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Canadian Rail 487 2002

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Canadian Rail 487 2002

42
ISSN 0008-4875
Postal Permit No. 4006662t
CANADIAN RAIL
PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY
BY THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
75th ANNIVERSARY OF NORTHERN TYPE LOCOMOTIVES IN CANADA ………………. . FRED ANGUS …………………………. .
THE MIGHTY NORTHERNS OF CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAyS ……………………….. .. PETER MURPHy ……………………. ..
CNR CLASS U-2-a AND U-2-b (6100-6139) ……………………………………………………………..
..
CNR CLASS U-2-c (6140-6159) ………………………………………………………………………………… .
CNR
CLASS U-2-d (6160-6164) ……………………………………………………………………………….. ..
CNR CLASS U-2-e AND U-2-f (6165-6189) ………………………………………………………………. .
CNR
CLASS U-2-g (6200-6234) ……………………………………………………………………………….. ..
CNR CLASS U-2-h (6235-6264) ………………………………………………………………………………… .
CNR
CLASS U-4-a (6400-6404) ………………………………………………………………………………… .
GTW CLASS U-3-a AND U-3-b (6300-6336) ………………………………………………………………
.
GTW
CLASS U-4-b (6405-6410) ………………………………………………………………………………… .
CPR
CLASS K-1-a (3100-3101) …………………………………………………………………………………. .
T&NO (ONR) CLASS (1100-1103) …………………………………………………………………………….. ..
WHEREARETHEY NOW? …………………………………………………………………………………………. . 43
47
48
58
60
62
67
72
74
76
77
78
80
83
FRONT COVER: CNR U-2-e locomotive 6167 at Victoria ville Que. on an excursion run by the CRHA on October 27, 1963. Note the
trainman shovelling sand on
to the track to aid traction on the tight curve. Photo by Fred Angus
BE
LOW A builders photo ofCNR U-2-d class Northern type locomotive 6162 when new in April 1936.
For your membership in the CRHA, which
includes a subscription to
Canadian Rail,
write to:
CRHA, 120 Rue St-Pierre, St. Constant,
Que.
J5A 2G9
Membership
Dues for 2002:
In Canada: $36.00 (including all taxes)
United States: $31.
00 in U.S. funds.
Other Countries:
$56.00 Canadian funds. Canadian Rail is continually in need of news, stories
historical data, photos, maps and other material. Please
send all contributions to the editor: Fred F. Angus,
3021
~ Trafalgar Avenue, Montreal, P.Q. H3Y.1 H3, e-mail
angus82 @aei.ca No payment can be made for.
contributions, but the contributer will
be given credit for
material submitted. Material will
be retumed to the contributer .
if requested. Remember Knowledge is of little value unless
it is shared with others.
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: Douglas N.W. Smith
ASSOCIATE EDITOR (Motive Power):
Hugues W. Bonin
LAYOUT: . Fred F. Angus
PRINTING: Procel Printing
DISTRIBUTION: Joncas Postexperts
Inc.
The CRHA may be reached at its web site: www.exporail.org or by telephone at (450) 638-1522
MARCH -APRIL 2002 43 CANADIAN RAIL -487
The Northern Type Locomotives in Canada
1927 75th Anniversary 2002
Introduction
by Fred Angus
Canadas first Northern type locomotive, CNR 6100, taking part in the Fair of the Iron Horse in Baltimore Maryland in 1927.
Photo courtesy
of Canadian National
1927 It was a prosperous and eventful year. More than
• eight years had passed since the end
of the Great
War
of 1914 -1918, and the postwar depression of 1920 –
1921 was only
an unpleasant memory. It was the era known
as the
roaring twenties, and times were good; fortunes
were being made in stocks and there was no sign of the
financial crash that would plunge the world into depression
little more than two years later. Some well remembered events
of 1927 included Charles Lindbergs solo trans-Atlantic
flight and Babe Ruths 60 home run season.
Canada shared
in this general feeling of well-being;
times were good and the 60th anniversary
of Confederation
provided an excellent excuse for a great jubilee celebration.
Ten
years earlier, Confederations 50th anniversary had
occurred during the dark days of the war so celebrations
were very much curtailed. Now, however, the world was at
peace and plans were made for the Diamond Jubilee
observance. Not until 1967 would Canada again see such
celebrations. As
part of the commemoration, the Prince of Wales
(later Edward
Vlll) toured Canada and, on July I, the actual
anniversary, he
officially inaugurated the Peace Tower in
Ottawa. Originally to have been called the Victory Tower,
the name
Peace Tower was finally chosen as being more
appropriate. Thus was completed the rebuilding of the centre
block
of the Parliament buildings which had been destroyed
by fire
in 1916.
Canadas railways shared in this general feeling of
good times. It is no coincidence that it was in 1927 that the
Canadian Pacific Railway announced that they would build
the largest
hotel in the British Empire -The Royal York.
Both CNR and CPR introduced modem first-class passenger
trains that
same year, and Toronto Union Station finally
opened, more than a decade after the building was completed.
Times had changed. The railways no longer had a
monopoly on long distance transportation. Roads were better
and
automobiles more numerous. Airplanes were coming
RAIL CANADIEN -487
The 20-cent special delivery stamp of 1927 commorated the
Confederation jubilee. It depicted several means of
transportation in Canada, prominent among which was the
passenger train. Note that the automobile does not appear.
more and more into use, and the
excitement over the Lindberg flight
served to draw more attention to this new
means
of transportation which someday
might be a serious rival. Progressive
railways realized they would have to
improve their service
in order to keep their
customers, both passengers and shippers.
The historical aspect of railways
was not forgotten either in this year of
1927. In the United States the 100th
anniversary of the founding of the
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad was
commemorated by a Fair of the Iron
Horse which included a procession of
historic motive power and rolling stock
from the earliest to the
most modern –
including 6100 from the
CNR and 2333
from the CPR.
44 MARS -AVRIL 2002
The Canadian National system had come a long way
since it was formed, only eight years before, as a collection
of bankrupt railways taken over by the federal government.
Under the guidance of Sir Henry Thornton, the CNR had
become the largest railway system in America, operating a
wide ranging transportation system that included ships as
well as trains. Adopting the slogan Courtesy and Servic
e,
the
CNR provided service that rivaled the best anywhere.
As part of its transformation into a world-class
transportation system, the CNR ordered a great many new
locomotives and cars, and in 1927 acquired the first of a
class
of locomotive that became a legend, the 4-8-4 NOlthem
type. Originally these new engines had been named
Confederation type in honour of the Diamond Jubilee of
Confederation. However it was soon decided to use the name
Northern due
to the fact that this type had been introduced
by the Northern Pacific the year before. Since many
of CNs
lines were, in fact, northern, it was felt that this name
was
appropriate. Between 1927 and 1944 CN and its United
States subsidiary Grand Trunk Western acquired 203
Northerns, the largest such fleet in North America.
To
commemorate the 75th anniversary of the
introduction of this famous type of locomotive, we have
devoted this entire issue of Canadian Rail to the Northerns.
While
CNR and GTW had the great majority of the Northerns
owned by a Canadian system, they were not the only ones.
We have also included the two built by the CPR as well as
the four built for the Temiskaming & Northern Ontario, later
the Ontario Northland.
BELOW Another 1927 commemorative stamp showed the
map
of Canada in 1867 and 1927, together with the main
line transcontinental railways.
OPPOSITE:
The main elements of a CNR advertisement that appeared in newspapers across Canada on June 30 1927, the day
before
the Jubilee. In depicts trains of 1867 and 1927, as well as a brief history of CN and its predecessors. Note that brand­
new
6100 is hauling the Confederation, CNs newest train.
MARCH -APRIL 2002
See Canada in Canadas
Sixty Years
CIlriadian
45 CANADIAN RAIL -487
Diamond Jubilee Year 1867-1927
Progress
In 1860, the Grand Trunk .Railway, now a part of the Canadian National Railways, comprised 872 miles of track. Today, Canadian National
embraces 22,548 miles of line, the largest railway system
in America, touching every important Canadian City; fleets of steamships that
. carry Canadas ensign and products
to every quarter cityhotels; resort hotels and bungalow camps, and
an Industrial Department to foster the location and development of new industry.
The development of Canada and the Canadian National. Railways
is Interwoven closely, As one grew, so did the other, mutually dependent.
Before even .the memorable year of Confederation, portions of the present-day Canadian National had attracted world-wide attention to
themselves and to the then-struggling young country. The construction
of the original Victoria Bridge for the Grand Trunk Railway and its
opening by the Prince
of Wales in 1860, focussed the eyes of Nations on Canada as perhaps no preceding event had ever done.
Canada, being a land of vast distances, the railway was seen
to be the key to her future expansion and prosperity. Indeed, the Grand Trunk
Railway had long been the dominating factor
in Canadas grow1h to date. It had opened up the then known parts of Ontario and Quebec
to settlement and had tapped the countrys resources from the International Boundary at Sarnia to Riviere du Loup.
In Confederation year, the dependence of national growth upon rail communication became even more strikingly evident, the construction
of the Intercolonial Railway being insisted upon by the Maritime Provinces as a condition of entry into the Dominion,
Thus, within a single decade, Canadian National was linked with two of the greatest events in
Canadas history, and helped make
Confederation
an accomplished fact.
Since then, Canada and the Canadian National have developed hand in hand, Mile upon mile of new track was laid
in Quebec and
Ontario; new towns and industries sprang into being, new lands were opened
to cultivation. The sister country to our South was brought into
intimate communication with us, commerce was stimulated, capital attracted, immigration fostered.
Then the West called and
the Canadian Northern and Grand Trunk Pacific Railways opened up vast areas of fertile prairie to the settler; rich
Pacific timber and mineral lands were made to yield their wealth; scenic wonderlands were made accessible and a new route afforded to
Canadas Pacific Coast. The Transcontinental Railway, from Winnipeg
to Quebec, connected this great west with the eastern provinces.
Wherever
it was needed, the railway appeared, a typical modern instance being that of the Rouyn Mining District the development of which
is made possible by Canadian National service.
AN AD IAN ATIONAL
C7ht LargtSf 1Vlilway System in America
;:;> <:::r-~ ~ ~
t-< <:) ;:. ~
~
Class
U-2-a U-2-b U-2-<: U-2~ U-2~ U-2-f U-2i1 U-2-h U-J-a U-3-b U-4-a U-4-b

Initials
&
Numbers
CN
6100-19
CN
6120-39
CN
6140-59
CN
6160-64
CN
6165-79
CN
6180-89
CN
6200-34
CN
6235-64
GIW
6300-11
GIW
6312-36
CN
6400-04
GTW
6405-10
Builders
Builder
& Year Number
C.
l.C
.
1927 1800
-19
M.L.W
.
1927
67351-70
M.
L.W.1929
67769-

88
M.L.W.1936
68710-14
M.
L.W
.
1940
69260-74
C.
L.C.1940
1960-69 69698-722
M.L.W.
1942-43
69790-799
M.L.W
.
1943-44
70303-327
70664-668
ALCO
1927
67339-50
ALCO
1942
69618-42
M.
LW
.
1936
68715-19
LIMA
1938
7759-64

~

CANADIAN
NATIONAL
SYSTEM
NORTHERN
TYPE
LOCOMOTIVES
Cylindel$ Drivers
Weight
of
loco
in Tractive
Boiler
working
order
Eff~
Pressure Disposition (ins) (ins) (Ibs) (Ibs) (Ibs)
25%x30
73
385
,
590
56,785
250
Scrapped
396,390
(1)
66,100
(1)
25%
X
30
73
381,900
56,800
250
Scrapped
25%
x
30
73
383,000
56,800
250
Scrapped Except
6153
25%x30
73
390
,
000
56,800
250
Scrapped
25%
x
30
73
402,700
56,800
250
6167
in
Guelph

rest
scrapped
25%
x
30
73
389,330
56,800
250
Scrapped Scrapped
except
6200,
6213
25%x30
73
399,600
56,800
250
&6218
25%x30
73
400,300
56,800
250
Scrapped
26Y.x30
73
399,000
60,200
250
Scrapped
26
x
30
73
399,000
59,200
250
Scrapped
26
x
30
73
403,000
59,034
250
Scrapped
except
6323
&
6325
24
x30
n
379,800
52,457
275
Scrapped
except
6400
24×30
n
382,700
52,457
275
Scrapped


—-
– –
Notes
(1)
Booster
equipped
:
6100,
03,
OS,
06,
08
to

13,
15,

16,
18
&
19
6153
at
Oelson
(CRHA)
6184
equipped
with
poppet
valve
Nov
.
49
to
Feb
.
52
6213
displayed
at
C.
N.E
.
Toronto
6200
stored
N.M.
S.
&
T.
6218
Ft
Erie
6306,

07
&
09
Remainder #
became
CN
1949
6323
Illinois
Railroad
Museum
6325
operating
on
Ohio
Central
6400
N.M
.
S.
& T.
I I I I
:JJ ~ r () » z » o m z .j:>. co –..J .j:>. cr>
s: » :JJ (f) ~ :JJ r 10 o o 10
MARCH -APRIL 2002 47 CANADIAN RAIL -487
The Mighty Nortllerns
of Canadian National Railways
by Peter Murphy
Much has been written and spoken about Canadian
Nationals 6167 and 6218 which remained in excursion
service for years after the official end of steam in 1960.
With all the interest concerning these two locomotives, one
tends to overlook the fact that they were only two
of a fleet
of some 203 Northern Type 4-8-4 locomotives on the CN
system. Following
is the story of this fleet of engines which
were the backbone
of CNs heavy main line operation, both
passenger and freight.
In 1927 the Canadian National
Railways ordered
some 52 locomotives of the 4-8-4 wheel arrangement.
Originally called Confederation Type, they were soon
redesignated Northern Type after the series built by the
Northern Pacific earlier that year. This original order broke
down as follows: 20 from Montreal Locomotive Works, 20
from Canadian Locomotive Company
of Kingston and 12
from ALCO for use on the Grand Trunk Western in the United
States. These were the first
of some 203 locomotives which
were ordered and designated in twelve di fferent
classifications from the U-2-a, built by CLC starting with
6100, through to the U-4-b (6405 -6410) built
by Lima in
1938 for the GTW. Although last
in the classification, this
group was not the newest. The honour
of being the newest
Northern on the CN system goes to U-2-h number 6264 which
was delivered in 1944.
The vital statistics
of all these locomotives varied
only slightly. Cylinder diameter ranged from 24
to 26 inches,
wheel
diameter varied from 73 to 77 inches and overall
length was approximately 95 feet for all units. Visually,
however, there were distinct differences. The most apparent
was the streamlining on the 6400 series
of class U-4-a and
class U-4-b. Other differences were the overhanging feedwater
heaters on the early 6100s . Also some had spoked drivers
and, at various times, numerous Northerns were fitted with
elephant ears, i.e. smoke deflectors, which gave them quite
a different appearance. Tractive effort ranged from 52,457
Ibs. for the streamlined 6400s to 66,100 lbs. for those 6100s
equipped with boosters.
The Northerns were truly a dual purpose locomotive,
whether hauling a fast passenger train or a fast heavy freight
with 80 or more cars. They were used far and wide across the
system and could be seen regularly in most cities served by
the
CNR and its subsidiaries; Vancouver, Winnipeg, Chicago,
Toronto, Montreal, Moncton, Halifax, to name
just a few.
Truly Canadian National depended heavily on its Northerns
for almost a third
of a century.
It is fitting that three of their number, 6153, 6167,
6218, were each used extensively on special steam
excursions long after regular steam power had disappeared from the National system altogether. No doubt their ability
to haul a heavy passenger train at better than a mile a minute
speeds led
to the selection of the Northerns for these special
trips. As
it was realized that steam had all but disappeared
these excursions rapidly gained in popularity. In 1960, as
complete dieselization was achieved,
CNR held farewell
to steam excursions operating out of Toronto and Montreal.
The first Toronto trip was hauled by 6167 and ran to Niagara
Falls on July
10 of that year. An excursion from Montreal to
Ottawa behind 6153 was held on September
4. For two years
6153 hauled trips out
of Montreal while 6167 did the same
duty at Toronto, the latter trips being much more numerous.
On October 14 1962, 6153 was retired and 6167 catTied on
alone. Most of its special trips continued to be out of Toronto,
but
it was available for other service as well; one example
being a trip from Montreal to Victoriaville and return on
October 27 1963.
So popular had these steam excursions become that,
as 6167 neared the end
of its career, CNR overhauled another
Northern, 6218, for excursion service, outshopping it on
November 26 1963. On the weekend
of September 26-27
1964, 6167 and 6218 were double-headed on a trip and then
6167 was retired. The excursion career
of 6218 was the longest
of them all, for it hauled more than 150 special trips during
its second career which lasted almost seven years. However
it could not last forever and on July 4 1971 the Grand old
lady
of steam, No. 6218, made its last run at Belleville,
Ontario. This was not, however, the end
of steam on CN, for
Mountain type locomotive 6060 went into excursion service
and ran for a number
of years more. But 1971 marked the
end
of the operating career of the famous Northerns of the
CNR and its subsidiaries, a career which dated back 44 years,
II years after most of the series had been retired. Now it was
truly the end
of an era -or so it seemed -and it was, for thirty
years.
As the old saying goes it
aint over till its over and,
as
it turns out, the operating career of the Northerns was not
entirely
over. Grand Trunk Western number 6325, a member
of the U-3-b class, built by ACo in 1942, had been saved and
was
for many years on display at Battle Creek Michigan. In
the late 1990s it came to the Ohio Central Railway and over
a
period of several years it was restored to operating
condition. On March 20 2001, 42 years after it had last
dropped its fire, and thirty years after the last run
of 6218,
the 6325 was fired
up for a test run. Then, on September 22,
2001
it returned to service hauling a special excursion train.
These special trips are held on the OC from time to time, so
it will still be possible to see, and ride behind, a CNR-type
Northern
in the twenty-first century.
RAIL CANADIEN -487 48 MARS -AVRIL 2002
The First Group, Classes U-2-a and U-2-b, 1927
6100-6119 from CLC and 6120-6139 from
MLW
ABOVE: A builders photo of 6131. Note that a print from the
same negative was attached
to the specification sheet opposite.
RIGHT:
Engineer Duncan Campbell and fireman Robert
McKay sitting on the running board of 6100 just before it left
for the Fair
of the Iron Horse in Baltimore in September 1927.
Note the sign reading Confederation
, the original name
for the class.
CN. Magazine
BELOW: The tender
of a 6100 is lowered on to its trucks
during construction
in 1927.
OPPOSITE: The specification sheet
for
6120 -6139, built by Montreal Locomotive
works
and delivered in A ugllst and
September 1927.
PAGES 50
TO 53 INCLUSIVE. An article
which appeared
in Canadian Railway and
Marine World in July
1927 describing the
first
of the CNRs Northerns.
MARCH -APRIL 2002 49
AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY
. .. -.2lkUbLL ____ _
. ,.!-~
. C i:~
I , • ;{::;; -. .
MATERIALS AND SPECIALTIES
I EMS I TE M S
8~,., …. r Typt-
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RAIL CANADIEN -487 50 MARS -AVRIL 2002
Northern (4-8-4) Type Locomotives, Canadian National Railway.
From Canadian Railway and Marine World, July 1927.
As stated in Canadian Railway and Marine World for
March, the C.N.
R. ordered forty 4-8-4 locomotives, 20 from
Montreal Locomotive Works and 20 from Canadian Locomotive
Co., for Canadian lines, ten 4-8-4 locomotives from American
Locomotive Co. for Grand Trunk Western Lines, four 4-8-2
locomotives from American Locomotive
Co. for Central Vermont
Ry., and ten 0-8-0 switching locomotives from Lima Locomotive
Works,for Grand Trunk Western Lines. As stated
in our April
issue, the order for 4-8-4 locomotives for Grand Trunk Western
Lines was increased subsequently to
12.
The 4-8-4 locomotives being built in Canada are the
first
in the country to be equipped with 4-wheel trailing trucks,
and have been named the Northern type. They were designed
for either passenger or fast freight service, and it is intended to
use them on extended runs over two or more divisions. The
first of the 20 ordered from Canadian Locomotive Co. was turned
out about June 1, and was exhibited at Montreal during the
recent American Railway Association Mechanical Division
meetings there. The 20 being built at Montreal are identical with
those from Kingston with
the exception of a few details mentioned
further on. The chief dimensions, etc., are as follows:-
Gauge 4
ft. 8 1/2 in.
Cylinder diam. and stroke
Driving wheel diam
Boiler, inside diam.,
1st course
outside diam
., largest course
working pressure
Firebox, length and width
Tubes, no. and diam
Flues, no. and diam
Length of tubes and flues
Combustion chamber, length
Wheel base, driving
engine
total
Weights
in working order:
Engine truck
Drivers
Trailing truck
1)(
Total engine
Tender
Total With booster.
65,000
lb.
232,000 lb.
91 ,000 lb.
388,000
lb.
260,000 lb.
648,000
lb.
25112 x 30 in.
73in.
807/8 in.
90in.
250
lb.
1261/2 X 96114 in.
15 –
3112 in.
27 – 2
1/4 in.
162-31/2 in.
21 ft. 6 in.
481/2 in.
19
ft. 6 in.
43ft.
10 in.
82
ft.
Without booster.
65,000
lb.
230,000 lb.
83,000
lb.
378,000 lb.
260,000 lb.
638,000 lb. Heating surface:
Tubes and flues
Firebox
Syphons and arch tubes
Total
Superheating surface
Grate area
Maximum tractive power
Factor of adhesion,
Capacity of tender,
Limiting height
width 3,814 sq.
ft.
315sq.ft.
117sq.ft.
4,246 sq.
ft.
1,700 sq.
ft.
84.4 sq.f!.
without booster 56,800
lb.
with booster 69,700 lb.
engine 4.05
booster 4.6
water 11,300 Imp. gall.
coal 20 tons
15ft.3in.
10 ft. 9 in.
These locomotives will operate on curves up to a
maximum of 18 degrees. All are being equipped with Duplex
type 0-1 stokers; Elesco K-39 feed water heaters with C.F.
pumps; type E superheaters; American multiple throttles;
precision reverse gear; and thermic syphons, two of the latter
in
the
firebox and one in the combustion chamber. The locomotives
being built by Montreal Locomotive Works are being equipped
with Shoemaker firedoors; hand grate shakers; cast steel grates;
Alco lateral motion device on front drivers; and Miner draft gear,
and are being finished with Sherwin-Williams paints. Those
being built by Canadian Locomotive Co. are being equipped with
Franklin firedoors; Franklin
power grate shakers; cast iron
grates; Franklin lateral motion device on front drivers; and
Cardwell draft gear, and are
being finished with Thorpe
Hambrooke paints. Other equipment, common to all 40
locomotives, includes Huron arch tube and washout plugs; two
31/2 in. Consolidated safety valves; Hancock H.N.L. inspirator
on right hand side; Hancock side cheeks; improved type Asheroft
cut-oil control gauge; air operated cylinder cocks; C.N.A.
standard cast steel water column and mountings; Asheroft
steam guages; nickel steel main axles, main crank pins, side
and main rods and piston rods; carbon steel springs, except
in
engine truck, which are of silico-manganese steel; Laird
crosshead with removable shoe; C.N.R. standard steel pilot
and cast steel bumper
b~am; World Leslie steam heat reducing
valve; and World C.
C. tank valves.
The boiler is of the straight top type, with radially stayed
firebox, and carries 250 lb. pressure.
In order to save weight,
the shell courses have been made of high tensile silicon steel,
developed by Carnegie Steel Co., with tensile strength of from
70,000 to 83,000
lb., and minimum yield point of 38,000 lb. Steel
MARCH -APRIL 2002
staybolts are used throughout, and the flexible bolts are of the
F.B.C. welded telltale type curity arch brick are carried on three
3-in. arch tubes, and the 2 syphons
in the firebox. The boiler is
lagged with 85%
magnesia, and jacketed with Keystone
locomotive jacket steel painted a dark gray. None of the tubes
or flues are welded to the back tube sheet.
The boiler pressure carried, and the high tensile shell
steel used in the boiler construction, are of special interest.
Considerable publicity has been given recenty to the use, in
England, and on the European continent, of structural and navy
steel having a high elastic limit. Prominence has also been
given to a similar steel manufactured on the Pacific
Coast for
use in transmission towers for high tension electric lines. Certain
reports implied some mystery in the manufacture of this steel,
and that special furnaces were necessary, but whatever other
means may have been employed in obtaining the high elastic
limit and ductility claimed, silicon was the principal factor. While
certain manufacturing problems, including the addition
of the
necessary silicon, result
in an added cost in making silicon
steel, there is no mystery involved.
It can be made by the usual
basic open-hearth method, the silicon being added while the
steel is being tapped. The usual additional precautions taken in
the manufacture and inspection of boiler quality steel were
observed in making the plates for the C.N .R. locomotives. As
the minimum tensile strength specified for these plates
was
10,000 lb. less than the standard grade of silicon steel, slightly
lower carbon and silicon limits were used, giving the following
average results from 350 tests: yield point, 46,
146Ib.; tensile
strength, 76,811 lb
.; elongation, 25.2%; reduction in area, 47.1 %.
This permitted the construction of the boiler barrel for
250 lb.
pressure with no added weight, compared with a similar boiler
for 200-lb. pressure, with carbon steel plates.
Component Parts of Floating Bushing Bearing Main Driving Box.
The cab is a short, vestibule type, all steel, and wood
lined. Standard C.N.R. turrets are located ahead of the cab, the
left hand one being supplied with superheated steam
by a 3-in.
pipe leading from a connection on the superheater header, and
the
right hand one with saturated steam from a direct connection
to the boiler. The superheated steam is supplied to air pump,
feed water heater pump, stoker and headlight generator, while
saturated steam is supplied to the steam heat line, inspirator,
lubricator and other small auxiliaries. The C.N.A. standard 4-
chime type whistle is located on the left hand side of the
smokebox, near the stack, with a 1-in. connection from the
superheated steam line from the header, and
is operated by
wire cable carried through the handrail on the left hand side.
Two World locomotive blow-off valves are located on the right
hand side of the firebox, and can be operated
in unison from the
cab. Both blow-off cocks are connected to L. and C. sludge
remover. One has an internal pipe connection along the bottom
of the barrel, extending to within 2
ft. of the front tube sheet, and
51 CANADIAN RAIL -487
Four-wheel, Outside Bearing Engine Truck, with Floating
Bushing Bearings.
the other has a pipe connection across the throat, with opening
opposite the side water legs. The side cheeks carry the feed
water through troughs on the inside of the barrel down near the
bottom of the tubes, so as to prevent deposits gathering on top
of the tubes.
The front end
is fitted with C.N.R. standard barrel netting,
and the exhaust tip is a steel insert in the end
of the exhaust
stand. The smokebox front is
of pressed steel, with a cast iron
door. A Barco blower connection is applied on the left side of the
smokebox.
The main frames are half nickel and half vanadium steel;
the cradle castings are of Commonwealth type. Shoes and
wedges are of cast
ii·on. The cylinders are of cast iron, and both
cylinders and valve chests are fitted with Hunt-Spiller bushings.
The pistons are
of C.N.R. standard built up type, with Hunt­
Spiller bull rings.
Baker valve gear is applied. Maximum valve travel in
forward
motion is 9
in., and the valve setting is such that lap is
1 5/16 in., lead 5/16 in., and exhaust clearance 3/16 in. The
main driving journals are 12 x 13 in., and all others 10 x 13 in.,
and all journals throughout are finished by grinding.
The locomotives are equipped with main driving boxes
of the floating bushing bearing type, illustrations of which are
given herewith. This design of box, developed on the Canadian
National, has been applied to the main drivers of a number of
locomotives in both freight and passenger service, and the
results secured have been so satisfactory that the same type
is being applied to all of the 4-8-4 locomotives now being built,
the 12 for Grand Trunk Western lines as well as the 40 for
Canadian lines. The box is made of cast steel,
in two sections
parted horizontally and held together by 4 fitted bolts. These are
1 3/8
in. diam. and of high tensile steel. A high grade iron bushing
is keyed into the cast steel box, and the brass floating bushing
revolves between the journal and the iron bushing. The bushings
are both made in 2 pieces, so that they may be removed if
necessary. A 1/2 in. steel plate on the inside face of the box
holds the bushings in place. The box is lubricated by ordinary
driving journal compound, grease being supplied
to the bearing
from 4 pockets, 2
at the top and 2 at the bottom of the box. The
grease is carried from the pockets through holes and grooves
in the iron bushing to the inner brass bearing. The brass bearing
contains a large number of 1/4 in. holes countersunk on the
outside and full of grease. The grease from the two top pockets
feeds the bearing when softened up, but on the two bottom
pockets a plunger is applied, with a coil spring which will put
RAIL CANADIEN -487
some pressure on the
grease and help to
feed it to the bearing.
The grease pockets
open
on the inside face
of
the box, and are
each equipped with a
plug, the plugs, when
screwed in, being
locked in pairs by a
rod passing through
them, as shown.
It is
Floating Bushing Bearing Main a very small job to
Driving Box. remove the plugs and
fill the
pockets with
grease.
It is stated that these boxes have run large mileages on
one packing of grease, and the cost of lubrication is very low.
Two eyebolts are screwed into the top half of the box, for
convenience
in lifting off, and tapped holes are provided in the
inside face
of the floating bushing, to facilitate removal. The life
of the floating bushing for driving boxes has not been fully
determined, but one locomotive is stated to have made 40,000
miles with only 1/64 in. wear, and this should run from shopping
to shopping. Another has made 25,000 miles with only 3
or 4
thousandths of an inch wear.
If, however, the wear develops to
such an extent that it
becomes necessary to change the
bushings, that is only a locomotive house job and can be done
in
an hour. This design of main driving box has eliminated
pounding, and has reduced, to a very noticeable extent, the
amount of maintenance required on rods.
In addition, it provides
a very much larger continuous hub area than the conventional
design.
The big end of the main rod and the intermediate side
rod connection are equipped with floating bushing bearings
of
C.N.R. design.
Cylinders and valves are lubricated by a Nathan
mechanical lubricator, type D.V.3, of 16 pints capacity, suitable
for long runs. The auxiliaries are lubricated by a 3-feed Detroit
hydrostatic lubricator in the cab. Where boosters are applied,
the hydrostatic lubricator is a 4-feed Detroit.
Another feature of these locomotives is the engine truck,
a 4-wheel outside bearing truck with floating bushing bearings,
grease lubricated, and with steel-tired wheels
341/4 in. diam.,
with cast steel spoked centers. Views of one of these trucks,
and of bearing details, are given herewith. Three engine trucks
of this design were applied
to Canadian National mountain type
passenger locomotives, one now having had 3 years service
and the other two 9 months each. A fourth truck was applied to
a Grand Trunk Western 4-6-2 type locomotive, and this has
been
in service for about a year. These trucks have all shown
a remarkable freedom from hot box troubles, and have reduced
the usual maintenance costs due to changing wheels, brasses,
etc., and packing cellars.
In view of the results obtained from
the trucks
in service, it was decided to apply this design to all of
the 4-8-4 locomotives, and the four 4-8-2 locomotives, ordered
recently. The truck frame, with bolster and lateral resistance
device, is a Commonwealth design. The boxes are vanadium
cast steel, with high grade hard iron bushings pressed in, and a
7 x 10
in. hard bronze bearing revolving between the journal and
the iron bush. The bushings may be either solid
or in 2 or 3
pieces. A removable collar on the end
of the axle holds the
bearing in place and
at the same time by its lateral movement
pumps the grease into the bearing. The cover contains a
removable plug for applying grease. A 3/8 in. bronze liner is
applied on the inside face of the box, and between this bronze
liner and the inner end of the floating bushing a felt ring in a
brass container is applied to hold the grease in the box. The
52 MARS -AVRIL 2002
Floating Bushing Bearing and Box Assembly, Outside Bearing
Engine
Truck.
spring arrangement on this truck is novel, there being 3 semi­
elliptic springs on each side, the center one acting as an equalizer,
while the other two are each under a box with the spring seat
cast integral with the box. The grease used is similar to rod cup
grease, but with a lower melting pOint. The wear on the bronze
bearings
is very slight, and a set of these should run 100,000
miles. A 4-wheeltruck, with inside journals and floating bushing
bearings, similar to the main driving wheel boxes, as described
above, is in service on the Canadian National, and has made a
good periormance. This makes a cheaper application
to existing
locomotives.
The trailing truck is of the Commonwealth 4-wheel
design, with steel tired wheels
341/4 in. diam. on the front axle
and 48 in. diam. on the rear axle.
The journals are 7 x 12 and 9
x 14 in. respectively, and the boxes are of the floating bushing
type, grease lubricated.
The front axle floats with a total lateral
of 1 1/4 in., while on the rear axle the total lateral is 3/8 in.
Franklin boosters are being applied to 10 of the locomotives
ordered from Canadian Locomotive Co., but all trailing trucks
are being arranged so that boosters may be applied later. The
design of boxes and bearings is very similar to those on the
engine truck, with the exception
of the grease retaining rings,
which are of bronze instead
of felt. With this design of floating
bushing engine truck, trailing truck and driving box bearings,
where the width between the jaws is limited, the iron bushing
can be replaced by a hard steel bushing, which allows a thinner
section to be used.
The tender frame is Commonwealth design, and the
tank is the Vanderbilt type. Tender trucks are Commonwealth 6
wheel, with 6 x
11 in. journals, 34 1/4 in. steel tired wheels with
semi-steel centers, McCord journal boxes, Chaton fibre dust
guards, and clasp brakes.
The air brake is Westinghouse, with one
81/2 in. cross
compound air pump and E.
T.6 equipment.
A further feature of these locomotives is the use of a
common exhaust pipe, on the left side, for the air pump, feed
water heater pump and stoker.
It is carried forward and tees
into the exhaust steam pipe leading from the exhaust passage
in the cylinder saddle to the feed water heater located on top of
the smoke box. On booster equipped locomotives, the exhaust
from the booster is carried along the right side of the locomotive,
and tees into the exhaust pipe on the right side leading from the
cylinder to the feed water heater, and a special Crane check
valve is applied
at the booster exhaust line.
The foregoing article has been compiled from data
furnished by
C. E. Brooks, Chief of Motive Power, Canadian
National
Ry.
MARCH -APRIL 2002 53 CANADIAN RAIL -487
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RAIL CANADIEN -487 54
6118 coupling on to the Maritime Express at Bridge Street in Montreal in July 1951.
Photo by Lorne Perry
ABOVE:
6128 at Turcot
on October
3, 1937.
Collection of Dave Shaw
RIGHT: 6112 leads a
double-header freight at
Hamilton Junction Ont­
ario on February 1,
1959.
Photo by FJ Sankof/. –
collection
of Dave Shaw
MARS -AVRIL 2002
IIIARCH -APRIL 2002 55
6119 hauls an Extra East through Lome Park, Ontario on May 21, 1955.
Photo by JF Beveridge, Collection of Dave Shaw
CANADIAN RAIL -487
6135 is the motive power for freight train 477 at Long Branch Ontario on October 3, 1956.
Photo by FJ Sankoff, Collection of Dave Shaw
RAIL CANADIEN -487
An Outstanding Example
of
Motive Power Progress
The forty new 4-8-4 type locolnotivcs on the Calladian National Railways
are designed for use in heavy fast passenger service.
For this service, high sustained st~aOling rapacity to provide powtr at
speed is 9 fundllnclltal es~entiul. Thi~ is provided by a large grate
area and a large boiler equipped with An Elesco type E superheater
which gives maximum superheating surface. To obtain still grecltC
efficiency, all auxiliaries Me opemtl.d by superhc1 cd steam.
Further capacity and C!conomy Me obtained by use of the Elesco feed
water heater which utilizes heat in p.:ut of the chuust steam to heal the
feed water before it ellters tJC boiler.
In both design and equipment, these ntV Cunaclian National Locomotives
exemplify
the motive power progress mnoe during the past few years.
THE SUPERHEATER COMPANY, LIMITED
190 Sc )fmes S~rcet
iIONlHErI … , QUE.

MADE IN CANADA
F~ED WATER HEATERS _
Heating
Sllrface
Circulation
Capacity
Safety
SLTPERf[EATF.RS
WOlkt;Ol{
SliERllROOlm, QUE.
EXHtUSl.· STEAM INjl….cTORS
Econom y 0 … ~Ht.
Nicholson Thermic
SYPHDNS
Locomotive Firebox Company
New York Montreal Chicago
Companies that supplied parts for the new CNR Northerns
were quick
to advertise the fact. These eight ads appeared
between July and November 1927. The ad for syphol1s
somehow added an extra pair of drivers! The Northern
Pacific locomotives gave the name Northern to the type.
56 MARS -AVRIL 2002
1)I,A1N STEEL
::>JANGANh8:E
N 1 C l~ E L
YANAnlll~[
CHROME
CASTINGS
OPE]; Hl:ARTH AND l<:LECTUIC PRO(,]~SS};S
FOR ALL PURPOSES
Quotations promptly submitted
Gtncr .. 1 Officu:
~07 CRAIG STREI::T \EST ~[oYJREAL
CANADIAN
NATIONAL
New 4-8-4 s
fired by the
DUPLEX
> To p~rmit the h;.mling of he-wier tonnoge
tra.ins (lt fast sch(>dul<: speeds, the C,mo­
di(lll N .. tion[lt Hnilways hns bad developed
for them a 4·8·4 locomotive which they
hftvt. dcs;gnah:d as. the Northern type_
Forly of tlu:S(: locomotives Mt: bcinl! built
·-20 by-the Can.}(lion locomotive <;:OJnp­
(lilY, and 20 by th~ MontrCltI LOCOlllOI-ivc
Works-for use in passenger Dnd freight
scr
… iccon c-xlCr;c1a.l rtlllsover two or more
divisioos htl·wet.n MuntreRI and SllrnjtJ:
To in1:\lfe IIlilt the intended purpose of
Ulis improved motive power m reR.iiz(d,
on of thesC 40 locomotivC!, as
well
~s 12 of the se;ntt t1esigl1 for IUe
Grand Trunk Western. arc equipped. with
the DUPLEX STOKER—a guaraJ1l(C
Ihat full hauling power r.:;!1t be mnio­
tained UVl f c: As a resuh of YC from this dislinclii~ method of 111(:hll­
llic~1 tirinr, thcrtMe ovc,-300 Ioc.ollot;vt..-s
on the Cnnadiml N:ltiono:1i now filed by
the Duple.; Swkc-r .. BCf …. 1USC the Prom is!
has bcen Performed
LOCOMOTIVE STOKER CO.
,uWIII/rlC//frNS nf ill/pie. SWI.·tf,t, t;11I1I SIQ!t f)·pc Slok(lr$.
,1C.-iWlliCflI Goal PII~hers
Main Office: and Works—30 G.oneral Robinson Street, West
Northsl.dc1 PITTSB~~GH, PA.
MARCH -APRIL 2002
For Passenger and
Fast Freight Service
A
MONG the m~ny outstanding
locomotives recently designed to
meet increasing power requirem.ents
and reduce the cost of operation is
the new 4~8·4 type built for the
Canadian National Railways.
Twenty of these new locomotives
whic.h are designated by the railroad
as the Northern Type 8rc now
u.nder construction at our plant in
Kingston.Ont.
These new engines 8rc designed (or
either passenger Or manifest freight
lIClvice and it is intended to operate
them on extended runs over two or
mor~ divisions between Montreal
Que .. and Sarnia, Onto •
The boilers are designed for a work­
ing pressure of 250 Ibs. per sq. in.
To save weight. the shell courses
have lxcnmade of high tensile silicon
steel.
Several new mo.intcnancc saving reat~
ures have been incorporated which
will be of vital interest to every rail­
road executive and medlanicol de­
partment offieer.
Some of the morc important JcJailJ (oncuni~ the accwe iIIus(raleJ /ocomolirJ( are as follows:
Weillhle in working order With BOO$lcr
on drivCls 1)2.000
on front truck 6,.000
on tJi1inll truck 91.000
total engine 388.000
Tender 260,000
Rafed TUlctive forcl: 67,700
Without Boosler
130.000
61.000
8).000
)/8.000
260.000
16.800
Dill of dri … in~ IYheel6-lJ lnchu
CylinJer$-1~ Y2 x }o
BoilCf Prestlure—2~0 Ib8.
rucl-·Bituminouli COil)
Tender:
Wtcr CapacilY
Fuel
11.300 imp. gal:
20 Tons
Canadian Locomotive Co.,
Kingston Ontario
Ltd.
Locomotive 6100
……..
C; be largest Locomotive ever
produced in Canada is equip·
ped with Coghlin Springs­
another tribute to Cogblin
craftsmanship, efficiency and
reliability.
COGHLIN
SPRINGS
57 CANADIAN RAIL -487
Britains Premier
in the Cab
When th … nj~ht ,,orublc Sbn.lcy O;lIJwin, Primc (illi~(l:r
of Grla£. Dri(oi., …. o~ in C.-lnalla rcclTlHy, he JiSlllaye-J
cOIl.!;iJembl
(l intcorcsf in thl: Cuu.:uJi;on NaHonal Roilwnys
rolli.ros liwck. Hcre wc ;:Co.! f-LIe Rriti .. 11 Prl.roicr ) his ,hirt
sl~c.,·e;:. sitiillS ;1 th Cilh of ouc of the Collllcliul NAllon:l1
6100
Series N~lrthcrll T:~po Loco,ot;·e.~.
IT ~ ;;o:.~~ ~~:I:is~:~ t l;~ltt(~I;U~I~S j ,~Ii:! j:l~:c~ils~~~ ~;sitI7~
-6100 serleS.
It i.~ Oe of Ihe 11Irges( anll rust cst Jmomothc~ in the
IJritish I:mpire illlrl-:l.llIrall,v (flough-is fInished 1 mug­
out dlll Sh(~win.Willinm~ Rnil …… ,. FillidH~ proou(..ocd ill
CltnaJ h … (h( IOlgC5f Paint ulld V .. rnih m!lller,~ in the
British ~fI,p; … e.· .
SHERWIN-WILLIAMS
PAINTS VARNISHES LACQUERS
Northern Pacific Type (4-8-4)
~ ~-
~; –
I ,.. ~ ~ ~.2.I:-~ —. ——–
-.–V-k~ok ~
, / …. ~–~ ~L~ l./ ~ _ ~b~~~~-;:…-_.-:~
COMMONWEALTH EQUIPPED
Thc locomollvc illustrated above is one of hrelve recentlv huilt
lor the NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD to be used illl~auling
the. fomous NORTH COAST LIMITED.
Theyare the largcst and most powerfullocomotives ever construe len
for pe..5s.cngcr-n-nin·s.crvice in the Northwe:ll.
The DELTA TYPE FOUR-WHEEL mAILER TRUCK;,o<>o
of the many COMl·10NWE …. LTH devices usc.d in the constfJClion
of this locomotive and is m~t nOlcWorth),. It permits of a material
increan in thc size of the fir-cbox and boiler enpncity. also 01 proper
$llspc.n$ioll and weight distribution. as t.he Trailer Truck is equaliux.l
with the drivers.
The tender i, equipP!d with COMMONWEALTH fENDER
FRAME and SIX-WHEEL TENDER TRUCKS.
COMMONWEALTH STEEL COMPANY
G R:A NIT Eel T y, I L ,~ I N 0 I S
RAIL CANADIEN -487 58 MARS -AVRIL 2002
Class U-2-c, 6140 -6159, from MLW, 1929
Builders photo of 6151
An impressive head-on view
of 6147. eN photo 36269
6148 h
auling a freight at St. Lambert Que. Date unknown. Photo by A. W Leggett
MARCH -APRIL 2002
TOP: A double-header,
led by
6148, blasts through Lorne Park
Ontario on December
13 1958.
Photo by
FJ Sankoff, Collection
of Dave Shaw
CENTRE: 6153 hauls a westbound
passenger train through the
western suburbs
of Montreal in the
early 1930s. This locomotive has
been preserved.
CN photo 37538
BOTTOM: 6149 waits at Sarnia
Ontario
in October 1953.
Collection
of Dave Shaw
59 CANADIAN RAIL -487
RAIL CANADIEN -487 60 MARS -AVRIL 2002
Class U-2-d, 6160 -6164, from MLW, 1936
ABOVE: Builders photo 0/6162. BELOW LEFT-6160 When New, eN photo 38666. BELOW RIGHT-The backhead 0/6162.
Train No. 59, the Scotian, at St. Lambert, April 7 1950. Photo by Lome C. Perry
MARCH -APRIL 2002 61 CANADIAN RAIL -487
The train to the Maritimes passing the old station at Charney Que. on August 2 1938. Collection o/Dave Shaw
6162 At Montreal
on March 29, 1939. Collection o/Dave Shaw
RAIL CANADIEN -4B7 62 MARS -AVRIL 2002
Classes U-2-e and U-2-f, 1940
6165-6179 from
MLW and 6180-6189 from CLC
ABOVE: 6166 at Montreal on March 28
1940.
Photo by
FJ Sankoff, Collection of Dave
Shaw
RIGHT: 6173 in the summer of 1947.
CRHA Archives, Toohey Collection
,
LEFT: Train 21. the Montrealer
at
St. Lambert on December 10 1949.
Note that
6173 has smoke deflectors.
unlike
in the photo above taken two
years
earliel~
Photo by Lome Perry
MARCH -APRIL 2002
Some views of 6167, the well known
excursion eng
ine of the early 1960s.
TOP: Long before its excursion career
this
photo was taken of 6167 at the
head
of the Maritime Express at St.
Lambert on April 27 1951.
Photo by
Lome Perry
ABOVE:
Two views of 6167 on one of
its many excursions.
Photos by Paul McGee
R!GHT: In the roundhouse
beside
diesel 1715.
eN photo
63 CANADIAN RAIL -487
RAIL CANADIEN -487 64 MARS -AVRIL 2002
ABOVE: 6176 with an experimental
smoke deflector, as seen at Truro
Nova Scotia
in 1951.
Collection
of Dave Shaw
LEFT: Another view
of 6176, also in
1951.
Photo by Lorne Perry
BELOW
6172 hauling an extra west
out
of Mimico Ontario on February
8 1948.
Collection
of Dave Shaw
MARCH -APRIL 2002
TOP:
6184 with experimental rotary
valve gear developed from Czech patents
by Dominion Engineering.
Photo by Lorne Perr
y, April 6 1951
ABOVE: A closeup view of 6184s
experimental valve gem:
Photo by Lorne Perry, June
24 1950
RIGHT 6185 at an unidentified location.
65 CANADIAN RAIL -487
RAIL CANADIEN -487 66 MARS -AVRIL 2002
TOP: 6188 is the motive power as
a freight extra west passes Mimico
Ontario on November
1 1947.
Collection of Dave Shaw
ABOVE:
6184 hauling an extra
west through Oakville ontario on
April
25 1959.
Photo by FJ Sankoff, Collection
of Dave Shaw
LEFT: Another view
of 6184, this
time at Mount Dennis Ontario on
August
13 1958.
Photo by FJ Sankoff, Collection
of Dave Shaw
MARCH -APRIL 2002 67 CANADIAN RAIL -487
Class V-2-g, 6200 -6234, from MLW, 1942-43
ABOVE: 6200 east­
bound on the bridge at
Dorion Quebec with
the overnight mail
express train from I
Toronto. The first car is
lettered New York
Central. Note the single
coach on the rear.
CN photo
RIGHT: Another view
of 6200 hauling a
freight through Oak­
ville Ontario on May
15 1954.
Photo
by FJ Sankoff,
Collection of Dave
Shaw
Builders photo of 6205.
RAIL CANADIEN -487 68 MARS -AVRIL 2002
LEFT: An Ottawa-to-Montreal freight at Coteau Quebec
on October
2 1949.
CRHA Archives, Toohey Collection
BELOW 6203 on train No. 14 at Danforth Ontario on March
14 1954. Note the three coaches in the brand-new green
and black paint scheme.
Photo by
FJ Sankoff, Collection of Dave Shaw
BOTTOM: 6210 hauling
No. 94 through Oakville Ontario
on June 21 1958.
Photo by FJ Sankoff, Collection of Dave Shaw
MARCH -APRIL 2002
6214 at Turcot in 1943.
CN photo 43915
ABOVE LEFT:
The front
of 6214 about 1943.
CN photo
ABOVE RIGHT: 6217at
Turcot
in the 1950s.
RIGHT: Passenger extra
6217 south,
carrying a
group
of Boy Scouts, at
Victoria Av
enue, St.
Lambert on June 2 1950.
Photo by
Lome Perry
69 CANADIAN RAIL -487
RAIL CANADIEN -487
RIGHT Orders being hooped up to the engineer
of 6218 on a morning train to Toronto. The
place
was Turcot West, and this was long before
this engine began its excursion service.
Collection
of Peter Murphy
BELOW As the railway enthusiasts remember
her!
6218 on one of her many excursion trains.
Collection
of Peter Murphy 70
MARS -AVRIL 2002
BELOW 6219 with passenger train 17 at
Bayview Ontario on April 14 1956.
Photo by FJ Sankoff. Collection of Dave
Shaw
MARCH -APRIL 2002
RIGHT: 6222 with
train
No. 8 at Toronto
September
23 1953.
Photo by
FJ Sankoff.
Collection of Dave
Shaw
BELOW 6230 with
train 183 at Sunny­
side (Toronto) on
December
28 1958.
Photo by
FJ Sankoff.
Collection of Dave
Shaw
RIGHT: 6232 with
train
17 at Bayview
Ontario on May 28
1955.
Photo by FJ
Sankoff. Collection
of Dave Shaw
71 CANADIAN RAIL -487
. ,
RAIL CANADIEN -487 72 MARS -AVRIL 2002
Class V-2-h, 6235 -6264, from MLW, 1943-44
Builders photo of 6238. August 1943.
ABOVE:
6235 at Turcot
..
~ about 1950.
Photo by
A. W Leggett
LEFT 6241 eastbound
from Toronto meets
2533 from Ottawa at
Coteau Quebec 011
October 2 1949.
CRHA Archives. Too­
hey Collection
MARCH -APRIL 2002
RIGHT: The last of the series, 6264,
running extra, hauls two cabooses.
73 CANADIAN RAIL -487
ABOVE. 6258 with a
round maple leaf front
number plate. March
1952.
Photo by Lorne Perry
LEFT 6263 with afreight
extra passes Dixie station
at Lachine
Que. 011 April
21 1951.
RAIL CANADIEN -487 74 MARS -AVRIL 2002
Class U-4-a, 6400 -6404, from MLW, 1936
ABOVE and BOTTOM: Builders photos of 6400
Canadian Railway and Marine
World, November 1934.
Dwing the Depression, railways in several countries tried
many inovations
in an effort to attract more passengers. One of the
major attractions was the introduction
of streamlined trains which
looked modern and were usually faster than earlier types. The
1930s saw the start
of the age of streamlining, a feature which was
applied
to all sorts of objects, even those that did not move.
There was one additional benefit
of streamlining; smoke
deflection. During 1934 the CNR made extensive studies on the
effects
of streamlining, resulting, two years later, in the 6400-class
Northerns. A model
of a 6l00-class locomotive was subjected to
wind tunnel tests, and a model of a streamlined 4-8-4 was built. The
drawing on the left shows this model with
the features indicated: A,
B, side plates on each side
of stack. C, cowling over dome, turrets
etc. D, smooth curved surface from boiler
to top of cowling. E,
streamlined smoke stack.
F, bell edgewise to the wind in front of the
stack.
G, approximate quarter spherical nose on boiler. H, incline
plane replacingpilot on existing types.
I, running boards. J, rounded
fiont
of running boards. K, smooth cylindrical front. L, side curtains
over cylinders, valve motion etc.
M, new front to cab, sloping
backwards from running boards. N, smooth rounded comer between
cab roof and new cab front.
0, smooth generous curve between
running board and cab front.
P, side plates fitted to cab sides and
protruding somewhat forward
of the cab front.
MARCH -APRIL 2002 75 CANADIAN RAIL -487
TOP LEFT 6404 in freight service, picking up a train in Southwark Yard heading west, March 21 1950. Photo by Lorne Perry
TOP RIGHT: First section of pool train 15 at Montreal West, Janumy 2 1949. CRHA Archives, Toohey Collection
CENTRE:
6401 hauling a passenger train in 1936. CNR photo 38739
ABOVE:
6401 at Sl/nnyside (Toronto) in 1955. Photographer unknown
RAIL CAIlADIEII -487 76 MARS -AVRIL 2002
Grand Trunk Western Northern Type Locomotives
Class U-3-a, 6300 -6311, ALCO 1927
Class U-3-b, 6312 -6336, ALCO 1942
ABOVE: 6302 on a turntable. CN photo BELOW 6304 hauling a freight train. CN photo X5195
6313 on a westbound extra at Cornwall Ontario in
1949. Grand Trunk Western 6314 with a long freight, location
CRHA Archives, Toohey Collection unknown. CN photo X23519
MARCH -APRIL 2002 77 CANADIAN RAIL -487
Grand Trunk Western 6324 with a passenget train, passing through a busy yard. CN photo X23807
Class U-4-b, GTW 6405 -6410, from Lima, 1938
Grand Trunk Western 6405 as it appeared when new in 1938. CN photo 40731
RAIL CANADIEN -487 78 MARS -AVRIL 2002
Canadian Pacific Class K-1-a., 3100 -3101., Angus Shops., 1928
While the great majority of Northems in Canada belonged to the CNR, the Canadian Pacific Railway also had Northems,
albeit only two
of them, K-l-a class 3100 and 3101. They were designed by Charles Henry Temple, the Chief of Motive Power
and Rolling Stock
of the CPR, and were built in CPs Angus Shops in Montreal in 1928 and were somewhat larger than those of
the CNR. Interestingly they were the first locomotives built by CP since 1922, all others having been constructed by outside
builders. Following 3100 and 310 I, CP would build only three more locomotives in its own shops, experimental 2-10-4 No.
8000 (1931) and 4-6-2s 1200 and
1201 in 1944. Both CPR Northerns had long careers and both have been preserved.
3101 on the turntable at the Glen Yard in 1947.
SPECIFICATIONS FOR CPR K-I-a LOCOMOTIVES
Type
Gauge
Type of Cab
Fuel
4-8-4
4
ft. 8 112 in.
Vestibule
Bituminous Coal
Service Passenger
Limiting Height
15 ft. 7 in.
Limiting Width
10 ft. 8 in.
Weight on Drivers 250,000 Ibs.
Weight on Engine Truck 61,000 Ibs.
Weight on Trailing Truck 112,000 Ibs.
Total Engine Weight 423,000 Ibs.
Total Weight, Engine and Tender 709,000 Ibs .
. Wheelbase, Rigid
19 ft. 9 in.
Wheelbase, Engine 45 ft. 9 1/2 in.
Wheelbase, Engine and Tender
87 ft. 0 3/4 in.
Diameter
of Driving Wheels 75 in.
Material
of Driving Wheel Centres Nickel Cast Steel.
Leading Truck Wheels Cast Steel.
Trailing Truck Wheels Cast Steel.
Main Driving Journals
12 112 X 14 in.
Interim Driving Journals
12 112 X 14 in.
Leading Driving Journals II 112 X 14 in.
Trailing Driving l.ournals II 112 X 14 in.
Engine Truck JouQjals 6 1/2 X 12 in.
Trailing Truck Journals 7 X14 and 8 X 14 in.
Boiler Type 11 Conical.
Boiler diam. outside
1st. ring 84 114 in.
Working Pressure 275 Ibs. per sq. in.
CRHA Archives, Toohey Collection
3100, also on the Glen turntable in the 1940s. CPR photo
Boiler Tubes 7 3 112 in. 59 2 1/4 in.
Length of Tubes 20 ft. 6 in.
Combustion Chamber Length 5 ft.
Heating Surface, Firebox and arch 422 sq. ft.
Heating Surface, tubes and flues 4,509 sq.ft.
Superheating Surface 2,112 sq.
ft.
Cylinders, Diam. and Stroke 25 112 X 30 in.
Tractive Effort 60,800 lbs.
Factor
of Adhesion 4.12
Weight per Cylinder horse power 109.4 Ibs.
MARCH -APRIL 2002 79

CANADIAN RAIL -487
MILD AND ALLOY STEEL CASTINGS
VI (0 100,(100 J,II~. V.,.<:II
FOR ALL PURPOSES
Nickel-Sfetl Custitigs iu;ed in lh on:,;tmdionof thi:$Iuco·
m tiY<;s: erclllacie and sl1Pplied by ~s.
K-I·n Clit~s, 4-5, • …oclJmorhe. Dolil IH8 hy C:I.II:ldi;Hl I:1clfic Hall,;1) (:0. nt Angus Shops. Montrl:al.
General OffilC8
621 CRAIG STREET W.
MONTREAL
n.~
LEFT-Scale drawing of the CPR K-l-a-Northerns as built.
Canadian Railway
and Marine World, foctober 1928
RIGHT TOP: The
CPR K-l-a locomotives as seen in CPs
diagram book of 1946.
ABOVE: Advertisement
of 1929 showing 3100.
RAIL CANADIEN -487 80 MARS -AVRIL 2002
Temiskaming & Northern Ontario (Ontario Northland) 1100-1103
The Temiskaming & Northern Ontario Railway (which became the Ontario Northland in 1946) ordered two Northerns on
September
18 1935. These were built by Canadian Locomotive Company in Kingston, were numbered 1100 and 1101 and were
delivered in 1936. The
following year, 1937, two more, 1102 and 1103, were placed in service. The article below tells the story.
The preference for the Northern (4-8-4)
type locomotive for passenger service
on Canadian
railways was exemplified by Canadian National
Rys. in the securing of the 6100 class locomotives
now operating
on that property, and in the adoption
of a similar wheel arrangement on the same
property
in the partially streamlined 6400 class
locomotives.
It is again in evidence in the selection
of that wheel arrangement by the management of
the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario
Ry., the
Ontario Government property, with line extending
from North Bay
to Moosonee, 439.8 miles, when it
ordered two locomotives for passenger service
from Canadian Locomotive Co., Kingston, Ont.
These two units have now been delivered, and
advice from
A. H. Cavanagh, General Manager, T.
and N.O.R., under date of July 7, was that they
were being assigned
to trains 46 and 47, operating
between North Bay and Timmins. This
run is 258.8
miles, made up of the 225.7 miles from North Bay
to Porquis Jct., and the
33.1 miles from Porquis
Jct.
to Timmins.
The two locomotives have been numbered
1100 and 1101. They have chief dimensions, etc.,
as follows:-
T&NO 1100 at Porquis Junction Ontario hauling train No. 47 about 1941.
Photo by
J.N. Lowe, Collection of Dave Shaw
Gauge
Boiler pressure
Boiler diam
., first course
Boilerdiam., largest course
Diam. leading truck wheels
Diam. driving wheels
Diam. trailing truck front wheels
Diam. trailing truck rear wheels
Cylinders, diam. and stroke
Firebox length and width
Tubes and flues:
2114 in. diam
31/2 in. diam
Tube length
Driving
wheelbase
Loco. wheelbase
4 ft. 8112 in.
275 lb. per sq. in.
76118 in
86in:
33in.
69in.
36in.
48in.
22 1/2 x 30 in.
120118 x 84114 in.
45
149
21 ft. 0 in.
18 ft. 6 in.
42 ft. 10 in.
Loco. and tender wheelbase 82 ft. 3 in.
Height, rail to top of stack 15 ft. 2in.
Tube heating suriace 3,407 sq.
ft.
Arch tube and syphon heating suriace 91 sq. ft.
Firebox heating suriace 279 sq. ft.
Superheating suriace 1,665 sq. ft.
Grate area 70.3 sq. ft.
Weight in working order, leading truck 62,650 lb.
Weight in working order; on drivers 218,210 lb.
Weight in working order, trailing truck 90,460 lb.
Weight in working on:jer, total loco. 371,320 lb.
Weight in working ord~r, tender 281,500 lb.
Weight
in working order, loco. & tender 652,820 lb.
Maximum tractive effort excl. booster. 54,500 lb.
Maximum tractive effort incl. booster 64,950 lb.
Factor of adhesion without booster 4.0
Factor of adhesion with booster
5.2
As the tractive effort and adhesion factor figures stated
above indicate, these locomotives are equipped with booster; and
the
T. and N.O.R., it will be recalled, was,among the earliest users
of the Franklin Railway Supply Co. locomotive boosteriri Canada,
and that
it regards the device favorably is evidenced by the fact
that it has utilized them
in its latest power.
Another feature of these locomotives Is their utilization of
roller bearings
in all truck boxes; these are of SKF manufacture.
Inspection of the list of specialties discloses that these two units
represent the last word
in modern equipment. As the weight and
tractive effort figures would indicate, they are stoker fired, being
equipped with the Standard Stoker Co.s type BK stoker. The air
brakes represent the latest development, being the Westinghouse
no. 8
E.T. schedule. The superheater is the Superheater Co.s type
E. Boiler feed is by the Superheater Co.s C-F feedwater pump,
located on the trailing truck, and by a World Hancock, L.N.
L. 6,500
gall. inspirator. Other equipment includes a Westinghouse air horn,
Pyle National type M-06 P turbo-generator, Wakefield mechanical
lubricator, World Huron arch tube and washout plugs, cut-off control
gauge, MeAvity flange lubricator, Nicholson thermic syphons,
Dunlopillo cushioning material for cab seats and arm rests, General
Steel Castings Corp. 4-wheel trailing truck with Alco lateral motion
device, Barco flexible joints, Wilson sander, miner draft gear, Franklin
adjustable wedges and radial buffer, King piston
rod packing, Barco
type
M-1 reverse gear, Lairdcrossheads, Security brick arch, front
end throttle and Viloco bell ringer and whistle operating rigging.
The tender, with cast steel water bottom frame, is carried
on General Steel Castings Corp. Ltd. 6-wheel cast steel trucks,
with 36
in. diam. wheels. Water capacity is 11,000 Imp. gall. and
coal capacity is 20 tons. A track sprinkler is included in the
equipment.
Canadian Railway and Marine World, August 1936.
MARCH -APRIL 2002
TOP: Spewing out vast quantifies of black smoke. 1102
passes through Todmorton Ontario on March 3 1956. not
long before the end
of steam on the Ontario Northland.
Photo by
JF Beveridge. Collection of Dave Shaw
ABOVE: 1102 waits beside an engine house one day in
1949.
CRHA Archives. Toohey Collection
RiGHT This Dominion Foundries & Steel advertisement of
1936 featured T&NO 1100.
81 CANADIAN RAIL -487
ThL, illustration ahows one of two locomotive! built
b) the
Cnadian LocolllolivQ CO,lllp;my Jiimitcd,
Kingston, fo) the rerui~knming luul Norlhclt Onhuio
D.~~S~YSteel CE!lincs (includiug Nid: live FYl:lmcs) •.• O.F.S. Steel Plate Md Tl!nller
Truck Axles ….. ore used ill their constructiOn_
I .
nO~I[.NION FO(JNf)IIIES & SlI~El~
HAMILTON 1.I~1JTED CANADA
STEEL PLATE· STEEL CASTlNGSAXLE FORGINGS TIN PLATE
RAIL CANADIEN -487 82 MARS -AVRIL 2002
The essence of a northern Ontario winter is well captured in this photo of 1103 with its train of heavyweight cars.
Collection
of Dave Shaw
Another winter view
of 1103. This time its 1949 and no snow is falling! CRHA Archives, Toohey Collection
MARCH -APRIL 2002 83 CAIJADIAN RAIL -487
Where Are They Now?
CNR 6218 and a caboose on exhibition at Fort Erie Ontario on April 29 2001.
When steam locoinotives were retired, most of the
Northerns were scrapped. However a fortunate few have
survived, being preserved
as relics of the age of steam. Out
of 209 Northerns owned by Canadian railways or their
subsidiaries, ten remain as
of 2002, being 4.78% of the total
built. The smallest fleet
of Northerns was that of the CPR,
but both have been saved, a survival rate
of 100%.
Unfortunately No. 6100, the one that started it all,
was not preserved.
It had been considered for preservation,
but 6153 was chosen instead and 6100 was written
off at
Winnipeg on November
23 1961.
As we have seen, 6325 has returned to service,
so it is
still possible to ride behind one of these great locomotives
that served so well for so many years.
RAILWAY NO.
OF 4-8-4s
Canadian National 160
Grand Trunk Western 43
Canadian Pacific 2
Ontario Northland 4
TOTAL 209
6167 at Guelph Ontario on March 25 2002. The old girl
could use a new paint
job!
4-8-4s SAVED PERCENTAGE
6 3.75
2 4.65
2 100.00
0
0.00
10 4.78
NORTHERN TYPE LOCOMOTIVES PRESERVED, WITH THEIR LOCATION AS OF APRIL 2002
CNR 6153
CNR 6167
CNR 6200
CNR 6213
CNR 6218
CNR 6400
GTW 6323
GTW 6325
CPR 3100
CPR 3101 U-2-c
U-2-e
U-2-g
U-2-g
U-2-g
U-4-a
U-3-b
U-3-b
K-1-a
K-1-a
Canadian Railway Museum, Delson / St. Constant, Quebec
Displayed by station at Guelph, Ontario
In storage at National Museum of Science & Technology, Ottawa, Ontario
Displayed near Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto, Ontario
Displayed at museum at Fort Erie, Ontario
Displayed at National Museum of Science & Technology, Ottawa, Ontario
Illinois Railroad Museum, Union, Illinois
In excursion service on Ohio Central Railroad, Ohio
National Museum of Science and Technology, Ottawa, Ontario
Ipsco Inc., Regina, Saskatchewan
BACK COVER TOP: En route to Victoria ville on an excursion behind 6167 on October 27 1963.
BACK COVER BOTTOM: What was to have been a Last of Steam trip ran from Montreal to Ottawa behind 6153 on
September
4 1960. As it turned oul many more steam trips were run during the next two decades. Both photos by Fred Angus
This issue of Canadian Rail was delivered to the printer on May I, 2002.

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    Exporail, le Musée ferroviaire canadien est un projet de l’Association canadienne d’histoire ferroviaire (ACHF)