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Canadian Rail 458 1997

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Canadian Rail 458 1997

Canadian Rail
No. 458
THE MAGAZINE OF CANADAS RAILWAY HISTORY
MAY -JUNE 1997
PUBLISHED
BI-MONTHLY BY THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
PUBLIE TOUS LES DEUX MOIS PAR L ASSOCIATION CANADIENNE DHISTOIRE FERROVIAIRE
58
CANADIAN RAIL
ISSN 0008-4875
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE POSTER EXPRESS …. LA PUB ENTRE EN GARE ……………………………… GUY PEPiN………………………. 59
THE FIRST CONSOLIDATION BUILTIN CANADA …………………………………….. FRED ANGUS…………………… 67
SIXTY YEARS OF CRHA PUBLICATIONS ………………………………………………… FRED ANGUS…………………… 80
THE BUSINESS CAR……………………………………………………………
………………… …………………………………………. 82
FRONT COVER: A CPR passenger train at Glacier British Columbia about 1890. Motive power is No. 401, the first Consolidation type
locomotive built
in Canada. These 2-8-0s were regularly used in the Selldrks at that lime. National Archives of Canada. Photo No. PA-25053.
BELOW An elaborate poster. printed in 1893, advertizing the fact that the CPR operated three passenger trains daily (except Sunday) between
Toronto and Chicago. the site
of the Worlds Columbian Exposition of that year. Much was made of the fact that all the cars were vestibuled.
For
your membership
in the CRHA, which
includes a subscription
to Canadian Rail,
write to:
CRHA, 120 Rue St-Pierre,
St. Constant,
Que.
J5A2G9
Membership Dues for 1997:
In Canada: $35.00 (including GST)
United States: $30.00
in U.S. funds. Canadian Rail
is continually in need of news, sto­
ries historical data, photos, maps and other mate­
rial. Please send all contributions to the editor: Fred
F. Angus, 3021 Trafalgar Ave. Montreal, P.Q. H3Y 1 H3.
No payment can
be made for contributions, but the
contributer will be given credit for material submitted.
Material will
be returned to the contributer if requested.
Remember Knowledge
is of little value unless it is
shared with others.
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: Douglas N.W. Smith
ASSOCIATE EDITOR (Motive Power):
Hugues
W. Bonin
DISTRIBUTION: Gerard Frechette
LAYOUT: Fred
F. Angus
PRINTING: Procel Printing
.C._ ••• _.. . • .• _ -_t!I.
V{ofttiisli1o .
¥.I.ND TH-E l. 11 J~
. WEST, NORT~·-VfESI
AriD a>OUTH:.
~AGHED{ QUI~KLY. .
. COMFORTABLY;
at.CHEAPLY.
IF YOU ARE ·~lOiNiG .. –
10 THE-
gLD5fAl~
le ~EE THAT,
MAY -JUNE 1997 59 CANADIAN RAIL -458
The Poster Express. A Century of Railway Posters
La Pub Entre en Gare … Un Siecle d Affiches
Ferroviaires dIci et d Ailleurs
Guy Pepin, guest curator -conservateur invite
The history of the railway poster is intimately related to the
history
of the railway and its users. It is also the history of a very
special form
of advertisement which, thanks to the work of several
artists, demonstrates the evolution in the use
of pictures to promote
among others, immigration, tourism
or even the war eff0l1.
This exhibition, realized by the Canadian Railway
Museum
at DelsoniSaint-Constant with the participation of La vie du Rail
and Le Musee du chemin de fer jran(:ais -Mulho!lse (SNCF), hav­
els across time and space, and look at six important phases
of both
the history
of posters and of the railway. More than a simple stylis­
tic or aesthetic thread, this approach reminds us how the railway
was and still is an important moving force
of social and economic
activities for any country.
THE BEGINNINGS (1850-1880)
The first forms of railway posters were representative of
the beginning of the railway in Canada. At that particular time, the
railway companies were
just in their infancy, looking for a clientele
and for financial security. Since the very first
day, the railway com­
panies used the poster to promote and publicize their activities.
These posters were quite simple, seldom more than typographic
extravaganza, literaly covered with all kinds
of information on new
lines, transportation facilities etc.
The use
of typography in a graphic way was generalized.
This technique, standard in the printing industry, was simple and
did not need elaborate means.
It was possible for railway compa­
nies to design, produce and spread their advertisement on their ter­
ritory. Smaller formats were prefered because they were particu­
larly well adapted for distribution on a large scale. They could be
used on several sites, from station walls to telegraph poles and make­
shift panels.
At that time, the railway industry and its advertisements
were new, and as such were looking everywhere for a new direc­
tion for a vocation.
With the typography,
of that period, page publishing and
design were limited to a simple selection
of fonts and omemental
borders. For that reason, some typographs were using colour in
their composition so as to enhance the appearance, sometime to the
detriment
of legibility.
The railway poster as such, appeared in the 1890s in the
wake
of the evolution of passenger transportation. Nonetheless,
always looking to improve their image and to acquire new clients,
the railway companies rapidly employed a new form
of advertise­
ment, the illustrated poster, and a new technique, colour lithogra­
phy. A development of the industrial revolution, this technique
permitted the large scale reproduction
of colour illustrations, ex­
ecuted with
ink or a pen on a chalk stone chemically prepared for
the occasion. The first colour poster was created by the Frenchman
Jules Cheret in the 1880s. Hugo Alesi, another French artist, was
known as the
father of the railway poster. It was he who, in I:histoire de
laffiche ferroviaire, cest a la fois celie du
chemin de fer et celIe de ses usagers.
Cest aussi lhistoire dune
forme publicitaire qui, par Ie travail de nombreux artisans, nous
informe sur levolution des manieres de faire et de faire voir par
I image, les orientations de cette industrie depuis ses debuts.
Cette exposition presentee
par Ie Musee ferroviaire canadien
de DelsoniSaint-Constant, se veut
un parcours dans Ie temps … un
regard sur cinq moments forts de Ihistoire
de Iaffiche publicitaire
mise au service
du chernin de fer canadien. Un volet supplementaire
traite des affiches produites pour les employes eux-memes.
Parallelement a la presentation de cet itineraire canadien,
ce parcours integre
un volet etranger issu daffiches ferroviaires
franyaises. Plus
quun simple rapprochement stylistique, ce lien
nous rappel
Ie role du chemin de fer en tant que moteur de la realite
socia
Ie et economique dun pays.
LES DEBUTS (1850-1880)
Les premieres formes daffiches ferroviaires sont
representatives des debuts du chernin de fer au Canada. Une phase
de developpement ou Iindustrie du chernin de fer naissant est en
quete de clienteles d usagers et de sources de financement. Des
leurs debuts, les compagnies ferroviaires utilisent, pour promouvoir
et rentabiliser letablissement de leurs reseaux, des affiches
publicitaires presentant une cascade dinformations sur
Iinauguration de nouvelles lignes, les facilites de transport et des
invitations de toutes sortes.
La plupart de ces affiches sont realisees en typographie.
Cette technique standard dimprimerie qui necessite peu de moyens,
permet
aces compagnies de produire et de diffuser leurs affiches
sur I ensemble des territoires quelles desservent. Leurs petits for­
mats facilitent aussi leurs diffusions
a grandes echelles. Elles peuvent
etre placees
a divers endroits comme sur les murs des gares, dans
les villes et campagnes sur des poteaux
et panneaux de fortunes.
La typographie,
a cette epoque, ne permet quune mise en
page limitee par Ie simple choix de lettres et de bordures
d ornementation. Pour cette raison, certains typogra phes
sappliquent a creer des formats plus attrayants en integrant la
couleur a leurs compositions.
I: affiche ferroviaire illustree apparaitra tardivement a la fin
du 1ge siecle, avec I evolution du transport de passagers. Cependant,
pour attirer les regards sur leurs realisations, les compagnies
ferroviaires font produire des leurs debuts, des affiches illustrees
faisant appel
a une nouvelle technique dimpression: la lithographie
couleur. Developpee industrieJJement, cette technique permet de
reproduire sur papier
a de multiples exemplaires, une illustration
couleur executee
a l encre ou au crayon sur une plaque de pierre
calcaire preparee chimiquement.
RAIL CANADIEN – 458 60 MAl -JUIN 1997
-SIBIL BAILS AND .IItDNBlIDIJB&
Cu tom Rousa Obstructions. Elcoliont Rofroshmont R
NO OHANGE O,F CARS.
c.1879
MAY -JUNE 1997
1890, produced the first railway poster with a paysagefor the
Paris-Lyon-MMiterranee (P.L.M.) which subject was the French
Alps resort
of Chamonix. Since then, the countryside, the sea or
the mountains have been the principal subjects
of posters created to
promote tourism.
The timetable represented the first form
of railway poster,
both
in Europe and in North America. Its standard format was the
one used by the printing industry, and was ideal for use in newspa­
pers and on the walls
of railway stations. This type of advertise­
ment illustrated the complexity
of the early rail networks and their
operations.
Any event could be used
by the railway compauies as an
opportunity to advertise and promote their services. By offering
reduced rates and all kinds
of package deals, the railway compa­
nies were contributing to the democratization and popularity
of tour­
ism (which was in its infancy at that time) among all classes
of the
population.
Competition among the railway companies encouraged the
creation
of new services targeting different clienteles. For example,
one poster offered a reduced excursion fare, trying to reach the
urban population through the use
of an appropriate slogan. Excur­
sions were the first form
of tourism. In fact, both in Europe and in
North America, people, with a few exceptions, were just discover­
ing the areas surrounding their cities, something which was impos­
sible before the advent
of the railway.
COLONIZATION & IMMlGRATION (1880-1920)
Thanks to the Canadian governments gifts of lands, the
railway companies also became important real estate owners. The
use and development
of the railway, with inherent revenues, was
linked to the development and colonization
of the country.
The railways were very interested in the recruitment
of new
immigrants. Some opened immigration offices and set up agencies
across Europe and the United States. Many posters were created
especially for these agencies, sometime in several languages, and
advertized almost exclusively the merits
of the Canadian West.
In Canada itself, agencies were set
up to recruit new set­
tlers for the West from the already established population. Differ­
ent posters were created which targeted the Eastern Canadian
and extolled the marvels
of the West.
From 1885 to 1914, more than one million people chose
Canada as their new country. The First World War and the subse­
quent crisis (both economic and politic) stopped the migratory
flow.
From
then on immigration was taken over by the Canadian govern­
ment which produced its own posters. After the Second World
War, Canada experienced another boom in immigration, mostly due
to geo-political disruptions in Europe. At that time tbe airlines –
themselves creations
of the railway companies -took over from
boats and trains as the normal way to immigrate and h·avel.
Colonization was always the preoccupation
of railways
which wanted to make their operations profitable. ExploratOlyex­
cursions were offered to attract farmers and labourerers. These
posters were distributed among the stations
in all cities in Eastern
Canada or the United States.
Railway companies had been important players
in the mi­
gratory movement since the second half
of the 19th century, both in
Canada and
in France. The latter was geographically well suited
for emigration, with several ports which were terminals for some
of the busiest sea lines, particularly from and to North America.
Besides the Canadian posters used
in France for the recruitment of
immigrants, an important production of French posters promoted
61 CANADIAN RAIL -458
I.:horaire de train represente la premiere forme d affiche
ferroviaire. Son format standard dimprimerie permet sa diffusion
aussi bien dans les journaux que placarde a divers endroits.
II est
interessant de remarquer que ce type de publicite nous montre
la
complexite des reseaux et des operations ferroviaires a leurs debuts.
Tout evenement sert de pretexte aux compagnies
ferroviaires, pour publiciser et exploiter leurs reseaux. Ainsi, en
offrant une gamme de forfaits a prix reduits, ces compagnies
contribuent a democratiser et developper
Ie tourisme des classes
ouvrieres.
La concurrence entre les compagnies ferroviaires favorise
[apparition de nouveaux services ciblant des clienteles differentes.
Une affiche qui ann once
it bas prix une excursion, tente de joindre
par
till slogan evocateur, une clientele citadine. Par I utilisation de
slogans, les compagnies sefforcent de creer un langage publicitaire
plus efficace. Les excursions sont les premieres formes de tourisme.
En fait, en Europe comme en Amerique du Nord, les citadins
decouvrent les environs de leur lieu de residence grace au train.
II
suffit de penser a la popularite du Ptit Train du Nord pour les
skieurs excursionnistes, detrone plus tard
par lautomobile et les
liaisons par auto bus.
LIMMIGRATION ET LA COLONISATION (1880-1920)
Grace aux immenses territoires que Ie gouvernement
canadien oChoie de part et d autres des voies ferrees, les compagnies
ferroviaires se presentent comme d importants proprietaires fonciers.
I.:usage du chemin de fer ainsi que les revenus
quils generent
doivent trouver leur source dans
Ie developpement et Ie peuplement
du pays.
Les compagnies portent donc une vive attention a la
colonisation et au recrutement des nouveaux arrivants. Certaines
compagnies ouvrent des departements dimrnigration et mettent sur
pied des agences de recrutement en Europe. Ces agences sont des
lieux importants de diffilsion daffiches vantant, notamment dans
plusieurs langues, les merites de lOuest canadien.
De
la meme fayon, au Canada, certaines de ces compagnies
sont egalement chargees de toute la publicite entourant la
colonisation.
La colonisation est au centre des preoccupations
du pays et
les compagnies ferroviaires en profitent. Elles offrent des visites
exploratoires de courte duree dans
Ie but dattirer deventuels co­
lons deja etablis ou des immigrants
frakhement debarques sur Ie
Continent. Ces affiches sont diffusees dans les gares et les villes de
I
est du Canada et du Nord-Est des Etats-Unis.
Les compagnies ferroviaires franyaises participent des
la
fi.n du 1ge siecle, it ce vaste phenomene migratoire. En effet, la
France a la particularite geographique doffiir de nombreux ports
d embarquement desservant plusieurs !ignes maritimes canadiennes
a destination de [Amerique
du Nord. Ainsi, en offrant des tatifs
speciaux,
eUes acheminent a cette epoque de nombreux immigrants
souvent peu fortunes venus des quatre coins de [Europe.
Notons toutefois, que
Ie tourisme est deja it cette epoque Ie
sujet privilegie de 1 affiche ferroviaire fran9aise. Alors que
I Amerique cherche it se peupler, lEurope se decouvre: la mer, la
montagne et la campagne soffrent au citadin.
LE TOURISME (1920-1939)
Entre 1920 et Ie debut de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les
compagnies ferroviaires canadiennes erigent, afin de rentabiliser
leurs reseaux, dimportantes infrastructures touristiques
RAIL CANADIEN -458 62 MAl -JUIN 1997
1888 c. 1900
MAY -JUNE 1997
the emigration to Frances new colonies in Africa and the Far East
which were just beginning to develop.
By offering reduced rates to
these ports, the railways helped the migratory movement of mil­
lions
of people, often poor or without work.
At the same time, Europe not being suited for immigration,
was not looking for new people; quite the contrary.
To help make
the rail lines profitable, tourism was adopted and promoted much
earlier than in North America.
TOURISM IN NORTH AMERICA (1920-1939)
Whereas French railways had promoted tourism since the
1880
s, the Canadian railways had to wait until the end of the First
World War to experience an explosion
of interest in tourism. From
J 920 until J 939, the Canadian railways invested heavily in their
tourism infrastructures all over Canada.
To attract an ever discrimi­
nating clientele, aitists (and not simply typographers) were hired
to create a new line
of posters which were among the most impor­
tant
in the histoIY for that medium.
These were distributed
in Canada and elsewhere through
tourism agencies and offices. Artists who created them, used new
processes and printing techniques which helped enhance the ap­
pearance
of the illustration, making it more powerful, such as
those many landscapes -stereotyped -depicting the Canadian
Rockies, the Canadian Plains or any other part
of the country.
Subsequently, under the influence
of modern art currents,
the artists hired
by the railways rapidly designed a new graphism in
which the interest for legibility was put to the service of a railway
industry
in full technological revolution.
This golden age
of the railway poster, is characterized by
a
will to represent not only the means of transportation or the fares,
but the destination, which, after all, was the product
to sell, the
train being only the means to reach it. Perfect and idealistic land­
scapes were typical
of the production.
Some illustrators, such as Hal Ross Perrigard, wanted
to
animate the landscape. The posters produced during that period
were typically populated
by women which were thought to en­
hance the attractiveness
of the place depicted.
Cassandre (whose real name was Adolphe Mouron), a
French
affichiste revolutionized the railway poster with the intro­
duction
of the machine which was, until 1925, almost entirely ab­
sent from the iconology. Following his influence, several artists,
including Canadians, produced a new family
of railway posters
where the mighty locomotive,
streamlined and gracious, yet
monstruous
in some way, appeared in all her beauty. Power, speed
and con fort were the new credo
of the railway industry which be­
gins to feel the rivalry
of other means of transpoitation. This poster
was typical
of the production of the late 1930s.
Graphists and illustrators such as Norman Fraser, used
serigraphy for the production
of colourful and enl ivened posters.
This process, derived from the stencil technique, was adopted on
an industrial scale during the 1930s. With it, it was possible to
create powerful illustrations with large color applications.
With time, especially since the 1960s, poster composition
was radically simplified. The railway poster now had to transmit
clearly and powerfully a simple message, or slogan. The landscape
slowly disappeared. Text, with new fonts and styles, was becom­
ing important once again. In some way it represents a kind
of re­
turn to the origins.
To make their operations profitable, the french railway com­
panies tried as early as 1887 to improve the touristic infrastructures
(Canadian companies had to wait until the 1920s). Thanks to these
63 CANADIAN RAIL -458
pancanadiennes. Pour promouvoir leurs installations chez une
clientele en pleine expansion dans
Ie monde, ces compagnies font
appel
a des artistes qui signent les affiches les plus marquantes de
Ihistoire de ce medium.
Ces affiches sont diffusees au Canada et
a letranger dans
des agences et des bureaux touristiques. Les artistes qui les creent
utilisent des pro cedes dimpression nouveaux leur permettant une
imagerie plus seduisante, tel que des paysages –
aujourdhui
stereotypes -illustrant les channes du Canada.
Subsequemment, sous linfluence de divers courants
artistiques modernes, ils sappliquent tres rapidement a fac;:onner
un graphisme dont Ie souci de lisibilite est mis au service dune
industrie ferroviaire en pleine revolution technologique.
Cet age
d or de I affiche ferroviaire est caracterise par une
volonte de representer non pas les trajets
ni Ie moyen de transport,
mais plutOt
la destination. Ces affiches attrayantes tentent de faire
oublier les trajets et les itineraires parfois ardus qui attendent les
voyageurs
a cette epoque de la vapeur.
Certains illustrateurs, com me Hal Ross Perrigard,
sinteressent aux paysages animes.
A cette epoque, un tel paysage
est plus attrayant lorsqu
on y rencontre une femme … Du moins est­
ce lopinion des publicistes en herbe qui associent
la feminisation
des sujets
au raffinement et a la qua lite de vie.
Tandis que
Ie paysage demeure pendant plusieurs annees
une forme recurrente de
la publicite ferroviaire, on commence a
partir de la deuxieme moitie des annees 30, a sinteresser a dautres
attraits promotionnels
du chemin de fer. Cest sous Iimpulsion
didees artistiques modernes
quon sapplique a representer la puis­
sance,
la vitesse et la beaute de la machine.
Des graphistes et illustrateurs canadiens comme NOiman
Fraser ont recours
a la serigraphie pour la reproduction daffiches
vives
et colorees. Ce pro cede derive du pochoir est adapte
industriellement au cours des annees 30 et pennet de creer par des
grands aplats de couleurs, des illustrations accrochantes.
Avec
Ie temps, les compositions des affiches subissent une
epuration radicale. I.:affiche doit dorenavant transmettre un mes­
sage clair et precis de lannonceur au public. On delaisse
progressivement lillustration de paysage pour integrer du texte
comme seul element de la composition. Retour aux sources
.. .le
graphisme et
la typographie se rejoignent.
Afin de rentabiliser leurs reseaux, les compagnies
ferroviaires franc;:aises tentent de developper, des 1887, des infra­
structures touristiques. Grace
a ces efforts apparaissent dans Ie
paysage franc;:ais les stations balneaires, et les stations thennales.
De plus la montagne, les monuments et les lieux de pelerinage
deviennent des invitations
au voyage pour les citadins enfin lib6res
de leurs murs. On fait appel
a des artistes aquarellistes qui produisent
des affiches-paysage typiques de
la Belle Epoque.
Hugo Alesi, affichiste
franc;:ais de renom, etait extremement
consciencieux et perfectionniste. Ce trait
de caractere lamena a
ouvrir sa propre imprimerie afin de contraler toutes les eta pes de la
fabrication. La rentabilite de ses operations netant pas son princi­
pal souci,
il mourut dans la misere, ruine. II reste un artiste impor­
tant
a qui lon doit quelques-unes des plus belles affiches-paysage
de
la Belle-Epoque. Chamonix, Ie sujet de cette affiche, est une
station de ski de renommee mondiale. Cette demiere est due en
bonne partie
a la promotion qui en a ete faite des Ie debut. En fait,
Chamonix fut
Ie sujet de la premiere affiche-paysage ferroviaire
franc;:aise.
RAIL CANADIEN -458
efforts, a string of sea or ski resorts, even thermal spas, soon ap­
peared all along the railway lines, from the Alps to the Mediterra­
nean and the Atlantic.
Monuments and historic sites also served as pretexts for
excursions or a
few days vacations. Aquarellists are hired for their
skills and their production was typical
of the Belle Epoque.
THE WAR YEARS (1939-1945)
Canadian railways heavily contributed to the war effort.
They constituted the main means
of transportation for raw goods
and military equipment and personnel. Several thousand employ­
ees from the railway companies fought in Europe or Asia, some in
railway battalions, others as aviators, infantrymen or sailors. A
large number were kept
in the country, appropriately named the
home front, actively engaged in the production
of tanks, rifles
and ammunition.
The Second World War represented the apogee
of the use
of the railway as the main means of transportation for the popula­
tion. But, these years were also poor for the production
of posters.
The only ones created were used for propaganda. Patriotism
was
the slogan of the hour. Financing the war effort was on the agenda,
along with recycling.
At the beginn.ing
of the Second World War, before the oc­
cupation
by German forces, the French railways produced posters
like their Canadian counterparts. During the occupation (from 1940
to 1944), posters were produced for the benefit of German propa­
ganda. The sacrifice
of literaly thousands of railwaymen, excuted
as saboteurs by the Gestapo (German secret police) or killed
in the
process
of the allied air campaign againt the German army, is a fact
often forgotten. After the Liberation the posters were used
to pro­
mote the reconstruction effort.
THE GOOD COMPANY ( 1950-1970)
The 1950s marked a decisive turn in the history and devel­
opment
of railways in Canada and elsewhere. Diesel locomotives
were increasingly used by the railways, and the last steam engine
was put
in service in 1949 by the Canadian Pacific Railway in the
Rockies. This engine, the 5935, is preserved at the Canadian Rail­
way Museum at DelsoniSaint-Constant.
The modernization
of rolling stock was an attempt by the
railway companies
to win a loosing battle againt the automobile
and the airplane. In fact, as a whole, the rolling stock (from loco­
motives
to passenger cars) of all North American railways was in
really bad shape following the abuse
of the war years. Modern
equipment, security, comfort and speed were the key
to the adver­
tisement campaigns.
Sadly, largely due
to the popularity of radio and television
after the Second World
War, the poster lost ground as an elaborate
means
of communication. It was less and less used and today oc­
cupies a secondary role.
It was no longer the work of artists of all
kinds, but merely the work of graphic designers and advertisers.
No more dreams, no more enchantment, the railway poster was
living its last days. At the end
of the 1960s, photography was
predominant
in the advertisement business. This was the coup-de­
grace to the plethora of artists and illustrators who were devoted to
the production of fine posters of all kinds.
RAILWAY WORKERS
The railway industry has always been an important em­
ployer. In that sense, the history
of the railway poster is a witness
to the contribution made by the railway workers as principal actors
in the development of this industry.
64 MAl -JUIN 1997
LEFFORT DE GUERRE (1939-1945)
Les compagnies ferroviaires canadiennes contribuent
largement a leffort de guerre. En effet, les reseaux de chemin de
fer constituent
Ie moyen de transport essentiel pour diriger les soldats
et les equipements militaires
velS les ports canadiens ou des navires
partent
a destination de lEurope. De nombreuses personnes, It
lemploi de ces compagnies, semolent dans larmee; dautres
travaillent pour une industrie qui se recycle, pour la duree du conflit,
dans
la production darmement.
La deuxieme guerre mondiale correspond It un
ralentissement des activites publicitaires pour de
nombreuses
compagnies ferroviaires canadiennes. Neanmoins, el1es produisent
des affiches .qui font appel
a Iesprit patriotique des employes et
des usagers dans
Ie but avoue de soutenir l effort de guerre en Ie
finanyant et en introduisant la notion de recyclage des matieres
premieres.
La France presente
un cas particulier. Au debut de la guerre,
sa production daffiches ferroviaires est dans
la me me lignee que
les autres pays. Cependant, pendant Joccupation allemande,
la
production daffiches, quoique restreinte, fut mise au service de la
propagande ennemie qui essaye de decourager les cheminots de
soutenir
la resistance. Le sacrifice de plusieurs milliers de ces
derniers temoigne de Iechec de Ioccupant nazi. Avec la Liberation
la production daffiches ferroviaires sorientera vers la reconstruc­
tion
du pays en misant sur la fierte nationale.
LA BONNE COMPAGNIE ( 1950-1970)
Les annees 50 marquent un toumant decisif dans Ihistoire
et
Ie developpement du chemin de fer au Canada soit Ie passage de
la vapeur au diesel. Face It lapparition de nouveaux modes de trans­
ports concurrents, comme Iavion et lautomobiJe,
les compagnies
ferroviaires misent sur cette revolution technologique pour attirer
une clientele de passagers qui toume
Ie dos It ses reseaux. Ce
positionnement entraine un renouvellement du message dans
I affiche ferroviaire.
Cest Ie moyen de transport plutot que la destination qui
prime maintenant dans
la representation du chemin de fer. Cette
revolution technologique du diesel permet en effet dintroduire la
notion de rapidite, de con fort, de securite et de modernite.
Parallelement, Ie langage graphique se modernise, gagne en purete,
en efficacite.
Face
a ce Mclin du transport de passagers et It la concur­
rence de la publicite radiophonique et televisee, Iaffiche devient,
It partir des annees 60, un moyen publicitaire de moins en moins
utilise. Les beauxjours de laffiche ferroviaire sont comptes …
Cest
vers la fin des annees 60 que la photographie envahit Ie domaine de
la publ icite ferroviaire. La photo donne un coup de grace aux artistes
qui avaient auparavant domine la creation daffiches illustrees.
LES EMPLOYES
Cindustrie ferroviaire a toujours ete un important empJoyeur
au Canada. Dans ce sens, lhistoire de laffiche ferroviaire temoigne
de
la contribution et de laffirmation des travailleurs du chemin de
fer, comme principaux acteurs du developpement de cette industrie
au pays.
MAY -JUNE 1997 65 CANADIAN RAIL -458
1886 1893
RAIL CANADIEN -458 66 MAl -JUIN 1997
c.1936
MAY -JUNE 1997 67 CANADIAN RAIL -458
The First Consolidation Built in Canada
When one thinks of CPR locomotives of the 1880s, one tends to think of the ubiquitous 4-4-0, probably because they were so
numerous, as well as the fact that the few survivors are all
of that type. Here we will see what was then a much rarer type but was the forerunner
of a wheel arrangement that was to become of great importance in freight service in the twentieth century.
On June 28, 1886 the first regularly scheduled CPR trans­
continental passenger train departed from Montreal bound for Port
Moody in British Columbia, which it reached six days later. After
many years
of planning and construction, the transcontinental rail­
way was open at last.
In order
to complete the railway through the mountains of
British Columbia certain Temporary expedients had been em­
ployed. Most notable among these were the 4.4% grade on the Big
Hill between Stephen and Field, and the series ofloops over Rogers
Pass. Although it was realized that these features would eventually
be replaced, this would be an expensive proposition, and it would
be more than a quarter century before this came
to pass. Operation
on the Big Hill was abandoned upon completion
of the Spiral
Tunnels in 1909, and trains ceased
to go over Rogers Pass when the
Connaught Tunnel was opened in 1916.
During the construction days, and for some time thereafter,
most
of CPs locomotives were of the 4-4-0 wheel arrangement,
which was
by far the most common type in use in North America at
that time. On steep grades it was the practice to doublehead or
triplehead 4-4-0s, and helper locomotives would be stationed near
these grades. CP realized there would be problems operating on
such grades and in 1884, even before the line was completed, or­
dered two 2-8-0s, known as the Consolidation type, especially for
helper service on the Big Hill. These were built by Baldwin, were
munbered 312 and 313, and went into service late in 1884.
Two
years later they were followed by two similar locomotives, 314 and
315. These were entirely satisfactory and were used as intended for
many years, the last one surviving until 1928.
The worlds first 2-8-0 had been built by Baldwin
in 1866
for the Lehigh Valley Railroad in Pennsylvania, and was intended
for heavy freight service. At that time the Lehigh Valley was
in the
process
of consolidating several smaller railroads into its system
so, in commemoration
of this, the new locomotive was named Con­
solidation. Soon the name
of this locomotive was applied to that
particular wheel arrangement, and this name has been used ever
SInce.
In 1883 the CPR constructed its new locomotive shops on
Delorimier Avenue in Montreal and, under the direction
of Me­
chanical Superintendent Francis R.E Brown, began
to build its own
locomotives. Until 1888 most were 4-4-0s, and at least three
of
these, greatly rebuilt, have survived. These are 351 (now 144), 374,
and
391 (now 29). However other types were considered and some
were constructed during the Brown era. For a short time 2-6-0s
were being produced, but these were soon succeeded
by the much
more successful (for CP) 4-6-0s. In addition it was realized that the
2-8-0 wheel arrangement would be very useful for certain applica­
tions, as the 1884 Baldwins had proved. Although
in later years the
2-8-0 would be built in very large numbers for CP (fully one sixth
of its entire steam locomotive fleet) this situation was far in the
future in the 1880s. So it was that in 1886 Brown designed a very
handsome looking 2-8-0, named the S.D. class, and four
of them
were built and numbered
401 to 404. The following year two more
almost identical locomotives, S.G. class 405 and 316 (later renum­
bered 406) joined the fleet.
It is said that the 40 I type were origi­
nally intended for freight service on the North Shore
of Lake Supe­
rior, but
in fact they were assigned to helper service over the Selkirks
between Golden and Revelstoke B.
C. For many years they served
this line well, being used regularly
on passenger trains as well as
some freight service. Until at least the late 1890s they were a fea­
ture
of this scenic part of the transcontinental run.
CPR number 401, the first
of its series, was the first 2-8-0
to be built in Canada, and the first CP locomotive with the ex­
tended smokebox.
It had builders number 1048, and went into ser­
vice in September 1886. The publication The Railroad Gazette,
in its issue of May 6, 1887, (exactly 110 years ago today as this is
being written) had a
fulJ description of these new locomotives. This
account, with its highly detailed drawings,
is printed here in full.
Two things are immediately apparent in studying the drawings. First
is the amount
of detail and fine work required on even these early
and somewhat simpler locomotives
of the 1880s. Secondly they
show the superior draftsmanship practiced in those days, a skill
that has become almost a lost art
in these times of computer simu­
lation and other drafting procedures. These drawings are so de­
tailed that it would
seem to be almost possible to use them to build
a 2-8-0
ofthe 1880s! As is usual in our reproduction of old articles,
the spelling and puncuation are exactly as written 110 years ago.
The layout and size
of the drawings have been changed to suit the
format
of Canadian Rail, and to make them a convenient scale for
possible model making. The large plan and elevation drawings are
scaled to 1/30
of actual size (2/5 inch to 1 foot), while the three
cross-sections are
to a scale of 1124 (1/2 inch to I foot).
RAIL CANADIEN -458
68
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MAY -JUNE 1997 69 CANADIAN RAIL -458
CONSOLIDATION ENGINE, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
From The Railroad Gazette May 6, 1887
The accompanying illustrations show a class
of consolidation engines, designed and built by
Mr.
F.R.F. Brown, Mechanical Superintendent of the Ca­
nadian Pacific Railway, at the shops of the company
in Montreal. The engines are intended for working
heavy freight service
in the summer and to operate
the passenger trains
in emergencies in severe winter
weather. These engines are the first consolidation
engines built
in Canada.
The principal features which distinguish these
engines are the short stroke,
22 in., and the high boiler
pressure, 160
Ibs. per square inch, together with the
large grate surface required to maintain that pres­
sure. The weight of the engine
is sufficient to almost
entirely prevent slipping of the wheels
in good weather
without the use of sand, thus saving the wear of tires
and machinery, the designer being of the opinion that
a clean rail
is much superior to a sanded one, though
sand boxes are provided both front and back, for
emergencies
in bad weather. The fixed wheel-base
is extremely short for the diameter of the driving
wheels, and the counterbalancing is carefully esti­
mated, the result being that the engine can be run at
high speeds and
on curved roads with a remarkable
degree of ease and steadiness.
The frames are forged solid from the back end
to front of leading drivers, and the upper and lower
bars of front end, which embrace the cylinders, are
connected
to main frame by spliced and keyed joints,
not by butt ends depending upon bolts for strength.
Both these bars are extended
to the back of the buffer
beam, being there keyed and bolted together, and
to
the heavy smoke-box stay, the upper bar being
checked on top for a heavy cross plate laid on flat. All
are rigidly secured to the buffer beam and frames by
boxed angle irons, thus forming
an efficient protec­
tion to the cylinders
in case of collision.
The back ends of the frames are secured by
heavy cross-bars checked for and into the upper and
lower edges of the frames. The cross-bars carry the
drag-box, wedge casting and safety chains for ten­
der, and extend outwards to support the cab back
castings. The middle portions of the frame are stayed
entirely independent
of the boiler, and in such a man­
ner as to prevent any twisting due to superincumbent
weight.
The fire-box is spread over the frames and is
supported by four cast-steel slippers on top of the frames. The common system of carrying the fire-box
by four side links has given trouble by springing the
sides and corners of the foundation ring. Two heavy
plates studded
on the sides of the outside fire-box
and bent under the top bar of the frame, together with
two heavy links connecting brackets
on the back face
of the box
to the frame form sufficient security for the
boiler
in event of derailment, but they carry no weight
and admit of free expansion of the boiler.
The grate is rocked in two halves by separate
handles on face sheet, and the dump can be worked
easily by one hand from the footplate.
The ash pan
is constructed in sections, so as
to be easily removed without taking down any other
part but the dump shaft, thus enabling any repairs
to
be made without taking the wheels out. Both ash pan
and grate carriers are rigidly secured to foundation
ring only, and not to fire-box sheets or frame
in any
way.
The boiler plates are all Siemens-Martin mild
steel of fire-box quality, imported from Scotland, and
are sheared, punched and riveted by Tweddells hy­
draulic machinery, with steel rivets and stays of extra
mild quality. The whole boiler
is thus, with the excep­
tion of the foundation ring and one or two minor items,
of steel of similar quality.
The valves are of the Allen type, with Morse
balancing device, and the truck wheels are wrought­
iron disks, made by Krupp, with Mansell clippings and
crucible steel tires.
U.S. metallic packing
is used for the piston rods
and valve stems.
The engine
is capable of exerting a tractive
force of 155.7 Ibs. per
lb. pressure on pistons.
It is equipped with the Westinghouse automatic
brake
on the two forward pairs of drivers, and with
the American steam brake
on the two hind pairs, both
systems being connected to the tender and intended
to be used alternately.
Boiler, dome, cylinders, steam chests and
saddle are covered with asbestos
cloth· in. thick.
Feed water
is supplied by two lifting injectors,
one
No.8 on right hand and one NO.9 on left.
Sight feed lubricators are used.
[A list of the principal dimensions follows on
pages 72 and 73].
RAIL CANADIEN -458 70 MAl -JUIN 1997
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:ANADIAN PACIFIC RAILROAD.
,denl. Buill at the Compmys Shops, M,,trwl.
71 CANADIAN RAIL -458
MAY 6,1887
RAIL CANADIEN -458 72 MAl -JUIN 1997
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PRINCIPAL SPECIFICATIONS, C.P.R. CONSOLIDATION ENGINE 401. MAY 6, 1887
CYLINDERS AND MOTION
Diameter and stroke ………………………… 19 in. X 22 in.
Distance apart of centres ………………….. 6 ft. 11 in.
Steam ports, length and width …………….. 18 in. X 1 5/8 in.
Exhaust ports, length and width ………….. 18 in. X 3 v in.
Diameter of piston rods …………………….. 3 v in.
Length of connecting rod ……
……………… 9 ft. 2 in.
Journal of connectg rod,
length and diameter
………………….. 5 in. X 4 • in.
Travel of valve
……………………………….. 5 5/8 in.
Throw of eccentrics
…………………………. 5 • in.
Lap of valve ….
………………………………. 15/16 in.
Lead of valve each opening ……………….. 2/32 in. (sic).
WHEELS AND FRAME
Driving wheels, diameter ………………….. 4 ft. 3 in.
Driving wheels, tires, width and thickness,
1
S1
and 4Ih ………………………………. 5 • in X 3 in.
flanged.
Driving wheels, tires, width and thickness,
2
nd
and 3
rd
…………………………….. 6 in. X 3 in.
plain.
Driving axle journals,
diameter and length ….
……………….. ? in. X 8 in.
Truck wheels, diameter …………………….. 36 in.
Truck wheels, tires, width and thickness …. 5 in X 2 • in.
Truck axle journals, diameter and length …. 5 in. X 8 in.
Fixed wheel base …………………………… 14 ft. 3 in.
Total wheel base of engine ………………… 21 ft. 3 in.
Thickness of frames……………………… 3 v in.
Width over frames ……. ;
.. …….. ….. …. 4 ft. 2 v in.
Width between tires……………………… 4 ft. 5 • in.
Centre of cylinder
to centre of driving axle.13 ft. 0 in.
MAY -JUNE 1997 73 CANADIAN RAIL -458
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BOILER WEIGHT AND CAPACITY
Length of barrel. ..
…………………………… 11 ft. 11 in. Weight in working order, on trucks ………… 13,100 Ibs.
Diameter of smallest course outside …
….. .4 ft. 6 in.
Weight in working order, on drivers ………. 90,900 Ibs.
Thickness of plates
…………………………. 7/16 in.
Total weight …………………………………… 104,000 Ibs.
Thickness of tube plates
…………………… 0 in. Weight of tender, empty ……
………………. 35,000 Ibs.
Fire-box shell, sides, thickness
…………… 7/16 in.
Fire-box shell, back and top, thickness …… 0 in.
Fire-box inside crown, thickness
………….. 3/8 in. Capacity of tender, coal
……………………. 10 tons.
Capacity of tender, water ……
…………….. 3000 imp, gallons
or 3600 Amer. Gals. Fire-box sides and back, thickness
………. 5/16 in.
Fire-box length …………………….
……….. 8 ft. 11/16 in.
Tender fitted with 33 in. Krupp wrought-iron steel tired wheels.
Fire-box width, bottom
……………………… 3 ft. 6 J in.
Fire-box width, top …
……………………….. 3 ft. 9 in.
Fire-box outside length …………………….. 8 ft. 9 in.
Fire-box outside width, bottom ……………. 4 ft 2 -in.
Fire-box total depth inside, front..
………… 4 ft. 9 in.
Fire-box total depth inside, back ………….. 4 ft. 1 in.
Number of tubes …
…………………………. 208.
External diameter of tubes
…………………. 2 in.
Length between tube plates
………………. 12 ft. 2 0 in.
Heating service, tubes
……………………… 1329 sq. ft.
Heating surface, fire-box …………………… 119 sq. ft.
Total heating service ……………………….. 1448 sq. ft.
Grate area …………………………………… 28.7 sq. ft,
RAIL CANADIEN -458 74
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MAY -JUNE 1997 77 CANADIAN RAIL -458
DETAILS OF COSTS AND SPECIFICATIONS OF MATERIALS FOR
CPR LOCOMOTIVES
By Francis R.F. Brown. Mechanical Superintendent, c.P.R.
Extracted from a paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers,
London England,
on May 16, 1887. From The Railroad Gazette, June 17, 1887.
(Note: Amounts of money were
in pounds Sterling. These have been converted to dollars at the rate in effect in 1887).
In order to get the traffic through, it is considered of
more importance that the engines should haul the largest
possible loads with such economy as can be obtained,
than that they should haul smaller loads at a cheaper rate
per ton
in regard to fuel. The passenger service on main
lines
is more often a combination of express and local than
either one of these chiefly. Thus the majority of through
express trains have
to stop at nearly all stations either by
time-table or by signal. Special care
is therefore required
in designing the engines so as to combine free running
with the quickest possible starting power; and a continu­
ous brake
is also rendered necessary as well as expedi­
ent for economizing time
in stopping ……
A batch of five engines of the
SA class [4-4-0)
which the writer has recently completed, cost, without ex­
tras, $5205 each for
the finished engine and tender …. The
cost here given by the writer, being less than half that of
an equivalent English engine, may be regarded with some
surprise, and a few leading details will therefore be added.
This cost includes all the coal used in the forge,
blacksmiths boiler, and other shops, as well as ali small
tools and supplies used
in the construction of the engines,
such as brooms, brushes, candles, chisels, files, hammers,
handles for tools, hemp, oil, waste, sand paper, tallow,
wrenches etc.; also a complete set of tools of all sorts,
lamps,
oil cans, jacks, dogs and wedges, fire-irons etc.,
for the equipment of the engine
in running order. But it
does not include the salaries of foremen, draughtsmen
and clerks, repairs
to machinery, maintenance of build­
ings, water or coal used
in the stationary boilers required
for running the shop engine ……
Detailed Costs:-With regard to the detailed cost
of certain portions of finished work for these engines, the
forged frames cost 4 cents per lb., including scrap (charged
at market value) and all coal; when planed, drilled and
slotted all ready for erecting, the frames cost 5 1/3 cents
per
lb. The finished boiler ready to go into the frames costs
8
cents per
lb., the steel plates having to be imported from
Scotland, and freight and duty paid. The total cost of cylin­
ders, filted with covers, studded, and ready for erecting,
is
5· cents per lb., and as the shops do not include a foundry,
4 cents per
lb. has to be paid for the cylinder castings. The
cast-iron driving-wheel centres cost 2 cents per lb., in­
cluding cost of freight for over 400 miles. Connecting-rods
and side-rods, fixed
up with brasses, cotters, etc., all ready
for use, cost 15 cents per
lb.
The writer has lately built ten engines of the SA
class and eight of the S.C. class, all of which are sent across
the continent and are running between the Rocky Moun­
tains and the terminus
on the Pacific Ocean. Appended is
a specification of the tests prescribed for materials used
in the construction of locomotives built for the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
Boiler Iron:-All boiler iron to be best quality
Lowmoor, Bowling, or Krupp. A careful examination to be
made of every sheet, and none
to be accepted that shows
mechanical defects.
In every boiler one sheet to be or­
dered 3
in. longer than the size required, from which a
strip is
to be cut and tested. The piece so tested must
have an ultimate tensile strength with the grain of not less than 50,000 Ibs. per square inch, an ultimate tensile
strength across the grain of not less than 45,000 Ibs., and
must show a ductility, measured by elongation or reduc­
tion of area, of not less than 20 percent. Should any of the
test pieces fail to fulfill the above requirements, the entire
boiler may
be rejected. Should any plates develop defect
in working, they must be rejected. Each plate must be
stamped with the makers name.
Boiler and Fire-box Stee/:-A careful examination
to be made of every sheet, and none to be accepted that
shows mechanical defects. A test strip from each sheet,
taken lengthwise of the sheet without annealing, should
have a tensile strength of 55,000
Ibs. per square inch, and
an elongation of 30 percent in an original length of 2 inch.
Sheets are not to be accepted if the test shows a tensile
strength less than 50,000 Ibs., or greater than 65,000
Ibs.
per square inch, nor if the elongation falls below 25 per­
cent. Should any sheets develop defects
in working, they
must
be rejected.
Iron and Steel Stay Bolts and Boiler Braces:-Iron
or steel for stay bolts and braces must have
an ultimate
tensile strength of not more than 60,000 Ibs., nor less than
48,000
Ibs. per square inch, with an elongation of not less
than 20 percent., and a reduction of area of fractured sec­
tion of not more than 35 percent.
It must also withstand
the following test: A piece of iron or steel from
18 in. to 24
in. in length is to have one end fastened in a vise; over the
other end a piece of pipe
is to be passed to within 6 in. of
the vise. By means of the pipe the sample must be bent
until the end
is at right angles to the portion in the vise,
and then bent back to its original position. This must
be
repeated not less than twelve times without showing frac­
ture, the bending being each time
in the opposite direc­
tion
to that previous.
Boiler Tubes of Steel or Iron:-All boiler tubes must
be carefully inspected and be free from pit-holes or other
imperfections. They must be rolled accurately
to the gauge
required. They must
be expanded in the boiler without crack
or
flaw. When tested, iron or steel tubes must show a ten­
sile strength of not less than 55,000
Ibs. per square inch,
and a ductility of not less than 15 percent.
Tubes of Brass or Copper; Brass and Copper
Pipes
:-Tubes of brass or copper to be of uniform circum­
ferential thickness and solid drawn;
to be perfectly round.
A piece 30
in. long, annealed and filled with resin, must
withstand being doubled until the extremities touch each
other without showing defects. A piece 30
in. long, not
annealed, filled with resin and placed
on supports 20 in,
apart, must withstand bending to a deflection of 3 in. with­
out showing defects.
Bar Iron:-All bar iron (flats, rounds and squares)
must
be capable of sustaining an ultimate tensile stress of
50,000
Ibs. per square inch, with an elastic limit of 25,000
Ibs., and a minimum ductility, measured
by elongation or
reduction of area, of 20 percent.. ….
During the subsequent discussion, a
Mr. Greig
stated that for bad roads and for the circumstances under
which the locomotives worked, those used
on the Cana­
dian Pacific Railway were much better adapted than any
English engine that ever was made or ever would
be.
RAIL CANADIEN -458 78 MAl -JUIN 1997
SOME VIEWS OF THE CONSOLIDATIONS IN ACTION
ABOVE: 316, later renumbered 406, was built in 1888, and
he
re seen, about 1890, in winter passenger service with a huge
plow.
It was almost identical to 401, the major difference be­
ing the stroke
0/24 inches instead 0/22. It survived, as 3122,
until
1927 when it was sold; the last survivor 0/ the group.
RIGHT 405 was virtually identical to 316 and was also built
in 1888. It later became 3104 and was scrapped in 1920. This
view was taken sometime
in the 1890s.
BELOW: 402, also sporting a huge plow
is shown on a pas­
senger train about
1889. It was scrapped in 1907.
OPPOSITE, TOP:
On the original Stoney
Creek bridge, 401 hauls the eastbound trans­
continental passenger train about 1889.
OPPOSITE, BOTTOM: Although o/somewhat
indifferent quality, this spectacular
photo
shows a c.P. Consolidation, perhaps 401 it­
self, hauling the westbound Pacific Express
across the new steel Stoney Creek bridge
in
1898. This spot has always been a favourite
for publicity photos; these two are early ex-
amples taken at this well known location.
MAY -JUNE 1997 79 CANADIAN RAIL -458
CONCLUSION
The Consolidations of the
1880s were the first
of a long line.
By the turn
of the century, the
CPR was building many 2-8-0s,
mainly for freight service. Even­
tually there would be a total
of
547 locomotives of this wheel ar­
rangement built for CP lines, al­
most 17% of all CP steam loco­
motives.
Canadian National Rail­
ways had even more Consolida­
tions, there being a grand total
of
852, more than 20% of CNs to­
tal steam fleet. On both CP and
CN, 2-8-0s remained in service
until almost the end
of all steam
operation.
All
of the original class
S.D.
Consolidations survived
into the twentieth century, al­
though by then they had been
downgraded to branch line serv­
ice. 402 and 404 were scrapped
in 1907, while 40 I and 403 were
renumbered 1300 and 1302 in
July and December
of that year.
At the same time they were re­
classified
Ll a. 1302 (ex-403) did
not last much longer, being
scrapped in November 1909. Lo­
comotive 1300 (ex-40 I, the sub­
ject of our story), however, had a
career
of thirty-five years. In Feb­
ruary 1913 it became 3100 (not
to
be confused with the later
3100, a 4-8-4), still retaining
classification Lla. It continued in
service until 1922 when it was
retired and scrapped
in March of
that year.
To bring the story to its
logical conclusion, we will con­
sider what happened to the very
similar
S.G.s, 405 and 406. In
1907 they became 1304 and
1322, class Lib and L2d, respec­
tively_ Then in September 1912,
1322 became 3122, while in Feb­
ruary 1913, 1304 became 3104.
3104 was scrapped in July 1920,
while 3122 was sold to the Mani­
toba
& Saskatchewan Coal Com­
pany in March 1927. It was the
last
of the group to go.
So ended the careers of
these pioneer locomotives which,
though few in number, were the
precursors
of many more of that
type in later years.
RAIL CANADIEN -458 80 MAl -JUIN 1997
Sixty Years of C.R.H.A. Publications
By Fred F. Angus
When the CRHA was founded in 1932, its stated objec­
tives were the collection, preservation and dissemination
of arti­
facts and information relating to the history
of railways in Canada.
In order to disseminate information, the most efficient way, then as
now has been by means
of publications, either in the form of mono­
graphs
or periodicals. The immediate aim of the Association in its
earliest years was
to organize suitable commemorative events for
the 100h anniversary
of the opening of the Champlain and St.
Lawrence Rail Road on July 2 I, 1836. These events did, indeed,
take place, and the official commemoration occurred on schedule
on July 21, 1936.
Once the 1936 celebrations were over, the objects
of the
Association returned to its more basic aims, as originally envisioned.
It was then felt that it was time
to start a periodical which would
contain articles
of permanent historical interest to the student of
Canadian railway history. So it was that, in April, 1937 the first
issue
of The Bulletin of the Canadian Railroad Historical Asso­
ciation first saw the light
of day. It was a small publication, five
pages
of 8 • by 1 I sheets, printed on one side only on a mimeo­
graph machine. Circulation was about 75. The editor was a young
university student named Robert
VV Nicholls, who was a charter
member, the 17h to join the Association when it was founded in
1932. Happily,
Dr. Nicholls, now Honourary President of the As­
sociation,
is still with us, and is still an active director of the CRHA.
One cannot help but recall that exactly 100 years ago the then Brit­
ish Empire celebrated the Diamond Jubilee
of the reign of Queen
Victoria. Today our publications are, in a small way, having a dia­
mond
jubilee of their own.
The very first page
of the first issue was an editorial by
John Loye, the Associations founder and President. This historic
page is reproduced, in exact facsimile, on the opposite page. It de­
serves to be studied thoroughly, for the aims stated therein apply
just as much today as they did sixty years ago. Its most important
feature is the true statement that the strength
of the Association is
the sum of the individual talents of each of its members, and by
exchanging information (what would today be called network­
ing, a term unknown
in 1937) the compilation ofa valuable record
of Canadian railway history would be achieved. One interesting
point is the proposal to include the study
of aerial transportation as
well. This has not yet occurred, but who knows what may happen
in the future.
In the second issue (August, 1937) an article by
Mr. Nicholls
told the story
of how the publication was started. The following is
from that article: The first number of the Bulletin of the Associa­
tion appeared in April,
1937. It was frankly experimental in nature.
The fact that it was favourably received and that it appears to be
firmly seated among the activities
of the Association would seem to
make it desirable for the Chairman of the Editorial Committee to
offer to the members a statement of its policy. Since the birth of the
Association
in the Spring of 1932, the desirability, even necessity,
of issuing a bulletin has been apparent to all. It was rightly ex­
pec
ted that it would serve to preserve lectures, articles, and reports
of the society s activities, and to contact members unable Fom dis-tan
ce, or other reasons, to attend the regular meetings. The Rail­
way
and Locomotive Historical Society, after which our Associa­
tion
is patterned, has published a bulletin since 1921, one year
after its founding
[It still does. Ed.]. However, it was not until this
year that
we have been able to follow suit. In FebntGlY, the Secre­
tary reported that a mimeograph was available,
and in March he
was authorised
to prepare the/irst issue, which would form a basis
for discussion. Bulletin No.1 appeared a month later. It was found
acceptable and at
the May meeting he was chosen to head a three­
man Editorial Committee. The Committee was voted funds
for the
first year
[The amount was $20L Ed.]. It is planned that the Bulle­
tin will appear four times a year, probably
in Febntary, June, Sep­
tember, and Dec
ember: For the present its size will be confined to
six or eight pages, and the circulation to about seventy-five.
The first issue contained a very interesting review of the
Associations activities during the commemorative year
of 1936. It
shows that, even in these early days, the CRHA was an active dy­
namic association. Starting with the second issue the Bulletin in­
cluded historical articles as well as Association news. The very first
of these articles is an account, by WM. Spriggs, of The Broad
Gauge and the Great Western Railway. This article shows the fine
research into Canadian railway history that was being done so early
in the CRHAs history. It is proposed to reprint this article in Cana­
dian Rail later this year as part
of the 60h anniversary commemora­
tion.
The earliest issues
of the Bulletin had a simple title page
with the name and place typewritten. Starting with issue
No.6,
August 1938, a more elaborate masthead was adopted containing a
larger rendition
of the name, as well as the Associations insignia.
This, the first real masthead,
is reproduced on the back cover of
this issue.
The Bulletin continued to improve from issue to issue. Al­
together this first run comprised
15 numbers with a total of 112
pages. Many significant articles appeared, at least two
of which
had maps.
An interesting item which appeared in Bulletin No. 12,
February 1940, included the financial statement for the production
of the magazine in 1939. Total income was 26 memberships at 50
cents each plus stencils on hand worth $2.30, a total
of $15.30.
Expenses were $8.49 for stencils, $3
.30 for 3000 sheets of paper,
$7.00 for typing, $4.55 for postage and $6.00 for the use
of the
mimeograph, for a total
of $29.34. This produced a loss of $14.04
for the year which was covered by a grant. The present budget for
Canadian Rail is about
700 times as much!
Alas, trouble was not only on the horizon; it was right here.
By December 1940 Canada had been at war for well over a year
and, although it received scant mention in the Bulletin, the effects
of the war were universal. Many CRHA members, including the
editor, joined the forces, and Bulletin
No. 15, December 1940, was
the last for the duration. On the last page was mention
of an
effort by the Association to ensure the preservation
of the locomo­
tive Duchess, then in the Yukon [This was done, and the locomo­
tive
is presently on exhibition at Carcross Y. T]. Also described was
an excursion,
by regular train to Sixteen Island Lake and return.
MAY -JUNE 1997
The final item was a wish
from the executive to all the
members for a Merry Christ­
mas and a Happy New Year
for 1941.
The publication
then ceased for almost nine
years.
The CRHA survived
the war, but
just barely. Most
railway enthusiasts activities
were curtailed, and photo­
graphing railway installations
was prohibited. Because
so
many members were serving
in
the war, membership
dropped drastically. The re­
turn
of peace in 1945 saw a
very different CRHA from
that
of the thirties. Gradually,
however, it was rebuilt and
new members soon raised the
membership numbers above
the previous highs. The
100h
anniversary of the Montreal &
Lachine Railway in 1947 in­
creased the interest
in railway
history.
By 1949 it was felt
that it was time to have a new
publication and, in October
1949,
the C.R.H.A. News
Report was bom. Except for
a five month hiatus from Sep­
tember 1951
to January 1952,
and with a name change
in
1962, this has continued to the
present time. At first the pub­
lication bore no number, only
the date, but in January 1954
it was decided to number each
issue retroactively from No.
I in October 1949; thus Janu­
ary 1954 became No. 41. Un-
fortunately, for some reason,
the rebirth
of the publication
was considered to have been
its beginning, and this spoiled
the continuity with the origi·
81 CANADIAN RAIL -458
The BUI,LJ~TIN of the
CAN.:DIAN HAILHO.J) HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
ChatcHu de nD.,leza~r, l·.o:lltronJ..
NO.1. April, 1937.
FORK{IORD.
1j1 :~xeE;ent1ng this, the first nunber of its off1cinl.
journal, tho Canadlrm Railroad 1f1storj.caJ. ;,ssociation re­
alizeR in n modast Wg~· the arnbi tion of its nembers sinoe
1 ts found.!. tiO:l .
ihe
nl ti:lu.to pn!IJose of this 1mblicatiolL is to 0.CCU.m­
a1 a ta gradually i ,, nua conp(:·~d.il.m the 11300 rde 0 f Cana.dian
rl1ilTa~ derelo))ncnt.lc )):0)0.36 that in future it will be a
source of refcronce for those who. like ourselves, Iill be
interested to JcnOl! the circt~T1r,tn.nces attendinG this moat 1m­
,ortant nationn..l ineti tnt10n frol!l its incellt10n to 1 ts oul­
!·11n9.tlon 1n the aohievellents of the present d~l~.
ViC;) aim to di8tributc the 1Iork of 8atherinz info:rt~Fl.tion
~).mone muny, by giving to enoh n )art1cular field 1n which to
]Zosecute researoh. Herein lies El. hidden adv;ntage ,,hioh our
menbers 1.::0 asked to disoern. It is 1: oertaint;)r that in pur­
suing the study of their chosen subjeot they will disoover
m·.teri9~ not in their de!l:·.rtment,but of interGst to a fel-
101 YlO rlcer.. :(n all such O~t8CS the endeE.vo r shaul d be to tr!

:;;i t suoh info!::l …. ttol1 to its !lloper de:!,)v.rtl1ent, and by follo!­
inG such :.~. system of reciproc[1~ exohange of historioal mat­
J·r111J. between ;!.mbers, :.0 shall soon l)()sSess reoords cover­
inG every phnse of Canc.dil.n railway hlstor~r.
:;)urine the five yenrs of onr Associations existenoe, fie
have not oonfined o~
selvee striotly to railway history. It
is only n1J.tural that in the minds which form our oircle, there
should be a dee;.> ;md eneagin~ interest in all that allpart­
ains to the development of ste~l, internal-oombustion, and
elf~ctrical transl,Jortation, whether ou land or water, and as
00noe1uunce, we have adopted the stgrdy nnd record of steam­
shill, steamboR.t, and street-car history, and we 1,ropose to
embruee the eVOlution of aerial truns!lort aR well.
Our (>.PI bi tion 1 s roe 6reH t as the ii ald befo ro us, bu t
our enthusiasm is 2roof Rgainst disooura6enent. The Assoc­
iation is one for recro.t1va study. where Ie lila pursue at
leisure onr .selected. ther!te w1th RSBUlnnee ot 9u~oe8s. For,
no m:.tter ho-; small may be our oontrubution, the little we
will contribute nill be n ooin in the collection thnt is
surel~t destinod to be u treasure of reoord in the days to
come.
The
Preeident.
The first page of the first issue.
nal Bulletin. Had this continuity been observed, as it should have
been, October 1949 would have been No.
16, and the present issue
would have been No. 473. The continuity with the old Bulletin was
not entirely los
t. The Bulletin series was reserved for monographs
and larger works and, in fact Bulletins Nos.
16, 17,18 and 19 actu­
ally did appear
in the 1950s and early 60s. It is entirely possible
that more bulletins will appear in the future, so the old series still Febmary 1983 the large size was begun and the frequency was
reduced to six times a year. A few issues with colour covers have
been produced, and it is hoped that this
wiJl be done again in the
future. The latest change occurred with No. 456, January 1997,
when the slightly larger standard size
of 8 • by II inches was
adopted.
From the original typewriter and mimeograph
of sixty years
ago to the Pentium computer
of today is a long way. However the
basic raison
detre of the publication remains the same, and the
original statement on page I
of issue No. I can not be improved
upon. In 1997, as
in 1937, it is the members that we depend upon
for the success
of the publication, and of the Association. All Aboard
for the next Sixty Years! continues.
The CRHA News Report continued to evolve and improve.
Soon photographs appeared and, starting in January 1961, a smaller
but thicker format was adopted. Starting with issue No. 135, July­
August 1962, the name was changed to Canadian Rail.
The small
format was used for 22 years, then, starting with No. 372, January-
RAIL CANADIEN -458 82 MAl -JUIN 1997
The Business Car
MORE OBSERVATIONS ON THE PENNY WRECK
Mr. W.E. Ottewell of Revelstoke B.C., under date of April
16,1997, writes:
Have
just finished reading your article on the Penny Wreck,
it was very interesting, I had never heard
of it way out here.
As to why the train left the track at that par1icular spot,
could I offer a possible reason? In the handling
of steam powered
trains, the engineers usually did the same things at the same time
and place every trip. When releasing the brake on a descending
grade after the last reduction
of the brake pipe is made, you must
time the release so you can start working steam to run away from
the train to avoid a run in
of the slack.
In order to get run in or run out, one part
of the train has to
be going faster or slower than the other. A steam engine with all its
motion going around will run slower than the train on a descending
grade. Trus will only happen on engines that have relief valves on
their cylinders, as these allow you to run down hill with the steam
to cylinders shut off.
If the engine were not equipped with relief valves, the en­
gineer would have to work light steam down grade so would not as
likely get the run in. Most CP engines had relief valves, most CN
engines did not.
As we do not have a photo of the locomotive in
question will have
to leave it at that.
It is interesting to note on the top photo on page 476 all the
journal box lids seem to be open. They look like conventional lift
box lids, while the ones on the car below have the older style swing
lids.
It is also interesting that the c.P. and Intercolonial time­
table shown on page 4 has the time
in the 24 hour system. The
eastern lines usually used AM and PM.
CONGRATULATIONS TO PRO-CEL
The firm that prints Canadian Rail, Pro-Cel Printing, has
just completed 40 years of operation. Founded in 1957 by Mr. Albert
Mercantini, the firm was
nm by him until his death in 1994. Since
then it has been run by his daughter Cannen. Pro-Cel has been
printing Canadian Rail, and its predecessor the
CRHA News Re­
port, since 1960, which was not long after the publication changed
to offset printing from the old mimeograph process. So we have
been customers
ofPro-Cel for 37 of the 40 years the firm has been
in existence.
At trus significant anniversary we congratulate Pro-Cel and
hope that our relationship will continue for many more years.
MORE COMMENTS RE. CHARLES M. HAYS
Na/iollal Archi)es of Canada PA-21904
Several members have pointed out that the photo showing
Mr. Hays on an inspection trip (cover ofissue No. 454, November­
December 1996, but reproduced above) was likely taken at
Banff
Alberta and not Jasper as surmised. Since the Grand Trunk Pacific
was not completed in Mr. Hays time, it stands to reason that the
inspection party would travel to the west coast on the CPR. The
background scenery appears like Banff, and one
of the cars shown
almost certainly
is an 1886 CP sleeping car of the Yokohama
class. These 12-section I-drawing room cars are distinguished
by
the two large windows, approximately midway on each side, which
is where the sofa sections are located.
ANOTHER RARE STAMW?
We have received a
letter, dated Apri I I,
1997, from
Mr. Jack
Point commenting on
our recent article on
stamps depicting rail­
way subjects:
I would like
to draw
your attention to the
following
very rare
stamp. When the first
decimal stamps of
New Brunswick were
being prepared, the engraver had never seen a locomotive so
he did
not know which way was up.
He thereupon engraved the locomo­
tive the way he had received the photograph, which unfortunately
happened to be upside down. OnJy one
of these stamps was ever
printed; it was issued on April I, 1860 and was immediately stuck
on a letter and mailed to a house only
half a mile away. It took
exactly 137 years
to be delivered, which is even longer than it some­
times takes Canadian Rail
to arrive! However it finally arrived this
morning,
just in time for me to send you an illustration of it.
Editors note: Before you rush out looking for another one
of these stamps, or sell your Bre-X stock trying to pay for it, please
note the date
of Mr. Points letter, as well as the date of the alleged
issue
of this stamp. Also we point out (pun intended) that Jack
Point was the name
of the jester in Gilbert and Sullivans operetta
The Yeomen
of the Guard!
MAY -JUNE 1997
LE TORTILLARD EST MORT, VIVE LE PTIT TRAIN DE
CHARLEVOIX!
Un nouveau train touristique reliera Quebec et La Malbaie
des
Ie 27 juin. Le ptit train de Charlevoix prendra en quelque sorte
la releve du Tortillard du Saint-Laurent qui a rendu [arne au cours
de lhiver apres une fin de saison en que de poisson.
Le ptit train de Charlevoix partira de
1a chute Montmorency
a 8h. M. Ovide Morin, un ex-directeur du train touristique, croit
que
Ie trajet plus court et des locomotives plus performantes
permettront de raccourcier Ie trajet de 40 minutes a laller et autant
au retour.
Cest une heure trente de plus dans Charlevoix que nous
pourrons offrir
a nos clients fait-il observer.
Le Soleil, Quebec,
Ie 16 Avril, 1997.
MONAD, NOT NOMAD
Mr. L.S. Kozma of Edmonton, Alberta, writes: I wish to
point out a small typographical error on page 169
of Canadian Rail
No. 455, November-December 1996.
Of course, the Northern Pa­
cific (NP) logo incorporated a MONAD, not a nomad as noted
in
the text (so much for the spell checker??! i).
There is an interesting, if somewhat tenuous, connection
between this NP logo and Canadian railroading. Edwin Harrison
McHenry is generally credited with importing the monad from the
Far East.
Mr. McHenry was born in 1859 in Cincinnati, Ohio, gradu­
ating from the Pennsylvania Military College in Chester Pennsyl­
vania. He began his railway career with the Northern Pacific Rail­
road in 1883 as a rodman on the Black Hills branch. Within a de­
cade he had worked his way up to the position
of Chief Engineer of
the road. In 1896 he was appointed Receiver for the line, and upon
its reorganization he re-assumed the position
of Chief Engineer.
Mr. McHenry had an obvious affection for Asia. He resigned from
the
NP in 190 I and spent the next two years in the Far East. The
monad was obviously incorporated into the NP logo prior to this
time.
In 1903 he joined the CPR as
Chief Engineer. Most of the
CPRs building plans
of this era bear his signature. Many of these
standards were still employed decades after he left the CPR. He
resigned in October 1904 after accepting the position
of Vice Presi­
dent
of the Consolidated Railway, in charge of construction, opera­
tion and maintenance
of the New York New Haven & Hartford
Railroad.
He was also in charge of the construction and mainte­
nance departments
of the Boston and Maine Railroad. While Chief
Engineer of the Northern Pacific, he developed the McHenry
mechanical coaling plant, varients of which were later used by the
CPR and CNoR.
BOOK ABOUT HARRY BRAITHWAIT ABBOTT
Harry Braithwaite Abbott was the younger brother of Sir
John Abbott, the first Canadian-born Prime Minister. Both John
and
Harry were deeply involved in the planning and completion of
the CPR. This biography of H.B. Abbott was written about 1920
by his son James L.G. Abbott, Ll.B., a Vancouver lawyer, and was
reprinted by Elizabeth Abbott
in J 996. It contains 100 pages in a
simple soft cover; its usefulness and value
to the lover of history is
that it contains anecdotes on early Canadian fishing and hunting,
railroad, political and social life, leading up to the driving
of the
Last Spike,
at which H.B.A. was present. It also describes British
Columbias early years
as a province of Canada, and Vancouver in
its infancy. The first-hand observations of Harrys son include com-
83 CANADIAN RAIL -458
ments on famous political and business figures of the times, such
as Sir William
Van Horne and Lord Shaughnessy, giving snatches
of insight into their character.
Harry
B. Abbott has in recent years been recognized not
only for his railway work but for his contribution to early B.C. life.
He
is considered by the Canadian Museum of Man to be an impor­
tant early B.C. painter, and his old home at
720 Jervis Street,
Vancouver has become the centre
of a large heritage project under
the auspices
of Commonwealth Historic Resource Management Ltd.
Here Abbott lived with his
wife Amelie Sicotte, daughter of
I Honourable Juge Louis Victor Sicotte of Montreal and St­
Hyacinthe, Que. , Joint Premier
of United Canada in the Macdonald
-Sicotte administration
of 1862-63.
For a copy
of this most interesting book, please send $14.00
(postpaid) to:
Elizabeth Abbott
10 Rue Legault
Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Que.
H9X
lZ2
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAY AND PARTNERS PLAN
CN and its alliance partners, New York Susquehanna and
Western, New York
& Atlantic (which has taken over the Long Is­
land Rail Roads freight operations), and Buffalo
& Pittsburgh R.R.
are seeking State
of New York support for their proposed network.
The alliance said their plan to enhance rail competition for north­
east U.S. shippers would entail estimated investments
of almost
$60 million for track improvements and new terminals.
CNs executive vice-president Gerald Davies said the dis­
memberment
of Conrail by NS and CSX puts at risk two New York
State rail lines -the Montreal -Syracuse or Massena route, and
the Southern Tier line linking the New
York City area and Buffalo.
Both lines are thinly-trafficked and are unlikely to draw sustained
mew investment by either CSX or NS. This would undermine the
viability
of the lines and threaten shippers and rail employees alike.
Canadian freight now moving over the Massena line generates two
trains daily and accounts for 80%
of the routes traffic base.
Source: The 470.
BACK COVER: Theflrst official masthead used/or the Bulletin of the C.R.H.A. from August 1938 to December 1940.
Canadian Rail
120, rue St-Pierre, St. Constant, Quebec
Canada J5A 2G9
Postmaster: if undelivered v/ithin
10 days return to sender, postage guaranteed.
BULLETIN
OF THE
CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL
ASSOCIATION
OUR FIRST MASTHEAD
SIXTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF C.R.H.A. PUBLICATIONS
1937 -1997

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