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Canadian Rail 469 1999

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Canadian Rail 469 1999

Canadian Rail
No. 469
THE MAGAZINE OF CANADAS RAILWAY HISTORY
MARCH -APRIL 1999
50TH YEAR OF CANADIAN RAIL —
PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY BY THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
PUBLIF T()II~ I I=~ nl=IIY IlInl~ DA D I ICCnlIATlnM A ~I A nl~u~lr- .. ,.. …. ,…0–_ ……………… _-
30
CANADIAN RAIL
ISSN 0008-4875
PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY BY THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INVESTISSEMENTS DU GOUVERNEMENT DU QUEBEC POUR LES CHEMINS DE FER .. .. RICHARD LECLERC ………………… .
THE McARTHUR BUILDING 1909
-1987 ………………………………………………………………
……. . GEOFFREY A. LESTER ……………. .
AGAIN, MORE MURALS …………………………………………………………………..
……………………… . DAVE McMILLAN …………………….. .
A DIVISIONAL POINT OUTDATED …………………………………………………………………………….. . DAVID
J. MERIDEW …………………. ..
THE FLEMING DRAWING REVISITED, AND OTHER EARLY LOCOMOTiVES ………………… .. CARL RIFF. ……………………………. ..
THE ORPHANS EXCURSION OF 1885 ………………………………………………………………
…… .. FRED ANGUS ………………………… ..
PHOTOS OF THE 1928 TORNADO
AT MYSTIC, QUE ………………………………………………….. .. W.N.POWER ………………………….. ..
WINDSOR STATIONS 110TH ANNiVERSARy ……………………………………………………………..
. FRED ANGUS …………………………. .
THE BUSINESS CAR ……..
…………………. ……………………………………………………………………. .
31
40
43
44
48
50
52
53
54
FRONT COVER: This photo was in an old photo album made by a member ofthe/amily orR.B. Angus in 1885.11 was evidently taken near Megantic,
Que. in the days of the International Railway, before it was taken over by the CPR. The occasion seems to have been a hunting
and fishing excursion, and the Orphans refer to the men in the group being away from their wives during the trip. The International Rai(way combine number
3, and Grand Trunk caboose 7587 show in amazing detail considering that this is an amateur snapshot. Also interesting
is the canoe on the roof or the caboose, and the fact that the passengers are riding Ecuador style on the roofs of the NIlS.
However ins not likely that they roae thusly when the train was moving. Too bad no one photographed the locomotive!
BEL
0 W Although we published a photo of this mural (on the wall of the Royal Hotel on River Street in Moose Jaw, Sask.) in the January­February issue,
we have received afar better and clearer photo, in better perspective. This shows Remember Old 80 as it should be viewed. Thanks
to Bill and Ann Heselton of Moose Jaw for sending it in.
For your membership in the CRHA, which
includes a subscription
to Canadian Rail,
write to:
CRHA, 120
Rue St-Pierre, St. Constant,
Que. J5A 2G9
Membership Dues for 1999:
In Canada: $36.00 (including all taxes)
United States: $31.00
in U.S. funds.
Other Countries: $52.00 Canadian funds. Canadian Rail
is continually in need of news, sto­
ries historical data,photos, maps and other mate­
rial. Please send
all contributions to the editor: Fred
F. Angus, 3021 Trafalgar Ave. Montreal, P.Q. H3Y 1 H3.
No payment can be made for contributions, but the
contributer will be given credit for material submit­
ted. Material will
be returned to the contributer if re­
quested. Remember Knowledge
is of little value
unless
it is shared with others.
~~~ £9td 8()
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: Douglas N.W. Smith
ASSOCIATE EDITOR (Motive Power):
Hugues
W. Bonin
LAYOUT: Fred
F. Angus
PRINTING: Procel Printing
DISTRIBUTION: Joncas Postexperts
Inc.
.. —_–>=..:I.—..»..:;:…:.::I_~~—..::…..:;…_~>O::O_….;….;
MARCH -APRIL 1999 31 CANADIAN RAIL -469
Les investissements du Gouvernement du Quebec
pour la construction de chemins de fer
par Richard Leclerc, Ph.D
QMO&O Locomotive No. 23, Lotbiniere, buill by Portland in 1878, photographed on September 19, 1878.
National Archives of Canada, Photo C-2617.
Note: An English summary of this article will be found on page 39.
Les
credits budgetaires annuellement votes par Ie
Parlement du Quebec sont une des assises auxquelles sont
intimement
lies 1 existence et Ie dynamisme des politiques
publiques. La politique ferroviaire quebecoise nechappe pas
a ce modele, sachant que les equipements et
la construction
d infrastructures de transport sur rail exigent des investissements
colossaux. Letude de I enveloppe budgetaire consacree
aces
activites savere Ie premier exercice auquel on doit sarn~ter.
Ces renseignements, classes sur une base regionale, favorisent
une meilleure comprehension de
la pOliee et de la distribution
geographique des deniers publics destines a ce secteur depuis
1867.
Pour limiter 1 article aux seuls programmes ayant
engendre des effets tangibles sur 1 organisation tenitoriale
quebecoise, seuls les credits votes pour I etablissement
dinfrastructures de chemins de fer ont ete retenus. II est a
signaler que les investissements en equipements de chemins
de fer effectues
par les societes detat quebecoises (p. ex.
Sidbec) et leurs filiales dont
la vocation premiere nest pas detre
transporteur ferroviaire, ont subi un sort identique. Ces couts
nont pas Me comptabilises pour deux raisons evidentes:
premierement, les docwnents budgetaires et les rapports annuels
de ces entreprises
ne permettent pas de desagreger les sommes
qui
pourraient etre integrees a la politique ferroviaire.
Deuxiemement, Ie but de 1 article etant de mesurer les
consequences de
la politique dans les regions, il devenait
douteux denglober au budget global des fonds verses pour des
biens qui ne sont pas susceptibles de generer des retombees
regionales directes et densemble.
La repaliition regionale des depenses publiques a ete
realisee suivant leur localisation geographique, toujours en
fonction des divisions et des regions de recensement
cOlTespondent chaque peri ode de I etude.
LES DEPENSES PUBLIQUES FERROVIAIRES
La part du budget gouvernemental affectee it la politique
Lanalyse de la contribution gouvernementaIe a la
politique ferroviaire se reveIe un excellent indicateur de
1 importance accordee a ce poste par les dirigeants quebecois
au
fiJ des decennies, ce pourquoi cette approche fut retenue.
RAIL CANADIEN -469 32 MARS -AVRIL 1999
Lage dor du rail: 1867-1925
De 1
etude prel iminaire de la figure 1, il
apparalt que 1 apogee de la politique ferroviaire pour
la periode
1867-1925 fut atteint au cours de la
decennie 1880, alors que
Ie gouvemement octroya a
plusieurs entreprises de chemins de fer plus de 18,7
M$. Dans un contexte dorganisation du territoire
quebecois, une injection massive de fonds publics
contribua
entre 1875 et 1879 a orienter plus de
quarante
poW cent des depenses du gouvernement
velS ces projets.
Figure 1: EVOLUTION DES DEPENSES FERROVIAIRES DU QUEBEC, 1870-1930
(000$)
4000.—————————————————-,
La creation du Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa et
Occidental en 1875, fruit de la nationalisation des
2000
chemins de fer Rive nord et Colonisation du nord de 1000 +—……..,r;:
Montreal, absorba 51 % des deniers alloues dans Ie
cadre de la politique gouvernementale. Le
parachevement du
QMOO devint une priOlite que
setait imp osee
Ie gouvernement poW soutenir 1 essor
de la rive nord du fleuve Saint Laurent, et annihiler
les etfets
du sous-investissement de Ietat federal dans
ce secteur.
Source: Comples publics de la ProVince de Quebec, 1870-1925.
Sous un autre angle, 1 etude des depenses
budgetaires suivant
Ie prorata de la population pennet dobtenir
un ordre de grandeur relatif de limpOliance quoccupait la
politique ferroviaire par rapport aux autres activites
gouvernementales. Les comptes publics indiquent quau cours
des annees financieres 1875-1876 et 1880-1881, les credits
alloues a la politique ferroviaire revenaient respectivement a
1,20$
et 1,81$ par citoyen. En contrepartie, les sommes
octroyees au domaine de 1 education durant ces deux peri odes
de reference ne
selevaient qua 0,28$ par citoyen quebecois,
tandis que la sante
nen recevait que 0,16$ et 0,19$. Quant a
I agriculture, un domaine pourtant privilegie par
Ie discours
ideologique de I epoque, elle
nen recoltait que 0,04$ et 0,06$.
II est utile de rappeler qua cette epoque 1 ideologie qui
motivait les actions du gouvernement
du Quebec cOincidait
quasi parfaitement a celie que
Ie capitalisme pur attribuait a
Ietat; soit de limiter son
role a la gestion de la justice et des
affaires
courantes. Ce liberalisme correspondait avec la
mainmise du pouvoir religieux sur les leviers
de la vie sociale
et culturelle du peuple quebecois. Dans
un tel contexte, il netait
pas etonnant de constater que
la plupart des activites reliees a
I education,
a la sante et a I aide aux necessiteux relevaient
dorganisations privees
a but non lucratif.
Les extraits gouvernementaux se bornaient
generalement a la distribution discretionnaire de subsides selon
les besoins. Toutefois,
Ie Quebec etant un pays en formation, il
se devait dinvestir ponctuellement pour doter son aire de
souverainete des equipements et services indispensables
11 son
developpement national, ce qui amena les elus
a deroger a
certains principes intrinseques a la doctrine du laisser-faire
economique.
Malheureusement dans toute entreprise [Ie QMOO] de
celie nature, surtout dans
un nouveau pays comme le notre o~l
les capitaux disponibles sont peu considerables, it eta it difJicile
de former une compagnie avec les moyens necessaires pour
la
construction dune ligne telle que celle que 110US avions en vue,
car Ie capital est sensiti/ et il est impossible de 1 attirer dans une voie nouvelle ou
if y a des doutes sur 1 avantage du
placement. Lidee d une ligne du cote nord du Saini-Laurent
fit naftre bien des proje!s sur lesque/s il esl inutile dinsister.
Je me contenterai de dire que plusieurs compagnies se
succederent les unes aux autres sans avail reussi a mener cette
entreprise
a bonne fin. [ … ] Le gouvernement dalors voyant le
succes qui avail jusqu
el celie epoque couronne les efforts de
/ entreprise privee et senlant que celie voie ferree etail de venue
necessaire pour les besoins
de cette partie de notre province
qui est siluee entre Quebec et Ottawa, se decida ella construire
aux /rais de
la province. 2
La transgression a cette philosophie economique fut de
courte duree. Lexperience financiere lamentable du Quebec,
Montreal,
Ottawa et Occidental favorisa 1 adoption dune
attitude tres conservatrice en matiere de depenses publiques.
Par son envergure, Ie QMOO fut une initiative qui a ete
1 exception confmnant
la regIe de la non-intervention dans les
affaires economiques par
Ie gouvemement quebecois, et ce, pour
plusieurs annees.
Les differents programmes
daide aux chemins de fer
furent
la resultante concrete des espoirs places par les forces
societales dans
Ie developpement economique du Quebec, par
Ie biais de la croissance du reseau ferroviaire quebecois.
A partir de la fin du dix-neuvieme siecle, on peul
souligner
Ie contraste de J histoirefinanciere [du Quebec} avec
les periodes decennales de 1870 et 1880. Au
COUl-S de cette
period
e, Quebec porta beau coup d allention aux travaux qui
semblaient necessaires au deveioppement du territoire qui
borde
Ie fleuve Saint-Laurent, et it s ensuivil line politique
positive daide aux chemins defer.
3
Les compagnies de chemins de fer Quebec et du Lac
St-Jean et Quebec Central sont dexcellents exemples de projets
majeurs devant appuyer I ouverture et I essor economique
de
nouvelles regions. Apres Ie QMOO, ce sont ces deux entreprises
qui reyurent
Ie plus dattention des elus quebecois. Elles ont
obtenu respectivement plus de 2,4 M$ et I M$
en subsides.
MARCH -APRIL 1999 33 CANADIAN RAIL -469
Quebec & Gatineau Valley Railway locomotive No.7. National Archives of Canada, photo No. PA-164656.
Cest Ie Canadian Pacific qui beneficia Ie plus des
ouvrages subventionnes par
Ie Quebec. Les entreprises que la
compagnie a acquises en sol quebecois ont touche 70,4% (19
134 369,17$) de ces octrois. Le Canadian National beneficia,
selon ce
meme principe, dacquisitions de 7 833 765,84$
(28,8%), tandis que
Ie montant residue! de 206 786$ (moins
dun pour cent) alIa a des entreprises ferroviaires regionales.
Cest dire que 99,2% des deniers quebecois investis dans 1 aide
aux
chemins de fer a servi au developpement du reseau
continental, contribuant ainsi
a 1 integration du Quebec a
I union economique canadienne et aux marches nord­
americains.
Les sommes engagees pour des entreprises dont
I existence na jamais depasse Ie statut de projets, ne furent
pas incluses dans ce tout; neanmoins elles se chiffrent
a 97
970,71$. Limportance relative de ces fonds improductifs est
imputable en grande partie
a la faillite du Quebec, Saguenay et
Chibougamau. En 1929, ce chemin de fer avait obtenu une
charte du Parlement quebecois lui donnant
Ie droit de relier la
ville de Quebec a Chibougamau (Nord du Quebec), en passant
par Dolbeau au Lac-Saint-Jean. Au cours des arulees 1930,
lentreprise fit banqueroute sans avoir realise son mandat, ce
qui entraina une perte nette
de 75000$ pour Ie tresor quebecois. Lors de la seconde moitie
du XIXe siecle, 1 importance
des investissements dans
Ie secteur du transport ferroviaire fut
inegale
dune decennie a une autre comme Ie demontre la figure
I. De 1874-1875 a 1896-1897, a I exception de trois annees,
plus de 10% du budget total
du gouvemement du Quebec fut
consacre aux chemins de
fer. En antinomie, les periodes situees
en amont
et en aval mobiliserent faiblemenl les energies
gouvernementales occupees a dautres champs dinterets.
Pendant ces trois decennies, l effort du Quebec a ete
gigantesque, bien que ses revenus budgetaires etaient restraints
a la perception de taxes directes, a la vente et au produit de
I exploitation forestiere des terres publiques ainsi
quaux
transferts statutaires du gouvemement federal 4
En 1869, soixante pour cent des revenus budgetaires du
Quebec provenaient des transferts de I etat canad
ien. Le produit
tire des terres de
la Couronne rapportait 24% tandis que les
taxes directes
elles revenus divers en constituaient seize pour
cent
5. Toutefois, ces sources de financement netaient guere
suffisantes pour concretiser les priorites quebecoises.
Les
prescriptions de la Loi constitutionnelle de 1867 limitaient
serieusement
Ie pouvoir fiscal des etats federes. Elles leur
excluaient Ie privilege de prelever toutes taxes indirectes
(p.
ex. droits de douanes), competence alors tres lucrative qui etait
RAIL CANADIEN -469 34 MARS -AVRIL 1999
Quebec & Lake St. John Railway locomotive No. 14. National Archives o/Canada, photo No. PA-165576.
Lake Edward (now Lac Edouard) station on the Quebec
& Lake St. John Railway.
National Archives o/Canada, Photo
No. PA-144180.
reservee a I autorite centrale. Au XIXe siecle, la capacite
financiere du Quebec se comparait remarquablement
it celui
dun gros gouvernement municipal. Dans I intention de mener
a bien sa politique ferroviaire
et de satisfaire les demandes issues des forces societales,
Ie
gouvernement dut e1argir son assiette fiscale en prelevant de
nouvelles taxes
6. Une telle solution netant pas rentable au
MARCH -APRIL 1999 35 CANADIAN RAIL -469
point de vue electoral et ne permettant
point de combler la totalite des
appetences du Quebec, des emprunts
sur les marches financiers europeens
et nord-america ins durent etre
effectues. Ce choix engendra de
serieuses consequences sur la dette,
ce qui handicapa
la sante financiere
du Quebec pendant plusieurs atU1ees.
Malgre ces sequelles, il faut souligner
que I emprunt de ces capitaux
a des
banques etats-uniennes et franc;:aises,
fut une des
premieres activites de
I
etat quebecois sur Iechiquier
international, laquelle favorisa meme
un rapprochement avec
la mere-patrie
7
TABLEAU 1 LES EMPRUNTS EFFECTUES PAR LE GOUVERNEMENT DU QUEBEC
POUR FINANCER LA POLITIQUE FERROVIAIRE 11874-1885l
Annees
Emorunts a long terme Emorunts temporaires
1874 3 893 333,34$
1876 4 185333,33$
1878 3 000 000,00$ 800000,00$
1879
1918125,00$
1880
4275853,34$ 1 050 000,00$
1881 500000,00$
1882 3499833,33$ 1 206849,20$
1884 400000,00$
1885 SOO 000,00$
[Le Quebec] emprunte $4
millions a Londres en 1874, $3
Source: STEWART, Michel (1983) ~ Quebec, ~ontreal, Ottawa & Occidental: Une entreprise
d btat. Salllte-Foy: Umverslle Laval, Departement dhlstolre, These
de doctoraL, p. 63.
millions a New-York en 1878 et $8 millions a Paris de 1880 a
1891. A partir de 1873, La politique ferroviaire introduit un
desequilibre budgetaire qui, jusqu Q La jin du sieele, pese Lourd
dans La vie politique du Quebec. 8
La part consacree au service de la dette augmenta
radicalement dans la premiere moitie de la decennie 1870. Ce
phenomene sexplique
par Ie fait que les revenus nont pas
progresse dans une proportion semblable
a ceux des debits.
Des
10rs, I endettement du gouvern-ement accaparait 23% de
ses depenses budgetaires tandis
quau debut du XXe siecle, ce
poste
en grevait un tiers en raison des emprunts temporaires et
a long telme que I etat quebecois rea Ii sa en vue de soutenir sa
cofiteuse politique fenoviaire. Le tableau I demontre que les
annees ou
Ie gouvemement effectua ces operations COIncident
avec les
atU1ees les plus intenses des programmes daide aux
chemins de
fer.
Progressivement, Ie Quebec dut se tOUlner vers de
nouveaux revenus dans Iintention de reduire les deficits
engendres notanunent par I interet sur
Ie capital devant etre
verse
a ses creanciers, Dans ce contexte, un impot sur les profits
des compagnies est institue en
1882. Ces mesures ne resolurent
pas entierement
la conjoncture financiere du Quebec, sachant
que la part budgetaire du service
de la dette augmentait et que
la crise economique mondiale, qui setendit de 1873 a 1879,
amplifia Ie desequilibre existant entre les revenus et les
depenses.
AI exception de l ere Mercier (1887-1891) ou la fievre
des chemins de fer con nut une nouvelle vitalite,
Ie Parti liberal
na jamais ete bienveillant envers la poIitique ferroviaire
quebecoise.
II est a supposer que ce sentiment Mait Ie reflet
dune reaction partisane mal camoutlee envers une politique
developpee par des opposants politiques. Toutefois, des facteurs
plus
ratiOlU1els ont egalement guide cette attitude.
La fin des programmes daide coincida avec
Ielection
du gouvernement liberal de Felix-Gabriel Marchand (1832-
1900)
qui entra en fonction en mai 1897. Tandis que sous Ie
dernier gouvemement conservateur, la part des depenses en
rapport avec
Ie total des depenses budgetaires octroyees a ce
programme, setablissait a 22%, I annee suivante cette
contribution decrue a 4% alors quelle ne comptait plus que
pour moins dun pour cent en
1909-1910. Dans la continuite
des mesures de rationalisation entreprises par
Ie gouvemement
conservateur
(1892-1896) de Louis-Olivier Taillon (1840-1923),
les nouveaux elus souhaitaient assainir les fmances du Quebec
par
la fin des emprunts monetaires. Ces finances avaient ete
serieusement affaiblies lors de ces annees particulierement
onereuses pour
Ie tresor public.
Durant la periode
1870 a 1908, les credits budgetaires
du ministere des Travaux publics etaient destines pour une large
part au transport sur rail. Les priorites de depenses de
ce
ministere en font un veritable organisme devoue a la cause
Places en relation avec
I
allegeance politique des
gouvernements qui se sont
succedes pour veiller aux
destinees de 1 etat quebecois
entre
1867 a 1910, il ressort que
c est sous Ie Parti conservatelU,
qui a assume presque sans
interruption pendant plus dun
quart de siec1e la direction de la
nation franc;:aise d Amerique,
que les subsides ferroviaires
furent les plus genereux (tableau
TABLEAU 2: LALLEGEANCE POLITIQUE DES GOUVERNEMENTS ET LES SUBSIDES
FERROVIAIRES (1867-1930)
Annees financieres All{!Qeances politiques Subsides alloues
1867-1878 Parti conservateur 8960200 $ (32,9%)
1878-1880
Parti Ii !>era! 2805239 $ (10,3%)
1880 1887
Parti conservateur 6 113 770 $ (22,5(10)
1887-1892 Paniliberal 3788928 $ (13,9%)
1892-1896
Parti conservateur 2930588 $ (10,8%)
1896-1930
Parti liberal 2621483 $ (9,6%)
Total Parti conservateur 18004558 $ (66,2%)
Parti liberal 9215650 $ (33,8%)
27220208 $
2), Source: Comptes publics de la Province de Quebec, 1870-1930,
RAIL CANADIEN -469 36 MARS -AVRIL 1999
Figure 2: PART DES DEPENSES FERROVIAIRES DANS LE BUDGET DES TRAVAUX PUBLICS, 1867-1910 ferroviaire, et ce des les
(%) premieres annees de la
1.00 Federation. A partir de cette
0.80 +——1
0.60
0.40
+—–1
0.20
Source: Comptes publics de
ta Province de Quebec. 1870-1925.
Pontiac & Pacific Junction Railway (later part 0/ the CPR) locomotive No.3.
National Archives o/Canada, photo
No. C-6321.
epoque et jusquen 1908, au
moins dix pour cent
du budget
annuel de ce ministere etait
imparti it la construction de
chemins de
fer. En 1877-1878,
au coeur de
la peridode ou la
politique felToviaire a atteint
son paroxysme, 98% du budget
alloue au ministere des Travaux
publics etait absorbe dans ce
secteur (figure 2).
Apres 1911,
Ie gouvern­
ement du Quebec eprouve par
sa sombre experience ne versa
que de fayon sporadique des
subsides aux entreprises
ferroviaires. Dans la decennie
1920, dans
la region dAbitibi,
Ie
Canadian National obtint
250,000$ pour Ietablissement
dun embranchement reliant
Rouyn
it une jonction avec Ie
chemin de fer Transcontinental
MARCH -APRIL 1999 37 CANADIAN RAIL -469
L 0 PIN ION PUB L I QUE. 28 DICElIJlJIB, 1871.
PONT 8m LA lIHlil:BE JACQCE8 (J.l.BTIER, CREMIN A LISSE £>O~F().~D.
localisee a proximite du village de Taschereau. 11 se desengagea
du secteur ferroviaire laissant une place preponderante
a Ietat
federal qui setait ingere progressivement dans son champ
de
competence.
Dans
Ie courant de Ja Revolution tranquille, Ie Quebec
inaugura
au debut de la decennie 1970 une nouvelle politique
des transports qui consacrait
Ie r61 e de cet instrument de
developpement. En comparaison
a la position occupee par Ie
transport ferroviaire dans les p6riodes budgetaires
gouvemementales du XlXe siecle, la place appropriee par ce
mode de deplacement est modeste et ne vise guere
a combler
des aspirations et des objectifs similaires.
La distribution geographique de 1 aide financiere
Le profil general des ressources financieres imparties
au transport ferroviaire ayant ete presente, il faut maintenant
aborder la repartition geographique de ces extrants. Cette
analyse spatiale a pour objectif de recenser les regions ayant
beneficie de
la generosite gouvernementale et den deduire
certaines remarques preliminaires. Au cours de
Ja periode 1867-1930, 1 aide financiere aux
chemins de fer a ete canalisee principalement sur
la rive nord
du fleuve Saint-Laurent. Soixante-trois pour cent des subsides
votes par
Ie Parlement dans Ie cadre de ces programmes ont ete
repartis entre quinze divisions
de recensement: Argenteuil (5%),
Berthier (moins de 1 %), Champlain (6%), Deux-Montagnes
(5%), Hull (5%), I1e-de-Jesus (5%), Ile-de-Montreal (5%),
Joliette
(1 %), L Assomption (moins de 1 %), Maskinonge (moins
de 1 %), Papineau (5%), Portneuf (7%), Quebec (7%), Saint­
Maurice (5%) et Tenebonne (6%).
Si ces donnees sont agregees en fonction des regions
de recensement, il devient evident que pres de la moiM de ces
subsides a servi
a Ja construction de chemins de fer situes a
1 interieur des !imites administratives de la grande region de
Montreal (43%). Quant
au solde de ces contributions, il a ete
disperse entre les regions de Quebec (23%),
de la Mauricie
(8%) et de lOutaouais (16%).
Toutefois, cet etat de la situation ne
savere guere
exhaustif sachant quil exclut 1 ensemble des regions nayant
pas obtenu
au moins cinq pour cent du total de cette aide. II
RAIL CANADIEN -469
serait maintenant interessant danalyser globalement la
distribution spatiale de ces deniers. Cette approche
va appuyer
1
identification des investissements publics consacres au
transport ferroviaire pour chaque region. Cela aidera a recenser
les
zones prioritaires damenagement du terri to ire et de
deveioppement economique vers lesquelles Ie gouvernement
du Quebec a oriente ses res sources financieres.
Cest toujours la region de Montreal qui domine Ie
palmares en sarrogeant 35,4% des subsides. Lorsque ce chiffre
est ventile suivant les trois sous-regions de la metropole
quebecoise, la Rive Nord detient Ie haut du pave en s accaparant
17,4% de ces credits, suivie
par Montreal-Centre avec 9,4%,
alors que
la Rive Sud felme Ja marche avec 8,6%. Ces resultats
attestent
1 interet marque pour 1 essor de la partie nord de cette
zone alors faiblement densifiee.
La region de Quebec se classe au second rang avec
19,7%, lOutaouais au troisieme avec 14,6% et
la Mauricie­
Bois-Francs en quatrieme position avec 12,1%. Les regions
situees a
la peripherie de ces territoires nobtiennent que 18,2%
du gateau ferroviaire. LEst du Quebec ouvre la voie avec 5,2%,
suivi
par Ie Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (4,5%), IEstrie (4,3%),
I Abitibi-Temiscamingue (4,2%) et, finalement, la Cote-Nord
qui ne recolta aucune subvention au cours de la peri ode 1867-
1930.
Entre 1867 et 1880, I apport gouvememental sest
canalise sur la rive sud au sein des divisions de recensement
situees entre la frontiere etats-unienne (sud)
et Ie comte de
Montmagny. Plus a
1 est, Bonaventure constitue 1 exception
en ayant beneficie de subsides
pour la construction du chemin
de fer
Baie des Chaleurs.Quant a la rive nord, les divisions qui
ant tire avantage de la politique ferroviaire sont celles localisees
entre les comtes de Pontiac et de Quebec dont une grande part
est redevable au QMOO. Quant an Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean
il ne fut pas epargne grace aux genereux subsides donnes au
chemin de fer de Quebec et du Lac St-Jean.
La decennie 1880 fut 1 objet
dune nouvelle vague de
subsides. La plupart de ces deniers ont ete distribues dans les
regions de recensement ayant deja profite des retombees de
la
politi que gouvemementale. I I est plausible de croire que ces
nouveaux transferts visaient a parachever et a densifier
Ie reseau
ferroviaire des regions
ayant deja re<;:u de tels octrois. Le
programme daide a egalement favorise 1 extension du chemin
de fer vers de nouvelles regions de colonisation; Ie
Temiscamingue, Riviere-du-Loup et
Ie Temiscouata.
Finalement, la phase finale
de la premiere politique
s
etendit de 1891 a 1930. Tout comme pour la peri ode
precedente il est perceptible de constater la consolidation des
subventions a
linterieur des territoires deja privilegies. De
plus,
il devient evident que la distribution des subventions se
polarise entre la region de Montreal et I Abitibi-Temiscamingue.
Cest une realite qui reflete admirablement la volonte politique
dappuyer Ie developpement industriel de 1 agglomeration
montrealaise par la consolidation de son reseau ferroviaire et
dautre part, dassurer un acces a une region ressource.
CONCLUSION
Lanalyse spatiale qui vient detre effectuee repose avant
tout sur des regions aux frontieres immaterielles dont Ie
decoupage rei eve plus de prerogatives decoulant de raisons
38 MARS -AVRIL 1999
politico-administratives que naturelles. En utilisant Ie fleuve
comme barriere geographique et axe de repartition des depenses
ferroviaires quebecoises,
il en ressortquil existe un desequilibre
des contributions gouvernementales entre les deux contrees.
Tandis que
74,4% de cet argent a ete distribue sur la rive nord,
les regions situees
sur la rive opposee nen retire rent quun quart.
Ces faits
sont une preuve explicite de 1 importance
quaccordaient les dirigeants politiques du Quebec ala volonte
collective de stimuler la poussee des fronts pionniers vers les
regions localisees an nord du fleuve Saint-Laurent. Une telle
realite corrobore
1 enthousiasme marque de plusieurs personnes
quant au developpement du nord quebecois
9. II est done aise
de poser
1 hypothese que les demandes et I influence des forces
societales ne sont pas etrangeres a la concentration
geographique des investissements du gouvernement du Quebec,
sachant que
Ie discours ideologique alors en vigueur privilegiait
la creation de fronts pionniers nordiques.
Apres une abstention de pres dun demi-siecele, Ie
gouvernement du
Quebec a ramene a son ordre du jour des les
annees 1970, ses incursions dans
Ie transport sur rail. Cette
politique ferroviaire de deuxieme generation differe
radicalement de la premiere, sachant que 1 aide financiere du
ministere des Transports
sest limitee au transport urbain tout.
en se concentrant geographiquement a la region
de Montreal.
De 1971 a 1990, Ie gouvemement du Quebec est intervenu dans
quatre regions de recensement: la Cote-Nord, I
Est du Quebec,
les Bois-Francs.et Montreal. Letude des postes budgetaires
du ministere des Transports demontre que la region de Montreal
sest accapare 98% de ces deniers publics pour les trains de
banlieue et
Ie metro. Les autres zones se partageaient les deux
pour cent restants, principalement destines an transport
ferroviaire des marchandises.
II faut retenir de cet article 1 importance qua toujours
occupe, chez les eIus quebecois, la region de Montreal, alors
qu elle a recolte de tout temps une part appreciable des subsides
disponibles
aux chemins de fer. Cette situation nest pas
incoherente sachant que depuis la fin du XIXe siecle cette region
est
Ie centre nevralgique sur lequel sappuie Ie developpement
economique du Quebec. Toutefois, certaines regions
comme
Ie Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean auraient merite une meilleure
desserte ferroviaire avec Ie reste du continent pour appuyer leur
esso!.
NOTES
1 GOW, James (1986) Histoire de 1 administration
publigue guebecoise 1867-1970. Montreal: Presses de
IUniversite de Montreal. Calcule a pmiir des donnees foumies
en page 26.
2 Debats de I Assemblee Legislative. Joseph Shehyn, 6
mai 1884, pp. 962-963.
3
BATES, Stewart (1939) Histoire financiere des
gouvemements canadiens. Ottawa: Commission royale des
relations entre
Ie Dominion et les provinces. p. 151.
4
Les subsides federaux octroyes au prorata de la
population constituerent,
jusqua la fin du XIXe siecle, une
source importante de revenus pour contrebalancer
la carence
des entrees de fonds des etats federes.
La contribution du
gouvernemcnt du Canada setablissait suivant
Ie recensement
de la
population. Pour chaque citoyen residant dans une
MARCH -APRIL 1999
province au moment du denombrement decennal, chaque etat
fed ere recevait 0,80$.
5 BATES, Stewart (1939) Op.cit.,
p. 153.
6 Au cours de 1 annee 1875, Ie tresorier de la province
Joseph Gibb Robertson annonce
a la Chambre quelle devra
adopter trois lois afin
de lui donner Ie pouvoir dimposition
dune taxe sur 1a vente des permis dalcool, une taxe aux
compagnies d assurances et certains frais administratifs imposes
par
les cours quebecoises.
7 HAMELIN, Jean (1968) Quebec et
Ie monde exterieur
1867-1967. -In: QUEBEC. Bureau de
la statistique du Quebec.
Annuaire
du Quebec 1968-1969. Quebec: Editeur officiel du
Quebec. pp. 14-15.
8 HAMELIN, Jean et ROBY, Yves (1971) Histoire
economique
du Quebec 1851-1896. Montreal: Fides. p. 132.
39 CANADIAN RAIL -469
9 La conception du nord quebecois, quant a son etendue
et
a la localisation de ses Ii mites geographiques, a evolue au fil
des generations. A 1a fin du XIXe siecle lorsque la plupart des
promoteurs de
la colonisation pariaient du nord, ils rMeraient
aux regions
situees dans les Plateaux Laurentiens, plus
specialement ceux de 1 arriere-pays de Montreal.
La presence
de fronts pionniers dans
Ie nord montrea!ais et 1 integration au
tenitoire quebecois de IUngava en 1912 ont contribue a e 1argir
cette notion,
notamment vers I Abitibi-Temiscamingue.
Actuellement cette idee correspond
a la region Nord-du-Quebec
qui setend entre!e 4ge et
Ie 62e paralleJe. Pour de plus amples
renseignements quant a la transformation de la notion
geographique du nord quebecois,
il est reconunande de consulter
I ouvrage du geographe Christian Morissonneau (J 978) intitule
La Terre Promise: Le my the du Nord quebecois.
English Summary of the Foregoing Article
by Douglas N W Smith
Quebec Government Investment in Railway Construction
During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the
Quebec government invested heavily in the construction
of
new railways. The provincia! governments railway policy
was based upon two considerations. The first goal as
manifested by the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa & Occidental
Railway (QMO&O) was to
join the principal centres of
popUlation with a trans-Quebec railway. The second goal
was to open hinterland areas to colonization as many
Quebecers were migrating to the United States in search of
jobs as the supply of agricultural land near waterways and
railways was exhausted.
The period between 1874 and 1884 saw the province
spend the most on railway subsidies.
The railway fever
which gripped the provincial politicians was manifested in
the construction
of the QMO&O. Between 1874 and 1881,
the province poured $13 million into this line which linked
Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Montreal and Hull. This represents
over 70%
of the total amount of provincial subsidy payments
paid
to all railways from 1867 to 1925.
The QMO&O started as a private corporation but
when it could not make progress, the provincial govemment
took it over.
By the time the railway was completed in
188!, the provincial government faced financial ruin.
Salvation lay in the sale
of the railway, but the sale netted
only $8 million.
Other railways which received substantial support
from· the
govemment during this period were the Quebec
Central Railway and its predecessors the Sherbrooke,
Eastern Townships & Kennebec Railway, the Levis &
Kennebec Railway and the Quebec & Lake St. John Railway.
The revenue sources available to the provincial
government were severely circumscribed as it was prohibited
at this time from raising money by direct taxation. In 1869,
69%
of the revenues of the Quebec government were from transfer payments from the Dominion government.
The
bulk of the remainder came from Crown land leases and a
smaller amount from miscellaneous sources. As the financial
requirements
of its railway policy outstripped its revenues,
the provincial
government had to borrow heavily from
foreign markets. Between 1874 and 1885, Quebec floated
$18.8 million in long term and $6.3 million in short term
loans.
The flirtation with the railway was a heavy drain on
the
provincial treasury. Calculating the governments
spending on a per capita basis for the fiscal year 1880-1881,
railway subsidies amounted
to $1.81 for every person in the
province. At the same time, per capita spending on
education, health and agriculture was only 28 cents, 19 cents
and 6 cents respectively.
By the end
of the century, the provincial government
was withdrawing from railway subsidies. Whereas between
1867 and 1896, Quebec had provided a total
of$24.6 million
(an average
of $800,000 per year), it only provided $2.6
million for the
next 35 years (an average of less than
$75,000). The subsidies were administered by the
Department of Public Works (DPW). As shown in Figure
2, they accounted for over
half of DPWs spending from
1874 through
to the tum of the centllly. Fiscal year 1877-
1878 was the
peak year for spending on railways. That
year 98% of DPWs budget was spent on railway subsidies.
Assessed upon a geographic basis, over 80%
of the
subsidies were spent on railways serving Montreal and points
north
of the St Lawrence and east of the Ottawa Rivers.
By 1930, provincial government subsidies for
construction ceased. It was not until the 1980s that the
province again began subsidizing railways. This time the
expenditures were for the operation and upgrading of
commuter trains in the Montreal region.
RAIL CANADIEN -469 40 MARS -AVRIL 1999
MARCH -APRIL 1999 41 CANADIAIJ RAIL -469
The McArthur Building 1909-1987
By Geoffrey A. Lester
Much has been written on stations (depots) and hotels
owned and operated by the various railway companies.
Neglected, however, have been references to other buildings
associated with the railways which this essay attempts
to redress
by recalling one such building, the
McAlihur Building at #207-
211 Portage Avenue (comer ofPOIiage and Main) in Winnipeg,
Manitoba. Built in 1909 and demolished in 1987, this twelve
storey building was erected at the behest
of 1. D. McArthur,
de
signed by the well-regarded Winnipeg architect lH.G.
Russell, and constructed by the Carter, Halls, Aldinger
Company, to be used for mercantile and commercial offices.
J.D. McArthur, with his
home and headquarters in
Winnipeg, was a well-known
and highly regarded railway
contractor a
nd businessman. Bom in 1853 in Lancaster, Ontario,
he came west
in 1879, engaging in the contracting business of
supplying ties to the Manitoba and North-Westem Railwayl.
Graduating
to larger railway contracts, he built a number of
lines for the major companies-Canadian Pacific, Canadian
Northern and National Transcontinental (GTPR). But Mr.
McArthur
is best remembered as the owner, builder and operator
of three lines in Alberta -the Edmonton, Dunvegan and British
Columbia, the Central Canada, and the Alberta and Great
Waterways -which in 1929, along with the Pembina Valley,
became the Northem Alberta Railways.
For Manitobans his
notable contribution was as the general contractor for the
Hudson Bay Railway at its initiation, a line which eventually
reached the port
of Churchill, this giving an altemative outlet
for grain from the prairies
to markets in Europe.
J.H.G. Russell was bom in Toronto in 1862, and received
his education in that city, which
eventually resulted in his
becoming a professional architect.
2
Moving west to Winnipeg
in 1882, he soon practised elsewhere, mostly in the west. From
1886 to 1893 he worked in the
United States -Sioux City,
Chicago, Spokane, and Tacoma -at which time he returned to
Winnipeg.
J
Mr. Russell was instrumental in the formation of
the Manitoba Association of Architects (1906) and was hvice
its president
4
He was responsible for various types ofbuildings
-domestic, commercial and religious, examples
of which would
include the McArthur residence, Central Park Apartments, the
Ashdown Hardware Company and Augustine Presbyterian
Church, where, incidentally,
there is a stained glass window to
the memory of J.D. McArthur.
The contractor for the McArthur Building, Carter, Halls,
Aldinger were engaged across Western Canada as
… builders
of railroad and public work, steel construction and fireproof
buildings.5 The company was incorporated in 1907 with
William H. Carter as President and General Manager and A.H.
Aldinger, C.E
., as Vice-President. Both men came from the
United States where they had been educated and gained
experience in civic and railway construction.
6
(Halls may refer
to E.
E. Hall, a banker from the United States, who eventually
.~!Pl.ANS MUST n~ FILED ANlJ AI-!~OVI!D BY nilS T)I7.PAk1M~wr D~rOJtE A PEIlMIT:F91tM
:……. BREC.lWN WILL. BE GRANTrm. -, :, ::,:~w.
. Application for Permit to Build ><..:.
W;p<, .. ~ ... ./J.. ... ,,90}
….. 6Ih ….. I
… e..
a.
.. if
• ……. c:::
w
v.r; .. A…,.,MT,.,…..-.::.<~~~06 ..... Ih... . .. ~
I Derlng~ .. , …. ,., …. ~Dj~t3nH O.C.. . .. ~
-. mm…… ~.lIt Floor. /.9,-:-. , .. lnd./.~-: … -r.~ ·t~~~·;;J~·:;:(,4,,·f:.
.d~;·~{~j:~Z~·:i/ I
The building permit, dated June 12, 1909, for the construction
of the McArthur Building. Note the City of Winnipeg tax stamps.
City
of Winnipeg Archives.
established himself in Winnipeg, and founded the Hall Company
– a financial, real estate, and investment house.
7)
The railway
construction projects
of Carter, Halls, Aldinger included Grand
Tmnk Pacific roundhouses at Watrous, Biggar, Wainwright,
Edmonton,
and Westfort; the Canadian National Station in
Vancouver; and the Canadian Pacific Station at Moose Jaw.s
The McArthur Building occupied a trapezoidal shaped
site, a pOliion
of river lots originating in the first surveys in
1860.9 In order
to offset the shortage ofland and the increase
in the cost ofland in the central business district, it was necessary
to increase the height
of buildings and thus provide more office
space.
IO
But with this increase in height came the problems of
fire control and high-wind pressure, especially at the corner of
Portage and Main.
11
The answer to these problems was to
OPPOSITE PAGE: The McArthur Building as it appeared about 1910, when it was new.
Provincial Archives
of Manitoba, photo No. N 1487.
RAIL CANADIEN -469
construct buildings of steel and reinforced concrete, suitably
braced
to withstand a wind pressure of 30 pounds per square
foot, and with interior fire
proof partitioning. 12 As to fire
protection, VH.G. Russell wrote a letter to E.H. Rodgers, a
building inspector:
It is our intention to put in pressure tanks, air
compressors and pumps in the basement, also a well, which
will be
in addition to the four inch City water service, and we
will provide for special fire protection in the portion of the
building over the one hundred and twenty feet, provided
for in
the Building By-laws, it is also the intention to put a standpipe
up through the building with a hose
in each floor. 13
Describing the McArthur Building the Winnipeg
Historical Buildings Committee report states:
Although J.H. G. Russell had considerable experience
with steel
frame construction, he opted for a conservative
approach
… while the interior steel skeleton bore the load of the
building;
the far;ade was treated as if it were a masonry wall.
Although the central portion
of the far;ade was quite simple in
design, the base had a heavy pediment over the doorway
beneath four piers
of channelled terra cotta. The top floor
featured squat Corinthian
columns, a richly ornamented cornice
and a balcony supported by scroll brackets.
As if to highlight
this veneer, the side and rear elevations were finished
in plain
brick. The effect
of the main far;ade was attractive and
distinctive. 14
The estimated cost of the building (exclusive of the lot)
was $400,000, but the final cost was between $50 I ,654 and
$512,420.15 Estimated quantities of some materials were
1,499,000 bricks, 26,350 Superficial square yards of plaster and
805 cubic yards
of concrete. 16
The McArthur Building was sold to the Childs
Restaurant Company in 1921 but the name was not changed
until 1948.
17
As Val Werier wrote of Childs, For decades it
was the place
to gather for coffee, and after-theatre talk and
dinner.18 Renovations were made over the years, some quite
extensive, and
in 1981 the balcony and cornice were removed
as being structurally unsound.
19
Canadian Pacifics Marathon Realty obtained ownership
of the north-west corner of Portage and Main, which also
included the Nanton Building. As Werier reported in his article
in the Winnipeg Free Press:
In anticipation of opposition to removal of these
buildings, Marathon and the Toronto-Dominion Bank alTanged
an unusual agreement with the city on December 20, 1976.
The agreement states that the city must not include these
buildings in any conservation list for reasons of alleged
architectural or historical interest.
If the city does so list these
buildings within 20 years
of the agreement, then the city must
reimburse the $400,000 that Marathon and Toronto-Dominion
contributed for the (Portage and Main) underground concourse
connection.
20
Though the land changed hands the City of Winnipeg
did not exempt these buildings as being
of historical importance
and worthy
of being conserved. Thus, the McArthur Building
was dismantled and by July
6, 1987 only a vacant lot remained21
SIC TRANSIT GLORIA
MUNDI
(So does all the glory of the world pass away).
42 MARS -AVRIL 1999
BIBLIOGRAPHY
City of Winnipeg, Office of Inspector of Buildings.
Detailed Statement
of Specifications for New Building, No.
1058, June 12, 1909.
McRaye,
W. editor, Pioneers and Prominent People of
Manitoba, Canadian Publicity Co., Winnipeg, 1925.
Report
of the City of Winnipeg Historical Buildings
Committee, 1981
The Year Past,
Newspapers: Winnipeg Free Press, Winnipeg Tribune.
Royal Architectural Institute
of Canada Journal, No.
XXIII, March 1946.
Saunders, Ivan J., R.R. Rostecki, and
S. Carrington,
Early building in Winnipeg, Ottawa, Parks Canada, Department
ofIndian and Northern Affairs, 1974-1977. (Manuscript repott;
November 389).
Schofield, Frank, The Story
of Manitoba, Volume 2,
Winnipeg,
SJ. Clarke Publishing Co., 1913.
Provincial Archives of Manitoba: Photograph.
McAtthur Building circa 1910 N1487.
NOTES
1. Winnipeg Evening Tribune, January 10, 1927.
2. Schofield,
F. The Story of Manitoba, Vol. 2, Winnipeg,
SJ. Clarke Publishing Co., 1913, p. 154
3. Schofield, p. 157
4. Schofield, p. 157
5. Schofield, p.205
6. Schofield, pp. 205, I I
O.
7. Schofield, pp. 68, 71.
8. McRaye,
W., Editor, Pioneers and Prominent People of
Manitoba, Canadian Publicity Co., Winnipeg, 1925, pp. 149,
150.
9. Werier,
V, City in danger of losing its December roses,
Witmipeg Free Press, April
18, 1987, p. 6.
10. Saunders et. al. Early buildings in Winnipeg, Ottawa,
Parks Canada, Dept. ofIndian and Northern Affairs, 1974-1977.
p. 180.
11. Saunders et. al. p. 180
12. Saunders, et. al.
p. 18 J
13. Letter: J.H.G. Russell to E.H. Rodgers, Re: McArthur
Building, Witmipeg, May 26th,
J 909.
14. The Year Past, RepOlt
of the City of Winnipeg Historical
Buildings Committee, 1981.
p. 49.
15. Saunders, et. al.
p. 182.
16. City
of Winnipeg, Office of Inspector of Buildings,
Detailed statement
of specifications for new building, No. 1058,
June
12,1909.
17. Report ofWHBC. p. 49.
18. Werier, V Winnipeg Free Press, April
18, 1987. p. 6.
19. Report ofWHBC, p. 49.
20. Werier, p. 6.
21. Winnipeg Free Press, July 6, 1987 p. 4.
MARCH -APRIL 1999 43 CANADIAN RAIL -469
Again, More Murals
Dave McMillan
Our request for photos of railway murals is producing good results. Our member Dave McMillan of Winnipeg has sent these
two excellent views. Mactier and Ignace are on the CPRs main line through Ontario, and both serve as termini for head-end crews.
These two murals show these stations in the days
of steam. That of Mactier is especially interesting as it depicts that day in
1939 (sixty years ago this year) when the Royal train, carrying King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (now the Queen Mother) stopped
at that station. Motive power for the train was,
of course, CPR 2850, the original Royal Hudson, which is now at the Canadian
Railway Museum.
We still would welcome mural photos for future issues of Canadian Rail. Please keep sending them in, they are very much
appreciated.
RAIL CANADIEN -469 44 MARS -AVRIL 1999
A Divisional Point Outdated
What Actually Happened on February
1, 1899
By David J. Meridew
There has been considerable confusion due to a
misleading news report which was published 100 years ago in
Railway and Shipping World of November 1898. This
misinfOimation was republished again on the inside back cover
of Canadian Rail No. 467 November -December 1998 on
page
171 under title Century old Notes Mountain Divisions –
stating
Revels toke is being made the divisional point of the
CPR main line
— (published November I 898). This
statement gives the false impression that Revelstoke had just
been designated a CPR Divisional Point on or shortly after
November 1898. Nothing could
be further from the truth, for
the
CPR made a public announcement eleven years earlier, at
the end
of June 1887 (and published in the Inland Sentinel on
Saturday July 9, 1887 at Kamloops, B.C.), stating that
Revelstoke would become a Divisional Point effective August
1st, 1887.
The fact that a new Roundhouse was under construction
in 1898, as reported in the Railway and Shipping World, was
because the old Roundhouse was damaged by fire in 1897
(which also burned the cabs
off some of the locomotives). The
roundhouse construction
of 1898 was not for a new Divisional
Point but was for fire damage and roundhouse expansion to
handle the increase number of locomotives serviced at
Revelstoke. This roundhouse also served the branch line rai Iway
south and boat barge service down
to the Kootenays where a
big mining boom was fuelling not only the economy
of the
Kootenays but also that
of the mainline at Revelstoke as well.
Construction of the Divisional Point facilities at
Revelstoke, including buildings
to house the change of train
crews and the maintenance
of locomotives, was reported in a
long letter written September 6, 1887
to the board of directors
of the CPR by Vice President and General Manager w.e. Van
Horne. In it he stated:
All necessary buildings and other
facilities have been completed on this section, except at
Revelstoke which is a divisional point and where
an engine
house
, a number
of sidings and the other usual works incident
to such a point are being provided. Five or six cottages for
employees must be built at this place immediately. Portions of
this letter were published in the September-October 1987
Canadian Rail No. 400 page 175
in the appendix of a 33 page
article Laying The Foundation by Douglas
N. W. Smith.
The Inland Sentinel (published at Kamloops, B.C.)
report of Saturday July 9, 1887 read as follows:
C P R. Changes -Another Division to be Created –
Several
stal! and other important changes.
Within the pastfortnight a number
of changes have been
made in the official stafJ
of the CPR. of this and adjoining
districts, and by the first
of next month it is proposed to create
a new division, the present divisions being too long. M,:
J W
Leonard, lately of Toronto, has been appointed Assistant
Superintendent
of the Shuswap and Thompson division; vice,
Mr. R. Marpole, promoted. When the proposed divisional
changes are completed
Mr. Leonards section will extend from
North Bend
to Revelstoke. Mr. John A. McDonald (of Victoria),
is
Mr. Leonards Clerk. They will be located at Kamloops, Mr.
Marpole for the present is Superintendent of the Mountain
diVision, but infutllre will be Superintendent of the whole Pacific
division. He has our congratulations on his merited promotion.
M,: J D. Townley has been appointed General Superintendents
Assistant, and will be located at
Vancouver. Mr. W H Armstrong
is appointed ChiefRoadmaster between Kamloops and Donald.
After August
ist [1887] the Pacific division, formerly
two sections, will be
subdivided into the three following
sections: From Vancouver
to North Bend, Cateract[?] division;
from North Bend
to Revelstoke, Intermediate division; andfrom
Revelstoke
to Banff or Canmore, the Mountain division. These
alterations will necessitate important changes
in the stationing
of office and running crews along the line. The despatchers for
the district will be stationed at
KamloQPs instead of North Bend.
Freight crews will stop here, while the passenger crews will
change at the ends
of the divisions. The divisional repairing
will be done at the workshops here
[Kamloops] as heretofore.
The company intends shortly to erect a number
of
cottages here [Kamloops] for the use of its officials.
These alterations though they may
in some instances
be rather detrimental
to the interest of Kamloops, yet, there is
no doubt, they will materially benefit the town.
This was the first time it was ever stated in the Inland
Sentinel that Revelstoke was to be a Divisional Point. The
Pacific division Divisional Points
ofKamloops and Donald are
not mentioned,
but note the intermixed use of the words
section and division
to mean the same thing.
In British Columbia Donald, Kamloops and North Bend
were all built
as Divisional Points in 1886, but Revelstoke was
delayed one year because
of a dispute with a land speculator A.
S. Farwell. Note that the Mountain division (section) was not
extended
to Revelstoke in July 1887, just to Donald, B.C. from
Canmore, (Alberta). Donald to Revelstoke
was created on
August 1 st, 1887
as the Selkirk section, and remained the Selkirk
section until February 1st, 1899. See 1888 Employees timetable
on next page.
It lists Revelstoke as a Divisional Point between
the Selkirk Section and the Shuswap Section in 1888.
The Inland Sentinel
of Saturday August II, 1888 reports:
MOUNTAiN NOTES: Good Time on the CPR. -A belief
prevails among eastern people that the Mountain division
[Canmore to Donald was the Mountain Section] of the CPR.
is in poor condition for making rapid time. but the facts do not
bear this cut. While passenger trains are run slow it is simply
to afJord tourists an opportunity to view the grand scenery on
the route. Last week the arbitration commissioners passed over
the road during the night going back the next
day. The train
MARCH -APRIL 1999
was made up of a freight caboose, two sleepers and a baggage
car.
Engineer Baldy Brown pulled it from Kamloops to
Revelstoke
[Shuswap Section] 129 miles, in 4 hours and 40
minutes.
At Revelstoke Conductor Jim Wright and Engineer
Jim Connagher took the train and brought
it through to Donald
[Revelstoke to Donald was Selkirk Section] in 3 hours and 20
minutes.
8 hours actual running time. [for two sections] This is
the fastest time over the line, a 40-mile section [Rogers Pass]
0.[ which has 2 112 per cent grade. Naturally the freight boys
feel elated at having made
the best time ever made over the
road between here
[Kamloops] and Revelstoke. As you can
see Revelstoke was very much reported as a divisional point
in
1887 and 1888.
PACIFIC DIVISION
Besides track Sections between CPR Divisional Points
there were the Big Sections and in these Big Sections are the
Big Divisions
of the CPR. (Sounds like Abbott and Carsteamo
reporting
by me, but read on to the next Sentinel news item to
hear more the word Big Sections). These big divisions in the
western Canada section (in the earlier years) were called the
Western Division and Pacific Division.
45 CANADIAN RAIL -469
CANADIAN
PACIFIC RAILWAY
PACIFIC DIVISION
TIME TABLE No.5,
One oclock, Sunday, November 11th, 18.88.
FOR THE GUIDANCE OF EMPLOYEES ON!3.
The Compony ~scrvcs tho Rlght to vary Uu:rdroln 01 Dlco3ure.
~Oo.atroy all former Tlmo Toblo8.
—- CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.
PACIFIC DIVI810N.
TIME TABLE No.5, TO TAKE EFFECT ONE OCLOCK. SUNDAY, NOVEMBER Hrn i888
TRAINS UBT.
aUD DOWII.
8D178W.lP SECTION.
TRAINS WEST.
IlUl> or.
I ~tlutiDI Ku. .w.. –,,_
lC:rJw-……. _ T.I&-f c
N .. ~ I V:: Kftpb STATIONS. rom Xllpn-
~1-_._-+c..u.. __ Il _________ Il_Doe_.ld._ _N_o._I_. _
, OS UO.8 It A 0.. Il.UILOOPS Ar.1 207.6 21 53
17.2
IIC ttn.7 DK·I: ………. Dvcu ………. 1 IDCUI 2116
18.0
II 23 tsS.7 R ……… 8anwu ……… 1 17.3 !O 37
16.8
7
13 m.e A. N …….. NOTaI HIU…….. 168.6 19 7
e.1
740 lI08.8 ……. Tu?Elf SIDIHO.. ….. 1494 III 17
7.4
800 IS.O B N …….. 8.u..vOH Aa.x ……. 1 142.0 18 ~
18.6
8 67 334.5 R 8 ……… SIO£XOMI ……… t 123.4 18 00
16.
II (! alII () C G ……. CuJonu.mm……. 107.0 17 ILl
10.7
10
16 lel.7 GR ……. OaJrmd.411:I ……. 1 ~.lI lC1 C 8.0
10 40 _~7 CW ……. C!.u~ ……. l!8.lI Ja 20
II 10 17~ F Ar. EEVELSTOIl.E. I).,f 19. 15 50 __
AtlaAtk = T.1e· I ~= ~!/t.
ltIpc-<* V&D-~ STATIONS. Doa. No. I.
No. 2. GOG. I aM. =
The Inland Sentinel Friday May 7,1897 stated: CPR.
Changes -Montreal May 7 [1897]. By a new arrangement the
CPR. has been divided into two big sections, with Fort William
as the dividing line
[to the west]. Thos. Tait will be manager of
the east division, and Wm. White of the western. R. Marpole
will have charge
of the Pacific division of the western section,
with headquarters at Vancouver.
TllAlNi:I KA.ST.
I.&AD DoWH.
AUAnue Mil ..
I!.p.-from T.I ..
No.2. Vu. ~ph
OllOOp~ 000._ lAlla.
TaM SELKIRK SECTION.
STATIONS.
II 20 178.7 F 0.. REVELSTOKE Ar.,
II.S
1200 300.6 D U …….. TwtH BVTT1I ……. .
12 33 .00.3 M U
13 00 406.e W G
13 30 41~.8 R K
14 00.
14 30d 422.3 0
It 60 42G.CI R r
15 II ll.e w
1647 U(U S U
la 08 UG.4· V
la 45 ~.O N
11.8
.••.•• AU~.~AlfTOH •••••• 1/
… .. IL1.&CI~WAn …. ~I
… !lou PeAk Sldlq …
e.LI
…•..• GI..UIID Hoo ……. .
4.3 I
…….. Roo~ Pus ……. 1
6.0
…….. Dua CauI: ……. ,
D.3
…… Su: Mu.a Caul( ……
6.6
……. R&4vD HOJTU …… I
11.6
Ar …… DONALD …. D.o,
TR.Ul/8 WEST.
&Z4D OP.
G7.6 IlIOO
G7.7 H 27
61.1 14 00
42.2 1330
413 ~
~.7 al2 ~
3J.4 12 15
2G.4 II 63
17.1 II 17
11.8 10 6CI
o 10 ltO
I–li—il———~–
AtJlie~f u. Tele. Wu. ni
da

rom from oop
E~ V ….. graph STATIONS. Doa No. I.
No, ~ n
r
<.;aUa. _u KI~
.. ….. 1lW:/6c
PACIFIC DIVISION BOUNDARJES EXTENDED IN 1899
The old Pacific Division boundaries were set from
Vancouver
to Donald begining in the last half of the year 1887
and lasted until February 1st, 1899. To obtain more flexible use
of mountain power the Pacific Division boundaries were
extended in 1899 to allow locomotives from the Selkirk
mountains to work in the Rocky mountains as well. The New
RAIL CANADIEN -469
Pacific Division boundaries, Vancouver to Laggan, went in to
effect on Febmary 1st, 1899. More than a year earlier, Francis
1. Deane, Editor of the Inland Sentinel had predicted this in the
issue
of Tuesday December 28, 1897: It is understood that the
terminal
of the Pacific division of the CPR., controlled by
Superintendent Marpole, will be extended from Donald to
Laggan, says the Golden Era [published at Golden, B.C.]. The
object
is to place the distribution of the mountain power in the
hands
of one officer, so that it may be used when required, as
lately there has been some friction between Messrs, Marpole
and Niblock about engines required from the Selkirks to do
work in the Rockies. Thirteen months later this took place.
FROM ABBOTT TO MARPOLE
MARPOLE APPOINTED -He will Succeed Abbott as
General Superintendent
of the Pacific Division of the CPR. –
The Sentinel has received dejinite information
to the effect that
R. Marpole is to succeed H. Abbott as general superintendent
of the Pacific Division of the CPR. on June 1st [1897] prox. It
is understood that the appointment
of two general managers of
the road is under consideration. For these positions the men
spoken
of are Tait of Montreal, for the eastern division, and
White
of Winnipeg for the western division. The removal o[the
dispatchers at the Kamloops office has been postponed. The
office
of assistant superintendent now held by Mr. Marpole [at
Donald] will
of course move to Vancouver. Whilst citizens of
Kamloops will learn with pleasure of Mr. Marpole s
advancement to a position he is eminently well titled to jill,
general regret will be
felt that this change will necessitate his
and Mrs. Marpole s departure from the city of Kamloops.
Inland Sentinel Friday May 7, 1897.
Marpole was headquartered at Donald by 1888 but the
Marpole family always lived in Kamloops (which is where
Marpole was first assigned out west in 1886) The family lived
at Kamloops for eleven years from 1886 until June 30, 1897.
Mr. Marpole commuted back and forth to home at Kamloops
from Donald when he had the time. He was promoted June 1st,
1897 and assigned to Vancouver which was the headquarters
for the General Superintendent
of the Pacific Division. The
Marpole family at KarnJoops followed him
to Vancouver four
weeks later. Family moving day was June 30, 1897.
Harry Abbott announced his resignation from the CPR
on March
19, 1897. The news came in a report out of Vancouver,
published in the Inland Sentinel. However the official
CPR date
that Mr. Marpole replaced him
as General Superintendent of
the Pacific Division was June 1st, 1897. A further report said:
Mr.
E. J Ducheanay is [on June 1, 1897] to be superintendent
of the Shuswap and Sellark sections, including the Shuswap
and Okanagan and Arrow Lake branches, with headquarters
at Revelstoke. Inland Sentinel Friday May 21, 1897.
BRANCH LINES SOUTH OF REVELSTOKE (Also part
of the Pacific Division)
MJ: H. E. BeeiSly is to be superintendent of the Kootenay
branches, [June
1, 1897] including Columbia river south of
Arrowhead, with headquarters at Nelson. With regard to the
improvements
of the steamboat service on the Columbia river
and Kootenay Lakes, Mr. Marpole said that the new steamer
Slocan, the
jiner and speediest on 1nland waters will commence
running on Slocan Lake, Monday next. [May 24, 1897]
On June
46 MARS -AVRIL 1999
1 sf 1897 the daily boat service with the steamers Nakusp and
Kootenay, between Arrowhead
and Trail will be inaugurated.
A daily service will also be inaugurated
for the Lardeau mining
district by running the steamer Illecillewaet between
Arrowhead and Galena Bay. Inland Sentinel Friday May 21,
1897.
MAIN LINE 1886-1899
On Friday November 20, 1896 the Inland Sentinel
reported that CPR Shops were to be built at Revelstoke (they
were actually built in 1898). This was to replace the 1888 Shops
at Donald which was to be shut down in 1898. Donald also lost
its Divisional Point status it had since 1886 to the new divisional
point east at Laggan, at the top
of Field hill. This happened in
the big changes
of February 1st, 1899. Also Gleichen and
Canmore Divisional Points lost their status
to the new Divisional
Point
of Calgary in late 1899 or early 1900.
The East Kootenay Miner reports that Revelstoke and
Field are
to be made CPR divisional points. The Kootenay
Mail December
11, 1897. This is another misleading statement
since the two new divisional points were built at Calgary (opened
late 1899 or early 1900) and Laggan-Field opened February
1st, 1899.
An editorial by Francis
1. Deane in the Inland Sentinel
of Friday August 13, 1897 commented as follows: At Golden
the people
feel themselves in a prosperous siate –they are
in expectation
of presently adding a very important section to
the community through the contemplated removal of the C P
Railway workshops from
Donald to Golden making this the
divisional point
on the line. This is yet another misleading
statement, for the Donald shops were replaced by the new shops
built at Revelstoke (not Golden) in 1898. Golden did get the
big CPR Shops 100 years later. In 1987 the new Golden Shops
opened. but Golden has never been called a Divisional Point, at
least not yet, but nowadays unit coal train crews change here at
Golden but travel by motor vehicle to bunk at Field, B.C.
35
miles away.
The
CPR shops were originally designated to be at
Kamloops, in July 1886, but after the August 1 st, 1887 changes
which set up the Pacific Division eastern Boundary (first at
Canmore but quickly changed to Donald,
B.c.). The shops were
built at Donald between late 1887 and early 1889 before being
replaced ten years later by the new (1898) shops at Revelstoke.
The Mountain Section (Canmore
to Donald late 1887)
and the Selkirk Section (Donald to Revelstoke August 1 st, 1887)
were united into the new Mountain Section Laggan to
Revelstoke on Febmary 1st, 1899 and the name Selkirk Section
disappeared from the Pacific Division timetable forever.
LATER DEVELOPMENTS 1899-1909
The new Mountain Section of February 1 st, 1899 had
its boundaries changed again just over ten years later on October
31, 1909.
It was now shortened from Field to Revelstoke. This
coincided with the official closing
of the Field big hill grade of
4.5% just two months after the new spiral tunnel grade opened
in late August 1909. Before World War One the name Section
such
as Mountain Section was changed to Subdivision such
as Mountain Subdivision between the divisional points of
Field and Revelstoke.
MARCH -APRIL 1999
47
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
CANADIAN RAIL -469
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY t
; TRANSOONTINIENTAL I.INE–Qrm«,,_
GoiNG WEST-Read Down II GOffiG fiST s-d Up
-!,AIllPJO IiXP JI88 iI BTATIONS 2-A.TLANTlC ExPIUIJB
.. M • .. • M M IB.36 34 •• &.owen P ….. 12.20 MM.. •. .. .. M
~


~
:I.
• ~
~:Y:UBa ~1~U7&lIe … oreek::; Err t::s. ~w
. ~ :: : :: : : : It:l .:.~:o~~::: Po:~7 : : : :: : : :
• .. • .. .. • .: 16.16 21 .. DleolUoMt •• 10.06 M M …. M …. !:.
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16.86 2Q06 .A1bertOoI13OD. 9.36 • .. .. .. .. …. ~
.. .: .. :. .. .. .. 16.00 ~ … Twill Butt. .. 1, 8.66 .. .. .. .. ~ …. t
-= … .. . .. . .. 16.00 2627. Reveletoke. 8.21> • .. .. .. .. …
I: Po, oonneotlone to Kootena, pointe via Revel.toke, eee 1>. 31 a
c ~.~ I;Y ·.u # l>.u,,!!, QlJg:~ ~:~ ::~III~IJ~e:: 1 U8 ~! Q ~~~! ~. f! i
0
1: :::: M .. .. 18.18 ~~ . OnIaeUoohie • 1 6. j() .. .. .. .. .. …. .e
.. 19.00 12611 .8100moWl Jo.i. 6.00 .. .. .. .. .. …. 0
I
~~~: ~ ~:~ 26 ::~~~:.V::: 1 t~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~: :~ ::. ~ ~
~~·I; ….. Duol.. ….. 2.66 r
r ThWitHSU;~:A~ 26 :~;~Jk: tl1 :::: :::::: :::
! ::::::::: .. :: n~ 268 ::::~;::~~.:::: ~::~ .;;.~~~~;;.,~ ~
II M M …….. : f UI m! :::::;:::::::: 13~:~ I;Y m ~ I!! f!! 1.:
c …………. 8.31 728 SpoDoe. BrI<1 .. 22.22 M .. .. .. .. .. M ~
o ::::::::::: .. f 8.66 2784 …. Dryuooh … m.01 : : : :: :: ::: ,,
I: M…….. 4.39 ~~ …. Gladwin…. 21.:19 .. .. .. .. M e
8 ::::: …. : I ::~~ n..! :::: ire;:;;·:::: ~:M .0 M •• .. .. …. ..
… ,,:::: 1 ~:M .ffiI .~~IJ~~~.! 11::gg : :: :: :: :: :: ~
I. :::: . 8.30 2803 …… yale…… 18.0:1 .. M .. •• .. M II;
! M M :: :: . 8.57 2817 ….. HOl!e ….. 17.36 :: : :: :: : .. M 10
C-
::::: .. : f U~ I: ::~~~e::~:: ffU~ …. M …. :: i
M .. .. :: : .. ~.63 I~ …. XarrllOn…. 16.86 ~ :: : :: : ::: i
s: …….. M ~ 1O:~ 1=iJ~:i;:~~;;:i l::Jg …… M …. I
: PO, oonneotlone from MI .. lon oIuno … e below :I
i
I
·: .:I! .. ~ … n~~l:1I; ::.~~~c;.~:::lm:~ II~I~JI~I!!!I~I~ :
• llS4 1:1 … Xammond… 16.08 .. !
……. t-nJ- 8
10 -I-::-rn-.. tor lr.68 .. lorUlood7 .• TWl rr ….. -n-J- 12.17 ,~2 … ·x .. ttnp … 14.12 .. .. ..
1-1:::1-12.aa ,-Vanoouver.1 14.00 .. -f-i-~
_~ Jr wITn SnBa 11.6 J.M.J,~=~¥~~ .. 8.00 Win!.1rBaSn It TIl •.
.. rr WIT_ H SuB .. 19.16 IiiOOJA;Vlot~laLv 1.00 WInIPi-saSn ~ TIl !
I: VANOOUVER, MIUION oIUNC. AND SAN PRANOl800 !.
ii 4 TIKi ilLI &TITION8 TIlB I 3 S
1J11:~1:! I .. ]. ~~I~f8s.:r-olvanoouYr6()o 17.~ crhFIoasn YT ••
.~ j …. x .. t1I1P …. 17.87 ………… ..
.. .. .. ,..:. …. M ~ 13 .. 1or Mood …. 17.16 …. .. .. ..
or I. TTI .. -rr–.. ~ :::: •• Weltmfu.ter. 1.38 •. .,…l–;-;-jTlr- •
n …… W .. itt .. ~ -:R we8tmlDaterJo. IT.Ul ……… .,-.. ir i
u ot .. .. 9.48 :;u; 00 .K.ammond .• , 16.42 .. .• ,. •• .. .• ..
…. .. .. .. .. 9.63 :r. .. Halle7 16.86……………!
………….. f10.08 8! :::WhllrDOok: 1620 …… .. .. Iii
.. .. • .. .. .. 10.48 421.MI .. lon 010: 16:30 .. .. .. .. .. …. 0
…… u •• ·0 .. 11.07 49 ••. Abbotaford. II 1[).1D .. .. .. .. .. II ~
.. ..:…:.~ -I;;:..!1.!L -E e.EuntlDanJ058 16.00 .. .. .. .. …. ..
1 ! .. , .. .,.-, .. ,.. 11.411 62 Llum … Oi
t
7· … rn-:lJ!I r .. … ……… ..,.. :I
.. .. .. .. .. 16.03 140 ar.81l0homllhJ. 11.08 .. .. .. .. …. ~
…………. 16.16 118 ar. Seattle…. 9.16 …. .. …. ..
Jr Ib W ITn 14 So Ji. 20.30 219 Taooma. T.15 W frh Fr Ba Sn H r.: ..
Ba Fr fhl!Y.!~ Mis. 11.00 …. ar.otland:~ 24.06 With Fr Sa So It Ill :
14 8nBaFrr .. hWTu 8.th .•.. asan,an051l 20.00 Bu H,TuWThrr Ba ..
PO, aoltlo OOa Steam.hlp oonneotlon … ee pa.e 40 :!
o.r lf~;,J;::~M~U:~! ~n::,utA>Coi,0::::~~ rI&~~~~:t::4J.::.r,u.g· i
lueld&y bu Colontn anE Jrfrn ClaM (111311.,. (q,J dJpinc CaT to VlUlcouver. Tou.rat C!:: I11III
tor Vancounrl880TO TO~(l Tooaduys and S&tu.rda,. .. Wlol11pe.g Tbur&dtl.yt and -Monda,.. . For Co.
Seattle leave Pollan Wetlu«dA~ 1I0oCleal TbundATJ., WlmilP6ltSlt.tu:rdall. d. Paul daU;. C
to w~~~~~&D~~T~~r:nU:Lh~~;; ~ ~~~&Dcrn~ ~tI~n:, ~ ;S
Sleeplni Car 1.6 Vonnet.t 8l.eeruar WlwUpeJ to Toronto via North J&y Tourts Can ~
trom .. 8eattJ.
S
!~~0<1.Dee4A19t Do . MondAY &nil Frldays tor TprClnto. dally tor5t. P.u.l. .-
,.,,0. w.o Pint. And Second l:o.cbU Ilnd }Oulor CIt dAU 8eatLllt loT Vanooun:r 0
ToorUl C&r Is SeaUle W&d.needa~r BOlton. MOD .. Fri. fOJ; Toronto, d&Uy tor St.. faUl. •
Uld ~~T~u!t: J::oUle!,.~~Oh run ;~oo:n s::,~ ~o~o~1r daUy Vaoeou1er .too ~ I
.. ~U:::CS~o~;r~~:;1JthJ;~=-a1 ~~~~l~le!.o~01rlng= ~aJnIi ~ II
Or .w.m,.. : In IInl.., ,,._. Mmp Im-a .. Udlllv HlwfllQ hnuM l-e li~ c. 110 tn.I.m ~
TIllE, Uohour :.t.an at. O.P.~t1on. Yort Wl.l11&m a..n4·WMt hOllnltrotnriOOi,. to ;
lPd==:i;!:,~ Oil ~.0i.~o~ Or Fort 1~~ ~~¥l and dMl-f&c04 f!.auree PlL ..
Central rt_e, Fon WUll&m t.o Brandon. lnolud.l.ng Kanit.olJa Br&ocb.ea i
~~~··~~eo~ana::~~:–··
Wh .. 110 IS noon ~ODtnII.l .. -. TIm .. It 10 n ocIoaotWlnnfpejl ·ContRI–t
10 o·al.oet M-Beaina. MountaltL Time i and ., ocloci: Va.u¢ClIlfer, PacUlo Ttru.. J -~…. tt
. I Jl.6Dee.bmeDl StaVOD&. rHc~ ItatioU. v On Monda,., ..-~. oOrus.edlov. 1Iria .ia
Wfllim.1ut:.f4. 1rtirlD& and Ie. .. vtot.ort. MOHo houn .. OD ehor dara. . .. ….
nme of and ooD.DeCUotli with ohJct1 Ubet DOl pan.need.
This timetable went into effect on Monday, March J 3 J 899, less than six weeks after the big changes of February 1. The
change
in divisional points is not shown, since this is a public timetable. Notice that Donald is still shown in bold type, although it had
lost its divisional status. Evidently changes
in the layout came slowly to CPR timetables in those days for Donald was still being
shown
in bold type in 1906, more than seven years later!
Note that the scheduled running time from Kamloops to Revelstoke was
6 hours 10 minutes, while that from Revelstoke to
Golden was
6 hours even. This was much slower than the record times of 4 hours 40 minutes and 3 hours 20 minutes respectively, set
on the fast run
of the special train in August, 1888, more than ten years before.
RAIL CAIlADIEN -469 48 MARS -AVRIL 1999
The Fleming Drawing Revisited
And Other Early Locomotives
In the article by John Thompson on the Fleming drawing of the James Ferrier, which appeared in the November-December
1998 Canadian Rail, the supposition was made that the so-called
wash drawing of the Longueuil station was done much later than
1855.
The suggestion was made that the drawing was copied from the Fleming drawing, possibly by John Loye, perhaps as late as the
I 920s.
However it is now known that the picture in question, with its caption, appeared in the Railway and Shipping World for
October 1900, more than two decades earlier.
However 1900 is a long time after 1855, and there is still the possibility that it was done
by John Loye who would have been 20 years old at the time. In any case the idea that it was copied from the Fleming drawing
is still
very likely; all that has changed
is that we now know that it was done no later than 1900.
A velY interesting letter on this subject has
come from Mr. Carl Riff. By permission of the writer, with alterations made at his
request,
we reprint considerable extracts from it.
I read the recent atiicle about the wash drawing showing
the Longueuil station written by Mr. Thompson. I found
much
of it very interesting. After Mr. Lavalh~es article about the
Scottish engines I spent considerable time researching the old
newspapers.
One item I remember and sent Omer the quotation
(with the date) was that the
C&StL operated a sail car in 1843.
The reason I am writing would be to rise to the defense
of John Loye. I am enclosing copies of the same picture that
was published in the Railway and Shipping World for October
1900,
page 3l3. This dates the picture 20 years earlier than
attributed
in the article, and I was surprised that it was not
mentioned in the article. [Editors note: This is due to an
oversight on
my part, and I apologize for the omission].
While
J never met Mr. Loye, I believe this would have
made
him very young in 1900. [Editors note: He was then 20
years old. This was three years before he did the
Infamous
incorrect drawing of the Dorchester]. Given that it was
published as part of the celebration of the Victoria Jubilee
Bridge, this might give rise to the fact that Fleming was the
artist. [EditorS note: The similarity
of this drawing to the 1850
diploma, undoubtedly by Fleming, is the strongest
point of
evidence.] A check of the Montreal newspapers for the opening
of the new bridge might reveal more, as the drawing might be
mentioned there. Despite this I found the article interesting,
but it sti 11 goes to prove that the definitive history of early
railways in Canada has
yet to be written.
I believe that many years ago Mr. Loye was involved in
the controversary about the bogus C&StL Norris engine
Laprairie. The story was that Mr. Loye was told about a Norris
Laprairie from old engineers about the turn
of the century. It
has presented a number of problems to researchers. While it
has not
been published, I had correspondence with Harry Frye
of the Boston & Maine Railroad Historical Society in which he
mentioned that the Concord Railroad had a Hinkley (Boston
Locomotive works) engine, built in 1843, which
was sold to
the Montreal & New York in 1851 where it became the
Souhegan. Given that the C&StL Jason C. Peirce had been
sold to the Industrie Railway at that time, and yet the
Souhegen remained on the roster until the Keefer Report of
1859,1 think that these two early engines might have presented
some confusion to the early engineers that Mr. Loye spoke to
many years later. The Montreal and Lachine had planned to acquire the
two Scottish engines even before the
NOITis 4-4-0 arrived late
in 1847. Undoubtedly delivery time for the American engine
was shorter, allowing the line to
be opened in November 1847.
We are glad to see that the Montreal and Lachine
Railway
is rapidly approaching completion, and it is confidently
expected
to be opened in the last week of this month. -The
terminus, at this
end, though not boasting of much architectural
ornament, will be a velY spacious and comfortable building.
On Saturday, we saw the engine lately purchased in the United
States, two others being orderedfrom England, moving
in great
state along
St. Antoine Street, to be set up and placed on the
line.
It weighs no less than seventeen tons, and the boiler was
drawn by eighteen horses. We at first started as if we had seen
a ghost, and a very substantial one
too, for it exactly reminded
us
of the progression of the statue of the Iron Duke to Hyde
Park Corner. -Montreal Gazette.
Kingston Whig, November 17, 1847.
Regarding the Longueuil terminal and the second-hand
Scottish engines, two very interesting items are reprinted from
Montreal newspapers
of 1848 and 1849:
A large frame building at the Longueuil terminal of
the St. Lawrence & Atlantic was blown down on Friday last.
Montreal Pilot, June 27, 1848.
We had the pleasure today of seeing a locomotive
engine, intended
for the Atlantic & St. Lawrence Railroad,
hoisted out
of the hold of the Elizabeth Rose in which vessel
it had come across the Atlantic from Glasgow. We are told that
this and a sister engine were purchased
for the sum of 900
pounds currency
[$3600], being something like one-third of their
prime
cost, after very little wear, in consequence of the Company
for which they were built having increased [sic, should read
decreased]
the gauge of their line. The gauge of the engines is
exactly what is requiredfor the St. Lawrence and Atlantic line.
Montreal
Transcript, July 12, 1849.
Meanwhile the first two
Kinmond locomotives had been
delivered to the
M&L as we read in the following article:
The new locomotive, the Montreal, the companion
engine
to the James Ferrier, was put in operation on the
Lachine Railroad a day or two since.
It was built by Messrs.
Kinmonds
of Dundee the maker of the James Ferrier.
Montreal Gazette, September 27, 1848.
MARCH -APRIL 1999
The St. Lawrence and Atlantic soon made good use of
its second-hand engines, as we see from the following article:
Railroad du St. Laurent et de I A tlantique: -Nous avons
ete prie de contredire
la rumeur, qui origine personne ne sa it
de queUe source, repandant que les travaux
de ce chemin sont
suspendus. Nous apprenons au contraire qu
its se poursuivent
avec une grande activite.
On a fait mettre une locomotive sur
les lisses afin de transporter
Ie fer Ie long de la ligne, lequel
sera pose de suite.
On a aussi traverse fundi Ii Longueuil deux
chars
cl marchandises destines au meme objet quant cl present;
its ont ete places immediatement sur les !isses.
La Minerve, 24 A6ut, 1848.
St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad -One engine is
now working a distance of 10 miles on the road and a second
of 21 tons has been shipped from Portland and will be here in
about a fortnight.
Montreal Gazette, October 10, 1848.
Early in December 1848 the StL&A received its first
new locomotive, the
AN. Morin, a Portland 4-4-0.
The board, in reporting the purchase of a secondhand
locomotive during the past season and
of an engine of first
class
power from the Portland Company at a cost of 3281
pounds
6 shillings 7 pence [$13,125.32] have to state that they
have ordered a locomotive from Messrs. Kinmonds
Co. of
Dundee to reach this country in early navigation.
St. L&A Annual RepOt1, February I, 1849.
During 1848, at the Portland end, the Atlantic & St.
Lawrence had begun operation. The By town (now Ottawa)
Packet
of July 29 1848 reprinted this article from the Portland
Advertiser
First Trip on the Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad! –
Yesterday afternoon the President and Directors, accompanied
49 CANADIAN RAIL -469
by the Mayor of our city and the members of the other branches
of our city government, Stockholders, and others who were
politely favoured with
an invitation, made the first experimental
trip on the Atlantic
and St. Lawrence Railroad to North
Yarmouth,
as far as now completed. Two splendid cars built in
our city by the Portland Company, whose works are near the
depot, were filled, and the trip was successfitlly made. Many
of
those who were among the first to put their shoulders to this
great enterprize, and who have contributed to aid its
advancement, were among the passengers, their countenance
indicated very great satisfaction at this auspicious opening,
and confident hope for the future rapid progress and complete
success. -They may well feel gratified at the success which has
thus
far attended their enterprising efforts. The work is of a
firm solid, and substantial character. The broad guage
[sic]
adds to the appearance of solidity. The cars are wide and
capacious -the seats being
of sufficient width to enable two to
sit with perfect comfort. As this was an experimental trip, we
tried the road at almost every pace, from that
of a snail to
lightning speed, without taking any particular note of the time.
But
we saw enough to satisfY us there will be no trouble about
speed.
The dense fog prevented us from enjoying the beautifit!
scenery through which this portion
of the road passes. Today
the cars are
to run for passengers -so the Atlantic and St.
Lawrence Railroad is now fairly opened and in operation, and
will rapidly progress. Three cheers
for the same.
So we see that by the time of Flemings visit to Montreal,
in the spring of 1849, both the Montreal & Lachine and the
Champlain & St. Lawrence were going concerns, and the St.
Lawrence & Atlantic (and its American counterpart the Atlantic
& St. Lawrence) were well under construction. All three lines
had 2-2-2s, but given the close attention given
to the M&L by
Mr. Fleming, it is likely that it was one of their engines that
inspired the locomotive on the diploma drawn later that year.
RAIL CANADIEN -469 50 MARS -AVRIL 1999
The Orphans Excursion of 1885
MAIN E BOVli DRY SHANTY 1885.
MARCH -APRIL 1999
In 1885 a group of men from
Montreal went on a vacation to the area
between Megantic and the Maine border.
Little
is known about this group, and
even their identities are unknown after
114 years. The name orphans seems
to refer to the fact that they were away
from their families, and their vacation
time was occupied in hunting and
fishing. Recently your editor was
looking at an old family album and came
upon these photos. Probably an ancestor
was one
of the group and, fortunately,
brought a camera along. This was three
years before the first Kodak roll film
cameras went on the market, so the
camera used was likely one taking small
glass plates. By 1885 emulsion speeds
were high enough that one did not have
to stand still for a long time, and the
camera could be hand held.
At the time of this trip tbe
International Railway was under
construction towards the border of the
state
of Maine. Tbis was before the line
was acquired
by the CPR and made part
of the Short Line running from
Montreal to Saint John N.B. This line
was completed in 1889, four years after
these photos were taken.
Most interesting
of the photos is
the one that appears on the cover ofthis
issue. International Railway smoking car
combine
No.3 and Grand Trunk caboose
7587 were stopped at an unknown
location while no less than 32 people
posed on an about the equipment. There
is
even a canoe on the roof of the
caboose. Unfortunately tbe photographer did not take
a picture
ofthe locomotive, which may well bave been
a wood burner.
On tbese pages we have two excellent and rare
views
of the roadbed of the International Railway
before the tracks were laid. Evidently the group traveled
by train to end
of steel and camped near there. In the
photo
of the shanty, a freight car can be seen in the
background, showing that the tracklaying had reached
this far.
Of interest is the fact that in the picture there
were 6 people, all with guns, plus three dogs, and
between them they had succeeded in bagging one
solitary deer!
The final scene
is a view ofthe St. Francis River
near Windsor Mills. At that time the International
Railway
had running rights over the Grand Trunk, and
it is likely that this photo was taken from the window
of the coach en route to or from Megantic.
The hand printed captions under the photos are
as written by the unknown photographer soon after
they were taken in 1885.
51 CAIlADIAN RAIL -469
RAIL CANAmEN -469 52 MARS -AVRIL 1999
Photos of the 1928 Tornado at Mystic Que.
By W.N. Power
Our member Mr. W. N.
Power
of Laval, Que. writes:
In the Business Car of
the
November-December
1998 Canadian Rail there was
an article entitled Anecdotes
Of Climate Events by Mr
A.
S. Walbridge about a tornado
on
the CPR Stanbridge
Division at Mystic. I am
enclosing pictures of the cars
on their side.
The pictures were taken
on
June 2, 1928, and
belonged to my Dad who was
Canadian
Pacific Express
Messenger on that train. The
engine was number 29. Dad
was off work for a short time
after.
At the time I was only 4
years old
so I dont remember
everything.
However I do
remember that now and then
my Dad would take me with
him
in the express car, and
sometimes
he would take me
up in the engine number 29
and the fireman would let me
ring the bell coming into a
station; great memories.
Canadian Rail, and
Steve Walbridge (who saw the
wreck the day after it
happened), send great thanks
and appreciation
to Mr. Power
for these fine photos.
MARCH -APRIL 1999 53 CANADIAN RAIL -469
Windsor Stations 110th Anniversary
ABO VE: Only one solitary individual
appears in this photo of the concourse at 4: 1 0
PM. on February
4, 1999. In the old days this
would have been the start of the busy
commuter rush. However most of the
employees have gone to Calgary, and many
commuters enter the new terminal a different
way, so the old concourse is largely deserted.
ABOVE:
In the afternoon of February 4, official car Mount
Royal was moved
10 Windsor station, where it remained
for a
few days. It is not known whether this had anything to
do with the anniversary, but this photo was taken as the car
was being switched
in.
RlGHT The Mount Royal and the Blainville train stand
side by side at the
new Windsor Station. /n the background
is the sports arena which blocks the tracks from ever reaching
the old station two blocks away.
February 4, 1999 marked the II0th
anniversary of that day in 1889 when the CPR
opened its new station on Montreals Windsor
Street. According to legend, w.e. Van Horne, then
CPs president, wrote a slogan which proclaimed
Beats all creation, the new CPR station.
After a long career, Windsor Station still
stands, and has undergone extensive renovation
recently.
However the trains have been banished
to a new terminus two blocks away and a sports
arena occupies the place where the tracks once ran.
Much of the time the gleaming concourse is
virtually empty as we see
in these photos taken by
Fred Angus on the anniversary day.
ABOVE: One of the recent success stories in
Canadan passenger trains has been the new
commuter service Fom Montreals Park Avenue
(Jean Talon) station
to Blainville, Que. Early in
1999 some of the trains were extended through
to Windsor on a trial basis. Here we see V1A
locomotive 6458 with a train of former jirst­
generation GO Transit cars arriving from
Blainville on February 4, 1999.
RAIL CANADIEN -469 54 MARS -AVRIL 1999
The Business Car
CN GETS ITS TICKET TO THE GULF
Jan Ravensbergen, The Gazette
Canadian National Railway Co. will soon be shipping
newsprint, lumber and other bulk and manufactured products
directly from the Canadian mills or factories where
theyre
produced to points as far afield as the Gulf of Mexico. Until
now, such shipments hit a huge bottleneck
in Chicago, where
the freight cars had
to be switched to different railway operators.
Within months, that will change.
Montreal based CN yesterday [March 25, 1999] got the
formal green light for its boldest move since it was privatized
in
late 1995. A three-person panel of the U.S. Surface
Transportation Board okayed CNs $3 billion purchase of
Chicago based Illinois Central Corp. The transaction was
unveiled in February 1998.
CN has thus become the No.5 continental railway,
behind the four U.S. biggies [Union Pacific, Burlington
Northern-Santa Fe, NOliolk Southern, CSX]. Illinois Central
has annual revenue
of $730 million U.S. With CN now firmly
on track
to grab a substantially bigger piece ofthe fast-growing
north-south trade action between Canada, the U.S. and Mexico,
it boasted that it has become the only true North American
railroad on the continent. The enlarged
CN will have about
$3.5 billion U.S.
in revenue, about 25,000 employees and will
operate a network
of 17,190 miles of track. CN had just 1,150
miles
of track in the U.S. before the takeover. The 3,370 miles
held by Illinois Central
connect every major city on the
Mississippi River, down
to New Orleans. We are extremely
gratified by the decision Paul Tellier,
CNs president and chief
executive, said
in a statement. This is a big deal for them,
said stock analyst Robert Reid
ofCT Securities Inc. in Toronto.
The further you can go with a railcar without having to switch
it with another railroad, the greater the efficiencies there are.
North-south business volume
is growing at between 10
and 12 per cent a year. And the freshly enlarged CN has its
game plan in hand to aggressively cultivate fresh business -as
well as snag existing revenue from other railways and trucking
firms.
Were looking at new intermodal service, CN official
Mark Hallman said, transporting tl1lck uailers and containers
on flatcars, sometimes double-stacked. No. I on that list
is a
Montreal-Memphis route.
Source: Montreal Gazette, March 26, 1999.
THREE-AXLE STREET CARS
Mr. Henry Elsner Jr. of 319 South 44th Street,
Philadelphia, PA, 19104 writes:
The article by Fred Angus in your May-June 1996 issue
about the Point Ellice Bridge Disaster has recently been brought
to my attention.
It is a fine treatment both ofthe tragedy and of
the Robinson Radial car involved. I can only add two minor
points.
The single car was reportedly acquired following a visit
of the Victoria companys president to Boston, presumably
shortly after the Robinson cars entered service there and were
still viewed favorably by the management. And according to
records perused by Douglas Parker, the Victoria
huck was indeed
raised from the riverbed after the accident,
to be weighed as
part
of the investigation.
Perhaps
some of your readers might be interested in a
related history
of the Robinson truck as well as the further
application
some decades later of the basic principle, in a
different design, in Europe. These matters are discussed
at
length in my two volume work Three-Axle Streetcars -from
Robinson to Rathgeber.
To bring the 3-axle story almost to its conclusion, it
might be noted that the last large-scale use
of such vehicles, in
Munich, finally ended the last week of May 1997 upon
completion of delivery of replacement low-floor articulated cars.
CRAIG LEITH STATION
Mr. Paul Willoughby of Brampton Ontario writes
I was very interested
in the article by Marco and Robert
Manone on the Craigleith Station. However, I question some
of their statements.
The authors state It is the oldest and last of the original
stations built on the first long line
of railway in the province.
In 1853 the Ontario Simcoe and Huron Union Railway built a
station at King, north
of Toronto. This building still exists and
is located on the grounds
of the King Township Museum.
Having been built during the first year of the railwayS operation
makes it the oldest station associated with this line and possibly
the oldest in Canada.
The Craigleith Station is described as painted in the
traditional warm railway red. The original colours used by
the Ontario Simcoe and Huron are cream and green. as revealed
after much work on the King station.
It is believed that the
railway red came with the ownership
of either the Grand Tl1lnk
or the Canadian National Railway.
Thank you for an informative and enjoyable magazine.
FIVE TRAINS SHOULD SERVE SOUTH SHORE
Five commuter trains in each direction are better than
three for the planned commuter-train link platmed for Montreals
South Shore, a feasibility study has concluded.
The study was
ordered by the Metropolitan Transit Agency and CN as a follow­
up
to a study last fall indicating there is sufficient demand for
such a service.
The new study showed that although the CN
rail line is used extensively for freight traffic and by Via and
Amtrak for passengers, it could still handle a total of 10
commuter I1lns a day.
MARCH -APRIL 1999
We have the rolling stock. We have the infrastructure.
We
just have to agree on the cost with CN said Paul Dorval,
commuter-train co-ordinator for the Metropolitan Transit
Agency. He hoped some agreement can be reached by spring
with CN, which owns the rail line and right-of-way.
The agency
purchased 90
GO train cars from Ontario in 1994, and 26 are
already in use on an intelim basis linking Blainville, Sainte­
Therese, Rosemere and Laval with Montreal.
The projected
service would run from Saint-Bruno, Saint-Basile-Ie-Grand and
Saint-Hilaire through Saint-Lambert and LeMoyne to
Montreals Central Station.
Source: Montreal Gazette, March 2, 1999.
140
YEARS AGO
The Grand Trunk to run into the City. -This Long­
wished-for desideratum
is at length, we understand, in a fair
way of being attained. Negotiations are nearly completed
between the above company and the Montreal and New York
Railroad, whereby the Grand Trunk, for an annual and very
liberal compensation, will be allowed to run on the south side
of the Lachine road from the crossing at the Tanneries, direct
into town.
The new station will be on or about the site of the old
Hero Engine House,
in Chaboillez Square; and a portion of the
freight station in Bonaventure Street will
be used by each of
the companies. The Grand Trunk at the end of four years will
have the option
of purchasing the right of way at a valuation.
We need not
say how glad we shall be to see this desirable
improvement at once commenced. It will be of the greatest
benefit both to the commercial community and travellers to and
from the city.
Source: The Montreal Pilot, April
18, 1859.
100
YEARS AGO
The Quebec, Montmorency & Charlevoix Ry. Co.
proposes changing the existing steam railway system from
Quebec City to Cap Tourmente, 30 miles, into an electric system.
In addition it proposes to construct a branch line, parallel to the
existing line but on top
of the cliff and alongside of the public
road, between Quebec and Montmorency Falls, 7 miles. With
this
object in view the Cmpany has let a contract for the
necessary cars, which will be somewhat similar to the ordinary
steam railway cars, 55
ft. long and equipped with four 50 h.p.
motors and air brakes manufactured by the Westinghouse
Company and speeded for 50 miles an hour.
The additional generating plant required at the
Montmorency Falls power house will consist of one 600
K.W.A.C. D.C. generator, with converter, Switchboard, etc.,
complete, and at the sub-station which it is proposed to build at
St. Arule de Beaupre, one 200 K.
W. rotalY transfonner with
converter, switch board, etc., complete. This will all
be supplied
by
the Westinghouse Company. The Q.M.&C.Co. already
operates the street railway in Quebec City by electricity.
Since the foregoing was written we have been informed
that the, changes between Quebec and
Cap Tourmente will
undoubtedly be made this year, and if there are no undue
55 CANADIAN RAIL -469
obstructios in purchasing the right of way for the branch line
between
Quebec and Montorency Falls, it
also will also be built
this year.
All the work will be done by the Company itself, and
the contracts for rails, ties, timber and other material have been
placed. The cars will be
somewhat similar to those used by the
Detroit & Ypsilanti Ry., and each will have four 50 h.p.
Westinghouse motors,
with controllers, air brakes, etc. The
generators, rotary transformers, etc. for generating the current
at the
power house at Montmorency Falls, and at St. Anne de
Beaupre, will also
be of Westinghouse manufacture. The water
wheel, which will be required to operate the gemators under
195 ft. head, has not yet
been ordered.
Source: The Railway and Shipping World. April, 1899.
OKANAGAN VALLEY WINE TRAIN
Canadas newest tourist train will make its debut at 11 :00
A.M. on
May 9, 1999, when the Okanagan Valley Wine train
departs Kelowna
B.c. on its first round trip to Vernon. From
then until October 31, the train will offer daily trips,
leaving at
5:30 P.M. and additional trips leaving at
11 :00 A.M. on Sunday
only. On all trips there will be a 2
112 hour layover at Vernon,
and there will be a dinner and show. There will also be special
events, including fall foliage trips and a murder mystery, and
there will even be a Millennium Express on December 31,
1999, billed as
the last ride on the C.N. Super Continental for
this century.
As you have
no doubt deduced from the last sentence,
the equipme
nt for this train is ex-CN 1950s passenger cars,
similar to those used
on the Super Continental. To quote from
the attractive brochure issued by the hains organizers:
Every
year thousands of visitors enjoy the beauty of the Okanagan
Valley.
Youre in the healt of prime fruit growing and vinyard
countly. Wine aficionados and international holiday planners
are paying close attention to the Okanagan Valley, and so they
should. The unique terrain and climate permits optimum
growing conditions for a variety of wine producing grapes.
Adult coach fare
is $63.95, with lower fares for seniors
and
juniors, and in the cafe-lounge. There is also de-luxe
accommodation at higher prices. For complete information
phone 1-888-674-TRAK (8725).
SA CK CO VER: The impressive station of the Intercolonial Railway at Levis Quebec is pictured on this post card which was mailed
on August
28, 19lJ. The view is looking west, for this station was on the north side of the trae/e Despite its solid, castle-like
appearance, this station, built in 1902, was of wooden construction, and it burned
to the ground on November 24, 1914. Its replacement
was 011 the south side of the track, and passenger trains continued to serve Levis until 1998.
This issue of Canadian Rail delivered to printer April I, 1999.
Canadian Rail
120, rue St-Pierre, St. Constant, Quebec
Canada J5A 2G9
Postmaster: if undelivered within
10 days return to sender, postage guaranteed.
I. C, R. Station, Levis, Que.

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