheels per day.
The powerhouse is 113 ft. by 120 ft., and it is
divided into two rooms,
the boiler room and the engine
room proper. The boiler room contains five modern .
water-tube boilers of a combined capacity of 3,000 h.p.
The boilers are equipped with super-heaters and chain
grate stokers, the coal for which is supplied from
overhead bins through chutes, the ashes being
removed by chain and bucket carriers, all mechanically
These boilers are also equipped so that they
the refuse from the woodworking shops of
the car plant.
The planing mill at Eastem,-Cal; note the floor
assembliespiled8 highat
right, CRHA archives.
MAY -JUNE 2008
The engine room proper contains two 750 k.w.
mixed-pressure steam turbines, one mixed-pressure
turbine 300
k.w. generator, and one 200 k.w. motor
generator, supplied with necessmy exciters, etc.
Besides theses there are two 300 gallon pumps
operated at a pressure of 1,500 ]bs., and one 3,000 feet
capacity Corliss steam-driven air compressor.
above machinery is laid out and piping arranged so that
the exhaust steam from the air compressors and pumps
may either be utilized
by running through the mixed­
pressure turbines or through low
pressure exhaust
steam lines for heating purposes.
All the buildings are warmed thoroughly
theses pipes ofthe low pressure exhaust steam, which
are also carried from the power house through tunnels
to the various buildings. Alternating current
is used
throughout the shops for constant-speed machine
tools. Steam
is also supplied direct from the-boilers to
the drying kilns, in which lumber
is dried. Water for
Workers wearing dividedleather
aprons pose for the
photographer atop neatly
stacked rows. of axles, -cast
on display in the
foreground. Nova Scotia
Museum -Images Nova Scotia
No. 97.23.20
ordinmy purposed at the power house is pumped from
the East River
ata distance of 200 yards. Water for
boiler and general purposes
is supplied free by the town
of New Glasgow.
From the power house to the car building
is a subterranean passage large enough for men
to walk
in, besides sufficient space to carry all the pipes
necessalY for hydraulic power, compressed air and
as well as for the electric cables which are
required. These subterranean passages travel the full
as well as the full width of all the buildings.
The wheels come to the car shop in rough
casting; here the hub
is turned to the measurement
required with the utmost exactitude.
The axles are
brought in from the foundry also in the rough state.
Having been turned down on the lathe to the required
size, the wheels are squeezed on to the axles with such
overwhelming force
by hydraulic power that they
become immovably attached one to the other.
A black and white post card high
vantage exterior view
of the
wheel foundry building at the
Eastern Car Company in
Numerous rows of rough cast
car wheels grace the yard, the
castings were
machined in
another section
of the plant.
Nova Scotia Museum -Images
Nova Scotia No.
Lathe workers in the axle shop
pose for this
1917 scene at the
Eastern Car Company. Nova
Scotia Museum -Images Nova
The buildings have steel frameswith concrete
walls. Generous daylight illumination
is supplied
through the sides
by numerous windows and monitors.
The monitors also provide for ventilation.
The shops are so arranged that all work moves
in a straight line. At
th.e north end of the elant, steel and
lumber are unloaded and stored. From this point the –
raw material moves south through the shops, finally
~melging at the north end in the form of finishedcars.
The main building is divided into four parts.
Thefirst section contains the machine shops, air brake
department, bolt and rivet storage, truck shops and
forge departments.
The second division is devoted
entirely to
the steel car department, the material being
successively sheared, punched, pressed, riveted
erected. At the point where the erecting trucks begin
they are intersected
by a cross track upon which the
trlIcks from the shop are transferred directly to the
98 MAl -JUIN 2008
Two workers operating the auto
pressure wheel press at the_
Eastern Car Company in 1916.
This plant was constructed late
that electricity and
compressed air were available to
operate machines such as this.
point where theyareneeded in the erectioi1 shop. In
:the third
diVIsion is the wood car department. There
-are two erecting tracks here,
The fourth sectioii has a mezzanine floor_
-running about
one third of its length; on which are
located the
pattern and -template shop and the
foremens offices.
Under the floor-is the general stores _
The rest of this span is taken up with­
wood-working machinery.
-All machines,sQiatas possible, are individual
mGtor driven, electricity being usedwherever possible.
few air hoists are employed,nearly all ofthis work
being done by electricity. Three of the four spans are
supplied with ten-ton travelling cranes, seven being-
provided for the three spans.
Two of these are in the I
–wooden car shop, three in the steel Car shop. These –
cranes travel the entire length of the building.
One feature of the plant equipment is four
MAY -JUNE 2008
large Thomas spacing table with William White
punches arranged to handle all classes of car material.
The shears are Hilles & Jones heavy type. The two
presses already installed were furnished byR. D. Wood
& Co. Most of the machine tools were furnished by
John Bertram and Sons Company and the Canada
The wheel foundry is housed under a separate
roof, and has a capacity of 200 wheels
per day.
Provision has been made to increase the daily capacity
400. This foundry is built on the straight floor plan,
and has the latest system and equipment for handling
both flasks and metal.
The wheels can be rolled directly
from the wheel foundry to the truck shop, a distance of
60 feet,thus saving considerable time and effort.
In a short time a large 700-foot shop
containing four tracks will be erected to house the
painting and finishing department. Among the
accessory buildings which go to make up the plant are
the power house, dry kiln, lumber storage, general
storeroom, paint
andbil storage, locomotive house,
general office and a
numberofminor departments.
The boiler room is laid out forfive 600 h.p.
Edge Moor
watertube boilers, equipped with Green
chain grate stokers,. making total of 3000 h,
p; at
nominal rating. The~boilers are guarante~d fora
continuous overload of SOper cent. Three of these
boilers have
been instaUe-d,and are now in service.
Both direct and alternating current electric
power is,used.
Th~ialternatin-gcurrent is 3-phase at6QO
volts, -and the direct current, whiCh is used on cranes
and variable speed motors,
is at 220 volts. The electric
I power plant consists of tWo 750 kw. turbines, and there
is provision for athird unitofthe same size. A turbine
Q,vertime loads, suthas night and Sunday lighting,etc.
A motor generator set provides the direct current,with
both steam driven and electric driven exciters.
The main circuits leave the power house in
conduits, and thewhole system of electric connections
in the power house is arranged with ample space to
afford ready accessibility.
The turbines are provided
-with synchronizing motors and are also controlled
by a
Tirrill regulatorfrom the switchboard.
One compound, two-state air compressor of
3,000 cubic feet capacity has been installed and
provision made for a second unit of the same size. A
hydraulic system has also been provided.
One three­
. cylinder, compound tlywheel, high-pressure pump
now in service, and an additional double unit is now
being installed.
Two large accumulat0rs are furnished
-in the
powerhouse to take care of fluctuation in this
Piping systems and main cables are carried
conduits and tunnels from the power house to the
various parts
ofthe plant.
The heating of the plant is done largely by
exhaust steam, which is carried in mairis through these
tunnels to four large heating units consisting
of large
stacks of indirect radiation, about which airis passed
fans and distributed throughout the shop.
The principal lighting of the plant is done by
flaming arc lamps, while in the power house and
smaller buildings large tungsten lamps are used.
illumination is exceptionally good, affording the
workmen plenty of light at ali times.
A large modern office building of brick and
cement, with hardwood finish, has been erected. Like
the other buildings throughout the plant, it
is of a
specially substantial type. Practically all material
stored under cover so that there will be no
by inclement weather.
The Company has just added three additional
hydraulic presses, and
is thoroughly equipped for the
manufacture of all-steel cars, in addition to ali
varieties offreightcars, cabooses and mine cars. At the
present tiine
it is engaged in filling an order for all­
steel coal cars of 100,000 lbs. capacity for the Canadian
Government Railway,
and has just completed 2,000 7S­
ton cars for the Russian Imperial Government, and is
working on 3,000 Standard cars for the French
River improvements are now completed
_~whiCh allow large ocean vessels to land and unload
docks on
East River, anq the Pictou branch of the
Intercolonial Railway passes along the
Whole front of
the property. Direct rail connection
is thus afforded
with all points in Canada and the United States.

Labour conditions are _ very good in this
section in
Canada,andJhis, together with unexcelled
facilities forc
watet-and rail shipments, places the
Car Company, Limited, in a foremost position
among othe worlds car building enterprises.
illustration on the preceding pages show the buildings
al}d works and the exterior and interior views of the
main plants, including the power house.
Duringthepasftwo years the management of
the Eastern Car Co has devoted a great deal of
attention –
to the foreign market. The successful
manner in which it has handled the large European
orders already secured
is a good indication of the
position the company
is in to take care of future orders
addition to the very large and complete
equipment described, the Nova Scotia Steel
& Coal
Company,Limited, own and operate a large fleet of
ocean steamers for freight carrying purposes, All of
which are at the disposal of the Eastern Car Company,
Limited, for taking care of their shipments of cars, car
parts and equipment to
European and other foreign
The Company has developed a system of
manufacturing capable of producing forty cars daily.
All types
of freight cars, of wood or steel are being
manufactured both for the
Canadian and for the
foreign market.
The first order received was for two
thousand standard box cars for the
Grand Trunk
Railway System, and since the
commencement of this
order the plant has been kept runriing at full capacity.
and piers
To cope with the hauling and shipping required
by the enormous tonnage of the productions of the
company, large dock accommodation
is required at
Sydney, Waban a [Newfoundland],
Montreal and
At North Sydney the coal-loading and ore­
discharging piers are
all pitch-pine structures. There are
two coal-loading piers, high and low level. The high level
is 60 feet above high-water mark, and, including
is 1,900 feet long. It is equipped with bins to
hold 5,000 tons, has chutes spaced
15 feet centres, which
are operated with Denton hoists; its great capacity and
is shown by the fact that 7,000 tons have been
handled over this pier
in six hours. The low-level pier is
34 feet above high-water mark, and, including approach,
is 1,300 feet long.
The St. Lawrence business of the Company is
continuously expanding, and the Company has extensive
docks both at Montreal and Quebec.
The Montreal plant
consists of two quick-acting Brown hoists, with a capacity
of 1,000 tons per day, located on a Bickerdike pier on the
of the Grand lhmk Railway.
The Quebec plant, situated on the lower
basin, consists
of two gantry cranes and two smaller
hoists, which discharge direct into cars
of for local
delivery without further handling.
The plant has a
capacity of2,000tons
per day.
Lumbering department
The Company controls, in its Newfoundland
and Nova Scotia timber areas, 107 square miles of timber
land, consisting of spruce,
fir, hemlock, birch, beech and
maple, from which the average yearly output
of lumber is
from five million to six million feet board measure.
In Nova Scotia, most of the lumber is sawn by
portable mills which are taken into the district being
lumbered, and the sawn lumber
is hauled to the nearest
railway siding.
In Newfoundla
nd, the logs are stream driven
down the Gander River, and the sawmill
is situated on an
arm of Gander Bay, wiJere steamers load for the
Mines at Wabana. .
100 MAI-JUIN 2008
Practically all of this lumber is used for the
Companys requirements at Wabana Mines,
Newfoundland; Sydney Mines, C.B.; and Trenton, N.S.
Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Limited
and Subsidiaries, The Eastem Car Company Limited,
New Glasgow NS., 1916. This book is in the CRHA
The first plant manager was H.B. Douglas, who
left the Standard Steel Car Company of Indiana, to take
up the position. Douglas brought with him a group of
fellow Americans, including several family members, to
fill key senior posts. These included Douglas brother,
John Douglas, who served
as the first mechanical
superintendent and his brother-in-law, W H. Hankie, as
the purchasing agent. George
I. King, like Douglas a
native of Pennsylvania, was the first car building
M. A. Doak was assistant secretary. When H.
B. Douglas left after two years, King assumed his
position for four years when
Doak took over the general
managers position.
Doak was transferred to Sydney in
1920 to serve as comptroller of the British Empire Steel
ny. He was the last official to bear the title
general manager
of the Eastern Car Company as later
managers were also general managers
of the steel works
in New Glasgow.
The first chief engineer, subordinate to the car
building engineer, was a Swedish American named
Jessen who was succeed about 1915
by Issac Moeller, the
companys first chief draftsman. Moeller, a native of
Norway, came to Eastern Car after practical experience
in the United States.
Assistant foreman of wood erection was
Reuben Arkwright,
an Engtishman. Between the time
he came to
Canadain 1902 and started with Eastern Car
in 1912, he worked for the Hart-Otis Car Company,
Warden King Furnace Company, the Canadian Pacific
Railway and the Silliker Car Company
in Halifax.
Silliker, which had been founded in 1909, entered
bankruptcy in 1912.
It was reorganized as the Nova
Scotia Car Works, but exited the business
in 1915 as it
lacked the resources to make the shift
from wood to
steel cars. Walter Conrad, the lumber yard foreman,
also came to Eastern Car from the Silliker plant.
The first chief of the stores department was a
L.Maher, a German American. He left during
the First World War
as a result of complaints from the
fathers of the men serving in the Canadian military in
Cameron, James. Industrial HistOlY
o/New Glasgow, Horton Press, Pictou, 1960. .
The post-war years were not as kind to the
industry, as recession, and then depression, followed
the wake of the Armistice. For much of this time the
of Eastern Car and the SCOTIAs Trenton
works was overseen
by Thomas Cantley, whose reward
would be an appointment to the Senate and a seat on the
first board
of directors of Canadian National Railways.
American investors had assumed control
of the
in 1917. They closed the steel mill in Sydney
Mines and transferred iron ore production in
Newfoundland to rival Dominion Steel Corporation. In
SCOTIA merged with the Dominion Steel
Company to become the British Empire Steel
Corporation (BESCO). Roy M. Wolvin, a Montreal
capitalist, headed the new company that was backed
by a
British syndicate.
as the Wolf by the miners who would
come under his control, Wolvins tenure was stormy.
During its short eight year history BESCO remained
in a
of financial crisis, mainly because it needed an
annual operating profit
of eight million dollars to meet its
financial commitments. The coal mines were expected to
provide the profits to support other areas of the faltering
organization. BESCO began its campaign to reduce
-;.-. -.:–
Amajor differenceih car building operatio!is
that developed gradua
lly over th~years was-the par~i-al .
ofrivetihg with welding. During the
era,about fifty riveters were needed to keep up
ihatencar production day. With tlie: weldin-g
_ PtQcess, approximately
~enty men could do what the

fiftY riveters had done. Wrongly placed rivets . were
laboriously knocked out with cold chisels and sledges.
k-secona major difference
in car building,
has~adversely affected the ilumber of men
employed, came-from the
increase~cuse of pre-.
assembled components for the cars. Before this, some
onhe car parts were made in the plant, particui forge; foundries near at harid in Pictou County ca
parts, and the plants machine shop no} infrequently
turned parts to fit. Starting in the 1930s, parts were
cast;. welded
and otherwise fashioned by outside
suppliers. This situation was partly caused
by the
railways demanding that -parts come from speciJic_
suppliers. This reduced employment. Formerly eight –
men assembled one car truck in a half hour. In modern
days, three men assemble a truck from
castand welded
components in fifteeri minutes. . wages that culminated in the famous miners strike at the
Sydney mines
in 1924.
Despite government support, which included
tariffs on imported coal and mobilization
of troops to
quell mine strikes and riots on Cape Breton Island,
Wolvins empire collapsed as BESCO was unable to raise
new capital or to return a satisfactory profit. In 1927
Wolvin sold his holdings and resigned as president
C.B. McNaught became Wolvins successor, a
in 1928, he engineered the incorporation of a new holding
and operating company with the British investors,
forming Dominion Steel and Coal Co (DOSCO) which
took over the BESCO properties.
The Pictou County
factOlY, largely insulated from Wolvins confrontation
with the miners, continued to thrive and became Trenton
DOSCO ownership brought about a golden age
in the coal and steel industries of Nova Scotia, a benefit in
which the Trenton plant shared as the company became
the largest private employer
in Canada. The next great
international conflict brought more work and wages to
Pictou Count,
but also major changes.
-The~first sand blast shop, the last operation
before painting, was blli
lt from the 1930s. When it was
replaced with a
~ofemodern one in the 1940s, steel
o grit replaced sandas the blast medium. Once placed in
-the blast shpp, the cars were removed from their trucks
by being air~jackedupwarcls; the trucks were rlin out of
the blast shop, the cars then grit blasted, the trucks are
returned,the cars are lowered on them and the cars go
the paint shop.
Cars were -dried at first
in the paint shop
by being exposed to the air. In 1948 heated
booths were built, wherein each, car could be sprayed
then dried quickly.
Sourc~: Cameron, James. Industrial History
of New
Glasgow;Ho~!0n Press, Pictou, 1960
In vertical ihtegration, a firm that first
in only,one step in the making arid selling of a
product might integrate backward to supply its own
materials and might also integrate forward into the
marketing and distribution o(its
Henry Cornelius Klassen
. Abusiness history
of Alberta
.. University of Calgary Press 1999
continued on page 112
Photo Gallery
By Stan J. Smaill
French Version, Michel Lortie
In this issue Stan takes a look back at Maritime
railroading primarily in the 1970s.
In May 1975, Stan
made a Maritime Swing with Philip Mason and captured
the best
of Atlantic Canada railroading on film! The
Ocean, the Scotian, FPAs, short lines, diesel-hydraulics,
and more! All photos
by the author unless otherwise
102 MAl -JUIN 2008
Galerie de photos
des Maritimes
Par Stan J. Sma ill
Traduction franc;aise : Michel Lortie
Dans ce numero, Stan jette un regard sur les
chemins de fer dans les provinces Maritimes au cours de
la decennie 1970.
II y a effectue un voyage en compagnie
de Fred Mason
en mai 1975. lis ont alors photographie de
tres belles scenes ou
ron peut voir des trains tels Ie «
Ocean» et le« Scotian », des locomotives FPA, des petites
lignes, des locomotives diesel-hydraulique, etc. Toutes les
photos sont de
lauteur a moins dindication contraire.
Credit famous photographer Jim Shaugnessy
with this wonderful image from the spring
1962 as GE 70 tonners 38 and 37 leave
EmeraldJct., PE.l. with CNRM251 heading
up Island
for Tignish. The 37 still sports her
original as-delivered paint scheme.
Jim Shaugnessy a realise cette magnifique
photo printaniere en 1962 alors que deux locomotives de 70 tonnes du CN, les Nos 38
3, quittent Emerald Junction, fle-du-Prince-Edouard, avec Ie convoi mixte M251 en direction de Tignish. A noter que la 38 a
conse/ve sa livree originale.
Two brotherhood men discuss the
of diesel traction as CNR FA2
9422 looks on at
Edmunston,NB. in
the early fifties.
Odd numbered FB2
9423 is 9422s running mate.
9422 was the last CNR
FA to retain the old CNR green and
yellow paint scheme. Her horns now
adorn Exporails Porter gas electric
No 9. CN photo, Smail!
Deux cheminots en conversation devant la FA-2 du CN No 9422 a Edmunston, Nouveau-BlUnswick, au debut des annees
LaFB-2 a larriereest laNo 9423; cetait sa compagnede travail. LaFA-2fut la derniere locomotive de type FA aporterles
couleurs ve/t et jaune du
CN Ses anciennes flutes ont ete posees sur la locomotive de manceuvre No 9 du musee Exporail. Photo
CN, collection Smaill.

MAY -JUNE 2008
This mystery photo is
thought to be at
Newcastle, N.E. on
what might be the CNR
Maritime Express. The
Alemite has been
administered to the
rods and the shop
are almost finished
cleaning the fire on 4-8-
No. 6227. Soon, the
locomotive and her
charge will be off CN
photo X33446, Smaill
collection. 111
Cette photo aU/ait ete prise a Newcastle, au Nouveau-E/Unswick, et Ie train serait lexpress des Maritimes du CN. La locomotive
est de type
4-8-4, la No 6227. On a presque termine lentretien et, dans peu de temps, la locomotive selancera avec son train.
CN X-33446, collection Smaill.
Probably Canadas
beloved and famous 4-8-
is seen here in the early
years of her career
running along the
Restigouche River near
Matapedia with the
Halifax bound Ocean
Limited in fall
1942. The
6218 was retired in 1971
now is on public
in Fort Erie,
Ontario. CN photo
X29019, Smail!
Cette legendaire locomotive
a vapeU/; probablement la 4-8-4 la plus connue au Canada, longe la riviere Ristigouche pres de
Matapedia, en tete de
[express «Ocean Limitee» en direction de Halifax a lautomne de 1942. La 6218 Jut mise a fa retraite en 1971
et est maintenant en montre
a F011 E;Iie, en Ontmio. Photo CN X 29019, collection Sma ill.
Eastern Cars early success can be attributed
to another factor beyond the business acumen of its
executives, for the company was among the first in the
region to practice what
is today known as vertical
As a subsidialY
of an empire that owned coal
mines and steel mills, Eastern
Car found itself the sole
supplier of rail cars to the Cape Breton mines and was
the first large corporation in Atlantic Canada to engage
in backward integration. This form of corporate
strategy came into polar use with the development of
the automobile industry, and its benefits and evils have
been debated at all levels
by academics, capitalists and
To some the prime evil is that such integration
empowers monopolies to expand their control
marketplace and effectively choke off innovation and
To others the benefit is that a vertically
integrated business can
better control its costs and is
not subject to shortages of essential materials arising
from labour or production difficulties faced
by its
The early history of Eastern Car shows that,
for better or worse, vertical integration worked, and
only when BESCO and DOSCO began to shed their
c.oal mining operations, did the East~rn Car
plallt have to start relying upon contracts fromoutsi ~ciurces such as foreign railways and the federal
government. –

DO-SCQs empire included collieries at
Si.ellarton, Glafe Bay, Springhill, and Sydney Mines,
and three rallways;
th~ Cumberland, Rail~ay at
DOSCO established Trenton Industries Limited
in October
1941 as a subsidiary in the planing mill of the
wood shop of the car works.
The facility, measuring 550
by 90 feet, was outfitted with the machine shop
equipment financed
by the Dominion government.
During the war years, Trenton Industries manufactured
four inch guns for the Royal
Navy. After the war, the
plant turned out mining equipment, metal stamping
presses, a
nd bottle washers.
Eastern Car secured foreign orders for rail cars
from the Soviet and Belgium governments. Fifteen
hundred flat cars were built for Russia late
in war under 112
MAl -JUIN 2008
Springhill, the Sydney
& Louisburg on Cape Breton
island, and the Essex Terminal Railway at Walkerviile,
Ontario giving the Eastern Car Company ready market
for any railcars.
Asimple illustration of this can be found
in the
postcards that, for whatever reason (certainly the
scenic nature of the subject cannot be among them)
were sold and circulated throughout the region in the
early 1900s. Industrial themes appear to have been
very popular
in the postcard industry in the first part of
the Thentieth Century, panoramas
of factories and
quarries were almost
as frequent as scenic vistas and
imposing architecture. Such was the case for the
postcarp shown here, depicting the Nova Scotia Steel
and Coal Companys winning pit (later called the
Princess Colliery) and coke ovens
at Sydney Mines.
The photograph is stark in its presentation,
of coal cars lined up on dozens of tracks
ready to receive coal from the pithead prior to
transport to either the marine loading docks
markets inland, and delivering coal from the other
colliers to. the coking oven. Most of these cars were
by Eastern Car, and for as long as the coal· and
steel industries
of Cape Breton thrived, Eastern Car
would have a ready-made customer, even if it was
merelya sister industry.
. Critics of vertical integration have pointed to

the.control it allows corporations to exert over the local
economy; but this surely mattered little to the
employees at Trenton, who were taking
handsome paycheques almost from the day Nova
~cotia Steel and Coal began its operations.
the terms of the Allied Lend-Lease Plan. When the war
ended, Russia refused to accept the cars. They were
stored in the plant yard for several years. A few wound up
as road bridges in Prince Edward Island, others were sold
to Argentina and some were sold to DOCSO for use on its
ys at Springhill, Trenton and Cape Breton Island.
The Belgian order had a much happier history
with the 1,200 gondolas being delivered
in 1946. Change,
however, was
in the air. DOSCO had closed the Trenton
steel works rolling mill in 1943 and the bolt shop was
shuttered after the war
in order to concentrate work at its
steel plant
in Sydney.
For· years, Thomas Cantley
was the driving force behind
the~ success of what would
become the Trenton railcar
works. He was jewarded for
his work in the -First World
War with a seat in the
Canadian sel1ate. Jay
Undenllood colleCtion.
It ismofe often than
not a mark of honour for a
businessman to earn the
soubriquet as a captain of_
industry, but rarely does one
deserve the title of hero. Glasgow,
NS-born Thomas
Cantley, who rose through the
ranks of the steel industry to
become president and general
manager of Eastern Car Works
in the First World War.
Such a man was New
The New Glasgow
MAY -JUNE 2008 113 CANADIAN RAIL • 524
Eastern Chronicle of March 1, 1945 eulogized the
executive on his passing:
New Glasgow lost its Number One citizen on
Saturday, when Hon. Senator Thomas Cantley, died at
the age of eighty-eight years.
He was born in this town
and here spent all his home years. From his early days he
was a factor in the life
of the town, and while he never
aspired to Municipal honours he was more energetic
and interested in the civic welfare than many who did.
His whole life was marked by activity and
accomplishments weT€~ many and on a major scale. He
could well be termed a community builder and looking
back down the years you find his impress on many
of the
chief enterprises that helped create the prosperity that
this section enjoyed.
And during his life his unbounded energy
marked his career and when he believed he
was right he
threw himself into the task wholeheartedly.
Our first recollection of Thomas Cantley was as
a merchant, when he conducted a tea, crockery, brick
and lime business
.. . The old advertisements in this
of that date indicate that it was a business oC
considerable proportions. Personal merchandising not
giving him scope enough for his activities, he joined the
staff of the.
Nova Scotia Steel Company as sales .
_ representative and he marketed the
prodlictof that
industry in Upper Canadain greatquantities.
Theindustly hummed under his salesmanship
on:-its list of eager customers were particularly the
leading manufacturers of agricultural
irhplem~nts,His .
co-operation with
GrahamFraser and especially Simon .
. A. Haser, the chief engineer enabled the ¢oncern to
grow to huge pi·oportions.
·Mr. CantLey,alohg-with th~ late R.E.
Chambers, shared in acquirmg the irowareas at Belle
Isle and from
then on the future of the industry WaS on_
secure footing:
Qn the retirement of Mr. Graham·
Fraser, Mr. Cantley becarne thePresiderit and General
of the Steel company and for several years he
was chief mbvingfactor in all th,e enlargements ofthat
industry. . –

To him must go the credit for the first
of shells ill the First World War. This was a
p~rsonal triu~ph and while he became a member of tk
Shell Committee it was under his direction at Trenton
that the first Canadian shells were made and
In fact his foresight and initiative marked his
It will be recalled that at Trenton during the··
First War were built the first Canadian steel ships. The
young shipbuilder Levy MacMillan came _
surcharged with the idea that he cOuld build ships at
nenton that were so badly needid. When he
interviewed some of the· heads at Trenton, Colonel Cantley was not at home.
Mr. MacMillan did not get much
encouragement. So he took the train for Cape Breton
and met Colonel Cantley at Antigonish.
On the return
trip to New Glasgow he laid his plans before the
Colonel, who at once seized with
the idea, told
MacMillan to go ahead.
He made quick decisions and
when he did he stood behind them. Seven steel vessels
were launched from that yard and they were the
of Nova Scotians.
One thing that distinguished Colonel Cantley
was his loyalty to the local workmen.
He never in public
lost an opportunity to extol the ability
of the Pictou
County workers as mechanics and men to
be depended
The men in his employ reciprocated and it is not
on record that any strikes or tie-ups featured his
From the start
of the Aberdeen Hospital he
one of its most indefatigable supporters and for
ty years president of the Hospital Board, He was a
staunch member
of the Presbyterian Church and
during the days
of strife for its continuance, he was one
of the outstanding supporters of the Church of his·
Fathers, and lemained so.
Colonel Cantley first entered the political
field in
1921 when he contested this County as
Conservative candidate but was unsuccessful. He was
in 1925,1926 and in 1930 and~in 1935 he was
. appointed to the Senate.
That was an especial tribute to him. For Pictou
County already had a Senator,
but~Prlme Minister
Bennettof that day deemed that Colonel Cantley was
mqre worthy of the appointment than any of his Nova
S<;otiasupporters, and called him
to the Senate. The
. Eastern Chronicle,. not =a polit_kat supporter in
tendeifngitssincere congratulations jO the new
Senator, declared tha t
it was one of the acts of Premier
..;cBennett deserving of highest commendation. In his
political. life, Senator Cantley· carried _ no personal
He never parte-d friendship with those who
opposed him.
He had few as warm friends in Pictou
. County as
the Honourable E.M. Macdo.nald and James
A. Fraser, both
of whom opposed him in a federal
elect-ion,~-and both reciprocated his friendship. They.
the Colonel were to bigfottrivialities.
As a representative at Ottawa, Colonel
. Cantley was, splendid and had the confidence
of all his
constituents regardless
of their politics. And now
passes into revered memory this loyal Pictonian and
one who exercised a notable influence upon the place
of his birth, which he loved above all other and for
which he spent
his great talents and energies. The place
will know him
no more but he will long be kindly
… .
The companys fortunes slid despite the
economic boom that followed the Second World War. By
the mid-1950s, as Canadas railway industry began to lose
freight to highway trucking,
and passengers to private
automobiles, the
boom years began to wane.
There were a variety of other influences at work
during this period; waning government subsidies, the rise
of cheap oil as a fuel,
and above all cheaper sources of
foreign steel that all took a toll on DOSCOs
performance, and pressure on the company to rid itself of
subsidiaries in order to improve its profitability.
By 1957 the ownership of Eastern Car and
Trenton Industries shifted from
DOSCO to AY. Roe
Canada Limited, a branch of the large British aircraft
manufacturing company
of the same name. AY. Roe was
hoping to diversify from its
ill-fated aviation and defence
related enterprises
(AY. Roe had been the developer of
the Avro Arrow, Canadas state-of-the-art jet
interceptor that was summarily cancelled by the
of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker).
Shortly after the sale, A
Y. Roe closed the car works office
and moved the engineer
and clerical staff into the old
SCOTIA main office at the steel works. Part of the old
office building was
reopened in 1959.
By the end of the 1950s, Eastern Car had
produced 72,800 freight cars, including 9,300 for use in
Nova Scotian coal and
ore mines. The list of car types
produced include ordinary box, auto box, heated box,
gondolas, refrigerator,
hopper cars, flat, air dump, stock,
coke, ore, ballast, hot
metal ladle, scale test, snow plough
and steel and aluminium pi t tubs. Eastern
Car first made
aluminium cars in 1947 when it built box cars of this
material for the Roberval & Saguenay Railway. CN
followed with a trial
order for five aluminium box cars in
The plant specialized in freight cars and never built
a passenger car.
Shortly before acquiring Eastern Car,
AY. Roe
had become the owner of another major rail car
manufacturer when it acquired the Canada Car &
Foundry Company (CC&F).
The situation created
apprehension in Trenton which was partially resolved
AY. Roe closed the CC&Fs Montreal plant in
The following year, AY. Roe was absorbed by
Hawker Siddeley Canada Inc., the subsidiary of another
British conglomerate that dominated the aerospace and
shipbuilding industry in the
United Kingdom. Eastern
Car employees suddenly found themselves in the same
fold as their former competitors, as Hawker Siddeley also
owned a rail car plant in
Thunder Bay. (Despite the
several other corporate identities
by which the Trenton
factory would become known, many in Pictou County
today still refer to the site as
Hawker Siddeley.)
1962 also saw
the Canada Iron Foundries
Limited, which had taken over the Dominion Wheel
in Trenton, close.
Seven years later, in a cycle that was becoming all 114
too familiar to the employees and the communities that
had depended upon the plant for their livelihoods, Eastern
CarlHawker Siddeley found itself changing hands back to
Canadian ownership, this time the Sidbec Crown
of Quebec. This ownership lasted long enough
for the Quebec government to sell
all the non-Quebec
assets back to Hawker industries!
By this time Pictou County had found other
industries on which to rely for its industrial growth,
as the
French tire manufacturer Michelin and the American
Scott Paper company built plants at nearby
Granton and
Abercrombie Point, and the Trenton factory found itself
relying upon a
few foreign contracts to build cars for
African railways, and projects such
as grain cars from the
federal government.
It was a hand-to-mouth existence that was
by Hawker Siddeley in 1987 after several
strikes, and a year later Montreal-based Lavalin Industries
purchased the Trenton facility and changed the
name yet
again, this time to Trenton Works.
Some offshore oil developments added to the
optimism for Trentons future, but even this
hope was
short-lived, as railcar orders continued to decline
nationally, Lavalin gave up the business in 1992 obEging
the provincial government to take control of
the railcar
plant, which had survived almost entirely on a contract to
build coal cars for the newly developed Westray mine
nearby Plymouth, N.S. Th West ray venture came to a
tragic end in May of that year, however, when twenty six
miners died in an underground explosion that
Pictou Countys ambition to revive its coal mining past.
Three years later Americans again took control of
Trenton Works. Greenbrier Corporation, which purchased
the plant, closed
it temporarily in what was called a move to
adjust the manufacturing process to increase production
and improve quality.
There was less local optimism associated with the
new owner. Greenbrier had already sent several assembly
contracts to a Polish subsidiary, noting that wages
in that
country, newly freed from the Soviet bloc, were much
competitive. The sale of the plants forge operation to a
Texas company (renamed Nova Forge Corp.) in 2004
heightened suspicion that the end was near.
The axe, fell, perhaps finally, on April 4 2007, just
weeks after the union had grudgingly accepted a new
contract in the wake of a brief strike over wages and job
Many residents feel the death of the Trenton
railcar plant will mean the death
of the local railway. It was
of three Pictou County industries (Michelin Tire and
the Neenah kraft
mill at Abercombie are the others) that
were seen to be keeping the Cape Breton & Central Nova
Scotia Railway in business.
The CBNS had applied to abandon its line from
Port Hawkesbury to Sydney -the entire length
of Cape
Breton Island -in 2006, after losing business from the
MAY -JUNE 2008 115 CANADIAN RAIL • 524
Trenton Works produced a wide variety of car types for the railroad industJy over its many years in existence. Pictured here are a
Devco hopper
Cal; Box cars and a Pool grain hopper Cal: All fourphotos Glen Smith.
Texas-based Nova FOIge Company is the only heavy
industlY still
in operation at the fOlmer Greenbrier plant
in Tienton, Nova Scotia. Andrew Underwood.
Two Trenton Works depressed centre lumber cars loaded
to the gills caught at Penhold (near Red Deer), Alberta.
David Othen.

CNs Contribution to the BC 150 Celebration
CN announced the creation of the CN
Community Celebration Fund in support of BC150
celebrations. The $150,000 fund will support community­
based initiatives celebrating 150 years
of the founding of
the Crown Colony of British Columbia in 1858.
throughout BC are planning
events that showcase
the provinces cultural diversity, rich
history and significant achievements. The CN
Community Celebration Fund will provide assistance to
those communities along CNs rail corridor. CN
pleased to offer its support to local communities as BC
celebrates this important milestone, said Jim Vena,
senior vice-president Western Region. Our own
connection with BC dates back over 100 years and the CN
Community Celebration Fund demonstrates our
commitment to the communities through which we pass,
and where many
of our employees live and work.
One of the major projects CNs Community
Celebration Fund
will sponsor is RiverMania which
involves a fleet of boats leaving Prince George on August
24th, and traveling down the mighty Fraser, arriving
Steveston on September 28th. Communities along the
Fraser River route are already planning a number
events to mark the fleets passage. The CN Community
Celebration Fund has set aside $50,000 to support
RiverMania through this vital trade route, much of it
shared with CN.
The remaining $100,000 will be directed to other
BC communities, not along the RiverMania route, but
along other CN corridors. In all cases, community
donations will range from $2,000 to $5,000, based on the
of the community. In addition to the CN Community
Celebration Fund, CN donated $100,000 to partner with
the Historica Foundation and others sponsors to publish
and distribute 200,000 calendars to high school students.
118 MAl -JUIN 2008
May -June, 2008
John Godfrey
The 2008 calendar chronicles the history of the province
with captivating photos, quotes, events, pop culture, and
great momen
ts in the provinces history.
With so much to celebrate this year, CN hails
for its immense progress and looks forward to helping
create a vibrant economy and an even brighter future.
the CN Community Celebration Fund criteria and the
application form, please contact
the community fund
office at 604-638-7455.
The deadline for submitting
is March 17,2008.
CN investments strengthen national rail network
Hunter Harrison, president and CEO of CN,
said the companys investments in recent acquisitions,
continued infrastructure improvements and new
locomotives strengthen Canadas domestic rail network
and bolsters its position
in the international market place.
Harrison said: CNs purchase of regional railways in
Alberta and
our commitment to upgrade these railways,
our substantial investments in network capacity and new
locomotive acquisitions, along with the investments to
support global
trade at the Port of Prince Rupert and in­
land at Prince George, BC, are significant for
economy of Canada.
We are protecting and ensuring the sustainability
of rail service to resource industries in Alberta and
investing in plant and equipment to provide quality rail
infrastructure and service to
all Canadian shippers. CNs
investments are strengthening the Canadian rail network
and helping to support the competitiveness of Canadian
industry in North American and global markets.
CN has targeted its significant investments
the following additions and improvements to its rail
infrastructure: In December 2007, the company
announced the $25-million acquisition of the Athabasca
Northern Railway and plans to rehabilitate ANYs rail
line for $135M over three years; CN in 2006 purchased
the Mackenzie Northern Railway and Lakeland
Waterways Railway for $26M and the Savage Alberta
Railway for $25M.
The company spent more than $60M
MAY -JUNE 2008
upgrading the three railways in 2006 and 2007, and will
another $26M on further upgrades to the
properties in 2008; and,
CN invested almost $300M in
Canada during 2003-2007 to extend sidings for more
efficient train operations, to increase network train
speeds and to improve the fluidity
of yards and terminals.
CNs extended siding
program includes longer
passing tracks
on the companys BC North Line to the
of Prince Rupert, home of a new international
container terminal that opened
in October 2007. As part
of its Rupert investments, CN committed approximately
to the acquisition of new locomotives to handle
the container traffic between the port and the principal
of Canada and the US Midwest. (Market Wire)
eN plans to buy new cars for former DM&IR lines
Canadian National has reportedly notified its
that it plans to purchase 850 100-ton-capacity ore
cars for delivery over the next five years. The cars will be
used on the former Duluth, Missabe &
Iron Range
Railway lines in northern Minnesota. The contract is for
$85 million, or $100,000
per car, with the first batch of cars
First Vessel, CoscoAntwerp, on the
Nov 1, 2007. Cosco operates
the the Pacific Northwest Selvice­
South Loop in conjuntion with
their partners K Line,
Yang Ming
and Hanjin Shipping to form the
CKYH Alliance operating
globally. So far only Cosco and
Hanjin are using the Prince Rupert
facility although
Yang Ming is
expected to start in 2008. Port of
Prince Rupelt. 119
due to arrive in June 2008.
before CN purchased the Missabe Road in
May 2004, the railroad had studied and tested new cars to
replace its aging fleet
of ore jennies. The newest ore cars
on the railroad were built in 1957 and were once pulled by
Missabes famous Yellowstone 2-8-8-4 steam
locomotives. Although not confirmed, the new cars may
come equipped with electronically controlled pneumatic
CN is continuing to replace former DM&IR
motive power with ex-Illinois Central SD40-3s, of which
five have already
been put in service. At this writing there
are 25 former Missabe diesels still in operation, with 16 of
those still in maroon paint. CN plans to retain 10 former
DM&IR SD40-3s, rebuilt from ex-Southern Pacific
SD45T-2 tunnel motors in
the mid-1990s, but nine of
those have already been repainted in CN colors. All of the
ex-Missabe SD38 and SD-Ms (rebuilt SD9s and SD18s)
will be retired. (Trains Newswire)
New inland container terminal in Prince George
makes first shipments
Aerial view of the City of Prince
Rupert. Fairview
Terminal can be seen in the
background (across from the
islands). Port
of Prince Rupert.
First container train leaving Prince Rupert November 1, 2007. CN Rail.
The BID Group became the first major user of
CNs intermodal transload facility -commonly called an
inland port -in Prince George.
The BID Group employes
250 people at Del-Tech Manufacturing in Prince George
and Nechako Mechanical.
BID Group co-owner Brian
Fehr said the inland port allowed the companies to win a
$4 million forestry equipment contract in Russia. Weve
got 60
of 100 containers through, Fehr said. Its $300,000
we saved in freight. Three-hundred-thousand dollars in
market is a big deal.
The difference between making money on the
project and
not making money on the project was the
The equipment is loaded into containers in
Prince George and sent east to Montreal
to go to Russia
by sea, he said. Without container stuffing capacity in
Prince George, the equipment would have had to go to
Vancouver to be loaded,
he said. Were bidding on more
work in Russia. This puts us into Europe or anywhere, he
said. Its a huge difference that we can ship these
out ofCN.
is the first example of manufacturing jobs
going into containers. With the forestry sector in
struggling, being able to bid on offshore projects will keep
Further view of the terminal on
November 1, 2007. First vessel Casco
Antwelp, 5500
TEU vessel owned by China
Ocean Shipping Company, on the berth.
the company working, he said. Fehr said he was quite
skeptical about the benefits
of the intermodal container
facility when he first
heard about it, but now hes a
CN director
of intermodal operations Alistair
Duncan said the intermodal facility in Prince George was
primarily built to service westbound traffic going to
Prince Rupert. However, they were able to arrange a pick
up in Prince George
on their eastbound trains. This was
our first client for eastbound work. Weve done a few
loads from Lakeland (Mills) and Carrier (Lumber)
sending wood products to Prince Rupert,
Duncan said.
We werent quite ready when it happened. (But) in a year
we should be doing everything.
CN is running two trains a week
between Prince
Rupert and Prince George, he said, but
that will increase as the volume of goods coming to Prince
port increases. Initiatives Prince George
economic development director Kathie Scouten said Del­
Techs project
is the beginning of Prince Georges
as a manufacturing centre. This is a real, living
example of the expectations weve been putting
there. (Prince George Free Press)
MAY -JUNE 2008
CN budgets more than $1 billion for Maintenance­
Of-Way in
As part of a 2008 capital expenditure budget of
$1.5 billion,
Canadian National plans to spend about $1.1
on maintenance-of-way in eastern and western
Canada, and its
u.s. southern region.
CN has budgeted $430 million for western
Canada projects, such as rail, tie and bridge replacements
and improvements.
CN also will extend sidings and
improve terminals, including
the new Port of Prince
Rupert container terminal, and upgrade the recently
acquired Athabasca
Northern Railway.
In addition, CN has budgeted $300 million for
eastern Canada projects, such as the continuing
reconfiguration of MacMillan Yard north of Toronto, and
$300 million for
u.s. projects, including rail, tie and
bridge work.
The railroad plans to complete a multi-year,
$100-million upgrade to Johnston Yard in Memphis,
Tenn., improve
other U.S. terminals and build and extend
The 2008 capital spending program excludes the
$100 million
CN plans to spend to upgrade the Elgin,
& Eastern Railway. The railroad will begin the
upgrades later this year if the Surface Transportation
Board approves its J acquisition deal. However, the
program does include $250 million for improvements to
facilities, including transload and distribution centers,
and information technology upgrades.
To improve day-to-day rail inspections and boost
all maintenance programs,
CN expects to roll out of the
first phase
of a Precision Engineering program, which
features a mobile computer system to help manage
engineering processes more efficiently, reduce
trackwork-related train delays, and increase material and
equipment utilization. (Progressive Railroading On­
Steam train to help celebrate B.C.s 150th birthday
A refurbished steam train will travel along the
Canadian Pacific route during June as part of the year­
long celebration of B.Cs 150th anniversary, the
provincial government announced in a press release
recently. Information about the tour
is still being finalized
and will
be announced later this year. The tour is co­
sponsored by Canadian Pacific, which will operate, staff
and maintain the train.
The Canadian Pacific BC Spirit of 150 Train
includes the vintage Empress 2816 steam locomotive and
support cars, two vintage passenger coaches, a vintage
business car, a heritage baggage car converted into a
travelling museum and a vintage stage car. Visitors can
view historic displays, watch a stage show and interact
with costumed performers depicting some of B.C.s most
entertaining and notorious historical figures.
The locomotive is a vintage CP 2816 Empress.
by Montreal Locomotive Works in December 1930,
its a class
Hlb Hudson-type steam locomotive. It is now
the only surviving
Hlb Hudson and is one of only a
handful of preserved and operating Canadian Pacific
steam locomotives in North America.
the locomotive ran westward out of
Winnipeg to Calgary and eastward to Fort William,
Ontario (now
part of Thunder Bay). Locomotive 2816
then moved into service
on the Windsor-to-Quebec City
corridor. Its last assignment was at the front
of a
commuter train, making its final
revenue run
on May 26, 1960. It logged more than two
million miles before being retired. Rebuilding began in
and restoration was completed in 2002.
(Vancouver Sun)
CPR, Consolidated Fastfrate extend intermodal
partnership pact
Canadian Pacific Railway and trucking firm
Consolidated Fastfrate
(CFF) recently reached a $500
million agreement to extend their intermodal partnership
another 10 years. Partners since 1966, CPR and
CFF offer less-than-truckload shippers the combination
of long-haul rail and dock-to-dock transportation
services. CFF also provides freight consolidation,
deconsolidation, warehousing and trans-shipping
services. Under their co-location program, CFF builds all
its transportation centers adjacent to
CPR intermodal
terminals to gain service efficiencies and
opera ting costs.
Over the past 40 years, we have seen the
incredible growth and development of the intermodal
industry, from a minor
mode of transportation to a multi­
billion-dollar global business, said
CPR President and
Chief Executive Officer
Fred Green in a prepared
statement. With this 10-year extension to our agreement,
and continued strong global demand for our services,
are great growth opportunities for both CFF and
CPR. (Progressive Railroading On-line)
USDA backs Canadian railway takeover of US rails
A takeover of a US railway by CP has been given
the blessing of the US Agriculture Department.
USDA recently filed comments with the US Surface
Transportation Board supporting the takeover
of the
Dakota, Minnesota, and Eastern Railway. CP said last fall
it was buying the railway and its subsidiaries for US$1.48
The purchase gives CP access to lucrative
agricultural transportation markets through the US
Belt and to coal markets in the Powder River Basin in
is also eyeing the potential growth in the
regions ethanol industry. Total annual ethanol
production capacity on the DM&E could hit one billion
gallons and this requires the presence
of reliable rail
transportation. The CP purchase
of the DM&E system is
expected to provide access to additional markets, more
efficient single line service for some shipments, and the
financial resources needed to improve
DM&E lines, the
USDA said in its analysis of the proposed takeover. The
USDA said agriculture producers in the US will benefit
from the Canadian takeover
by providing two railroad
competition in states like South
Dakota and northern
Iowa. The USDA noted that many farm groups in the US
support the merger because it offers a lot of benefits for
farmers. (Ontario Farmer)

VIA Rail Canaoa
Via to upgrade 98 cars
$692 million.
Phase 2 tenders part of rail operators
modernization plan
Via Rail is forging ahead with Phase 2 of its $692-
million federally funded modernization
program by
seeking tenders for the upgrade of its 98 LRC-type
passenger cars used mainly in the Quebec City-Windsor
corridor. North American car specialists, including
Bombardier Inc. and French-controlled Alstom Canada,
can bid.The four-year contract will be worth
about $100
million, industry sources estimated.
The cars are 25 years
old and make up almost
25 per cent of Vias total fleet of
430 cars.
Phase One, a $101-million contract to rebuild
the F-40 locomotive fleet, was awarded in
December to
Global Railway Industries Ltd.s Lachine plant.
$200 million will go to improve trackage, signalling and
other infrastructure while the rest will support Vias
operations until the programs benefits
kick in. The LRC
cars will get new electrical, heating and air-conditioning
systems and interiors. As well, they will use less energy
and pollute less,
CEO Paul Cote told the Canadian Club
of Montreal. When the jobs done in 2013, theyll be more
reliable and meet modern comfort standards. Corridor
ridership capacity will be up 32
per cent over 2007.
The $692-million program will let Via run its
fleet more efficiently and provide more frequent service
without adding new equipment,
he said. Rail offers the
smartest and safest intercity travel alternative, as the
Christmas storms proved. Cote was reticent
about the
corridors long-promised high-speed train, while
welcoming another new study by the federal, Ontario and
Quebec governments. Rails potential has never been
higher and we want to exploit it, he said. Setting up the 122
MAl -JUIN 2008
high-speed link as a separate public-private partnership
is one of many solutions being weighed, he added.
He also said Via is talking again with Canadian
National Railway Co., owner
of most of the trackage it
uses. Historically, they have quarreled bitterly over rent
and freight train priorities. Cote insists the benefits of
Vias heavy investment must translate into better
passenger train punctuality and more frequent service.
Its a big challenge because CNs top priority is moving
freight -thats what affects CNs stock, profit and
sometimes bonuses.
He said expanding rail is a cost-effective way of
improving the countrys transportation system.
Two rail
lines can move
13 per cent more people an hour than six
lanes of highway, using 40 per cent of the space, and other
modes become less congested.
The five-year, $692-million investment program
is over and above Ottawas annual subsidy. In 2006,
Ottawa covered Vias deficit
of almost $200 million. The
2007 accounts will be tabled early in April.
(©The Gazette)
Railways studying passenger train to Sherbrooke
Montrealers may one day again be able to jump
on a train to visit the Eastern Townships on a picturesque
route running through Farnham, Bromont and Magog
before arriving in Sherbrooke. Within weeks, Via Rail
and the Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway
are to issue
a preliminalY study of a Montreal-Sherbrooke train, a
proposal put forward
by Brome-Missisquoi MP Christian
Ouellet and
27 municipalities in the Townships.
Proponents say the train would reduce the
of cars on Quebec highways, improve the quality
of life for students and workers who commute along the
route, and boost tourism in the region. Most
of the tracks
havent carried passenger traffic since Via Rail stopped
using the route in the late 1970s. Montreal-Sherbrooke
service continued until 1994, using a different route that
went through St. Hyacinthe.
The study will estimate the
cost of upgrading the infrastructure so that a passenger
train could travel at up to 110 kilometres an hour, said
Dale Williams, VP for
market development at the
Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, which owns most
the tracks. (Montreal Gazette)
Major part of Canada Line completed in BC
The Canada Line rapid transit project that will
run mostly underground between the Vancouver
waterfront and the airport reached a major milestone
recently when a tunnel boring machine broke through the
ground into the future site
of the Waterfront Station. The
breakthrough by the massive, 440-tonne tunnel boring
machine was marked
by a ceremony attended by BC
Premier Gordon Campbell, several Canada Line officials
MAY -JUNE 2008
Yaletown -Rotln oUse
-=-a Bored Tunnel
. Elevated
= CUI … ntS.0l)e~nel
~ AtGrade
….;;:::.-Futu~e Station
Langara, -49th Ave

Richmond -Brighouse
and the workers who have been on the project. This will
shape the city for the long-term future and it helps open
our doorway to the rest of the world and show them what
we can do, said Campbell, who handed medals to each
worker after the tunnel crashed through the last obstacle.
The premier said the project was on budget and
of schedule, so every time youre ahead of
schedule youre in better shape for the long term. But the
project also has caused considerable controversy for the
that runs underground along Cambie Street, east
of the downtown, because it has disrupted many
businesses. Some business owners have said they have
been ruined, but the BC government has offered no
You cant do a major transportation
project without some disruption, said Campbell.
doesnt matter whether its a major road improvement, a
major transportation improvement, there are going to
some disruptions. The Canada Line system will run,
completely separated from traffic, between the
Waterfront Centre on Burrard Inlet near downtown
Vancouver to
the Vancouver International Airport in
It will have 16 stations, two bridges, and
approximately 19 kilometres
of tunnel. The line is
expected to be in operation in 2009. The tunnel boring
machine that has been used
on the Canada Line project is
used for deep tunnels where there are man-made
obstructions above the tunnel that prevent construction
from the surface.
The machine bore twin 2.5 krn tunnels at
a rate of about
10 metres a day and was used to tunnel
under False Creek and
under buildings in the downtown
Canada Line is a $1.9-billion expansion of
Vancouvers SkyTrain elevated rapid-transit system.
(Canadian Press and
Ian Smith PCD)
Wakefield Steam frain for sale
A week after a landslide temporary shut down
the Hull-Chelsea-Wakefield Steam Train, the owner of
the West Quebec tourist attraction has
put the train up for
sale. Media reports say train owner
Jean Gauthier no
longer has confidence in the municipally-owned company
that owns the railway.
Mr. Gauthier had been attempting to
renegotiate the contract with the municipalities of
Gatineau, Chelsea and La Peche, which jointly own the
railway. A reported 11th-hour meeting between Mr.
Gauthier and several Outaouais provincial politicians was
unable to solve the impasse. A company spokesperson
was quoted
as saying the decision to put the train up for
sale means the train
is unlikely to carry any more tourists
this season.
To date, the train has carried more than half a
million riders and
made more than 2,000 trips along the
Gatineau River, according to the companys website.
(Ottawa Business Journal)
Mimico Station Restoration
In the mid-nineteenth century, the railway
started spreading through south central and south
western Ontario and was instrumental in establishing
settlements in those regions.
On December 3, 1855, the
Hamilton and Toronto Railway
(HTR) opened a station
of Toronto, just east of todays Royal York Road. A
village grew up around the railway station, and what
would become the town
of Mimi co was born.
the late 1880s, the HTR merged with the
Great Western Railway, which subsequently merged with
the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR). In 1906, the GTR
opened its Mimico Yards not far west of the original
Mimico Station, and for many years these yards were the
main freight terminal for Toronto.
In 1916, the GTR built
a third Mimico Station building,
near Church Street, now
Royal York Road.
Another merger took place in 1923 , when the
GTR became part of the Canadian National Railway
(CN). In the late 1960s, Canadian National stopped using
Mimico Station as a passenger terminal.
GO Transit, a
railway system bringing commuters into Toronto,
constructed a new small Mimico
GO Station to the east of
the 1916 building and Royal York Road. The 1916
building was used for some years to provide sleeping
quarters for workers on the railway line, but eventually it
fell into disuse and disrepair.
Although the Historic Sites and
Board of Canada, in 1991, suggested that the station
would be Mimico Station:
The 1916 Building in 1960
appropriate for designation as a national historic site,
property remained abandoned until it was sold in 200l.
The new owner advised the City of Toronto of plans to
demolish the building, and the City indicated its intention
to designate
the building. In June 2004 a Request for
(RFP) was issued for the relocation (prefer~bly
to Coronation Park across Judson Street), restoratIOn,
and adaptive reuse
of the building.
124 MAl -JUIN 2008
The Mimico
Station Community
Organization (MSCO)
was formed in April 2004,
with the sole purpose of
saving and restoring the
station building. In
November 2004, this
group entered into an
agreement with the city to
proceed with its proposal.
The restored building will
contain a railway and local
museum, an archives and
research room,
community meeting
space, and a catering
kitchen. You can see a
of this move on
YouTube. Go to On
the home page, select Videos at the top. Enter Mimico
Station in the search bar and click on Search.
At the left,
select Mimico Station Move, May 2005.
The station was first moved, in May 2005, to a
nearby piece
of land owned by the Citys Works
Department, where some repairs and improvements were
made to the condition
of the building and it was provided
with a waterproof covering for the winter.
Then began the
long process
of arranging a 20-year licence agreement,
selecting the permanent site, obtaining building permits,
undertaking fund-raising events, and achieving
the status
of a registered charitable organization-and maintaining
the building in reasonable condition.
Finally, with all the agreements and permits in
place, the Mimico Station was moved,
on November 25,
2007 to its final location across
the road in Coronation
Park: at the corner
of Royal York Road and Judson Street.
The location is less than a hundred yards from its original
site, and quite visible from passing trains. Extensive
exterior and interior restoration
is still needed. Plans have
been made, and the project is a work in progress.
Today Mimico Station sits proudly on its new
solid foundation, where it surveys both the community
and the passing
parade on the rails. For updates on the
project and to make a donation, please visit
(Carol Fordyce, MSCO)
Wig-wags going soon on old CASO line
The days are numbered for the last two
remaining old-style wig-wags inOntario, which
located just east of Tilbury. The wig-wags, which feature
round, flashing stop signs that swing
out when a train is
passing, were installed between 1910 and 1940, said
MAY -JUNE 2008
Transport Canada spokeswoman Tina Bouchard. So
were talking abou t pretty old
Technology, almost a 100 years old in
cases, she said. These working wig-wags are located on
Morris Line and Gleeson Line, east of Tilbury. Bouchard
said they will likely be replaced sometime in 2009 as
of Transport Canadas grade crossing improvement
She noted the federal agency has been in talks
with CN, which owns the rail line
the wig-wags are on, and
the Municipality
of Chatham-Kent about replacing the
CN spokesman Frank Binder said the wig-wags
are definitely unique to us, adding the managers dont
of any others in the system. Binder said Transport
Canada wants to standardize the crossings so people
to seeing the same thing. He noted that although the
old-style wig-wags are not standard crossings, they are
safe. (Chatham Daily News)
frestles will re-open in June
The provincial government will pony up $10,000
for a celebration to mark the re-opening
of the Myra
Canyon Trestles in British Columbia. In all, 12
trestles were destroyed and two steel structures damaged
during the
Okanagan Mountain Park Fire of 2003. Myra
Canyon Trestle Restoration Society Chair, Ken
Campbell, says a day long celebration is being planned for
June to mark the re-opening of the trestles and to honour
the volunteers that have made it happen.
There has been a lot
of public interest in this
and residents are anxious for the re-opening, says
The price tag for the reconstruction was $13.5
The funding, announced by Kelowna-Lake
Counlry MLA,
AI Horning, was made possible through a
Community Celebrations grant. Our government
happy to support its re-opening as a part of the BC150
celebrations, showcasing the communitys pride and hard
that has gone into restoring this unique and vital
part of the Okanagan, says Horning. A firm date has not
been announced for the re-opening of the trestles.
(Kelowna Capital News)
The mighty IGnsol frestle on Vancouver Island on
track for restoration
The Kinsol Trestle, the Commonwealths tallest
wood bridge according to rail historians,
is on track for a
$5.6-million facelift now that $4.1M in provincial funding
is available. The goal would be to get going this year,
said Jack Peake, chair
of the Cowichan Valley Regional
The trestle, accessible but impossible to cross, is
at the south end of the Cowichan Valley, northwest of
Victoria. Peake, also mayor
of Lake Cowichan, said a
of Cowichan Valley residents plans to raise the
$l.5M needed to restore the Kinsol.
Wood suppliers
and tradespeople have also
indicated they would provide free material and labour.
The 88-year-old Killsol Trestle, lauded for its scale and
complexity, hasnt
been used since 1979, when CNs
Cowichan line was decommissioned.
When writer and
historian Tom Paterson
heard in 2006 that the Ministry of
Transportation, which owns the bridge, was going to tear
it down, he and others rallied to save it. The $1.6M the
province was going to spend to dismantle the bridge is
part of the $4.1M that can now be used to restore the
Canadian National
was the last train over
the Kinsol
Trestle on
20, 1979. The
trestle was located at
mile 51.1 on the
Subdivision on
Vancou vel Island.
Dave Wilkie
collection, West Coast
Railway Association
Kinsol, Peake said. Another $1.5M was approved last year
to restore the bridge. A further
$lM is forthcoming as
part of a $1.7M grant to upgrade the Trans-Canada Trail.
Once the Kinsol Trestle can be crossed
pedestrians, equestrians and cyclists, it will eliminate the
need for a
detour on the trail. Once the Kinsol is restored,
Peake predicts it will cost about $50,000 annually to
maintain. (Globe and Mail)
Heritage buffs fear sale of abandoned railway
station in Kingston
Local heritage proponents fear Kingston, ON, is
on the brink of losing a civic landmark. Its at the crisis
stage, local historian Peter Hennessy said yesterday,
reacting to news
that CN is in discussions to sell the Outer
Station on Montreal Street. Hennessy has been tracking
local efforts to see
the 148-year-old limestone station
turned into a model train museum
or other tourism
He fears such plans could be dashed if the
is sold to private interests.
Hennessy received an e-mail last week from CN
business development
and real estate manager Ernie
Longo, informing him
that CN has entered into an
agreement of purchase and sale to sell the property.
are currently under way with the Ontario
Heritage Trust in order to obtain the necessary
concurrence to sell this property, Longo wrote.
buildingS roof was damaged by fire about a decade ago,
leaving it
open to the elements. Since then, CN has been
covering it with tarps
but hasnt done anything permanent
to protect it.
CNs hands have been tied because heritage
regulations prevent them from easily installing a
solid roof on the building that would better protect It,
Hennessy said. Its been estimated it would cost $1.6
million to restore the station.
An environmental review
conducted for
the city estimated it would cost $2M to
clean up the contaminated site. Members of the Kingston
division of the Canadian Railroad Historical Association
hope that a model train museum can still
be built there.
(Kingston Whig-Standard)
Centennial of
Canadian Pacifics
Sudbury line Toronto •
June marked the 100th anniversary of the
Canadian Pacific Railway trestle bridge that crosses the
Seguin River in Parry Sound.
It took over three years to
complete the 1,695 foot long, 104 foot high structure.
To mark the crossing of the first train over the
bridge on
June 14, 1908, a number of events took place in
Parry Sound the week
of June 15 to 22. Events, ranged
from model railroad displays, an art show at the historic
CP Station, heritage displays at the West Parry Sound
District Museum and a dinner and dance at the Bobby
126 MAl -JUIN 2008
ParlY Sound Museum
Orr Community Centre.
CP Rail had exhibition cars on
hand for the
public to tour
as well as a documentary DVD release
about the trestles history. Additionally, the Friends
the Parry Sound Museum unveilled two railroad-themed
murals, while the public library ran a railway-themed
poster contest and story time.
The Parry Sound bridge was the largest structure
on the new rail line to connection Toronto and
southwestern Ontario to CPss transcontinental line. CP
used 22 miles
of the original Toronto, Grey & Bruce
Railway (TG&B) from Toronto to Bolton Junction as
of this connecting line. CP had leased the TG&B, which
ran from Toronto to Owen Sound, in July 1883. A new
227 mile line was driven through muskeg and solid rock
between Bolton Junction and Romford – a
point seven
miles east
of Sudbury -on the Montreal-Vancouver
transcontinental line.
The estimated cost of the 227 miles
of new line construction $11 million.
The supervising engineer for the new line was
John Sullivan. He had been the Assistant Chief Engineer
on the Panama Canal before joining the
CPR in 1898.
The rail line construction required 5,000 men, 27 engines,
Hart ballast cars, 250 flat cars, 150 boarding cars, ten
patent unloading cars and ballast spreaders and between
500 and 600 teams of horses. Approximately 45%
of the
cost was paid
out in wages.
Sullivan did not consider the Parry Sound bridge
the most outstanding feature of the new line. The
through truss, single span steel bridge at French River was
his pride and joy. Standing 40 feet above the water, its
supporting pillars were driven 196 feet into the ground.
Over two million pounds
of Canadian steel were used. Its
foundations alone cost $30,000.
The opening of this line shortened the distance
traffic had to move from Toronto to western Canada.
When the Montreal-Winnipeg section of the
transcontinental line opened in 1885, all Toronto and
southwestern Ontario traffic was routed via Smiths
at the eastern end of the province. This circuitous 1,510
route was chopped to 1,287 miles when the CPR
negotiated an agreement with the Grand Trunk Railway
in 1892 to handle its western traffic between Toronto and
North Bay. As the Grand Trunk began to investigate
MAY -JUNE 2008
building its own transcontinental line into western
Canada in the early years of the twentieth century, the
CPR management decided that the time had arrived to
build its own line to Toronto.
The completion of the
Bolton Junction-Romford line
not only trimmed the
distance to 1,231,
but gave the CPR complete control over
this growing source
of traffic.
the Canadian Northern Railway
the Toronto-Capreol segment of its a-building
on July 2, 1908.
Because of rapidly rising freight traffic,
Canadian National
(the successor to the Canadian
Northern) and
the CPR elected to make their parallel
lines between South Parry and Wanup – 9 miles south
Romford -into a double track line with directional
running. Starting
in December 2005, all westbound trains
to run over the CPR and eastbound trains over the
CNR track. VIA Rails Canadian follows the same
convention stopping
at the former CPR station (now
by the town) westbound and the CNR station (now
an Ontario Ministry
of Highways office) eastbound.
(By Douglas
N. W Smith, based on Beacon Star,
March 28, 2008 and Toronto Star, June 15, 1908)
Vancouver to improve streetcar system before 2010
The Vancouver City Council recently approved
an $8.5 million project to replace tracks between
Granville Island and a future Olympic Village (2nd
Canada Line Station. The project will enable the
Downtown Historic Railway (DHR) to continue
operating streetcar service along the corridor.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. Granville
Island will help fund the construction
of a new station at
the entrance to Granville Island.
In addition, the city is seeking funding
opportunities for a modern downtown streetcar
demonstration project, which would be built in time for
the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.
(Progressive Railroading On-line)
This may look like the Canadian in high season
but in fact its a joint Chaleur and Ocean Limited
at Moncton, New BlUnswick on April 21, 2008.
This joint
movement was caused by spring time
high water at Matapedia, the consist was: 6410,
6426,6427 (to Halifax);
6427, 8126, 8503,
Montcalm, Bienville (to Moncton);
8621, 8142,
8106, 8505, Acadian, Laval, Radisson, Lauzon,
Latour (to Halifax). From David
BA CK COVER TOP: Two brand new Trenton Works depressed centre lumber cars help make up CN train 307 photographed
approaching Springhill Junction, Nova Scotia on
April 19, 2003. The cars will be turned over to Canadian Pacific Railway and
will then head to Toronto and points west. David Othen.
GE CO UVERTURE ARRlERE, HA UT: Deux wagons surbaisses pour Ie transport de bois dceuvre qui sortent de lusine
Trenton. lIs font partie
du train No 307 du CN qui alTive en gare de Springhill Junction en Nouvelle-Ecosse Ie 19 A vril2003. Ces
wagons seront remis au Canadian Pacific et continueront ensuite leur route vers Toronto et IOuest canadien.
Photo: David
BACK COVER BOTTOM: Spuds from the Emerald Isle! The early spring 1975 potato harvest kept trains ntnning on Prince
Edward Island long after other traffic sources disappeared. Orange
MDT and NRC reefers rendered swplus with the advent of
mechanical refrigeration were used basically as insulated boxcars for the rail transpO/t of outbound spuds. Photo: Stan!. Smaill.
PAGE COUVERTUREARRlERE: La recolte de pommes de telTe it lile-du-Prince-Edouard mobilisera Ie chemin de fer bien
apres que toutes les autres sources de revenu auront disparu.
Sur cette photo, on peut voir danciens wagons orange, refrigeres it
la glace, du MDT et du NRC, maintenant dec/asses par la refrigeration mecanique. lis sont utilises ici comme wagons isoles
pour Ie transport des pommes de lel7e qui n ont pas besoin de refrigeration.

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