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Canadian Rail 508 2005

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Canadian Rail 508 2005

170
ISSN 0008-4875
Postal Permit No. 40066621
CANADIAN RAIL
PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY
BY THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Speed Monarch, Lome Perry ………………………………………….. _ …………………. 171
Streetcar Restoration in Ottawa, Wally Weart ……………………………………………………… 180
Kettle Valley Steam Railway, Jo Ann Reynolds …………………………………………………….. 186
When the 800s Went to Saint John, Fred Angus ……………………………………………………. 189
Selling
Them a Line -of Railway, Jay Underwood ………………………………………………….. 190
The 175th. Anniversary of the Start ofthe Modern Ry. Era, Fred Angus ………………………………….. 198
New Coins
Honour Chinese Railway Workers, Fred Angus ……………………………………………. 200
Book Reviews ……………………………………………………………………………… 201
FRONT COVER: In October 1958 the CRHA sponsored an excursion over the lines on the north shore of the St.Lawrence, and
especially requested locomotive 5702
to power the train. Here it is on the wye at Grand Mere QC. Shortly thereafter this locomotive
be
came part of the CRHA collection and now resides at Exporail. Photo, Lome Peny
BELOW CNR K-5-a Hudson 5700 stands outside Montreal Locomotive Works on the day in September 1930 it was handed over to CNR.
On
that occasion a
model of it was presented to CNRs Chief of Motive Po wei; C. E. Brooks. CNR Photo 33752 (collection of Lome PeI7Y)
For your membership in the CRHA, which
includes a subscription to Canadian
Rail,
write to:
CRHA, 110
Rue St-Pierre, St. Constant,
Que.
J5A 1G7
Membership Dues for 2005:
In Canada: $45.00 (including all taxes)
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in U.S. funds.
Other Countries: $80.00 Canadian funds. Canadian
Rail is continually in need of news, stories,
historical data, photos, maps and other material.
Please send
all contributions to the editor: Fred F
Angus,
3021 Trafalgar Avenue, Montreal, PQ.
H3Y 1 H3, e-mail angus82@aei.ca . No payment can
be made for contributions, but the contributer will be
given credit for material submitted. Material will be
returned to the contributer if requested. Remember
Knowledge
is of little value unless it is shared with
others.
EDITOR: Fred F Angus
CO-EDITOR: Douglas N.W. Smith,
Peter Murphy
ASSOCIATE EDITOR
(Motive Power):
Hugues
W. Bonin
LAYOUT: Gary McMinn
PRINTING: Procel Printing
DISTRIBUTION: Joncas Postexperts
Inc.
The CRHA may be reached at its web site: www.exporail.org or by telephone at (450) 638-1522
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005 171 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
The Speed Monarch
La Monarchie de la Vitesse
By/Par Lome Perry
Traduction: Denis Vallieres
Sir Henry Thornton faced a monumental task.
His challenge,
when appointed to head CNR in late 1922,
was to bring
the company out of its legacy of near
bankruptcy and into a new era of head-to-head
competitiveness against CPR. He knew that it wasnt
enough to adopt a new financial strategy, streamline the
organization, develop new services, and modernize plant
and equipment. He had two more aces up his sleeve. One
was to fire up the troops and make them proud of CNR.
The other was to create in the general public (and by
extension their elected representatives) a perception that
CNR was on a roll toward success.
He understood symbolism. He knew he had to
do whats right, and be seen to be doing it. To make this
combination
work required the insertion of some highly
symbolic acts and events, which in themselves might
not
make much intrinsic difference, but would serve to
underscore and illuminate the real progress being made,
most of it behind the scenes.
He and the company were up against a mighty
successful giant in the transportation world,
Canadian
Pacific Railway, which rightfully claimed that it Spans
the World. Rivalry was endemic, but it was hard for
CNR with its tattered and fragmented history to be the
winner in any contest.
Perhaps the first of his symbolic acts was to make
himself the best-known and best-liked CEO CNR or its
predecessors had ever experienced.
He travelled widely
and
became a familiar face to hundreds if not thousands
of rank and file employees from coast to coast. And the
legend began.
Pulling CNR together
By
the later 1920s, he was introducing new trains
and new locomotives and new on board services to rival
anything being offered anywhere.
But the public needed
to know. Thornton encouraged the natural rivalry with
CPR by gradually increasing the speed of trains between
Montreal and Toronto, and pitting certain of his trains
against those
of CPR -minute for minute. The
racetrack just west of Montreal saw the afternoon trains
of the two railways running side by side on most days.
Thornton let his locomotive engineers know that he
didnt want anyone breaking any rules, but nor did he
want CPR to lead the way!
Sir Henry Thornton avait une tache colossale a.
accomplir. Lorsquil fut nomme a. la tete du CNR, vers la
fin
de }annee 1922, il avait comme defi, de sortir dune
quasi-faillite Ientreprise de IEtat et de la rendre
competitive vis-a.-vis Ie CPR. II savait quil ne suffisait pas
dassainir les finances, de
rationaliser la structure
administrative, de developper de nouveaux services ou de
moderniser les installations et les equipements. II avait
deux as dans sa
manche : dabord stimuler ses troupes et
les rendre fieres de servir Ie CNR, puis creer dans Ie
public en general (et par extension, les representants
elus) une nouvelle image du CNR, en route vers lesucces.
II en comprit Ie symbolisme. II savait ce quil y
avait
a. faire et quil etait en mesure de Ie concretiser.
Realiser cette tache complexe, demandait de sa part
dinvestir dans des actions et des evenements hautement
symboliques qui napporteraient quune faible difference
intrinseque,
tout en contribuant a. souligner et a.
enluminer en arriere plan, un reel progreso
Lui-meme et son entreprise furent opposes a. un
puissant monstre
du succes dans Ie monde du transport, Ie
Chemin de Fer Canadien Pacifique, ce dernier declamant
en toute legitimite quil couvrait Ie monde entier (Spans
the World). II etait difficile pour Ie CNR de vaincre cette
rivalite endemique a. cause de son histoire eparse et
fragmentee.
La premiere action symbolique consisterait
peut-etre a. devenir lui-meme Ie plus repute et Ie mieux
apprecie des
PDG que Ie CNR ou ses predecesseurs aient
connus.
II voyagea beau coup et devint une figure
familiere aux centaines voire aux milliers de
cheminots
dun ocean a. lautre. Ainsi debuta une legende.
Vers
Iavantau CNR
Cest vers la fin des annees 1920, qui! inaugura
de nouveaux trains, de nouvelles locomotives et de
nouveaux services
a. bord afin de concurrencer tout ce qui
se faisait ailleurs. Mais
il devait Ie demontrer au public.
Thornton encourageait ainsi la rivalite deja. etablie avec Ie
CPR en augmentant graduellement la vitesse de ses trains
entre Montreal et Toronto et en les confrontant avec ceux
du
CPR, minute pour minute. Ainsi cette piste de
course situee juste a. louest de Montreal fut temoin de
trains dapres-midi des deux compagnies, roulant
quotidiennement cOte a. cote. Thornton laissait entendre
a. ses mecaniciens de locomotives que tout en respectant
les reglements, ceux-ci
ne devaient pas se laisser distancer
par les trains du CPR.
RAIL CANADIEN • 508 172 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
This classy Mountain type and her sisters proved that six hour timing was possibLe between MontreaL and Toronto. CNR 6027 is
hot-footing it westward from MontreaL around 1930. CNR Photo CP6601 (Lome Perry Collection)
Ce type classique dune Mountain demontrait quiL litait maintenant possibLe dejoindre MontreaL a Toronto en six heures. La
6027 du CNR
se dirige a toute vitesse en direction ouest en provenance de MontreaL vers 1930.
Note the stack LeveL box-Like smoke deflector that was installed on the 5700s shortLy after delivelY from MLW in this 1931 shot
taken at
MontreaLs Turcot yard. CN Photo No. 36274, CRHAArchives, Fonds Corley.
A notel; La bofte au niveau de La cheminee, sembLabLe a un deflecteur de fumee installee surLes 5700 queLque peu apres que
celles-ci eurent
lite Livrees par La MLW Ce cliche fut pris en 1931 a La cour Titrcot de Montreal. Photo CN no.36274, Archives
A
CHF, Fonds Corley.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005
Among the newest power on the CNR system,
the 6000 series
Mountain types in the U-1-a series were
assigned to Montreal-Toronto service and, under test,
proved themselves capable
of maintaining a six hour
overall running time, including stops. But Thornton
wanted more. CPR couldnt match that time because of
its more curvaceous route but he was determined to
maintain his advantage, even if
CPR improved its route
and acquired faster locomotives.
Thornton threw the challenge to his motive
power specialists.
The department of Motive Power and
Car Equipment was headed by C.E. (Ned) Brooks, later
famous for
introducing to CNR the first road diesels on
the continent. His
staff set to work designing a
locomotive
that would exceed the specs ofthe CPRs best,
at least in
terms of the speed-producing dimension. The
key item was a driving wheel diameter of 80 inches,
exceeding
the CPR specs for similar locomotives by 5
inches.
Blazing a
trail
When the product of their planning burst on the
scene late in 1930 they were instant winners. They could
easily maintain
the elapsed time of six hours between
Montreal and Toronto, including four stops, averaging a
little over sixty miles
per hour. And CPR often saw the
smoke trail
of the International Limited receding to the
westward as they struggled to match the pace.
When locomotive 5700, the first of five identical
class K-5-a units,
emerged from Montreal Locomotive
Works,
there was a handing over ceremony. Ned Brooks
was asked just how fast he thought the new locomotive
could go. His reply, as
reported by Douglas Smith in his
excellent
Canadian Rail Passenger Review article on
these locomotives, was She will never be called upon to
show the limit of her speed. Ned Brooks was presented
173 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
Parmi les nouveautes qui renfor<;aient Ie reseau
du
CNR, il y avait la serie 6000 de type Mountain de la
c1asse U-1-a, assignee a la ligne Montreal-Toronto, qui
demon trait, apres tests, quon pouvait y maintenir un
parcours dune duree de six heures, incluant les arrets.
Mais
Thornton en voulait plus. De son cote, Ie CPR ne
pouvait concurrencer ce laps de temps car sa ligne etait
constituee
dun plus grand nombre de courbes. Thornton
etait determine a maintenir cet avantage, meme si Ie CPR
ne cessait dameliorer sa ligne et faisait lacquisition de
locomotives plus rapides.
Thornton lan<;a Ie deti a ses specialistes de la
traction.
Le Service de la Traction et du Materiel
remorque etait dirige par C.E. (Ned) Brooks, qui devint
celebre lorsquillan<;a les
premieres locomotives diesels
de ligne sur Ie continent. Son equipe se mit au travail
pour developper une locomotive qui excederait les
meilleures specifications du
CPR, a tout Ie moins en ce
qui concerne la vitesse. La solution: Ielaboration dune
roue motrice de 80 pouces (2.03m), depassant ainsi de 5
pouces (12.5cm) les specifications du CPR pour des
locomotives similaires.
Se frayer un chemin
Quand Ie fruit de leurs labeurs setala au grand
jour a la fin des annees 1930, ils furent, pour un certain
temps, les vainqueurs. lis pouvaient facilement
maintenir un temps de six heUl·es entre Montreal et
Toronto, incluant quatre an·ets, avec une vitesse moyenne
dau-dela de soixante miles a Iheure (96km/h). Tandis
quilluttait desesperement afin de maintenir sa cadence,
Ie CPR a souventvu la trainee de fumee de IInternational
Limite seloigner
en direction ouest.
On vit surgir de]a Montreal Locomotive Works,
lors
de la ceremonie de son lancement, la locomotive
5700,
la premiere dune serie de cinq unites K-5-a
The cameras (and film)
of the day couldnt
quite freeze a speeding train, but this picture
from the thilties evokes the power
and speed
of5700 as it leads the International Limited
through Turcot QC. In a few minutes the
train will begin running parallel to CPR at
DO/val,
and the daily race will begin. Photo,
collection
of Lome Peny
Les appareils photos (et les films) de ce
temps ne pouvaient capter un train rapide
en action, mais cette photo des annees
trente evoque
la puissance et la vitesse de la
5700 if la tete de lInternational Limitee
traversant
la cow· Ii/rcot, Quebec. Dans
quelques
minutes Ie train roulera en
parallele avec celui du CPR
if DO/val, puis
debutera
la course.
Collection de
Lome Pe17Y
RAIL CANADIEN • 508
In latter years, CNR 5700 is about to
leave Ottawa for Toronto in the late
1940s. By this time various experimental
smoke lifting devices
had been replaced
by large elephant ears , applied when
the wide running board was added.
Photo,
1. NOlman Lowe
La 5700 du CNR sappr8e a quitter
Ottawa pour Toronto
vers la fin des
anmies 1940. Pendant cette pcriode,
quelques deflecteurs de fumee
experimentaux furent remplaces par de
grandes
oreilles d elephant, installees
au
moment ou les passerelles furent
elargies. Photo par 1. Norman Lowe
174
The 5700s sported elephant ear style smoke deflectors from
1940 into the 1950s. Number 5701 was photographed at
Brantford, Ontal10 on September
17, 1949. Photo, Orin P
Maus,
CRHAArchives, Fonds Corley.
with a carefully crafted model that the builder was very
careful to identify as for
Ned Brooks personally, as the
champion
ofthe 5700 project.
Centralized
Control
Fo.llowing his untimely death in 1933 at age 46,
the model was
retained by his family. Seventeen years
later, when Stanley
F. Dingle was selected to head the
Operations Department, the Brooks family elected to
convey it to him, since the Motive Power and
Car
Equipment department was one of his responsibilities.
SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
Les 5700 saffublerent de
deflecteurs de fumee de style
oreilles delephant de 1940
jusquaux annees 1950.
La
5701 fut photographiee a
Brantford, Ontario Ie 17
sept
embre 1949. Photo, Orin P
Maus, Archives ACHF, Fonds
Corley.
identiques. Quelle vitesse la locomotive atteindrait-elle ?
demanda-t-on a Ned Brooks Comme Ie rapporte
Douglas Smith dans son excellent article de la revue
Canadian Rail Passenger Review au sujet de cette
locomotive,
il repondit : Elle ne sera jamais appelee a
atteindre sa limite de vitesse. On presenta Ned Brooks,
a qui on remit un modele reduit construit avec grand soin
et que Ie constructeur comparait avec doigte a la
personnalite de Ned Brooks,
comme Ie champion du
projet 5700.
Commande Centralisee
Suite au deces
premature de Brooks survenu en
1933 a lage de 46 ans, Ie modele reduit fut retenu par sa
famille. Dix-sept ans plus tard,
quand Stanley F.Dingle
fut
nom me pour diriger Ie Departement des Operations,
1a famille Brooks Ie lui remit, considerant que Ie Service
de la Traction
et du Materiel Remorque etait aussi sous Ja
responsabilite de ce dernier.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005
Mr. Dingles area of oversight was enormous. He
presided over 90% of the companys workforce as head of
a very militaristic organization. No letter went out from
anywhere in
the huge department without his signature,
or a facsimile, at the bottom. A man of detail and order,
he was well
prepared for the tasks assigned him by the
recently
appointed Chairman and President, Donald
Gordon, who himself was a dedica ted agent of change.
His first task was to school outsider Gordon, a
Bank of Canada financial man, in the intricacies of
railroading. The new CEO was a quick study and
combined his
talent for organization and finance with an
inquisitive mind
and a rich sense of humour. After initial
scepticism, employees
were won over; and before long he
was in a league with Thornton.
Stan Dingle was at the crossroads for the long
overdue
plant and equipment renewal program that
Gordon championed. Dieselisation, signalization,
equipment replacement, and track improvement were
seen as keys to CNRs future. All had been postponed by
depression and war, and all were significantly advanced
during his wa tch.
. ~., .. –
175 CANADIAN RAIL· 508
I..:etendue de la tache de monsieur Dingle etait
enorme. II dirigeait plus de 90% dune main dreuvre,
organisee de
fa<,;on tres militaire. Aucun document ne
pouvait quitter daucune fa<,;on Iimmense Service sans sa
signature ou un fac-simile apposee au bas. I..:homme
minutieu~ et ordonne, etait bien prepare a la tache qui lui
eta it assignee par Ie president-directeur recemment
nom me, Donald Gordon, qui lui-meme etait un agent de
change consacre.
Sa premiere tache consistait a tout apprendre a
Gordon, financier de la Banque de Canada, qui ignorait Ie
langage des chemins de fer.
Le nouveau PDG apprit rapidement et combinq
son talent dorganisateur a celui de financier en plus dun
esprit empreint de curiosite et dun bon sens de lhumour.
Apres un certain scepticisme, ses employes furent
conquis;
et bient6t il fut dans la lignee de Thornton.
Stan Dingle etait a la croisee des chemins dun
programme de renouvellement des equipements et des
installations
que soutenait Gordon. Dieselisation,
signalisation, remplacement des equipements et
amelioration des voies etaientvus comme les des du futur
pour Ie CNR. Apres que tout fut reporte avec
Iarrivee
de la Grande Depression et de la Grande
Guerre, on assista a un progres significatif sous la
supervision
de Dingle .
By 1953 the smoke lifters had gone, leaving a
classic
impression of power front end
appearance. 5700 was ready to back into Toronto
Union Station from Spadina for a westbound
assignment. Photo,
Lome Peny
En 1953, les deflecteurs de fumee furent retires,
laissant voir un devant dapparence classique
inspirant
la puissance . La 5700 se preparait a
entrer ala gare Union de Toronto en provenance de
Spadina pour une assignation en direction ouest.
Photo par
Lome Peny
RAIL CANADIEN • 508 176 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
Train 75 bound for London, Ontario, powered by 5703, passes Dixie Road, west of Toronto, at about SO miles per hour. The date
is July 1954. Photo, Lome Peny
Le train numero 75 en direction de London, remorque par la 5703, traverse le chemin Dixie a louest de Toronto a une vitesse
denviron
SO miles a lheure (12Skm/h). Nous sommes enjuillet 1954. Photo par Lome Peny
Symbols of Progress
For the rest of his career Mr. Dingle managed an
impressive series of changes, but all the while, the
presentation model of locomotive 5700 held an honoured
place in his office. It bears a small plaque stating that the
Brooks family presented it personally to Stan Dingle. In
due course models of diesel locomotives joined it on
display, but there was something symbolic about the
model of the locomotive that beat the CPR that
prevented its retirement to some storage room.
The real K-5-a Hudsons were impressive to view
in action.
They had a booster under the trailing truck
permitting spirited starts, even when the train was a car or
two longer than normal. One ironic development during
the depression years was introduction of the Pool Trains,
combining
certain services of CNR and CPR to reduce
costs. Picture CNRs pride, locomotive 5700, leading the
afternoon pooled International Limited out of CPRs
Windsor Station, towing a combination of Tuscan red and
olive
green coaches, diner and parlour cars. Away went
the rivalry!
Des Symboles du Progres
Pendant Ie reste de sa carriere monsieur Dingle
men a une impressionnante serie de changements et,
pendant tout ce temps, Ie modele reduit de la locomotive
5700
occupait toujours une place dhonneur dans son
bureau. Le modele arborait une petite plaque indiquant
que la famille Brooks loffrait personnellement a Stan
Dingle. A Ioccasion, dautres modeles reduits, des
locomotives diesels, joignirent la collection mais Ie
caractere symbolique de ce modele de la locomotive qui
··battit Ie
CPR ··fit en sorte quil ne prit jamais Ie chemin
dun entreposage quelconque.
I1 etait impressionnant de voir les veri tables
Hudson K-5-a en action. Elles possedaient un survolteur
so us Ie bogie arriere leurs permettant des demarrages
energiques, meme lorsque Ie train avait une ou deux
voitures de plus que Ie nombre usuel. Une situation a
tout Ie moins ironique fut lintroduction de trains
partages (Pool Trains), combinant certains services du
CNR et du CPR afin de reduire les couts doperation.
Illustrant la fierte du CNR, la locomotive 5700 fut
appelee a remorquer Ie train partage dapres-midi,
l
International Limite, a la sortie de la Gare Windsor du
CPR avec un ensemble compose de voitures coach,
certaines rouge Tuscan et dautres vert olive, dune
voiture-restaurant et dune voiture-salon. Adieu rivalite !
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005
5704 takes on water at Torontos Spadina
yard
on September 3, 1934. Note the tie
damping water spray device between the
tenders trucks. Photo, Orin P Maus,
CRHAArchives, Fonds
CorLey.
La 5704 sapprovisionne en eau ii La cow
Spadina de Toronto, Le 3 septembre 1934.
.Ii noter Lappareil ct humecterLes traverses
entre
Les bogies du tendeJ: Photo, Orin P.
Maus,ArchivesACHF, Fonds Corley.
Canadian National 4-6-4
CANADIAN NATlON,u.S cIaJ, K-5-a 4.0-4, … ue bu.i..It by Moouui Locomod … e
WorkJ W 1930 prinatiJy 10 pown we rCtclll~dona.l Limited, CN, MoiJuuJ·
Chicago .oyez. Their 2~lt2r cyUndcn.worked from • boiler prtsnln of
215
p.sJ, to rum 80 wivrn. No. 1700, we only one fined with. boImn.
boasted 53,300 pouods UacUve dlon. while beT noo.boosuh.cqlljp~ ~
cbK.k«l. in with olLly 43,280 pound..
The widt Vlo.IIdrTbU, Wider carried 18 IOns of C()g,j a.nd 14,000 pllt:uu of
wau:r. whieb made 100, ooo.nop fUOl poMible.
Our pla~ sbow ~e K·S·a as mode,oiz.ed with wide skJnio~ ,od aut Oil­
mlrU3. o:ieaJ pilCM dKk b~,·~od ap nack.. AI I~ one loco of this clau
-700 bc-nelf-wu bitt fined with Bollpok driven..

fbe K·S-a, were colorfully paloud with black boil .lId maing geu,
wilb otne &IceD Wniog, cab, aDd lcude-r body_ llo.lll8 1100 Im.edog w~
gold leaf. The ~ tfIIb.ltm was gold OD • led tfaCk,pow:ad •.
38
…..
177 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
The Lalge capacity tender of the 5700s is evident in this photo taken
at Torontos Spadina yard
on February 24, 1931. Photo, CRHA
Archives, Fonds Corley.
La grande capacite du tender de La serie 5700 est mise en evidence
sur cette
photo prise dans La cour Spadina de Toronto Le 24 !evrier
1931. Photo, ArchivesACHF, Fonds Corley
Modol Railroader October 1964
RAIL CANADIEN • 508
The big green-trimmed locomotives performed
nobly in the service for which they were designed, well
into World War II,
but then were bumped off the
Montreal-Toronto flyers by the bigger locomotives
needed to
propel much swollen trains. They served out
their later years in South-western Ontario high-speed
service, surviving until the
end of the steam era in 1960.
178 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
Ces grandes locomotives a livree verte
performaient noblement pour Ie service auquel elles
etaient destinees et cela convenait bien, du moins
pendant la Deuxieme Guerre Mondiale, mais elles furent
cependant remplacees pour la ligne Montreal-Toronto
par des locomotives plus imposantes rendues necessaires
par Iallongement des trains. Elles furent cependant
utilisees plus tard pour des trains rapides dans Ie sud­
ouest de IOntario. Elles survecurent jusqua la fin de
lere de la vapeur en 1960.2
The 5700s werent excluded from the occasional freight assignment, here we see 5702 hauling freight in
Paris, Ontario on May 4,1947. Photo, CRHAArchives, Fonds Corley.
Les 5700 furent affectees occasionnellement sur des trains de marchandises, ici no us voyons
la 5702
remorquer
un fret dans Paris, Ontario Ie 4 mai 1947. ArchivesACHF, Fonds Corley.
5702, one
of two preselved 5700s stands proudly outside Exporails building number 5 where it is on
pelmanent display. 5702 had been hauled out and spotted for the 2004 Iron Horse Weekend at
Exporail. Its 80 inch diameter dliving wheels continue to amaze the children that are posed for
photographing beside them! Photo, Stephen Cheasley.
La 5702 qui est lune des deux locomotives de la selie 5700 preservees, pose fierement a lexterieur du
batiment numero
5 dExporai/ mt elle est exposee en permanence. La 5702 a ete remorquee it
lexterieuret installee pour Ie Weekend du Cheval de Fer qui a eu lieu en 2004 it Exporai/. Ces roues
de 80
pOLlees (2.032m) de diametre impressionnent des enfants instalLes it cote de celles-ci pour une
photo. Photo, Stephen Cheasley
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005
Preservation
Two of the five have been preserved, No. 5700
(ex. 5703)
in Saint Thomas, Ontario and 5702 at Exporail
in Saint-Constant, Quebec.
When Stan Dingle retired, the 75-year old
presentation model went
home with him and later was
passed on to his son, Paul Dingle, a
Montreal lawyer. He
displayed it in his office until 2004 when he and his family
felt it belonged
in a museum setting. The CRHA is
delighted to accept, and applauds their public­
spiritedness. It will be on display in the model train room
at Exporail along with
other treasures in the CR~s
model collection.
The 1/2 to the foot scale model of the
5700 as donated to the
CRHA for
exhibition in the
model train room at
Exporail. Photo, Jean Paul Viaud.
La maquette a lechelle 12 au pied, de
la 5700 offerte a IACHF pour y etre
exposee dans
la salle des modetes
reduits
a Exporail. Photo Jean Paul
Viaud.
179 CANADIAN RAIL· 508
Preservation
Deux des cinq locomotives ont ete preservees, la
5700 (ex-5703)
a Saint-Thomas, Ontario et la 5702 a
Exporail a Saint-Constant, Quebec.
Quand Stan Dingle prit sa retraite, Ie modele
reduit vieux de 75 ans Ia suivi a la maison et plus tard
passa
entre les mains de son fils, Paul Dingle, un avocat de
Montreal. Celui-ci Iexposa dans son cabinet jusquen
2004, au moment ou il considera que lobjet avait plutot sa
place dans un musee.
Cest avec joie que I ACHF accepta
loffre
de Paul Dingle et apprecia son esprit de partage
avec
Ie public. Le modele sera expose dans la section des
trains miniatures
a Exporail pres des autres tresors de la
collection de modeles reduits
de I ACHF.
Stan Dingle, at his desk at
Canadian National
Railways head office with
the
model of the 5700
prominently displayed
behind him. Photo
courtesy Paul Dingle.
Stan Dingle
a son bureau
au siege social du
Canadien National avec
la maquette de la 5700
mise en evidence deniere
lui. Photo, coUl10isie de
PaulDingle.
RAIL CANADIEN· 508 180 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
Streetcar restoration in Ottawa
By Walter Weart
Streetcar 696, the last survivor of this particular
series
is being restored by a local group of volunteers
determined to
return it to operation. The workers include
persons from
OC Transpo, Ottawas transit agency and
successor to
Ottawa Transit Commission, both active and
retired employees as well as
others who want to see the
696 in service again. Progress with the restoration has
been made steadily since 2001 but a look back will show
how this
car survived the demise of most other Ottawa
streetcars.
The 696 was built in 1917 by the Ottawa Car
Company for the Ottawa Electric Railway Company
which used the car
on all of its routes. During 1955 the
Ottawa Transit Commission, successor to the
OERC, sent
the 696 to the
Champagne car barn for a complete
overhaul and
return to service.
As the
abandonment of lines freed up newer cars
for daily service, the 696 was used
on the Britannia line
primarily
on weekends until it was retired in 1957. Two
years later all Streetcar service in Ottawa ceased running
in May 1959.
During the fall of 1958, ten cars, including the
696 were sold to M.
Zager man & Company for $6,236.50.
The cars were to be demolished at an OTC yard but
somehow 696 escaped the fate that befell all the other cars
of this series.
In 1959, the Canadian Railroad Historical
Association purchased the 696 from M.
Zagerman &
Company and moved it to a temporary outdoor storage
facility at
Canadian Allis Chalmers Ltd. in Lachine,
Quebec, as the Canadian Railway Museum had not yet
been founded.
The car was somewhat protected from the
weather but deteriorated prior to its move onto the
Canadian Railway Museum site in the early 1960s where
it was again
stored outside protected by tarpaulins.
On October 17th, 1988, the 696 was dona ted to a
group of Ottawa Transportation Commission employees
by the
Canadian Railway Museum with the promise that
the car would
be restored. It was moved back to Ottawa in
June 1989 and a feasibility study was conducted, the
results
of which showed that the car could be successfully
restored.
No less than nine Ottawa trams are visible in this 1940 era photo of Confederation Square in Ottawa. The first car on the left is
car 905 which was recently rediscovered and will be restored by the 696 restoration group.
Photo OC TranspoArchives No. 4-046.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005 181 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
Car
696, newly painted poses in front of the Champagne car barn in Ottawa in the 1950 so Photo OC Transpo.
The fate that befell almost all
of Ottawas, and indeed most of North American streetcars, M. Zagennan & Companys scrap
yard with the remains
of Ottawa trams. Photo OC Transpo.

RAIL CANADIEN· 508
Research Council of Canada -Centre for Surface
Transportation Technology
group headed by Rick
Zaporan volunteered to rebuild the 696s air compressor
and even got the Electric
Motor Co. of Ottawa to help
rewire the
motor as a donation. Additionally the local
Ottawa railway companies,
the Ottawa Central Railway
and Rail-Term, have contributed material and their
personnel when called upon.
OC Transpo and other City
of Ottawa departments have helped with materials, and
donating personnel as
needed over the years.
During
the fall of 2003, Marc Foubert of Hull
approached
the 696 Streetcar Restoration Group to
discuss donating the body
of Ottawa streetcar 905 which
had been part of his cottage
near Lac Gauvreau. The car
was examined and found to be in structurally sound
condition with the interior
in good original condition. The
trucks, motors and other mechanical parts are missing but
the exterior condition
of the body is excellent.
After further discussion,
Foubert donated the
905 Streetcar to the 696
Streetcar Restoration Group in
May 2004. On July 15th, 2004 Streetcar 905 was removed
from the
Quebec hillside where it sat for 45 years and
returned to Ottawa for restoration. Scott
Drummond of
George Drummond Ltd., donated a flatbed trailer to
move the
905 after Ron Burrelle of Regional Crane
donated their 75 ton crane to lift the car from is previous
location.
The 905 was a double truck, single entry one man
steel car built in 1933 by
Ottawa Car Company in Ottawa
and was one
of 32 of the 900 Series Streetcars for the
Ottawa Electric Railway Company. This may the only one
of the 900 series that escaped the scrappers torch.
……

184 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
The 905 retired in 1959 when street operations
ceased
and was sold to an Aylmer, Quebec scrap dealer
who then sold the body shell for $100.00.
The buyer had
the car body moved
by flatbed truck in the winter of 1959
to
Lac Gauvreau, just Southwest of Wakefield Quebec,
where itwas turned into a seasonal cottage.
Over the years, the owner added a kitchen and
washroom on the side that originally was
the front door
exit and on the other side added a small living room area.
A protective roof was added to the
streetcar and this
preserved
the roof and upper glass from weathering.
While the 696 restoration group
is concentrating
of that car first, plans are being made to restore the 905 as
well. Should parts need to be made for the 696, extra ones
will be
made for the 905 as mechanically both cars are
quite similar. The group is already looking for trucks and
other major components such as the air compressor and
electrical controls.
With the success
of the restoration group to this
stage, several individuals have donated key parts for
streetcars to help
the project. The Kingston Historical
Railway Society recently donated several
parts for a
controller, and trolley pole wheels. A brake
handle was
recently provided
by an individual, and a streetcar
operators box was dropped off last week by another
Ottawa resident. A complete streetcar seat in perfect
condition was also donated last year and a Barrys Bay
resident wants to
donate a streetcar conductor jacket she
found
in an attic recently.
A
number of options are being pursued for
operation when the restoration of 696 is complete. At
that, the Streetcar Era will return Ottawa and residents
and visitors can again enjoy tbe Time ofthe Trolley .
Pion view aflhejirsl twenty cars of the 600 series as Ihey appeared when built in 1913. Canadian Railway alld Marine World, Oc/obeT 1913.
Ottawa Electric Railway Companys New Cars (the 600 series)
The Ottawa Electric Railway has recently added to its
equipment
20 double truck sleel cars, wilh Ihe foUowing general
dimensions:
Length over bulkheads 33 1/4 ft.
Length of fronl vestibule 4 1/3 ft.
Length of rear vestibule 6 1/2 ft.
Projection of bunlers 6 ins.
TOlallength over bunters 45
1/4 ft.
Widlh of body over rubbing strips 8 1/2 ft.
Searing capacity 42 persons.
Construction
of body; The side girder plates are 18 by 14
in. steel in one piece full length of body, each reinforced at bollom
edge with 5
by 3 by 3/8 in. angle; and at lOp edge with a double
beaded bar, which also serves as a rubbing strip. Bell rails are
of
round bevel edge steel bar with pressed Sleel shoe on which window
sash
rest Side posts are faced with 2 112 by 3/16 in. steel plates,
which are anehored
by gussel plates and rivets 10 lOP edge of side
girder plates.
The letter board is also of Sleel 5 by 118 in., and aU
logelher is rive lied 10 Ihc lop end af Sleel poSl facings. Comer posts
are
of sleel pialc 3116 in. thick. The roof is of wood construction
sheeted with
112 in. T. & G. lumber and covered with canvas.
The inlerior fmish throughout is of cherry, finished natural
color. Seats are stationary, upholSlered
in rattan. Curtains are of
paolasole with lin banrel shade roilers and pinch handle fixtures.
The trucks are no. 27-FE-I standard gauge 4
ft. 10 in. wheel base
with 4
112 in. hoI rolled steel axles and 33 in. ehilled iron wheels.
MOlor equipmenls are quadruple no.
101-8-2 molors with K-35
controller. Air brakes arc Westinghuuse schedule
110. S.M.L The
cars are equipped with H.B. life guards, Consolidated
Car Healing
and Lighling Co. buzzer signaling systems, and electric heaters and
Coleman Fare Box Companys stationary p.ay.e. fare boxes.
I! is said thai for appearance, as well as for public
accommodation, these cars are second
to none in their class. They
were built by the Ottawa
Car Company, Ltd.
Rased on
Canadian Railway and Marine World, October 1913.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005 185 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
Two views of the removal and transport of Ottawa streetcar No. 905 from Lac Gauvreau in the Gatineau hills of Quebec to the
OC Transpo facility on Belfast Road in Ottawa. Photos Bany Thomas.
RAIL CANADIEN • 508 186 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
Kettle Valley Steam Railway
Now Powered by the 3716
By Jo Ann Reynolds
All photos by Peter and David Layland
Engineer Brad Coates exercises the locomotive at Prairie Valley prior to the inaugural run.
The Kettle Valley Steam Railway (KVSR) in
Summerland, BC is rolling this season with the newly
restored consolidation 3716 Steam Locomotive.
On Sunday, May 22nd the 3716 steam
locomotive, built in 1912 by CPR, was returned to the
rails, fully restored and ready to steam its way over the
historic Kettle Valley Railway line. We were thrilled to
see launch day arrive after two years of hard work, says
KVSR General Manager Debbie Kinvig. Our
Operations Manager & Engineer Brad Coates did an
excellent job in leading the restoration work and team.
The locomotive was given its safety certification from the
BC Safety Authority in March and then work to restore
the engines exterior beauty soon followed.
The locomotive has been returned to its former
glory and we were happy to celebrate with rail enthusiasts
from across thecountryon the inaugural day. To celebrate
we hosted two trains each complete with a
Great Train
Robbery and Barbeque, live music and a souvenir for
people to take home, says Kinvig. It was very rewarding
to share our monumental day and hear stories from those
who
had worked in locomotive during its long history.
The 84,150 Kilogram steam locomotive was
disassembled and sent on five tractor trailer trucks from
the BC Rail yards in North Vancouver to the Kettle Valley
Steam Railway in March of 2003. Restoration challenges
included building a new firebox, boiler
jacket, side sheets
and
other repairs at an estimated cost of$120,000. Built in 1912
by Montreal Locomotive Works, it
was originally
numbered the 3916 but was rebuilt and
renumbered as the 3716 in 1929. It spent the first half of its
life in the east
running out of Montreal. It wound up out
west in the 1940s when it was converted to burn oil and
assigned to
CPRs Kootenay Division based in Cranbrook
where it ran until 1966 and was then moved to Port
Coquitlam.
In 1974,
BC Rail received the engine from the
City of Port Coquitlam and it was used as the main engine
for the
BC Museum Train (1975-1979) and then for the
next
21 years, it was used as a back up for the well-known
Royal
Hudson on the North Vancouver to Squamish
route until April 2001.
Author of Steam on the Kettle VaIJey and
Curator Emeritus of the Royal BC Museum, Robert
Turner, has many fond memories of the 3716 during its
time as the
Museum Train. One of my favourite
memories
of 3716 was watching it steam across Trout
Creek on a special steam run we organized for
photographers and for publicity. At the time I was
working on
the Museum Train project as a curator and
assisting with the
operation of the train. Later, I rode 3716
eastbound out of Midway and that too was a treat.
Turner says, The 3716 travelled throughout BC
and probably reached more communities than any other
steam locomotive in the provinces history. Isnt that a
nice thought? 3716
went over mostofBC Rail through the
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005
central and northern Interior, to Prince Rupert and
Prince George and other points along the CNR, and on
CPR to the East and West Kootenays and the Okanagan,
to Revelstoke and Golden. It even ran over parts of what
was then the BC Hydro Railway. Now, I think it has found
an ideal
home!
The 3716 has also starred in many movies and
television commercials over the years including The
Grey Fox, a movie
about Bill Miner, and The Journey of
Heading upgrade from
Summerland on the
2%
+ grade. 187
CANADIAN RAIL • 508
Natty Gann, a Walt Disney Production.
The Kettle Valley Steam Railway will use the
3716 as its main engine
throughout the 2005 season which
runs through to October.
Jo Ann Reynolds is the Marketing Manager for
the Kettle Valley
Steam Railway, 18404 Bathville Rd; PO.
Box 1288, Summerland B.C. VOH 1Z0. Our thanks to
Peter and David Layland for the photos of the first day of
operation of the 3716 on the KVSR.
3716 returns to Prairie
valley
011 the last run of
the day.
RAIL CANADIEN • 508 188 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
3716 stands on the Trout Creek fill just west of the Trout Creek Bridge in preparation for the return trip to Prairie Valley.
The westbound train
passes
the foundation of
the old water tower at
West Summerland.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005 189 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
When the 800s Went To Saint John
By Fred Angus
On the bright sunny morning of December 22nd 1973, Canadian Pacifics train the ;4tlantic Limited arrived at Montreals
Windsor Station after
an overnight l1ip from Saint John New Bntnswick. The last car of the train was commuter coach 831. This
appears to be the last recorded time that an 800-series car travelled to Saint John. The complete consist
of this train is shown
below. Photo by FredAngus
In our recent article about the 800-series
commuter cars
of the CPR we mentioned that there were a
few occasions when
one or more of these cars operated in
revenue service as far east as Saint John New Brunswick.
Our member David Morris, who has a complete collection
of the consists of the Atlantic Limited and its VIA
successor the Atlantic, from 1967 to 1994, was able to list
every time an 800 went to Saint John.
As
it turns out this was a rare happening,
occurring only four times and involving five different cars.
All the occasions took place in 1972 and 1973, and all but
one were during the Christmas holidays, the one
exception being on the Dominion Day weekend. The four
times that 800s
went to Saint John were as follows. In all
cases the
date shown is the day the cars departed from
Saint John, with arrival at Montreal the following
morning.
December 23, 1972. Cars 835 and 839 left
Saint John.
December 25, 1972. Car 811 left Saint John.
June 30,1973.
Car 803 left Saint John.
December
21,1973. Car 831 left Saint John. In addition, car 1700 (later
renumbered 840)
departed from Saint John on July 3, 1972 and July 20,
1973.
For the record, the complete consist of the
westbound Atlantic Limited
that left Saint John on
December 21, 1973 and arrived at Montreal the next day
was:
1800
8567
29078
2713
DOUGLAS MANOR
HUNTER MANOR
CHATEAU RIGAUD
FRANKLIN MANOR
505
515
2278
116
831
RAIL CANADIEN • 508 190 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
Selling Them a Line – – -of Railway
by Jay Underwood
However, if you prefer to watch the passing emerald pastures of New Brunswick or the colourful fishing villages
of Nova Scotia from your room, go ahead -on this journey, you are the star. The Learning Coordinator, whose main job is
to look after your comfort, will know how to make himself invisible and let you fully enjoy your trip. -VIA Rail.
Flying Bluenose passing-Bear River, N,S. (Digby Gap in distance)
The Dominion Atlanlic Railways premierex.press, The Flying Bluenose is seen in this J9JO-era Valentine Co. postcard near
Digby at the sou/h.em end of the Land of Evangeline. (Jay UndeIWood collection.)
Railway marketing is a dynamic industry, more
so in the decades since the 1950s when air travel and the
private automobile have
superseded the iron road as the
premier mode of business and leisure travel. But
marketing entails a certain amount of artistic license, not
the least of which is to accentuate appealing aspects of the
products
to the target audience, with perhaps a wary
regard for the truth. In
the world of advertising, this is
referred to as selling the sizzle, not the steak.
This
is certainly true of VIA Rails recent e-mail
to its on-line subscribers,
promoting its innovative
Easterly Class
accommodation aboard the Halifax­
Montreal Ocean, which began in October of 2005. The
problem with the message is its disregard for the facts.
Since its inception in 1904, the regular
route of
the Ocean has never run past any fishing villages in Nova
Scotia, colourful
or otherwise, and it may be that VIA
was simply telling its Central and Western Canadian
customers, and prospective American tourists, what they
expected to
hear about the Maritimes.
This
approach is not without precedent,
especially in Atlantic Canada. The Dominion Atlantic
Railway
(DAR) of Nova Scotia has been given credit for
creating one of the most comprehensive regional tourist
promotion programs in the railway industry, a pattern
modelled on the Canadian Pacific Railway, which
absorbed the DAR in 1911.
The program, however, is based upon some false
perceptions of actual events and some deliberate
manipulation of the facts in order to cater to a lucrative
market, perceptions that continue today long after the
railway which created them has disappeared.
The program was focused on the United States,
exploiting the
romance of the legend of Evangeline, the
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005
heroine of Henry Wadsworth Longfellows epic 1847
poem about the victim of the expulsion of the French­
speaking Acadians from Nova Scotia in 1755.
Longfellows story has Evangeline
wandering
about New England in search of her bridegroom, Gabriel.
Longfellow extended
her journey through Louisiana and
the western wilderness. She finds Gabriel, at last, dying in
Philadelphia.
There is no evidence that any real Evangeline, or
Gabriel, existed among the Acadians deported from
Nova Scotia
(or New Brunswick, which was then part of
the colony). It didnt matter to Longfellows American
readers, they accepted
the story as a truthful tale of
British brutality toward an innocent people, typical of the
behaviour of a tyrannical empire that dared challenge the
right of Americans to establish their own empire on their
home continent. It mattered less when his Song of
Hiawatha became an instant classic in 1855, and
established Longfellow as the bard of American tradition.
The association between Longfellows version of
the events surrounding the expulsion of the Acadians, and
the railways exploitation of his successful poem began
almost immediately, as
the name Evangeline pervaded
everything the railway did. In her 1936 history of the
DAR, Marguerite Woodworth notes the day the Windsor
& Annapolis Railway
took delivery of its first engines:
That locomotives were as yet strange, unknown
monsters to the Valley people is wi tnessed by the report of
a Wolfville correspondent in November 1868 on the
arrival of the three Bristol engines, the Evangeline,
Gabriel and
Gaspereau …
In his 1926 history of railways in the Annapolis
Valley, William Clarke records
that the Locomotive No.3
was
named Hiawatha perhaps a further homage to
Longfellow.
Gaspereau was No.6 according to Clarke.
Woodworth credits Vernon T Smith, the
W &ARs first general manager with the early success of
the line and for giving the railway an identity:
Vernon Smith
seems to have had to
attend to the veriest detail of organization. He collected
his train crews, principally from
the ranks of the
Government railways; he appointed station masters from
applications that came to him
by the score; he attended to
all the clerical work, the ordering of stationery; printing of
f
orms, and even to the painting of the engines in that
startling magenta color which is even now unique on this
continent; he drew up schedules
and train orders.
Despite Smiths foresight, it took some time for
the W&AR to realize the full tourist potential of the
legend, and Woodworth notes it was Smiths successor
who gave the railway a personality:
In August, 1891 the W & A. acquired their first
Pullman parlor car, the Haligonian, which was placed
on an express running four times a week between
Annapolis and Halifax and connecting with Wc.R. and
I.C.R, trains. This express, inaugurated for summer travel
191 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
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. (Eaaurn S.S. CorVD.
——: w.Nnt:l~:O:t~~De~DIIDn
This DominionAtlantic Railway timetable is dated May 31st
1914,
and is from the CPR system timetable of that date.
Collection
of FredAngus
in 1886, had been called the Flying Acadian and the
Bluenose. The final compromise on the two names was
the Flying Blue nose, a name now known throughout
Canada and the U. S. as synonomous [sic] with speed and
comfort in travel through the Land of Evangeline.
Another parlor car, the Mayflower, arrived in the
following year.
The General Manager of the W &. A., Mr.
Campbell, realized that
the summer passenger travel
offered a vista
of infinite development. The Land of
Evangeline Route was publicized far and wide; the
words appeared on gay pennants floating from the
Annapolis steamers and the station.
Campbell was w.R. Campbell, the lines fourth
general manger who succeeded John W King in April of
1890 and served until May of 1897.
RAIL CANADIEN • 508
The DARs earlier logo employed typically British heraldic
devices to promote itself as
an imperial asset. (Jay
Undelwood collection.)
The effect upon Americans had been more
immediate, as evidenced by the travelogue of Eliza Brown
Chase,
Over the Border: Acadia, the home of Evangeline
(Boston J. Osgood, 1884). This account is tainted by the
American disdain for everything British, and was
accentuated by the liberal nouveau riche snobbery of New
Englanders at the time:
Our lamented American poet never visited this
region which
he describes so delightfully; his reason being
that, cherishing an ideal picture, he feared reality might
dissipate
it. [Italics added for emphasis] Yet an e~sy
journey of twenty-eight hours would have brought him
hither;
and we, feeling confident that he could not have
been disappointed, shall always regret that he did not
come.
As an
appropriate close to this sentimental
journey, we drive through the secluded Gaspereau valley,
along
the winding river, which is hardly more than a creek,
toward its wider
part where it flows into the Basin, which
stretches out broad and shining. With such a view before
us, we cannot fail to picture mentally the tragic sce.nes of
that October day in 1755 when the fleet of great ships lay
in the Basin, and
When on the falling tide the freighted vessels departed,
Bearing a nation with all
its household gods into exile,
Exile without an end,
and without an example in story,
192 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
Those whom Burke describes as the poor,
innocent deserving people, whom our utter inability to
govern or reconcile, gave us no sort of right to extirpate,
were
torn from their happy homes and
Scattered like dust and leaves when the might blasts of
Octobel: Seize them and whirl them aloft, and sprinkle them
far
o er the ocean.
In the midst of these peaceful scenes was
perpetrated a cruel wrong, and an inoffensive people
banished by the mandate of a tyrant! In the same book
Chase made disparaging remarks about the Duke of
Wellington, the epitome of British heroism, and his
alleged extra-marital association with
another Annapolis
Valley female legend, the Spanish Lady of Annapolis
Royal. (She also made caustic note of the ominous
nature of the railways initials -WAR.) It was perhaps in
retaliation
that Charles G.D. Roberts (1860-1943) took
up the pen as the lead writer for the lines tourism
promotion.
Roberts (later Sir Charles) was the celebrated
Acadia University poet and history professor who
inspired creativity in
other poets of his generation, among
them Bliss Carman (his cousin), Archibald Lampman and
Duncan Campbell Scott. Together, these four men
became known as Canadas Confederation poets.
He overlooked some of the historical inaccuracy
surrounding Longfellows work, which had turned the
small village of Grand Pre -easily reached by any W &AR
train -into a shrine for American tourists who in the late
1800s and
turn of the century were always eager for
something anti-British to celebrate.
But Roberts did not personally subscribe to the
Longfellow version of events, as he had earlier indicated
in his
The Canadian guide-book: the tourists and
sportsmans guide to eastern Canada and Newfoundland:
including full descriptions
of routes, cities, points of interest,
summer resorts, fishing places, etc. in eastern Ontario, the
Muskoka district, the St. Lawrence region, the
Lake SI. John
countlY, the Maritime provinces, Prince Edward Island,
and
Newfoundland: with an appendix giving fish and game laws,
and official lists of trout and salmon rivers and their lessees,
published in 1891 (New York, D. Appleton):
The pathos and appeal of the Acadian story, as
told by Longfellow, should
not be allowed to blind us to
the fact that
the pitiful fate of the Acadians was a measure
of absolutely necessary justice. In spite of the most
earnest pleadings, the frankest threatenings, and forty
years
of unparalleled forbearance, exercised long after
forbearance had ceased to be a virtue, the Acadians
persisted in a deadly enmity to a government whose
subjects they unquestionably were. They refused to allow
themselves to
be considered as other than enemies, and
not only did they engage along with the savages in
occasional bloody
raids upon the English settlements, but
their presence in the colony made a point of almost fatal
weakness in its defenses,
at a time when England was
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005
engaged in what was practically a life-and-death struggle
with
her great antagonist. The indulgence of the English
Government was repaid by the Acadians with hatred, and
sometimes with
the scalping-knife. Undoubtedly these
people believed they were acting aright. Had they been
left to themselves, they would have become, in the course
of a generation, loyal and contented subjects. But they
were
made tools of French intrigue. From Quebec every
effort was continually
put forth to keep alive their
bitterness against their conquerors, and their belief that
Acadia would once more the brought beneath the sway of
France. When they began to show signs of a desire to
accept
the situation, and when persuasion on the part of
Quebec became ineffectual, then threats were employed,
and they were
menaced with the tomahawks of the
savages.
The authorities at Quebec had no scruples.
Sometime violence was resorted to, and the exile of the
Acadians was begun by Le Loutre before the English had
thought of it. Hundreds of Acadians, who becoming
reconciled to English rule, were forced by Le Loutre to
move
into French territory, where they suffered
unbounded hardships. Their homes were burned behind
them, and whole villages were then depopulated, in
obedience to a heartless policy.
The Acadians were a
simple and
ignorant people, easily led by their superiors,
and
hence on a final estimate they must be regarded as
more sinned against than sinning. But those who wrought
their ruin and deserved their curse were not English, but
their own countrymen. The removal of the Grand Pre
Acadians was accomplished with combined firmness and
gentleness by Colonel Winslow, of Boston, with his New
England troops; and his journal, though full of
commiseration for this unhappy people, shows that he did
not consider the justice of their sentence in the least
degree open to question. After the exile was
accomplished many of the Acadians escaped to Quebec,
where their lot was pitiful indeed compared with that of
those who remained in the American colonies. Among
men of alien speech and faith they were at least humanely
treated; but at Quebec they were cheated and starved,
and died like sheep, having fallen to the
tender mercies of
Bigot and his creatures. The period at which these exiles
fled to
Quebec is not a bright one in French-Canadian
annals. After the removal of the Acadians their fair
inheri tance lay vacant for years
ere men of English speech
entered upon it.
In this, Roberts found an ally in William Henry
Withrow 1839-1908, author of Ow· own countly: Canada,
scenic and descriptive : being an account
of the extent,
resources, physical aspect, industries, cities
and chief towns
of the provinces of Nova Scotia, P1nce Edward Island,
Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario,
Manitoba, the North-West
Ten·itOlY and British Columbia,
with sketches
of travel and adventure (W Briggs, Toronto
1889.) Withrow, a respected scholar and Methodist
minister, wrote: It is a page in our countrys annals that is
193 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
Sir Charles G.O. Roberts
(Courtesy Nationai Archives of Canada!
C-6718 J unknown)
Charles G.D. Roberts. One of the leading copy writers for the
Dominion Atlantic, he did
not subscribe to Longfellows
romantic version
of the events surrounding the stOlY of
Evangeline. (National Librmy of Canada.)
not pleasant to contemplate, but we may not ignore the
painful facts. Every patriot must regret the stern military
necessity -if necessity
there were -that compelled the
inconceivable suffering
of so many innocent beings.
This was certainly
not the story that Longfellow
told,
or many other American literati who visited and
glorified
the site, among them writers like Thomas F.
Anderson, George W. Penniman and others, who wrote
for New England papers.
Yet
one wonders how romantic the Americans
would have thought the expulsion
of the 7,000 Acadians,
had they
stopped and reflected upon the expulsion of the
100,000 Loyalists from their
land twenty years later in the
aftermath of the war of 1776, when those who refused to
take up arms against the king,
but did not fight against the
patriots were stripped of their land and property and
forcibly re-settled in
what is now Ontario, New
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.
Unlike the Acadians, the Loyalists were
not permitted to
return to the United States, with laws like the 1778
Banishment Act
of Massachusetts promising the death
penalty to any who did:
RAIL CANADIEN • 508
And be it further enacted by the authority
aforesaid, that if any person or persons, who shall be
transported as aforesaid, shall voluntarily return to this
state, without liberty first had and obtained from the
general court, he shall, on conviction thereof before the
superior court of judicature, court of assize and general
gaol delivery, suffer the pain of death without benefit of
clergy.
Roberts did not draw their attention to this
contradiction,
but continued his crusade to correct popular
histOlY when he wrote The land of Evangeline and the
gateways thither
for what had then become the Dominion
Atlantic Railway (through the amalgamation of the
W &AR and Western Counties Railway) in 1895:

The story of the great tragedy of Grand Pre is too
well known to bear detailed repetition here. But there are a
few points
in connection with it that should be mentioned.
When Longfellow wrote the story of Evangeline he did not
fuUy understand all the facts. The expulsion of the Acadians
was not a piece of wanton cruelty on the part of England. It
was done to satisfy New England; and it was carried out by
New Englanders. Terrible as was the measure, it is hard to
see how it could have been avoided, unless at the cost of
Nova Scotia herself. If Nova Scotia was to remain in English
hands -and
New England said this was essential to her
safety -then the Acadians had to be removed. The
Acadians had suffered themselves to be made the tools of
French intrigue. Through them France hoped to retain her
hold on the peninsula. For forty years they had been treated
by England with a patience which had long ceased to be a
virtue.
Every effort had been made to conciliate them. But
they refused to take the oath of allegiance, which they were
legally bound to do, or to allow themselves to be considered
othetwise than as enemies. AJlied with the Indians,
and
disguised as Indians, some of their bolder spirits indulged in
bloody raids
on the English settlements; and English
settlement became impossible in an English province. At
the same time England -which then meant the thirteen
colonies as well -was engaged in a life-and-death struggle
with
her greatest rival, France; and the Acadians were her
enemies within the gate. They were warned, exhorted,
threatened, but they obstinately and blindly closed their
ears. So it came that this unhappy people was ground to
powder between the upper and nether millstone. They were
removed from their homes with such humanity as was
possible
under the piteous circumstances, and were
scattered abroad among the nations. As one reads
Longfellow these facts should be borne in mind -not to
lessen
ones response to the pathos of the Evangeline story,
but to
keep ones point of view of history undistotied. The
traveler who comes to the land of Evangeline should read,
not Longfellow only,
but also Parkman -especially the first
volume
of Montcalm and Wolfe.
But the expulsion of the Acadians was not the
only tragedy enacted amid the peaceful slopes and sunny
marshes of Grand Pre. Here, nine years earlier, took
194 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
place the Grand Pre Massacre. Though this was the
very heart of a British province, and under British law, the
whole region was being made the headquarters for bloody
raids upon the English settlements about Halifax and
Annapolis. A force of New Englanders, sent out from
Boston, made its way to Grand Pre and was quartered in
the village. The French troops, with their Indians, fell
back across the Bay. Soon the New Englanders, lulled by
the apparent friendliness of the people, began to relax
their vigilance. They were on their sovereignS soil, and
among their fellow-subjects -what was there to fear?
Then the villagers sent word to the French across the Bay.
The enemy came secretly; and in the darkness and storm
of a blinding December night they fell upon the sleeping
New Englanders, who were outnumbered two to one and
scattered through the straggling village. In the houses
lining a detached lane which runs up from the dikes near
the station lay Colonel Noble, with some seventy of his
followers. AJmost
to a man these were massacred in their
beds. The rest of the force, fighting their way through the
snow, got together and made so resolute a stand that they
were able to capitulate on honourable terms. They were
sent out of the country. It was occurrences such as these
that made the expulsion of the Acadians a necessity. It is
worth while to remember also that the French king, years
before, had planned a similar expulsion, on a many times
vaster and more merciless scale, to be executed upon all
the people of New York and New England – a scheme
wh ich fa te happi Iy frustra ted.
Shortly thereafter, Roberts was replaced as the
lead writer for the railway, which began to take a new
course. Typical of these publications was The Land of
Evangeline, with its photographic scenes of Nova Scotia
along the route of the railway, published in 1901 by J.
Murray Jordan Co. at South Penn Square in Philadelphia.
The book was part of the companys International
Souvenir Series, which reached 29 picture books in 1900-
1901. Still, as
Woodworth notes, Evangeline was foremost
in the new railway companys mind:
The tourist traffic was indeed the most
encouraging aspect of the investment and its rapid growth
undoubtedly inspired the Company to go into the
steamship business on such a large scale.
By
the 1920s, however, the railways attitude
towards the events described by Roberts had changed
markedly. The architect of this new program was the
DARs general manager George Graham, who has been
described in Woodworths history:
Mr. Grahams career with the c.PR. before
coming to Nova Scotia was one of steady advancement,
characterized by these self-same traits.
Mr.,
Graham was born at Markham, Ontario, in
1870.
Upon his graduation from the Markham Collegiate
Institute he wanted to go West with a boy chum, but
following the counsel of his father he decided instead to
learn telegraphy and enter the railway.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005
John Faeds depiction of the Acadian heroine Evangeline. It
was rumoured Longfellows daughter Fanny sat
for the
picture, which was later adapted into the Dominion Atlantic
Railways logo.
At the age of 18 he became Night Operator at the
little country station of Locust Hill, Ont. He was not very
enthusiastic
about the work, however, and he soon left it
to take a business course in Toronto.
But he had not
bargained for the lure of railroading, and in 1891 he was
back at it again, this time as
Operator at a little station
near Owen Sound. It was not long before he was
promoted from the country stations to become Operator
and Ticket Agent atToronto.
Adjoining the ticket office in the Board of Trade
Building was the office of the General Freight Agent, and
as Mr. Graham went about his work he had a good view of
the staff through the glass partitions that separated the
offices. The sight of these clerks, steno graphers and
secretaries gave him the idea
of taking up shorthand and
thus
opening up a new avenue to promotion. So, although
his hours were long and his duties arduous,
the young
operator studied shorthand at night.
His opportunity came in June 1897. The c.P.R.
were about to build the Crows Nest Pass and Mr. M. J.
Haney, the Manager in charge of construction, needed a
SecretalY who knew both telegraphy and
shorthand -an
unusual combination of qualifications that, as it
happened only two men on the system possessed -and
Mr.
Graham got the post.
195 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
The Dominion Atlantics new logo from the 1920s, made
use
of Faeds romantic image of Evangeline to promote its
tourist attractions to a laJgely
American market.
(Jay UndelWood collection.)
Headquarters were established at McLeod,
Alberta, and for
18 months Mr. Graham lived in Mr.
HaneyS house with him and worked at high pressure
while the
great feat of constructing the Crows Nest Pass
was underway.
Returning to Montreal toward the end of 1898,
Mr.
Graham was next sent to Winnipeg as Chief Clerk to
Sir
Thomas Shaughnessy who had just been appointed
General Superintendent.
In 1900 he spent six months as Agent at Fernie,
B.C,
then was transferred back to Winnipeg as
Superintendent of Weighing and Refrigeration for
Western Lines.
In 1901 he was given jurisdiction in that
capacity over the whole c.P.R. system, and in 1905 he was
promoted to the office of Superintendent of Terminals at
Winnipeg. For a year
he acted as Superintendent at
Brandon, where a new district had been opened, then in
1908
he became Superintendent of Terminals at Fort
William, Ont. In 1910 he went to Vancouver as
Superintendent, one of the most coveted posts on the
c.P.R.
Graham had come to the DAR in November of
1915, and as Woodworths history indicates, his attention
was as focused upon tourism as it must have been on the
con tin uing war effort of the time.
In that sense
Graham made Evangeline unique,
for she
predated the fictional Phoebe Snow character of
the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad which
emerged in 1904 and was used by the railroad in its
RAIL CANADIEN • 508
advertising until just before World War 1. Phoebe Snow
promoted the cleanliness of the lines Road of
Anthracite because the fashionable and pristine dresses
in which she was pictured would stay white from noon til
night all the way to Buffalo. Portrayed by actress
Marian
Murray, Phoebe Snows public appearances and publicity
photos were eventually curtailed
due to the governments
control
of the railroads for the war effort.
Not so Evangeline, who took on more
prominence for the DAR under Graham, as
Woodworths history indicates:
Historic Grand Pre, the scene of the
deportation of the Acadians and forever clothed with the
glamor
of sentiment and romance by the poet Longfellow
had for many years
been the mecca of American tourists.
But when they came in search of traces of the scenes
described
in Evangeline only rolling dykelands and a
row
of old French willows greeted their eyes, and they
were disappointed.
On the blank field below the station
were indeed the historic sites of the chapel where the
Acadian
men and boys were detained to await the
expulsion, the house
of the village priest (where Colonel
Winslow
made his quarters), the ancient well, the old
burying ground,
but they were all unmarked for the
pilgrim to
Grand Pre.
An act had been passed
by the Nova Scotia
Legislature in 1908 entitled An Act to incorporate the
Trustees
of the Grand Pre Historical Grounds, which
safeguarded the land as a memorial, yet neither Mr.
J. F
Herbin, who held the deed of property, nor the Acadian
Society had
been able to finance any improvements upon it.
In December 1916 Mr. Graham wrote to Sir
George Bury recommending the purchase by the D.A.R.
of the Grand Pre property. Mr. Herbin, assured that it
would be properly preserved, would welcome its disposal
and
here was an opportunity of making a Memorial Park
worthy of the historical associations of Grand Pre. Three
months later the land became the property of the
Dominion Atlantic Railway for the sum of $1650.
I t
is only surprising tha t Mr. Grahams action was
not anticipated years before when the Windsor and
Annapolis were widely publicizing the Land of
Evangeline and trying to attract tourist to it, for here was
the very raison
detre of the publicity waiting to be
exploited.
Present day visitors are arrested and charmed by
the beautiful
park that has been made by the Dominion
Atlantic Railway
on that piece of land sacred to the
memory
of the exiled Acadians. The grounds have been
landscaped and planted with lovely gardens that breathe
an old-world atmosphere. A Normandy gatehouse stands
at the
entrance to the park, and on the site of the ancient
French church is a Memorial chapel dedicated to the
Acadians.
When the land was first purchased by the
D.A.R., a clause in the deed ceded the site
of the old
196 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
church to the Societe De lAssomption who were to erect
the chapel themselves.
Each year hundreds of Acadians made a
pilgrimage to the home
of their ancestors, each year
thousands
of visitors from all portions of the globe came
to view the historic spot -and this time they are not
disappointed.
The landmarks are all located and their
setting
is one of dignity and beauty.
Incidentally,
one or these historic landmarks
gave rise to a unique exhibition
of bigotry in the early days
of the parks development. The D.A.R. wished to re-open
the old French road leading from the village hill towards
the Acadian Chapel, and as official authority was
necessary to do this, the residents
of Grand Pre, willingly
enough, signed the authorizing petition.
Then some bigot
conceived the notion that the
D.A.R. had designs to bring
the French back again to
Grand Pre and dispossess the
English.
The idea, absurd as it was, gained ground to such
an extent that it thoroughly alarmed the Grand Pre
people, and the very persons who had put their names to
the petition signed a
counter-petition to restrain the
railway from opening the road.
From the beginning the Dominion Atlantic was
obliged to fight interests whose aim was to commercialize
the
Grand Pre Park. One of the greatest charms of this
permanent memorial is its freedom from the taint of
commercialism. The railway has carefully guarded the
sentiment surrounding the Grand Pre Park and
throughout the work of development it has exercised
good
judgment and good taste. In this memorial, as
created by the Dominion Atlantic Railway,
the Province possesses one of its most valuable
tourist attractions.
After the war, and with the re-emergence of the
Phoebe Snow character in the US, Evangeline took on a
renewed popularity. As the
DAR sought to raise funds to
develop the
Grand Pre park, a booklet entitled Acadian
Trails in the Nova Scotian
Summer Land, prin ted in May of
1924 ignored the points presented by their former chief
copywriter:
History lends a peculiar interest and charm
here.
The general layout of the Park is intended to
preserve and
perpetuate a comprehensive national
monument, telling in sculpture and in stone structures, of
a period when history was in the making; of a passing out
of a people whose ambitions were receiving in 1755 a
setback in its march
of progress, which seemed to augur
the complete extinction
of the Acadian race forever, at
least in this Province
of Nova Scotia. The events related
herein show how futile are, at times,
the designs of men,
and how Time, the great healer, has brought
together
again these two peoples, now working side by side in the
common interest of the country.
But the pamphlet fails to live up to the latter
promise, for the references
are slight, ignore Roberts
perspective and relied upon quotes from Longfellow. The
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005
writer eventually laid blame for the expulsion at the
feet of an over-zealous governor.
In
her book, Chase laid the blame on
Colonel
Robert Monckton (later spelled Moncton),
who oversaw
the removal of the Acadians from the
area of New Brunswick that is home to the city
named
in his honour. Most historians now agree the
real culprit was William Shirley (1694-1771), then
Governor of Massachusetts (Chases home state)
and an implacable foe of the French, who was
recalled to England in 1756 to face treason charges
stemming from his
poor performance. He was later
cleared and
resumed his career, serving as governor
of the Bahamas in the 1760s. He returned to
Massachusetts in 1770,
where he died.
Indeed, Acadian 1iails quotes Rev. Dr,
Cutten
president of Acadia College at Wolfville,
who spoke during
the unveiling of the Evangeline
statue onJuly 291920. Cutten began:
Some may ask if the poem Evangeline
accords with historical fact.
Of course it does not!
But poetry
is always truer than history, and sculpture
than biography.
This convoluted reasoning was presented
as evidence
that the spirit, if not the person of
Evangeline was still alive in those days, but Cutten
further buried any attempt at truth when he added:
Poetry touches the unseen and
the eternal,
-history
the seen and the temporal. Sculpture is the
snapshot of a heart-beat, biography is the distorted
account
of real events.
The railways attempt to offer a complete
picture of events at
Grand Pre excluded Colonel
Noble, whom
Roberts had made a victim of Acadian
intrigue and French atrocity.
The pamphlet notes:
197 CAIJADIAIJ RAIL • 508
7Izehnd offnanteline
NOVA SCOTIA
ANNOTATED GUIDE
Historical and Descriptive
Longfellows pathetic yet thrilling story of
Evangeline reminds us also of Colonel Noble,
who fell at
the hands of the Acadians and Indians in
1747, under
command of Coulon De Villier. It has
been suggested that a monument should be erected
on the ground
near Grand Pre Station where he was
buried, to
perpetuate his memory.
This did
not happen, and still today Col.
A coverfrom a 1930s DAR taU/ism pamphlet, sold the romance of
the Acadian lifestyle to an American market eager to immerse
themselves in the legend created
by their poet Longfellow.
(National
Library of Canada -nlc0029999-v6.)
Nobles resting spot remains unremarkable, and
unobserved,
either by the railway, which has long
since left the area,
or the provincial government.
For
Graham and his marketing department, the
target audience was
more than simply the Americans of
the Roaring 20s and their apparent inexhaustible
supply of disposable income.
The pamphlet for Grand Pre
Park notes that there were 592,754 descen-dants of the
Acadians alive in North America at the time, half a
million Acadians, and pilgrimages
of even a small portion
of them in anyone year would greatly add to the railways
revenue.
There is another marked difference between the
Roberts account and the Graham pamphlet, inasmuch as
the attention of the railway, which as part of Canadian
Pacific Railways had a British influence, was shown to
have strayed.
The railways herald in the 1895 book was a
crest
of very British heraldic devices. In Grahams
pamphlet it employed the romantic image of
Longfellows heroine, based upon the portrait by Scottish
painter John Faed (1820-1902). It was rumoured that
Faeds model for the drawing of Evangeline was Fanny
Longfellow, the poets daughter.
RAIL CANADIEN· 508 198 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
The 175th Anniversary of the Start of the Modern Railway Era
By Fred Angus
This magnificent medal was made in 1830 for T Woolfields Bazam; and sold as a souvenir at the time of the opening of the
Livelpool & Manchester on September 15.
The front
of the medal depicts the nine-arch Sankey Viaduct, built in 1829 and still in regular service, canying trains many times
heavier than those
of 1830. There is an enor in the illustration, as the actual Sankey Viaduct has round arches, notpointed ones
as
shown here. Note the passengers with theirparasols riding in the open cars. In the foreground can be seen a boat of the Sankey
Canal, and the small arch bridge canying the old road, both representing the old method of transp0l1ation.
The reverse shows the M00l1Sh
Arch spanning the deep cut at the Livelpool end of the line, as well as two trains, a light
locomotive
and some spectators. From here the trains decended a cable-operated incline into Livelpool terminal.
Collection
of FredAngus
The modern railway era may be said to have been
born just 175 years ago, on September 15th 1830, when
the Liverpool and
Manchester Rail Road in England
opened for service.
The story of the L&M, and the Rainhill trials of
the previous year, are too well known to repeat here. As
almost everyone knows, Stephensons Rocket won the
competion and established the multi-tubular steam
locomotive with blast pipe as the king of railway motive
power for the next 125 years.
Railways,
of course, had been around for more
than a century before 1830, and the first steam locomotive
was built
in 1804, more than 25 years earlier. In 1825 the
Stockton
& Darlington Railway had opened as a common
carrier, and had used
steam locomotives. However the
Liverpool and
Manchester was something different. It
was intended as a heavily-travelled line, both for
passengers and freight, between
one of Britains major
manufacturing cities,
and one of its greatest ports. This
was definitely railroading in
the modern sense of the
word. Having little
precedent to follow, the organizers
of the railway had to invent much of what we now take for
granted. Even the choice of motive power was not decided
until
the line was largely complete. Consideration was
given to stationary
steam engines hauling trains by cables,
and even horse
operation. It was not until after the
Rainhill Trials
of October 1829 that it was definitely
decided to use steam locomotives of the type pioneered
by the Rocket.
Until shortly before Rainhill, few really
appreciated the potential of the steam locomotive. As late
as 1825, only five years before the opening
of the L&M,
Nicholas Wood, in his Treatise on Railways had written:
It is far from my wish to promulgate to the world that the
ridiculous expectations
of the enthusiastic specialists, that
we shall see locomotives travelling at the rate
of 12, 16, 18 or
20 miles an hOUl~ nothing could do more harm towards their
adoption,
orgeneral improvement, than the promulgation of
such nonsense.
It is one of historyS ironies that, little more than
four years after writing this statement, Nicholas Wood
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005 199 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
({D 1L J! 7 ~ l~J @ to !!f iI.
7M1I:r1/.JIlft/.r.k This print, published AprillBth 1831, depicts the spectacular Olive Mount cutting, deepest on the line. In 1830 it was much
nanower than it is today, which made it look even deeper and more impressive. Evidently work on the cutting is not entirely
complete, for
men are still removing blocks of stone, pausing only to let a train pass.
was one of the judges at the RainhiJJ Trials where he saw
the
Rocket exceed the maximum speed that he had
considered ridiculous in 1825. Poor Nicholas certainly
had to
eat his words. He went on to write two more, much
enlarged, editions,
of his Treatise, one in 1831, the other
in 1838, but all mention of ridiculous speeds of
locomotives was conspicuous by its absence.
The opening of the Liverpool and Manchester
was held amid much celebration, and was a complete
success, marred only
by the unfortunate accident in which
William Huskisson,
Member of Parliament, was run over
by the Rocket and killed.
With the
L&M in successful operation, many
other railway project were undertaken, first in Britain,
then in other parts of the world. The network in Britain
spread at a very great rate and, with the opening of the
London & Birmingham in 1838, reached the
capital itself. Railway project soon began overseas, most
notably
in the United States. In 1828 there were only 3
miles
of railroad in the entire country. By 1830 there were
still only
41 miles, but by 1840 the mileage had grown to
2167,
and had reached 7355 by 1850. In 1856 there were
no less than 23,242 miles of railroad in the U.S.A. (with
17,000
more miles projected), using 6000 locomotives,
10,000
passenger cars, 70,000 freight cars, with
4,750,000,000 passenger miles and 3,000,000,000 ton­
miles
of freight. All this had come to pass in little more
than 25 years since the opening of the L&M.
The first common-carrier railway in Canada
began operation in 1836; bu t growth was slow in the 1840s.
After 1850, however, Canada experienced the same sort
of boom as in the U.S., as railway mileage multiplied.
Today, railways carry vastly more tonnage than
in
the 19th century, bu twe should recall that it all started 175
years ago on the Liverpool & Manchester.
RAIL CANADIEN • 508 200 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
New Coins Honour Chinese Railway Workers
by Fred Angus
In the last twenty years, Canada has issued several coins with railway-related designs, but the latest ones are the
most impressive yet.
During 2005
the Royal Canadian Mint is issuing a maximum of 20,000 sets of two special proof quality $8 coins to
commemorate the Chinese railway workers in Canada, especially those who helped build the Canadian Pacific Railway in
western Canada between 1880 and 1885. During these years, contractor Andrew
Onderdonk arranged for thousands of
workers to come from China to build the extremely difficult line from Yale to Eagle Pass (Craigellachie) B.C. At the
conclusion
ofthe work, many returned to China, but unfortunately many others died in the numerous accidents that occured
in the construction.
The commerative coins are very large, about 39 milimetres (more than an inch and a half) in diameter, and weigh
32.15 grams each.
The denomination $8 was apparently chosen because the number 8 is considered lucky in China. The coins
are bi-metallic (the same as the regular $2 coin),
the outer portion being pure silver, and the centre also of pure silver, but
gold plated.
The obverse (front) of both coins is identical, bearing a portrait of Her Majesty the Queen, with the usual
inscription, a maple leaf and the date.
The reverse (back) of one coin shows an empty ballast train on the original bridge
across the Fraser River at Cisco
B.c. about 1885. A number of the workers are standing in the cars. The reverse of the other
coin shows the monument in Toronto commemorating the Chinese railway workers.
These two coins
are sold in sets of two, are encapsuated to prevent tarnish, and come in a special display case. The
set sells for $120 complete, and is obtainable from the Mint, or at many post offices. Because they are pure silver, there is no
tax
(either
GSTor Provincial tax) on the purchase price.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005 201 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
Book Reviews
The Crow and the Kettle
by J. F. Garden
Reviewed by Davidlohnson
For those who
havent had the
privilege of
personally
knowing the
Crowsnest Pass
and the Kettle
Valley areas of
southern British
Columbia, the
one fact that you
must grasp is that all the geographical features run north
and south, and the railway wanted to go east and west. This
provided an interesting challenge to the builders that
resulted in a lot of track running north or south as the rails
sought
appropriate creeks and valleys that would let them
shift back to their primary direction. The geography also
dictated that there were multiple summits, seven to be
exact, to cross between Medicine Hat, Alberta, and Hope,
British Columbia. Thus the railway always seemed to
climbing
or descending grades. John Garden=s book is an
amazing photographic record of this wandering line across
Southern British Columbia.
The author does not attempt to provide an
exhaustive history
but encapsulates the overall line and the
individual sub-divisions with brief descriptions. He then
uses hundreds of colour photographs, some as large as ten
by twenty-two inches, with extensive
captions to tell the
story. The photographs come from a number of
A Century of Moving Canada (English version)
Un siecle du mobilite (French version)
Public Transit 1904 -2004
By Ted Wickson
Reviewed by Peter Murphy
A Century of Moving Canada
Public Transil 1904-2004
This book was
commissioned by
the Centennial
Task Force of the
Canadian Urban
ll·ansit Association
and the CUTA
Board of
Directors, to
commemorate the
photographers, some who worked for Canadian Pacific
Railway in
the area, including the author himself, and
others who visited over a number of years. The
photographers include Ronald Hill, Philip R. Hastings, W.
R. Hooper, Jim Hope, A. C. Kalmbach, John Lemming,
Robert A. Loat, R. A. Matthews, Phil Mason, Jim
Reddington, R. S. Ritchie, B. W. Sanford, Stan Smaill, A. J.
Sutherland, John Sutherland, Arthur Weber, R. Wbetham,
Davie Wilkie, G. B. Will, and Richard Yaremko, as well as
the Evan Hossan and Ernst Schait collections.
Unfortunately there are several distracting
features of this book. With the text laid out across the
whole horizontal format page, it is very hard to read as the
human eye is not trained to scan text lines 9 long. There is
also minor irritations from the spelling errors throughout
the book, from the shift from full justification of the initial
pages to left justification from page 27 on, and from the use
of Natural Resources Canada large scale maps that require
a magnifying glass to follow the railway lines.
Overall,
the huge number of photographs,
carefully laid out, with care being given to the colour
balance, and sufficient text to explain them, outweighs the
minor distractions, so this is a significant book that should
be included in any collection on Canadian railroading.
The Crow and the Kettle
By J. F. Garden
ISBNNo.
Published by
Footprint Publishing Co. Ltd.
Price: $69.95
David W. Johnson
Revelstoke BC
centennial anniversary of the association. Few people are
better qualified to write such a book than Ted Wickson
long
time public relations officer (now retired) for th~
Toronto Transit Commission. In addition, Ted is an all
round urban transit enthusiast! Ted spend over a year
researching various transit and public archives for material
(text and photos) to include in this work.
The book has soft colour covers, 8 Y2 X 11 inch
horizontal format, 160 pages, with a generous mix of both
black and white and colour photos. A Century of Moving
Canada IS really a history of the CUTA, but is also a de
facto history of urban transit in Canada from 1904 to 2004.
Main cbapters include: The Early Decades, Transit in
Wartime, Post-war Revitalization,
Maintaining High
Standards with a Moving Canada conclusion.
All
modes of urban transit whose owners /
operators are members of CUTA are dealt with including:
RAIL CANADIEN • 508
streetcar, interurban, busses (diesel and electric), light rail,
urban rail, ferry, funicular, subway, etc.
If it moved
Canadians, its included in this book!
Ted has
gone to great lengths to tell the urban
transit story from coast to coast.
The book is not
monopolized by transit operators in the major centres,
(Toronto, Montreal), although they do receive
adequate
treatment. The photo selection is generous and varied.
From the Kingston,
Portsmouth and Cataraqui open car
through to photos
of the Ottawa 0 Train and AMTs
electrified Deux Montagnes commuter line, Ted has
captured the spirit
of public transit in Canada, both then
and now.
Of special interest are the Public Transit
Milestones in
Canada from 1752 to 2004.
Canadian National Railway
By Tom Murray
Reviewed
by Lome Peny
Iltlll.f,i4I) (,I,LCU Ills.fI[Y
– –
.— –
CANADIAN NATIONAL
RAILWAY
Interesting just how
many long-term
dedicated CN
enthusiasts there are
in the USA.
The
authors passion for
trains was passed on
from his dad,
resulting in a
railroad career
dating from 1970.
But all of it has been
spent south
of the
border. Tom resides
in Martinez CA. ,
fascinating!
About the title:
There is a clear and accurate
statement on page eight about nomenclature, which I
quote:
The plural Canadian National Railways was
used on equipment and company publications for many
years, and the company was commonly referred to as
CNR by both employees and the general public. By the
1970s the
simpler Canadian National (,Canadien
National
in French) began to appear, reflecting two
corporate trends; diversification and bilingualism. Today
the company
is formally known as Canadian National
202 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 2005
I find the layout unusually refreshing with a
generous left margin, within which are
some photos and
text.
Other photos are reproduced in larger format
conventionally throughout the book. Maximum use has
been
made of the four colour printing process. This is not
an in
depth study, but an easy to read overview of the
development
of urban transit in Canada.
Every transit enthusiast should have it
in his
library!
A Century
of Moving Canada (English version)
Un siecle de mobilite (French version)
By Ted Wickson
ISBN No. 0-920559-68-9
Published
by the Canadian Urban Transit Association
Price:
$40
Railway Company. It uses CN as its corporate identity,
which
is how we will refer to the company in this book.
All
of which begs the question, why nos on
Railway in the book title? It looks odd to this Canadian,
and
is not supported by CN officialdom either.
Apart from that, I have no criticisms; only praise.
It is a handsomely illustrated 160-page treasure, providing
a capsule history right up to 2004, and perceptive insights
into CNs corporate and marketplace strategies over the
years.
The photos, most of them in colour, are drawn
from private collections (including the authors) and
various archives. They are refreshing
in that hitherto they
have been seldom if ever published.
The inclusion of a
number of superbly reproduced timetable covers,
brochures,
map excerpts and ads becomes a counterpoint
to the sometimes gritty photos
of Canadian railroading in
all seasons.
At a rate of about one per page, the photos break
down into categories as follows: 30% pre-dieselization and
the balance documenting the stages of development in
modern-day railroading.
A subject like CN becomes a major condensing
job for the author. In
the process Tom Murray has never
lost sight
of the need for a clear perspective and delicate
balance among competing themes. Did I indicate that I
a pprove
of his work?
Canadian National Railway
By Tom Murray
Published
by MEl Publishing Company
ISBN 0-7603-1764X
Price:
$49.95
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005
Montreal Streetcars
Volume 2: People & Places
By Thomas GrumJey
Reviewed
by Peter M wphy
Thomas
Grumley has
been busy
writing
traction topic
books for
publication by
the By town
Railway
Society. These
have been
published as
part of By towns Canadas Traction Heritage Series.
This
is his latest effort and is his second on the
topic
of Montreal streetcars, this one focuses on people
and places.
This book
is 8 W X 11 horizontal format with soft covers
and contains
31 black and white and 23 colour photos, as
well as a faithfully reproduced fold
out 1929 system map
glued inside the back cover.
Similar to the
other books in By towns Traction
Heritage Series, this is not a history of the MTC but a
compendium
of excellent photos with extended captions
203 CANADIAN RAIL • 508
and short articles reminiscing about the great Montreal
streetcar system that used to be. Thomas has gone to great
lengths to seek out never before published photographs in
both black and white and colour, especially from the
Montreal
Gazette Collection -Library and Archives
Canada.
The first topic covered in the book is the working
life
of a few MTC employees, an insight seldom seen in
print. Some
of the places covered are: Aylmer Terminus,
Craig Terminus, Place
DArmes, as well as famous
intersections such as St.
Catherine and St. Urban, Bleury
and St. Catherine,
Notre Dame and Delormier, etc. The
book is smattered with a variety of related newspaper
clippings
from the Montreal Daily Star, The Gazette and
Montreal Tramways announcements.
The printing quality of the book is excellent,
colours are true, black and white prints
are sharp, William
Pharoahs cover shot
of 1477 on the Mountain line is
outstanding.
This
is an easy read, a pick it up, put it down kind
of book, to be read in front of a cosy fire some upcoming
snowy evening.
Jfyou are a traction enthusiast, especially a
Montreal one, this book
is not to be missed!
Montreal Streetcars, Volume 2
ByThomas Grumley
Published by the
By town Railway Society
ISBN 0-921871-08-2
Price:
$14.95
All books reviewed are available from the Exporail Boutique either in person,
or by mail (cost
of postage and applicable taxes extra).
BACK COVER TOP: OTC 696 towards the end of its working life photographed by OC n·anspo at the CoboU/g
Cal· barn in Ottawa.
BACK COVER BOTTOM: Canadian National Railways 5702 and CRHA excursion train being coaled at an historic wooden
coaling tower at Garneau, Quebec
on October 5, 1958. Photo Ronald S. Ritchie.
This issue
of Canadian Rail was delivered to the printer on October 23,2005

Demande en ligne