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Canadian Rail 454 1996

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Canadian Rail 454 1996

No. 454
Canadian Rail
THE MAGAZINE OF CANADAS RAILWAY HISTORY
SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 1996
PUBLISHED BI·MONTHLY BY THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
PUBLIE TOUS LES DEUX MOIS PAR LASSOCIATION CANADIENNE DHISTOIRE FERROVIAIRE
CANADIAN RAIL
ISSN 0008-4875
PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY BY THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHARLES MELVILLE HAYS AND THE C_R.H.A ………………………………………….. DEREK BOLES ……………………….. 119
1897 – A NEW OFFICIAL CAR FOR A NEW GENERAL MANAGER ………………. RAILWAY
& SHIPPING WORLD .. 121
CONTEMPORARY ARTICLES CONCERNING CHARLES HAYS. 1898 -1912 .. RAILWAY & SHIPPING WORLD .. 122
THE DEATH OF CHARLES M.
HAyS ………………………………………………………….. RAILWAY & MARINE WORLD ….. 124
MEMORIALS TO CHARLES M. HAYS …………………………………………..
…………….. FRED F. ANGUS ……………………… 126
A CITY THAT REMEMBERS
CHARLES M. HAYS ………………………………………… FRED F. ANGUS ……………………… 127
GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY BRIDGE No. 302 ………………………………………………..
GAY LEPKEY …………………………. , 128
THE CENTENNIAL OF THE
MONTREAL ROOF ……………………………………….. FRED F. ANGUS ……………………… 131
NEWS FROM THE CANADIAN RAILWAY MUSEUM ……………………………………. JEAN-PAUL VIAUD …………………. 139
THE BUSINESS CAR ………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………
…………………………. 142
FRONT COVER: Although Charles Melville Hays was President of the Grand Trunk
Pacific
for almost eight years, he did not make many visits to the western portions of
the GT? This photo shows Mr. Hays (right) with other officials posing by the official
car Canada during a station stop on one such inspection trip.
National Archives
of Canada. Photo No. PA-21904.
For your membership in the CRHA, which
includes a subscription to Canadian Rail,
write to:
CRHA, 120 Rue St-Pierre,
St. Constant, Que.
J5A 2G9
Membership Dues for 1996:
In Canada: $35.00 (including GST).
United States: $30.
00 in U.S. funds.
Other Countries: $35.00
in U.S. funds.
Canadian Rail
is continually in need of news,
stories, historical data, photos, maps and
other material. Please send all contributions
to the editor: Fred F. Angus, 3021 Trafalgar
Ave. Montreal, P.Q. H3Y 1 H3. No payment
can
be made for contributions, but the con­
tributer will
be given credit for material sub­
mitted. Material will
be returned to the con­
tributor
if requested. Remember Knowl­
edge
is of little value unless it is shared with
others.
As part of its activities, the CRHA operates
the Canadian Railway Museum at Delson /
SI. Constant, Que. which is about 14 miles
(23 Km.) from downtown Montreal.
It is open
from late May
to early October (daily until
Labour Day). Members, and their immediate
families, are admitted free of charge.
THE
GOAL OF THE ASSOCIATION IS THE
COLLECTION, PRESERVATION AND DIS­
SEMINATION OF ITEMS RELATING TO
THE HISTORY OF CANADIAN RAILWAYS
The CRHA has a number of local divisions across
the country. Many hold regular meetings and Issue
newsletters. Further Information may be obtained
by writing to the division.
NEW BRUNSWICK DIVISION
P.O. Box 1162
Saini John N.B. E2L 4G7
DIVISION VALLEE-JONCTION BEAUCE
397 Blvd. Rousseau
Vallee-Jonclion Que
GOS 3JO
ST LAWRENCE VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 22, Station B
Montreal P.Q. H3B 3J5
RIDEAU VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 962
Smiths Falls, Ont. K7A 5A5
KINGSTON DIVISION
P.O. Box 1714
Kingston. Ont. K7L
5V6
TORONTO & YORK DIVISION
P.O. Box 5849, Terminal A
Toronto,
Onto M5W 1 P3
NIAGARA DIVISION
P.O. Box 20311 Grantham Postal Outlet
St. Catha rines,
Onto L2M 7W7
CALGARY
& SOUTH WESTERN DIVISION
c/o Rick Connery, Secretary
95 Bennett Crescent N.W.
Calgary. Alberta T2L
lR2
SELKIRK DIVtSION
P.O. Box 2561
Re
velstoke, B.C. VOE 2S0
CROWSNEST
& KOOTENAY DIVISION
P.O. Box 400
Cranbrook, B.C.
VIC 4H9
NELSON ELECTRIC TRAMWAY SOCIETY
123 View Street
Nelson, B.C.
VI L 2V8
PRINCE GEORGE-NECHAKO-FRASER DIVISION
P
.O. Box 2408
Prince George, B.C.
V2N 2S6
PACIFIC COAST DIVIStON
P.O. Box 1006, Station A
Vancouver. B.C.
V6C 2Pl
ESQUIMAL T AND NANAIMO DIVISION
1148 Balmoral Road
Victoria, B.C.
V8T 1 Bl
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: Douglas
NW. Smith
ASSOCIATE EDITOR (Motive Power):
Hugues
W, Bonin
DISTRIBUTION: Gerard Frechette
LAYOUT: Fred
F. Angus
Printing: Procel Printing
DIRECTORS OF THE C.R.H.A.
PRESIDENT: Frant;:ois Gaudette
VICE PRES,:
David W. Johnson
TREASURER: James Bouchard
SECRETARY: Bernard Martin
Frederick
F, Angus
Doug Battrum
Walter J. Bedbrook
Barry Biglow
Gerard Frechette
Dean Handley
J. Christopher Kyle
Roger Martin
Robert V,V. Nicholls
Andrew
W. Panko
James Scott
Len Thibeault
William Thomson
Michael Westren
LlASON REPRESENTATIVES
WESTERN
D. Walter Edgar
4515 Dalhart Road
NW.
Calgary, AB T3A 1 B9
Phone: (403) 286-2189
CENTRAL
Christopher Kyle
49 -77 Wellesley SI. East
Toronto, ON M4Y 1H7
Phone: (416) 962-1880
MARITIME
Richard E. Viberg
172 Main SI.
Hillsborough, NB
EOA 1 XO
Phone. (506) 734 3467
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996 119 CANADIAN RAIL -454
Charles Melville Hays and the C.R.H.A.
By Derek Boles
One hundred years ago, January 1, 1896 to be exact, Charles M. Hays came from the Wabash Railroad to assume the General
Managership
of the Grand Trunk. For the next sixteen years, apart from a hiatus in 1901, Mr. Hays controlled the destinies of the G.T.R.
and its subsidiaries as they faced the new vicissitudes
of the twentieth century. II was during this period that the Grand Trunk went from
absentee control (from the directors in
England) to being run effectively from Canada. It is also the time of the greatest prosperity for the
railway.
Whether this prosperity would have continued if Mr. Hays had not met an untimely death is a question that railway historians will
always debate, and
we do not propose to debate the question here.
In this issue,
we present an article by Derek Boles giving an introduction to Mr. Hays and also explaining the connection to the CRHA,
especially the Hays building at the Canadian Railway Museum. We also reprint some contemporary articles about incidents in his career,
including a detailed account
of his death in the ever-memorable disaster of the sinking of the Titanic. Also included is an 1898 article about
Mr. Hays official
car Canada which is now a treasured artifact at the Canadian Railway Museum. We conclude by telling of a place where
the
name of Charles Melville Hays is not forgotten; in fact he is revered as its founder.
Charles Mel ville Hays ranks
as one
of the most significant railway
executi ves in the history
of Canada.
Hays assumed control
of the Grand
Trunk,
Canadas most established
railway, at a time when railways
were far
more important to societys
economic and social fabric than
they are today.
Yet, aside from railroad
historians, few today are even aware
of Hays existence. Most visitors
who walk through the doors
of the
Hays bllilding at the Canadian
Railway Museum havent any idea
as to whom the structure is named
after.
Admittedly, most nineteenth
century railway executives do not
generally enjoy
ahigh profile among
members of the general public.
However, high school students who
explore Canadian history in any
depth
are probably aware of Sir
William Cornelius Van Horne
of
the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR),
and there lies the rub.
The CPR has mini-series. most recently rerun in
a
rather transparent attempt to
encourage national istic fervour in
the weeks prior to the constitutional
referendum. That our public
broadcasting system should find no
dramatic potential in the story
of
the Canadian National is ironic, given
the importance
of the railway lines
that have
gone to form the CNR,
including Hays Grand Trunk and
Grand Trunk Pacific, with the
National Transcontinental Railway
thrown
in for good measure. Both
men,
Im sure, would be vastly
amused by this irony.
always captured the public
imagination more than the publicly­
owned CNR and its numerous
Charles Melville Hays 1856 -1912
The similarities between
Hays and Van Horne are startling.
Both men were born in the state
of
Illinois, began their railroad careers
in the midwestern United
States
and had assumed senior executive
operating positions
by the age of
forty. Both men saw the opportunity
for
greater challenges in Canada
and became general managers of
two of the largest Canadian railroads.
They were bod1 prodigious workers
and each, typically, began his
railroad antecedents. Perhaps it has to do with
the fact that the CPR
has been, in this century at least, a successful corporate entity not
requiring financial bailouts fr
om the government. Or, perhaps its
because Pierre Berton has not written one
of his best-selling books
about the CNR.
Our publicly-owned [until 1995. Ed.1 railway has
certainly never been the subject
of a highly-rated CBC television Canadian career on New Year
sday,
Van Horne in Winnipeg on January I, 1882, and Hays in Montreal
on January l,
1896. They both used their drive and energies to
construct truly transcontinental railways, ambitions that would
have been far more difficult
if they had remained in the U.S. Each
was a brilliant railway
manager with a complex personality. They
even resembled one another physically as they both had full
RAIL CANADIEN -454
beards, a balding pate, and were short but stout men who tended
towards portliness as they both enjoyed gastronomic consumption.
They died within little more than three years
of one another and,
after their deaths, their remains were transported on trains, which
contained their private railway cars, to their places
of interment.
Remarkably, both
of these private cars have been preserved, a
century after their construction, and both reside in the collection
of the CRHAs Canadian Railway Museum. The manner of their
deaths, however, bore little resemblance to
each other, for Van
Horne died
in bed in Montreal at the age of 72, while Hays died at
56
in the North Atlantic as a key figure in the greatest maritime
disaster
in history.
Many
of the survivors of the uncompleted maiden voyage
of RMS Titanic became legendary themselves simply because they
had been fortunate enough to step into a lifeboat at an auspicious
moment. There were numerous and famously wealthy men
of
achievement who perished on the Titanic, some of them Canadians.
Few could claim the equivalent
of what Hays had accomplished in
his relatively short lifetime which was cut
off in the prime of
middle
age. The allure of Hays Titanic experience increases when
one considers that he predicted the disaster whi Ie holdi ng forth in
the doomed liners dining roomjust hours prior to its collision with
historys most notorious iceberg. In the two hours and forty
minutes between that collision and the
Titanics foundering, there
was a kaleidoscope
of varied human behaviour triggered by the
most stressful circumstances that any
of the 2200 people on board
would ever experience. Some reacted with cowardice and selfishness;
most simply went into a numbing state of shock. A few of the
Titanics passengers, and Hays was among them, displayed gallantry
and nobility that became the stuff
of legend.
So, why then is Hays such an obscure historical figure? His
big mistake, and it was an enormous one that would have repercussions
that have resonated through most
of this century, was his obsession
with the construction
of the Grand Tl1.lnk Pacific Railway. This
was the result
of the railroad construction fever that gripped
Canada at the time and would result
in two new Atlantic-to-Pacific
combinations, the Grand
Tl1.lnk Pacific / National Transcontinental·
and the Canadian Northern. They were both constructed at the
same time, and mostly travelled through viltual wilderness that
could not then, and still cannot, generate the local traffic necessary
to sustain a railway economically. Not only that, but these two
lines were
in addition to the already-completed CPR transcontinental
whose construction had been supervised by Van Horne. Yet Hays
was encouraged in this transcontinental madness
by no less a
personage than Sir Wilfrid Laurier, arguably the most admired
Liberal Prime Minister
in Canadian history. While Hays would not
live to see its completion, it was his drive and ambition that made
the Grand
Tl1.lnk Pacific possible. Five years after the GTPs last
spike ceremony in 1914, the entire railroad was in receivership. By
1923 the Grand
Tl1.lnk parent company was itself reeling from the
cl1.lshing debt load, as a result
of which it was absorbed by the
newly formed Canadian National Railways. In the 1990s, the CNR
is finally making an all-out effort to abandon substantial portions
of these two transcontinental railways it inherited from the Grand
Tl1.lnk and Canadian Northern railways.
120 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
Hays died twenty years less a month before the establishment
of the Canadian Railroad Historical Association in March of 1932.
His accomplishments in the Grand Trunk and Grand Trunk Pacific
would ensure a substantial historical profile
in the activities of the
CRHA, but the Hays connection runs much deeper than that.
Among the Associations
most treasured pieces of railway rolling
stock is Hays private railway car,
Canada. This was the car that
took him to New York to begin his final
of many voyages to
England
in order to mollify a restive GTR board of directors. The
Canada was waiting for him in anticipation of his return to New
York, and it was sent to Halifax when false newspaper reports
indicated that the
Titanic was being towed to that Mari time port.
When the full extent
of the disaster became known, the train
pulling the
Canada was flagged down in the Maine woods,
returned to
New York, and carried his grieving widow and
daughter, themselves
Titanic survivors, back to Montreal. A few
days later,
in an impressive and moving memorial, every wheel on
the far-flung empire stopped turning; every workman put down his
tools, and thousands
of GTR employees paid silent tribute to the
man who had brought their colonial railroad into the twentieth
century.
The Canada was eventually sent to Halifax two weeks
later
to retrieve Hays body and return him to Montreal for
interment
in Mount Royal Cemetery.
In the late 1960s, Hays four daughters, one
of whom was
the aforementioned
Titanic survivor, made one of the largest
donations ever received by the CRHA from private individuals.
Two
of the Hays sisters attended a sod-turning ceremony at the
Canadian Railway
Museum in·Octoberof 1969. The Hays Memorial
Building, completed in 1970, was erected with their donation and
stands
as a tribute to Charles Melville Hays. The most substantial
structure at the museum, the Hays building houses the
CRHAs
library-archives, administrative offices and a changing series of
smaller exhibits. Along with the donation went an endowment
fund, the interest from which is used for the upkeep
of the building.
Later, the Hays sisters also purchased the
car Canada from the
CNR and presented it to the CRHA in memory
of their father.
As an occasionally active member
of the CRHA since 1965
and ·an active member
of the Titanic Historical Society since 1977,
I have wanted to write Hays story for some time. My interest was
piqued after I rejoined the CRHA
in 1983 and acquired a complete
set
of Canadian Rail. A perusal of this collection for information
on Hays revealed three short articles; a piece on the new building
by CRHA President Dr. R.V.V. Nicholls in the Summer 1970
issue, and two subsequent articles by CRHA members Jacques
Messier and Lon Marsh in 1987. These articles were tantalizing,
and I believed that there was an even more interesting story to be
told.
It is about time that the pages of Canadian Rail pay
substantial tribute to Charles Melville Hays. There is
no better
time than
in this year 1996 which marks one hundred years since
he became the General Manager
of the Grand Tl1.lnk. In this issue
we will see an overview
of his career, some stories relating to the
Hays era, as well as a chronicle
of the events of 1912 and Hays
experiences on board RMS Titanic, the legendary disaster than
continues to enthral after almost
85 years.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996
~~—-~
,
l_ …. :.1
0.
.~, 1104«1
121 CANADIAN RAIL -454
1897 -A New Official Car, the Canada,
is built for the New General Manager
I ~ -I ,
r– -.9 IO~—–?/
Drawings of car Canada as it appeared when built in 1897.
Railway and Shipping World,
Vol. I, No.3, May, 1898.
On tills page are gi ven elevations and floor plans of the car
Canada, built last year by the Wagner Palace Car Co., at
Buffalo, N.Y., for the use
of General Manager Hays, of the
G.T.R. Its dimensions are: Length over body 69 ft. 10
112 in.;
length over all
76 ft. 8 in., including platform; width 9 ft. 10
112 in,; height over all 14 ft. I 1/2 in. It has six.-wheeled trucks,
with a wheel base
of 10 112 feet.
The interior is finished in mahogany, of plain design
throughout, with the exception
of the kitchen, which is cherry.
The upholstery
is in dark green Ooze leather, and the floors are
covered with green Wilton carpet -the draperies being made
to match.
The floor space is divided up so as to afford very
ample accommodation. The two staterooms, which can be
arranged en suite, are furnished with stationary beds and
individual toilet accommodations. The locks and most
of the
other metal fittings
in the car are of Persian brass, the washstands
and accessories being
of nickeline. These are supplied with
both hot and cold water service.
In the observation room is a
convenient piece
of equipment in the form of a map rack,
containing numerous maps showing the topography
of various
sections
of the road, which are mounted on rollers for automatically
folding them into the ceiling when not
in use.
The car is lighted with Pintsch gas and heated with the anti
pounding steam-heating system. In the observation room is a
speed recorder.
The Railway and Shipping World, May, 1898.
RAIL CANADIEN -454 122 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
Some Contemporary Articles Concerning the Career of Charles M. Hays between 1898 and 1912
GRAND TRUNK -WABASH ALLIANCE
The new arrangement is an exceedingly impotrant one for
both companies concerned.
It is to be considered that the alliance
between the Wabash and the G.T. has been more
or less close since
Mr. Hays left the former road to
assume the management of the
latter, indications are that these relations are to be closer, and that
the Canadian road will thus obtain facilities for reaching many
important sections and cities in the Western and Southwestern
states.
The Railway and Shipping World, May, 1898.
C.M. HAYS LEAVING THE G.T.R.
The persistent tUmours about Mr. Hays retiting from the
position
of General Manager of the G.T.R. have at last proved to
be well founded, as on Oct. 28 he stated that he had accepted the
Presidency
of the Southern Pacific Co., in succession to the late
c.P. Huntington. It is said he will sever his connection with the
G.T.R. on Dec. 31, and then proceed at once to San Francisco,
which will be his headquarters.
A New York dispatch, refelTing to the appointment, says:­
Vice-President Huntingtons acquiescence in the selection
of Mr.
Hays is said to be cordial. Although having a natural ambition to
succeed his uncle as President,
he recognizes Mr. Hays fitness for
the place, inasmuch as it has been the desire
of the controlling
stockholders
to put the best man obtainable at the head of the
operating department.
The younger Mr. Huntington has not the
experience as a railway operating man that Mr. Hays has had, In
recent years he has been the personal representative
of his uncle in
San Francisco, while the traffic and operating departments
of the
Southern Pacific were in the hands
of Vice-Presidents Stubbs and
KruttschnitL
HE Huntingt6n is expected to retain the office of
First Vice-President as long as he chooses to keep it. As the
inheritor
of one-third of his uncles large interest, be becomes one
of the most influential of individual stockholders, The Huntington
estate and the foreign holdings represented by Speyer
& Co, are
said to control the propetty, and a person conversant with the actual
conditions estimates that
Speyer & Co. represent about one­
quarter
of the entire capitalization of $200,000,000,
On December 31, 1895, Mr. Hays severed his connection
with the Wabash Company to accept the position
of General
Manager of the G.T.R, System, under a 5 years contract, at a
salary
of $25,000 a year, which was afterwards increased to
$35,000, and he is said to have received an additional sum from the
Central Vermont Ry,
Mr. Hays married Clara 1., daughter
of Wm. H, Gregg, SI.
Louis Mo, In re
ligion he is a Presbyterian.
The Railway and Shipping World, October, 1900.
Grand Trunk.-C.M, Hays having resigned the General Managership
to acce
pt the Presidency of the Southern Pacific, G.B, Reeve has
been appointed Second Vice-President and General Manager, the
change to take effect on December 15.
The Railway and Shipping World, November, 1900.
SPECIAL MEETING OF THE G.T.R. COMPANY
A special general meeting of the proprietors was held at the
Cannon
Street Hotel, London, England, on December 12. [The
meeting was called to discuss the affairs
of the Chicago & Grand
Trunk, and the formation
of the Grand Trunk Western]
[At this meeting] Sir Rivers Wilson [President
of the
G.T.R.]
paid a glowing tribute to C.M. Hays, saying it was
impossible to find a second Hays, but he believed G,B,
Reeve was
the best man whose services could possibly be secured.
He dilated
on the sacrifices Mr. Reeve had made in giving up his retirement
to take on the onerous duties
of General Manager. The shareholders
congratuLated the directors on the action taken, and gratefully bid
farewell to Mr. Hays.
The Railway and Shipping World, December, 1900,
C.M. HAYS AND THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC
On Sept. 28 the rumours about Mr. Haysresignation of the
Presidency
of the Southern Pacific C9. were confirmed in the
following statement which he gave out:-
The change in policy and
organization
of the company, consequent upon a change in the
ownership and control
of the Southern Pacific shortly after my
taking service with the company has made the place, originally
attractive to me, so much less so that I, several
weeks ago,
voluntarily placed my resignation and surrender
of my contract
with the
company at the disposal of the executive committee, to
take effect upon such date and upon such conditions as
might be
agreeable to them, We have agreed upon October I as the date upon
which my resignation shall become effective,
The announcement
as to my successor, etc., will doubtless be made shortly, I have no
definite plans as yet, but expect to remain
some weeks enjoying the
country with my family at Menlo Park, and will probably
go east
some time early in December.
A large number
of rumours have been afloat respecting
Mr.
Hays future, and the daily papers have appointed him to
several positions, the la
st one being the Presidency of the Erie
Road.
Following Mr. Hays resignation came those of E.H.
Fitzhugh, Assistant
to the President, and R.H. Ingrahm, Executive
Secretary, both
of whom left the Central Vermontroad to enter the
S.P, service under Mr. Hays, 1,M. Herbert, formerly
of the G.T.R
has since resigned the managership
of the Pacific division of the
S.P., to which he was recently appointed,
E.H. HalTiman, Chairman
of the Executive of the S,P has
been elected Pres
ident, succeeding Mr. Hays.
The Railway and Shipping World, November, 1901.
[EditorS note: As this is being copied, it is September 12, 1996,
the date the Southern Pacific -Union Pacific merger is to come into
effect.
Thus the Southern Pacific will disappear, and both the U.P.
and S.P. will be under the same management as they
were briefly
during the Harriman years in the early part
of the twentieth
century].
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996
Grand Trunk Ry.:-C.M. Hays will return to the
management, probably on January
l. No official
announcement
of his title has been made, but it is
said he will be Vice-President and General Manager,
succeeding G.B. Reeve. who will again retire to
his California ranch, which he quitted reluctantly
a year ago to succeed Mr. Hays, when the latter
went
to the Southern Pacific Co.
C.M. Hays, ex-President
of the Southern
Pacific Co., left San Francisco early in November,
and after a brief stay in New York proceeded to
England, from where soon came the news that he
had decided to return to the management
of the
G.T.R.
The Railway and Shipping World, Dec. 1901.
GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC RAILWAY
The following provisional officers and
directors were appointed on the formal organization
of the G.T.P. Ry. Co. in Montreal: President,
C.M.
Hays, 2nd Vice-President and General
Manager G.T.R …… An
executive committee,
consisting of C.M. Hays, P.W. Morse, W.
Wainwright and Hon. G.A. Cox was also appointed.
Under the act
of incorporation the first meeting of
shareholders will be held in October when directors
will be elected ….. .
Afterthe preliminary organization meeting
C.M. Hays stated
in an interview: Surveys are
being rapidly made on that section
of the road
between Winnipeg and the Pacific coast. They
will be continued, and as soon as all the required
information regarding grades, practicable routes
and terminal points is prepared a definite route
will be chosen and construction work will be
commenced.
It will take considerable time yet for
these surveys
to be completed. There is no probability
of any construction work being started this year.
The Railway and Shipping World, Sep. 1904.
Grand TrunkRy.:-C.M. Hays,PresidentG.T.P.R.
and Second Vice President and General Manager
G.T.R., sailed from New
YorkJune29 for England,
and his
car Canada being in New York, Mr. Morse
travelled back
in it to Montreal. This fact was
magnified by a section
of the daily press into a
special sending
of the Canada to New York to
meet
Mr. Morse, and the fairy story writers followed
this up by an announcement that
Mr. Hays would
resign and be succeeded
by Mr. Morse and other
equally likely prophesies.
The Railway and Marine World, August, 1909.
123 CANADIAN RAIL -454
Two standard Grand Trunk Pacific stations, built in the time of C.M. Hays, and
still standing
in 1996, one preserved, the other facing demolition.
TOP: The station from Penny B.C. which has b
een moved to the railway museum at
Prince George and beautifully restored.
BOTTOM: The larger station
at McBride appears to be doomed. When photographed
on July
4, 1996 it had a notice offering it for sale. It is very likely it will soon be
demolished.
Both photos by Fred Angus.
AND, FINALLY, THE LAST TRIP …
Grand Trunk Ry.:-C.M. Hays, Second Vice President and
General Manager G.T.R., will succeed Sir Charles Rivers Wilson
as President on January
I, 1910. C.M. HAYS, President G.T.R. and G.T. Pacific Ry., left Montreal
for England, via New York, February 12.
The Railway and Marine World, April, 1912.
The Railway and Maline World, December, 1909.
RAIL CANADIEN -454 124 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
~~~ ltbt Jttutttat~iii!l Jlat r~~~~DF ~!
fPfE TITANICS PASSENGERS SAF~E
TITANICS ACCIDENT MADE I THE ~lTANIC AND~~~,~O,WING,P~ST:ON,AN~ ~HAT
~REAT STIR IN MONTREAL! ,-
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~,k .~~. gUrl •
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-M •• lr-.n.1) tin
OF RELIEVING SHIPS,
, . , Parisian, of the Allan Line, and
Carpathia, of tbe Cunard Line.
First to Reach the Stricken Ship,
Take Off Passengers
VIRGINIAN IS TOWING
I TITANIC INTO HAUF AX
~,reAte.1 Ship in the World, Which Co.t $10,000,,,
000 to Build, Come. to Grief on Her Maiden
Voyage Acroa. the AtlAntic. By Striking an reo-­
~rg off the Cout of Newfoundland.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996 125 CANADIAN RAIL -454
The Death of Charles M. Hays
From The Railway and Marine World, May 1912
Charles Melville Hays, President, G.T.R. and G.T. Pacific
Ry., who was lost in the
Titanic disaster, April 15, was born at Rock
Island
III. May 16, 1856. He entered railway service in 1873, since
which he has been, to 1877, clerk Atlantic and Pacific Rd. (now
part
of the Frisco lines), St. Louis Mo.; 1877 to 1884, Secretary to
Vice Presid
ent and General Manager, Wabash and Missouri
Pacific systems; 1884 to 1886, secretary
to Vice President and
General Manager, Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Rd.; 1886 to
1887, Assistant General Manager same road; 1887, appointed
Gene
ral Manager, Wabash Western lines, comprising all the lines
west
of the Mississippi river and that portion of the lines east,
between Chicago a
nd Detroit, and on the consolidation of the
Wabash lines, he was appointed General Manager
of the entire
system. In 1894
he was elected also Vice President, and resigned
Decemb
er 31, 1895, on his appointment as General Manager,
G.T.R., which position he resigned
in 1900 to become President,
Southern Pacific road, but on that railway changing hands after a
few months
he returned to the G.T.R. as General Manager, and was
also elected Second Vice President in 1902. On January
I, 1910,
he was elected President. He was also President, G.T. Pacific Ry.,
from Aug
10, 1904.
Mr. and Mrs. Hays left Montreal Feb. 12, and sailed from
New York for England Feb.
16. They were preceded by Thornton
and Mrs. Davidson, their son-in-law and daughter, who travelled
in Europe before joining Mr. and Mrs. Hays for the return journey.
Of the family party Messrs. Hays and Davidson were drowned,
Mrs. Hays and Mrs. Davidson being rescued. Vivian Payne, Mr.
Hays private secretary, was also lost.
The arrival
of the 5.5. Carpathia jn New York, April 18,
with the survivors from the
Titanic was awaited by H.G. Kelley,
Vice President, G.T.R.; E.H. Fitzhugh, Preside
nt, Central Vermont
Ry.; Dr. J.A. Hutchison, Chief Medical Officer, G.T.R., who is
also the Hays family physician; and Hope and Mrs. Scott, Mrs.
Hays son-in-law and daughter, and by W.H. Gregg, of St. Louis,
Mrs.
Hays father, and some other relatives. The palty was taken
as quickly
as possible after the boat docked to the Grand Central
Station, where they boarded a special train to Montreal, arriving
there the following morning.
Shortly after Mrs. Hays return to Montreal, H.G. Kelley,
Vice President, G.T.R., gave a statement to the press, in which he
said that Mrs. Hays and her daughter, Mrs. Davidson, had retired
to their cabins, but had not undressed when the crash came. Mr.
Hays and Mr. Davidson were on deck, with Mr. H. Markland
Molson. Shortly after the
Titanic ran into the iceberg, the ladies
were brought on deck, and Mr. Hays and his son-in-law went back
to the cabins
to get fur coats for them, as the.night was very cold.
All
imagined that there was no immediate danger, and in spite of
the fact that some of the lifeboats were being lowered and the
passengers being loaded into them, it was thought to be the best
course
to pursue to remain with the ship. As the second last lifeboat
was swung over the
steamers side, Mr. Hays informed his wife
and daughter that he thought it advisable that they get into this,
saying that he and Mr. Davidson would wait until he
lp came in the
morning. The men then wrapped the two ladies
in their warm coats,
and with Mrs. Hays
maid helped them into the boat. The last seen
of Messrs. Hays, Davidson and Molson, they were standing on the
deck, waving to the ladies in the boat, and as a further
assurance,
Mr. Hays called out that the
Titanic was good for ten hours more,
and by that time help would have surely arrived. The lights
of the
liner went
out shortly after the smaller lifeboat pulled some
distance away, but neither of the ladies saw her sink below the
smface. Naturally, both were greatly agitated, and although anxious
for their husbands, did not
consider them in any imminent danger.
The women were huddled together
in the bottom of the boat, and
did not suffer any hardships from the exposure. It was not until the
next day that Mrs. Hays
and her daughter were defmitely aware of
the loss of their husbands.
Col. Gracie,
of the U.S. Army, who had a most remarkable
escape, having stayed
on the ship till the last, is reported to have
said:-Before I retired I had a long chat with Mr. Hays. One
of the
last things he said was this: The Hamburg-American lines are
devoting their attention and ingenuity to vying with one another to
attain the supr
emacy in luxmious ships and in making speed
records. The time will come soon when this will be checked by
some appalling disaster.
Poor fellow, a few hours later he was
dead.
Major Peuchen,
of Toronto, who was saved, in testifying
before the U.S. Senate committ
ee at Washington, D.C., April 23,
described the feeling
of the shock of the collision and going on
deck, where a friend told him an iceberg had been struck. He
continued:-After a few minutes I went to other friends and said
it was not serious. Fifteen minutes later 1 met
CM. Hays. I asked
him: Have you seen the ice? He said No. Then I took him up
and showed him. Then I noticed the boat was
listing. I said to Mr.
Hay
s: Shes listing; she shouldnt do that. He said: Oh, I dont
know. This boat cant sink. He had a good deal of confidence, and
said:
No matter what we have struck shes good for eight or ten
hours.,
A memorial service for Mr. Hays was held on April 25 in
the American Presbyterian Church, Montreal,
of which he was a
member.
At 11 :30 A.M., Montreal time, all trains, yard engines,
vessels, telegraph and telephone services over the entire system
were stopped for five minutes, and all labour was similarly
suspended.
The principal stations and offices were draped in black
and purple, and all the companies flags were lowered to
half mast.
OPPOSITE PAGE: The front page of the Montreal Daily Star for April IS, 1912, the day the Titanic sank. Note the photo of Mr. Hays in
the left-Iumd column. The report that the passengers were safe was based on a misunderstood message and was, of course, tragically wrong.
National Archives
of Canada, Photo No. L-3269.
RAIL CANADIEN -454 126 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
Memorials to Charles M. Hays
By Fred F. Angus
After the sinking of the Titanic, a search was made for the bodies of the victims as well as other items that might have floated. Contrary
to popular opinion, the majority
of the victims did not go down with the ship. Just before or during the sinking, many had jumped overboard
or had been washed off
as the ship sank. However the water was frigidly cold and most died within a short time. Many of the bodies floated
and were recovered. Among those so recovered was Charles Hays. He was taken to Halifax and thence to Montreal and buried
in Mount Royal
Cemetery where
an impressive stone marks his grave. When his body was recovered, his gold watch was still in his pocket. This watch,
presented to him
in 1896. was later presented by his daughters to the CRHA where it is an important historical artifact in the history of
Canadian railways. Of course the movement had been ruined by immersion in salt water and, in a later attempt to restore it to running order,
the original 1896 movement had been replaced by a high grade Waltham movement
of about 1935. Nevertheless, the gold case, with its
inscription,
is entirely original and was in Mr. Hays pocket when he perished.
The monument to Charles Hays, in Mount Royal Cemetery, is of granite and in pelfect condition after 84 years. There is one large
monument bearing
on the front the simple inscription CHARLES MEL VILLE HAYS. However on the back, partly hidden, is an inscription
that tells the story. In nine lines it says:
IN LOVING MEMORY OF
CHARLES MELVILLE HAYS
BORN IN ROCK ISLAND ILLINOIS MAY 161856
DIE DIN THE F 0 UN D E R 1 N G 0 F THE S. S. TIT A N I CAP R I L I 5 1 9 1 2
AND SOH E 0 lED, AND TH E EX AMP LEO F HIS
SIMP LE D E V 0 TED CON SEC RATE D L I F E ISO U R
P R IC
EL E S S H ER I TAG E. W EAR E 0 IFF ERE N T P E 0 P L E
AND WE ARE BF,TTER PEOPLE BECAUSE THIS
MAN LIVE DAN D W 0 R KED AND L 0 V E DAN D DIE 0
In front
of the monument are the headstones of C.M. Hays, Mrs. Hays (who lived until February I, 1955) and others of his family
including two
of his daughters who were such benefactors of the CRHA.
The body of Thornton Davidson was never recovered, but a memorial also exists in the same cemetery lot near the grave of his father
in law. It resembles the monument to Mr. Hays, but is somewhat smaller. On the front it says simply THORNTON DAVIDSON, while
the back bears this seven line inscription:
I N L 0 V IN G ME M 0 R Y 0 F
T HO RN
TON D A V 1 D SON
BORN IN MONTREAL MAY 17 1880
DIE DINT HE F 0 UNO E R I N G 0 F THE S .S. TIT A Nl CAP R I L 15 1912
AND THUS THIS MAN DIED LEAVING HIS
DEATH FOR AN EXAMPLE OF A NOBLE
COURAGE AND A MEMORIAL OF VIRTUE
Perhaps the real memorial to Charles M. Hays is the former Grand Trunk Pacific, and the port of Prince Rupert which he envisioned
so long ago.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996 127 CANADIAN RAIL -454
The City that Remembers Charles M. Hays
By Fred F. Angus
As Mr. Boles has rightly said in his article, few people
today are aware that Charles Hays even existed. Despite
rus great
contribution to the railway system
of Canada, he is a forgotten
figure in Canadian history. Even the circumstances
of rus death, in
one
of the most famous tragedies of all time, have failed to dispel
the oblivion into which he has fallen. While he is familiar to
railway historians, most others have never heard
of rum.
However, there
is one place in Canada where the name of
Charles M. Hays is definitely not forgotten; in fact he is there
revered as the the citys founder. The place is the city
of Prince
Rupert, British Columbia, the terminus
of Hays road, the Grand
Trunk Pacific.
In Prince Rupe11 there is a Hays Cove, Hays Cove
Road, Hays Cove Circle, Hays Creek, Hays Vale subdivision and,
towering over the city, 2400 foot Mount Hays. Not far away, along
the CN (ex-GTP) railway line is Haysport and, back in town, one
can see a statue
of Hays, and even eat in a dining room named after
him!
Of course it is all very fitting; if there had been no Charles
Hays there would have been
no Prince Rupert and, perhaps, no
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway.
Early
in July, 1996, T was on a long trip with my friend
Mark Gustafson. We had been to Russia, to Alaska and the Yukon,
and had taken the Alaska Ferry from Skagway to Prince Rupert.
The next step was to ride VIA Rails Skeena, another one
of
Canadas lesser known, but spectacular, train journeys. We arrived
in Prince Rupert in the late afternoon and proceeded to our
lodgings.
Of course [ had told Mark the story of the GTP, of
Charles Hays and of the Hays building at the Canadian Railway
Museum. However, after more than eighty years, neither
of us
expected to see much pertaining to those early days. We were soon
proved wrong! Browsing
in a book store we saw a photo of a statue
of Hays and we mentioned our interest to the proprietor. He said
there was a dining room named for
Hays in a local hotel and, if we
hurriefl up, we mi·ght be in time for dinner there. So
off we went
and soon discovered that the main dining
room in the Crest Motor
Hotel on First Avenue is called Charley Hays Lounge.
It proved
to be an excellent dining room, and we had a big dinner; very
welcome after our long trip. In the room were many pictures,
artifacts and other memorabilia concerning Charles Hays, the
railway and,
of course, much about the Titanic. There is even a
framed original copy
of the Prince Rupert newspaper desclibing
the sinking.
After having eaten a full dinner at Charleys, we continued
to explore the city. Soon we came
to a lifesize statue of Charles
Hays, by which there
is an inscription proclaiming him as our
founder. The next day we departed from Prince Rupert on the
railway which Hays had built.
When the Grand Trunk Pacific was incorporated in 1904,
it was decided to place its western terminus far to the north
of
Vancouver, and considerably closer to the Orient by sea. After
much exploring and surveying, a location on Kaien Island, near the
mouth
of the Skeena River, was selected. A contest was held to
The statue of Charles Hays at Prince Rupert B. C.
determine a name for the new port, and the name Prince Rupert
won. Trus was named after the 17th century English prince who
had greatly supported the foundation
of the Hudsons Bay Company
during the reign
of Charles II. The first settlers arrived in 1906 and,
on March 10, 1910, the city was incorporated. Hays envisioned a
city
of 50,000 within a short time, and plans were drawn up for a
large hotel wruch would rival or surpass anything the CPR had
built. Unfortunately, for many reasons, this never came to pass,
and the hotel was never built. The railway was completed, however,
in 1914, just before the outbreak
of World War I, and the later
bankruptcy
of the Grand Trunk. Hays, of course, was dead by then
and he never saw the downfall
of his dream.
Prince Rupert, and the railway, survived, and both gained
great importance during World
War II, when so much war equipment
was being srupped from the west coast for the war in the Pacific.
Today srups from around the world dock at Prince Rupert, many
of them from Japan and the Far East. So, after almost a century, the
dream
of Charles M. Hays may yet be fulfilled. Regardless of what
happens, the people
of Plince Rupert will never forget the person
whom they rightly consider to be the founder
of their city.
RAIL CANADIEN -454 128 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
Grand Trunk Railway Bridge No. 302
By Gay Lepkey
-._ •. III.:-~ .. :.­
_. __ :t7:1i.:. …
-~— —·–~··!-·———HI
Hooples Creek Bridge at Wales Ontario.
No. NMC-J33J58. National Archives
of Canada, Cartographic and Architectoral Archives Division.
Bridge #302 was first built with abutments designed for a
double track, while the piers were constructed for single track
operations. The single track line was begun in 1853 and completed
in 1856. The earliest extant drawing (NMC 133158) showing a
single track line is undated. Consequently, it is not certain that this
was the first bridge built over Hooples Creek. Double tracking
of
this portion of the GTR main line was begun in 1887 and completed
in 1892, so construction of the first stage of the stone arch bridge
was presumably complete before that date.
The ancestry of the design is most evident in its circular
rather than elliptical or pointed arches. A simple unornamented
structure with circular arches was the Roman preference and
indeed the design fits an american poets definition
of beauty:
aptness to purpose. The ancient heritage
of this railway bridge
was also followed in its construction. It is not solid stone but a
stone facing with a rubble and concrete core. Poured concrete
suggests modern building technique, but this too was a Roman
invention developed for
just such an engineering problem as a
stone arch bridge.
So durable is this construction that many
predecessors of the Hooples Creek bridge still stand. Possibly the most familiar example is the three tiered aqueduct
of the Ponl du
Gard; Nimes, France·which
has been the subject of .countless travel
posters. This is thought to have been built
in the first century AD
but older examples are still in use one spanning 117 in a single
arch.
The principle
of the masonry arch was employed in ancient
Egypt and Mesopotamia, but Imperial Rome pelfected and maximized
the possibilities
of the design. The stone arch bridge built by the
Grand Trunk Railway over Hoopl
es Creek at Wales, Onto on the
Montreal-Toronto main line exemplifies that railways Roman
architectural helitage. As John Davis has pointed out in CN Lines
(V.2,33), the name Grand trunk itself harkens back to ancient
Rom
e. Indeed, to belabour the point, the track gauge of 48 now
in common use, is said to have been derived by George Stephenson
from the span
of the grooves worn in the streets of Pompeii by
Roman chariot wheels.
Construction
of the Montreal-Toronto main was undertaken
by the Eng
lish railway contractors Peto, Brassey, Jackson & Betts.
In their day, they were the leading railway builders in the British
Empire. Neveltheless, they exhausted themselves in the black
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996 129 CANADIAN RAIL -454
.. ,
r—: _..J~
fllY/am I(}(MJH6 TwRllf!S llIE 5ourH:
G. T.R. Survey of Hooples Creek arch bridge at Wales. National Archives of Canada, Cartographic and Architectoral Archives Division.
No. NMC-J33145.
hole of Canadian railway construction, their last project in Canada
being the first Victoria bridge
in Montreal (see Jeff Holt CN Lines,
V.3,#I). As well as bridges, they constructed stone stations for the
GTR, a Dumber
of which are still standing and in use by CN and/
or VIA. These feature arched windows that echo the design of this
bridge. Someone in the company must have taken his classical
education to heart. Stone masons were hard at work all along the
line for often the simplest culvert was built
of cut stone.
Hooples Creek bridge underwent major repairs to its
north side, the original single track span,
in the early 1920s. The
two other drawings were prepared for this work. One provides
detailed specifications and procedures for the work and leaves a
record
of how the bridge was originally built and later repaired
(NMC 133146). The other drawing is a detailed survey of the
bridge dimensions (NMC 133145). While the notations may not
be readable in this publication, those wanting to build a model
of
this bridge may obtain 18 x 24 reader-printer photocopies from
the
Map Division of the National Archives for $2.30 each.
The three plans shown here contain all dimensions required
to construct
an accurate model of the prototype or a variation to suit
your situation. The best, but the most tedious modelling technique
for stone work is the Jack Work method (aptly named) outlined
in
the February 1984 issue of Mainline Modeler. In addition, three different approaches to stone arch bridge construction may be
found in the November 1980, December 1982 and the June 1985
issues
of Railroad Model Craftsman.
During the 1920s repair work, the north track was closed
and traffic re-routed to the south main by a temporary cross-over.
The spandrils were excavated of fill and cleaned with high pressure
water hoses.
The crowns of the arches were drilled on a grid pattern
and liquid mortar was pumped into all crevices. After smoothing
out, the backs
of the arches were covered with 2 of concrete. The
stones of the spandril faces were re-set and re-pointed, the parapet
and cornices were re-builL in concrete and the arch soffits re­
pointed. Finally, the ballast and tracks were re-laid. One month
later both tracks were open for service at reduced speed.
The derivation of the name Hooples Creek may be of
interest to some readers. Although it has a military connection it
is not to the Major of comic strip fame. Instead, it bears the family
name
of two brothers, John and Henry Hoople. who upon retiring
from the British army and the American Revolutionary War, took
up land grants
in the area. Henrys wife Mary had been captured
by Indians, adopted
by a Medicine man and finally sold back to her
community. Having acquired her adopted parents skills, she was
able to provide medical care to the Hooples Creek settlers.
She
is known in local history as Granny Hoople and is considered to be
RAIL CANADIEN -454 130 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
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No. NMC-J33J46.
Canadas first woman doctor.. Grannys sister-in-law achieved
fifteen minutes
of fame during the War of 1812. Her house was
situated on the banks
of Hooples Creek and thereby became
involved
in the Battle of Cryslers Farm. She provided medical aid
to the wounded, including an American soldier. For that deed she
was awarded six hundred dollars by the American government.
Sometime in the 1940s CN carried out further repair work
on bridges in this area. Some local residents acquired permanent
employment with the contractor and tbe project is still remembered
for that reason.
At Hooples Creek this work involved covering the
arch soffits with concrete but
no other details have come to light.
In the mid 1950s Hooples Creek bridge was flooded by the St.
Lawrence Seaway, but for some reason not dismantled. A local
diving organisation, Save Our Shipwrecks, includes it in their
charted dive sites but you
dont have to scuba dive to visit it. One
can boat out
to it and step out onto the original roadbed covered by
two feet of water. If the St. Lawrence Seaway had not been
constructed and the CN main line relocated,
Hooples Creek
bridge would undoubtedly be
in service today.
Credits:
l.NMC 133158 Hooples Creek Bridge, Wales Ont. nd. National
Archives
of Canada
2.NMC 133146 Hooples Creek Arch, Wales Ont. Mar. 1921
National Archives
of Canada
3.NMC 133145 Hooples Creek Arch, Wales Ont. Oct. 1920
National Archives
of Canada
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996 131 CANADIAN RAIL -454
The Centennial of the Montreal Roor
By Fred F. Angus
The thousands of street cars
which have operated in Canada during
the last 135 years have been
of many
different types, ranging from the earliest
horseca
rs to the latest light rail vehicles.
Many
of these have been of standard
designs found in numerous cities
in
Canada and throughout the continent.
A few,
however, have been very
distinctive, found only in certain cities
or regions
of the Dominion. One thinks
of the Preston Prairie type, found
mostly in Western cities, the distinctive
wooden cars
of Winnipeg, Torontos
flat sided tongue-and-groove sheathed
wooden cars, and perhaps the open
topped observation cars which ran in
a few Canadian cities. Perhaps the
most distinctive Canadian type
of all
first appeared on the streets in 1896,
exactly
lOO years ago. This was not
one car type but a whole family
of
different designs, all bearing a family
resemblance.
T.his group of trams
were those bearing the so-called
Montreal Roof. From 1896 to 1913
there were
no less than 622 of these
cars built, by eleven different builders,
Thefirst car with the Montreal Roof, No. 458 was built by the MSR in 1896. It is here seen in 1904
when it had been little altered except for the vestibule and front fender.
CRHA Archives, Binns Collection.
and of more than twenty different types. All were built for
Montreal, although a very few were sold later for use in Halifax and
Saint John, and perhaps one or two other cities. By 1913 most
of
Montreals closed cars had this style of roof, and it was to be a part
of the Montreal scene for sixty years, until the last of the type was
retired. in 1956.
In the early 1890s, the street railways
of Canada were
actively engaged in electrifying their lines. Montreal and Toronto
got off
to a fairly late start since the company directors were no
doubt worried about the large capital cost involved in making the
conversion. When a new company took over Torontos system on
September I, 1891, part
of the franchise agreement said that
electric cars had
to begin running within one year and aU horse car
operation had to cease within three years. Montreal, however, still
demun·ed until the spring
of 1892 when the company, observing
how the Ottawa Electric Railway had coped with the heavy snow,
made the decision
to electrify. Once the decision was made, things
moved fast and the first electric car ran on September 21, little
more than two months after Torontos. By October, 1894 the
electrification was complete and the last horsecar was retired with
little ceremony.
During tills time most
of the efforts of the Montreal Street
Railway (MSR) were devoted
to the problems involved in the
conversion from horse
to electric power. The need for a large amount
of new rolling stock was solved by purchasing new cars
from a number
of builders, both in Canada and the United States.
There was little distinctive about these new cars. All were
of
standard designs, typical of the 1890s, which were in use in dozens,
or even hundreds,
of cities throughout North America. They were
single-truck, about 25
to 30 feet long overall, with open platfonns,
curved sides, clerestory roof and from six to eight windows per
side. As newer car types were built, many
of these cars, from lines
all over America, were sold
to smaller systems where they
continued in use
for many years. Some became very run down, and
these were immortalized in the
1920s by Fontaine Foxs famous
comic strip about the Toonerville Trolley.
By 1895, Montreals electrification was complete and the
MSR could devote more effort
to other projects, notably extending
its lines and obtaining more rolling stock. The City Council
of
Montreal imposed on the company the requirement that all new
cars for the MSR be built in Montreal. The problem was that there
was only one builder
of street cars in the city, the firm of N. & A.C.
Lariviere, and their capacity was not sufficient
to satisfy the
requirements
of the MSR. A number of Lariviere-built cars were
in use
in the city but, as we have seen, most were from outside
builders. Therefore, the MSR decided
to build a car shop near their
carbarns at Hochelaga,
in the east end of the city, and there build
all their new rolling stock as well as repairing the existing
RAIL CANADIEN -454
equipment. Accordingly, the last of the cars
from outside builders were ordered late
in 1895.
These were four closed cars from Ottawa (430
to 436 even numbers) and ten from Lariviere
(438 to 456 even numbers). Both these lots were ,
of the same standard design as all the other
closed cars bought since 1892. Last
of all were
twenty open cars (269
to 307 odd numbers)
from Lariviere, delivered
in the spring of 1896.
The Hochelaga shops went into
production early in 1896 and during that year
built
30 open cars and 25 closed cars. The opens
were typical arch roof single-truck vehicles,
much like those in other cities. However the
closed cars were different! After 100 years, no
one knows whose idea it was, but a design
of
roof was developed different from any that had
been seen before. There had been many types
of
roofs used on street railways ranging from flat
roofs through the Bombay type often used on
horsecars to the clerestory
or deck type. By the 1890s the deck
type was more
or less standard. Here the raised clerestory had
small windows on both sides as well
as at the ends. The raised
portion covered the main body
of the car only and did not extend
over the platforms. Meanwhile the main line railways had adopted
the railroad type
of roof. This also had a clerestory, but the ends
of the raised pOl1ion curved down gently to meet the main roof at
the ends
of the platforms. This created a more streamlined effect,
suitable to higher speeds. This shape
of roof was standard for most
railway passenger equipment from the late 1860s until the 1930s.
Montreals new design was a combination of the deck and
railroad roofs.
The ends of the raised clerestory curved down to
meet the main roof, but not at the end
of the platform. Instead, the
upper
roof met the main roof at a point about half way along the
platform between the main bulkhead and the end
of the car. By this
simple step, a new design was created. Anyone who knew about
street railways would think Montreal immediately on seeing this
roof. When the first
of the new cars, number 458, went into service
132 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
Two views of single-truck Montreal Roof
cars taken about 1910, after they had been
converted
to Pay-As-You-Enter operalion.
LEFT: Car 310 was one
of the original lot of
25 cars buill in 1896. II had a lower number
because
it replaced older car 310 which had
been burned
in the fire al the Park & Island
carbam earlier that year. This 310 became a
tool car
in 1919 and was scrapped in 1927.
BELOW: Number
596 was, coincidentally,
also a replacement
for an earlier car wilh the
same number. The first
596, which burned in
the fire at Hochelaga in 1898, had been built in
1897
and was virtually identical 10 ils
replacement. The new
596, shown here, was
built
in 1899 and survived until 1924.
BOlh photos frOI11 CRHA Archives, Binns
Collection.
in the spring of 1896, the Montreal Roof was born. It would be
a feature
of its namesake city for the next six decades.
It has been said that cars wi th this roof design were never
operated
in any other city. This is not strictly true. Some cities did
have street cars with roofs closely, if not exactly, resembling
Montreals type. For example, Blackpool England had a number
of single-deck trams, built in the I 920s, whose roofs could be
considered similar to Montreals. Also,
of course, were the six
Park and Island cars sold
by Mont.real to Saint John N.B. in 1903,
and subsequently sold
to other cities. After the Halifax Explosion
of 1917 some Montreal single tlUck cars were sold to that city as
well. However it
is said that the exception proves the rule and we
are fully justified
in saying that the Monu·eal Roof was a distinct
and almost unique feature
of MontreaJs trams. What is surprising
is how the company Montrealized whatever new design
of
closed car they bought. Whether the basic design was copied from
Glasgow Scotland (as in the Scotch cars
of 1900 -1901) or from
New York (as in the 640 class
of I 900), or even the semi-
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996
convertibles of 1905 -1906, the cars, when they
appeared on the streets all had that hallmark
of
the MSR, the Montreal Roof. Even in later
years, when the company returned to ordering
new
equipment from outside builders, the
specifications always included the ctistinct roof.
From 1896 to 1913 virtually every closed car
built for Montreal had this
feature. It was only
with the development
of the new arch roof
constmction, statting
in 1913, that the time­
honoured design ceased
to be built.
The 25 cars built
in 1896 continued the
MSRseven numbered series intended for closed
cars. Thus they were numbered from 458 to 502
plus numbers 310 and 340. These last two were
to replace two older cars
of the same numbers
which had been loaned to the Montreal Park and
Island Railway and destroyed when the latter
companys carbarn burned
in the summer of
1896. All during the era of single-truck cars the
MSR attempted to maintain an unbroken number
series by replacing units that had been destroyed
or otherwise written off with new cars bearing
133 CANADIAN RAIL -454
.. :
Another J 896 car was 340, which also took the number of a car destroyed in the Park &
Island fire of 1896. When it became Welder 1 in 1921, it also kept its old number! Later
numbered W-I2,
il was scrapped in 1936.
the same number. This policy applied for all CRHA Archives, Binns Collection.
single-truck trams as we see with the Birney
cars, bought many years later, which received
even numbers in the 200
series. This did not apply to double-truck
equipment, to the great relief
of historians!
In 1897 fifty more closed trams joined the roster. These
differed slightly from those
of 1896 in that the roofs were slightly
lower, but otherwise they were identical. After this large order the
needs
of the MSR were temporarily
satisfied so no new closed cars were
built in 1898.
1899 was a different story. were later rebuilt closed.
An interesting sidelight is that in 1899
Lariviere built seven trams for the new system in St.
Johns
Newfoundland. They closely resembled those of Montreal, but
they had the regular railroad roof.
Sixty new single-tmck cars
joined the MSR fleet in 1900.
These had 22-foot bodies instead of21 like the older cars. However
On September 16, 1898 the Hochelaga
carbarn had burned with a loss
of 62
street ca
rs, 32 of which were closed
cars.
Most were of the older type, but
six (472, 514, 542, 566, 592, 596)
were
of the new Montreal Roof
type. Thus of the 42 new closed cars
built
in 1899,32 received the numbers
of the destroyed cars while the
remaining ten were assigned numbers
formerly used by horse cars which
had just been retired from trai ler service.
Note that
in the case of the six numbers
given above, the new ones were
virtually identical to those destroye
d;
this being the only case where there
was any duplication
of numbers of
Montreal Roof cars. Also in 1899,
two open cars were built
by Lariviere
for the Park
& Island. They were
numbered
118 and 119, and in 1901
were renumbered 1013 and 1015. The
only Montreal Roof open cars, they
A classic example of the modification of a slandard design 10 suil Montreal specifications is
exemplified by this car seen on St. Lawrence boulevard in August 1905, only four months after it
was deliveredfrom the builder. It was a standard Brill semi-convertible, but built as a single-ender
and with the Montreal
roof Only two of these, 840 and 842, were built. Because of their design they
were never converted
to PAYE, but were used on suburban lines. 840 was scrapped in 1933 and 842
about
1926. National Archives of Canada, Merrilees Collection, Photo No. PA-I85935.
RAIL CANADIEN -454 134 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
TABLE OF STREET CARS BUILT WITH MONTREAL ROOF
1896 TO 1913
DATE BUILDER CAR NUMBERS HOW MANY COMMENTS
1896 M.S.R. 458 -502 (even) 25 472 burned in 1898
310 and 340
1897 M.S.R. 504 -602 (even) 50 514,542,566,592, 596 burned in 1898
Rathbun MP & I 32 -35 4 Renumbered 1024 -1030 (even) in 1901
Rebuilt with Montreal roof in 1910
1898 NO CARS B U I LT
1899 M.S.R. 158,160,162,164,166, 168, 42
170,
176, 178, 180, 192, 194,
196,208,210,212,238,248,
266, 276, 284, 296, 304, 306,
316,356,370,378,382,388,
400, 408, 412, 426, 430, 446,
472,514,542,566,592,596
Lariviere MP & I 118 and 119 2 Renumbered 1013 and 1015 in 1901
1900 M.S.R. 604 -636 (even) 60 No.4 renumbered 40 in 1908
4, 26, 30, 32, 36, 38, 42, 50, 52,
56, 58, 62, 66, 68, 70, 78, 82, 88,
90, 92, 96,
98, 100, 102, 104,
106,112,
114,116,118,124,
126, 128, 132, 136, 140, 142,
144, 150, 152, 154, 156, 182
M.S.R. 638, 640 -688 (even) 26 First double truck city cars
MP&! MP & ! 36 -41 6 Sold to Saint John in 1903
1901 M.S.R. 690 -738 (even) 25 706 bw-ned in 1909
1902 M.S.R. MP & I 1032 -1050 (even) 10 Rebuilt with arch roof in 1920s
1903 M.S.R. 740 -788 (even) 25 780 burned in 1906
1904 MS.R. 790-838 (even) 25 828 renumbered 950 in 1905
Niles
844 -862 (even)
10
1905 Brill 840, 842 2
Stephenson
864, 866 2
Rds. Curry 868 -876 (even) 5
Ottawa
878 -886 (even) 5
M.S.R.
888, 890 2 888 renum. 948, 890 renum. 900
in 1905
1905 -06 M.S.R. 902 -946 (even) 23 940 was extra long car
1906 -08 Ottawa 703 -801 (odd) 50
1907 Can Car 803 -821 (odd) 10
Kuhlman 823 -861 (odd) 20 859 preserved
Pressed Steel
863 -881 (odd) 10 First steel street cars in Canada
1908 M.S.R. 1100,1101 2 Suburban cars
1909 NO CARS B UI LT
1910 Ottawa 901 -919 (odd) 10 First steel cars built in Canada
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996 135 CAIlADIAN RAIL -454
1911 Ottawa 921 -999 (odd) 40 957 and 997 preserved
Ottawa
1051, 1053, 1055 3 Suburban cars
Ottawa
1102, 1103, 1104 3 Suburban cars
1911 -12 Can Car 1200 -1209
[0
1912 Ottawa 1210 -1269 60
1913
Can Car 1270 -1299 30
Ottawa
1300 -1324 25 1317 preserved
TOTAL 622
MONTREAL ROOF CARS BY BUILDER
BUILDER HOW MANY
Mont. St.
Ry. 321
Ottawa 196
Can Car 50
Kuhlman 20
Pressed Steel
10
Niles 10
Rhodes
CunY 5
Rathbun
4
Lariviere
2
Brill
2
Stephenson
2
TOTAL 622
By 1904 it had been decided that no more open cars would be built. In order to retain some ojthe advantages ojopen cars, many street railways
developed the semi-convertible design. The MSRs answer was the 790-class in which the windows were completely removed during summer
months. In later cars the window dropped into a pocket
jor use if it rained. The swivel seats were a short-lived experiment.
Both photos, CRHA Archives, Binns Collection.
RAIL CANADIEN -454 136 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
The next development by the MSR is exemplified by the worlds firsl Pay-As-You-Enter car, number
By 1905 the capacity of the
Hochelaga shops was insufficient to
produce the new equipment needed
in
ever-increasing amounts as the system
grew and older cars
were retired.
Accordingly the company turned once
more to outside builders since the
buy Montreal requirement had been
repealed. Nevertheless, all these new
cars still had one thing in common –
that roof design. In 1911 the MSR
was amalgamated with the suburban
companies to form the Montreal
Tramways Company. A newer lighter
weight design
of tram was developed
and
125 of them were built between
late
191 I and mid 19 I 3. Numbered
from
J 200 to 1324, they were the last
of the Montreal
Roof cars to be
built. By then the advantages
of the
arch roof were recognized throughout
the industry, and improved ventilators
made
it unnecessary to haveclerestOlY
windows. In fact the 1200s actually
had the new ventilators mounted outside
890, shown here new in 1905. CRHA Archives, Binns Collection.
the platfonns were slightly shorter so the overall length was the
same. 43
of them used old horsecar numbers while the remaining
17 were numbered 604 to 636 even numbers. This marked the end
of the single-truck era.
Montreals first double-truck city car was 638 built
in
1900. It had a wide centre entrance and was of a type first used in
Glasgow Scotland. It was followed
by 25 rear-entrance cars copied
after a New York design. It is said that these were called the
Klondike type because they were so large (compared to the
earlier ones) that the company would strike it rich
as the
prospectors had done in 1898, only two years before. Also in 1900
six double-end suburban cars were built for the Park
& Island.
These were little used and
in 1903 were sold to Saint John N:B. In
190 I twenty-five more Scotch cars joined the roster,
andin 1902
ten large suburban cars were built for the Park
& Island. Numbered
in the 1032 series they were later rebuilt with arch roofs and saw
many years of service. 1046 has been preserved.
As the years went on, more and more newer varieties of
streetcars were acquired by the MSR. Two velY notable developments
were the worlds first Pay As You Enter car (890, soon renumbered
900, built
in 1905) and the first steel street cars in Canada (863 to
881 odd numbers, constructed in 1907). Soon followed the
fUst
Canadian built steel street cars (901 to 999 odd numbers, dating
from [910) and later the lighter-weight 1200 series, the first
of
which went into service late in 1911. All these, of course had the
Montreal Roof. In addition, a few suburban cars were built
in
1908 and 1911 which also had the distinctive roof except two (1057
and 1059) built by Preston in 1911; these two had the railroad
roof. One strange event took place in 1910 when four suburban
cars, built
by Rathbun in 1897, were rebuilt for Pay-As-You-Enter.
In the rebuilding, the former railroad roof was converted
to the
Montreal roof! the clerestory windows! So it was that
the next group ordered, the 1325 class which began to be delivered
in July 1913. had arch roofs. On June 26, 1913 the last new
Montreal
Roof car went into service. There had been 622 of them
built and only
14 written off. These were the six burned in 1898,
the six sold
to Saint John, plus 706 and 780 which had been burned
in 1909 and
J 906 respectively. Hence the end ofJune 1913 marked
the high water mark for these cars. 608 were
in service; by far the
majority
of all closed cars then in Montreal. From then on it would
be downhill, but more than forty years would pass before they were
all gone.
Between 1913 and 1918 there were 350 new arch roof cars
delivered to the Montreal Tramways Co. These helped to expand
the system, but also allowed the retirement or-most
of the single­
truck cars. Once World War I was over many older cars were
scrapped, and more were burned
in another car barn fire in 1920.
The pioneer car 458 was scrapped in 1923. During the 1920s new
lightweight steel cars were delivered and many
of the early double­
truck cars also reached the end
of the track. During the depression,
older cars were stored and some were scrapped as outlying street
car routes were converted to bus operation. Another ilTeplaceable
relic disappeared when 900 (ex-890) the
worlds first Pay-As­
You-Enter car was cut up in 1933. Even as late as 1940, after World
War II had begun, the five large l100-class suburban units were
scrapped. By 1940 there were 225 Montreal
Roof cars left out of
the original 622. These were 55 of the 703 to 881 class, 44 of the
901 to 999 type and all 125 of the 1200 series. In addition, 922 still
existed as a work car.
By
1941 the demands of war were pushing the street car
systems to the
limit. No f1ll1her scrappings took place and second­
hand cars were purchased from the United States. All the older cars
had their seats turned to face inwards from the walls so as to
increase the carrying capacity. After the
war the continued
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996 137 CANADIAN RAIL -454
The last three types of Montreal roof cars, accounting for 265 of the 622 built, were the 703, 901 and 1200 classes. Examples of all three
types served well into the 1950s. These three broadside views show their characteristics.
In the top photo we see 813, built by Can Car in
1907, as
it looked about 1920. Centre is a view of 903 taken just after it was delivered new from Ottawa in 1910. Bottom is J 280, built by
Can Car
in 1913, photographed in 1914, just after receiving its new green paint scheme.
All photos, CRHA Archives; Binns Collection.
RAIL CANADIEN -454
development of the city necessitated
the retention
of the old cars in service.
By now all the Montreal
Roof cars
were used in
rush hour service only.
They were to be seen, however, on
most lines in the city
during those
hours. A notable exception was the
Wellington line since they could
not
fit through the CNR underpass near
Butler Street. This was not the
Wellington tunnel as is often believed.
All
clerestory roof cars, plus the
surviving 1032-class suburban cars
carried a sign over the inside of the
front window which read This
car
does not pass through Wellington
subway -Ce char ne passe pas sous Ie
viaduc Wellington.
138 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
To the travellers of the mid
20th century these pre World
War I
veterans appeared old fashioned and
only
to be used out of necessity. In
1948 retirements began again as twenty
of the 703 series were scrapped. About
this time 922, the last
of the original
PA
YE cars, also went. By the time the
city took over the Montreal
Tramways
The end of the era of the Montreal roof cars was fasl appraching when this photo was taken of
1272 on CLosse Streel near the Forum in March, 1956. Barely three months taler Ihe lasl of Ihese
cars was retired. Pholo by Fred Angus.
Company in 1951 there were about 158 of these old cars left in
service, including four
(859,861,869,881) of the 703 class, 29 of
the 901 series and all 125 of the 1200s In addition, 35 others were
in dead storage. In an iU-conceived attempt to make them look
more modern, the
enti..re ceilings of all clerestory roof cars were
painted cream as the cars went th.rough the shops for overhaul. This
covered the varnished woodwork and even the glass
of the clerestory
windows. Starting in 1952 the retirement and scrapping
of the old
cars intensified. In 1955 the last
of the 901 class was retired and by
the end of that year only eighteen Montreal Roof cars, all of the
1200 type, were left.
The author remembers making expeditions
around the city
in the spring of 1956 trying to ride and photograph
the few remaining 1200s before they
were gone for good.
On Friday afternoon, June 22, 1956, car
l220 was assigned
to
rush hour service on the Van Horne route. It was 44 years since
that
car had begun its career, in April 19l2, the month the Titanic
sank. It was also sixty years since that type of roof had been first
seen in the city, in 1896, when Queen Victoria was still on the
throne. Completing its run, 1220 headed
back to St. Denis car barn
and retirement. So ended the last run
of a Montreal Roof car in
regular service, and this type would be seen no more in the streets
of Montreal.
EPILOGUE
The final retirement of 1220 was not the extinction of the
Montreal
Roof. Even by the spring of 1957, when most of the
cars had been scrapped, five remained.
These were 859 (partly
dismantled but held for possible preservation), 955 (held for
possible sale to Seashore Trolley Museum), 957 (used to spray the
safety lines on streets), 997 (held for preservation and charter use),
1317 (also held for preservation and charter use). In 1956, 997 was repainted in what closely approximates its original paint scheme
of 1911. A number .of excursions were held by the CRHA and
others using 997 and 1317, the last
of these being in 1958. After
957 was retired from its paint-spraying duties
it was acquired by
Seashore in preference to 955 which had had its bulkheads
removed for use on suburban service and hence was more altered
than 957. 955 was thereupon scrapped. A lot
of soul-searching
went on with regard to 859 which was partially dismantled.
Eventually, however, it was decided to preserve it and it has now
been partially restored. Both 997 and 1317 took part in the para
de
marking the end of all street car service in Montreal on August 30,
1959, thus the Montreal
Roof was around until the very end. Its
last appearance in Montreal was in October 1966
when the Metro
was opened and street cars were lent from the Canadian Railway
Museum for the occasion.
Therefore we see that four
of these old cars are still in
existence. 859, 997 and 1317 are all at the Canadian Railway
Museum,
and stored indoors. None is in operating condition at the
present
time. 859 needs to have the restoration of its body
completed, while 997 needs some deteriorating steelwork replaced.
1317 needs to have a beam repaired, and all three cars are sorely
in need
of a new paint job. By far the best condition Montreal
Roof car remaining is 957 which is at the Seashore Trolley
Museum at Kennebunkport Maine. This car has been lovingly
restored to its to its appearance
of about 1941 when it was in service
carrying workers during World
War n. Visitors to Seashore can
still have the pleasure of liding a Montreal Roof car and, who
knows, maybe someday visitors to the Canadian Railway
Museum
will be able to have the same experience. One can always hope, but
in the meantime the tradition of the Montreal Roof still continues
after one hundred years.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996 139 CANADIAN RAIL -454
Some News from the Canadian Railway Museum
Rapport du conservateur pour 1996
The Canadian Railway Museum at Delson/St-Constant
is moving forward to achieve its five years
plans goals and
objectives.
Here are some highlights of what had been done with
the collection in the last twelve months.
Collections:
some facts
Numbering more than 120 pieces, the collection
of
locomotives, cars and rolling-stock equipment is the most visible
part, and the most spectacular. A part
of this collection had been
earmarked
to represent the evolution of canadian railways companies
and technology.
It is better know as the national collection …. In
that sense it is most unique in North-Amelica and especially
Canada where it is the only collection which illustrate the whole
spectrum, from the beginning to the present day, covering most
of
the companies which were, and are still so familiar to us.
The small artifacts collection
The Canadian Railway Museum is responsible not only
an important collection
of rolling-stock, but also an ever increasing.
number of small artifacts ranging from tools to surveying
equipment, dishware, silverware, uniforms, mectical equipment,
and a small art collection (including a painting by
Sir William
Van Horne).
This collection
of small artifacts contains more than
10,000 pieces, but, due to lack
of exhibition space, we cant
present it
to the public as much as we wish we could. In the near Voici deja une annee que
joccupe mes fonctions de
conservateurdes collections d objets du Museeferroviaire canadien.
Je profite de cette occasion pour vous presenter un rapide tour
dhorizon de letat des collections et des perspectives pour 1997.
La collection: survol
La collection de vehicules est la partie la plus visible et
donc la plus
connue de l ensemble des objets de l ACHF. A
Iheure actuelle plus de 120 vehicules de tout type forment la
collection
de materiel roulant. Une partie de celle-ci a ete
identifiee comme etant la collection nationale.
Cette derniere est
Ie noyau autour duquel se greffe Ie
mandat du Musee ferroviaire canadien, soit Iillustration de
Ihistoire du patrimoine ferroviaire au Canada. Les vehicules
selectionnes
sont tous representatifs soit des compagnies, soit des
periodes soit des technologies qui representent
Ie mieux lhistoire
du rai/. En ce sens cette collection est sans pareille en Amerique
du Nord.
Les lecteurs
de Canadian Rail sont au courant des
acquisitions les plus importantes, telles la CP 4563 acquise
juste
avant Noel 1995. Plusieurs autres vehicules sont venus s ajouter
a la collection plus discretement: 3 wagons de Iancien Museum
Train, nous ont ete donnes par Ie Musee National des Sciences et
de la Technologie. Deux seront utilises par Ie service danimation,
Ie troisieme, une splendide voiture-lit, a ete ntegree a la collection
dexposition.
La collection des petits objets: un aperc;;u
Cette collection
est bien moins connue que celie
du materiel roulant pour
la simple raison que Ie public
ne peut pas vraiment encore b
eneficier d une vaste salle
dexposition. Cela changera dans un avenir assez
proche. En attendant cette collection se developpe sous
Iangle technologique et egalement plus patrimonial.
Plus de
JO 000 objets la compose, la quasi-totalite elant
cataloguee et informatisee. Dailleurs
la banque de
donnees est accessible pour les abonnes dll Reseau
Canadien
dinformation sur Ie Patrimoine (RC]P) it
http://www.rcip.ca (http://www.chin.ca en anglais).
Les images de ces objets (ce qui incluera aussi
Ie
materiel roulant) seront disponibles sur Internet dans un
avenir assez proche, probablement pour 1998.
A scene at the opening of the Museum. Posed infront of the locomolive John
Molson ar (left
to right): Daniel Ashby, Mayor of St. Constant; George
Gagne, Mayor
of Delson; Maurice Godin, Federal member for Chateauguay,
Monique Simard, Provincialmemberfor Laprairie; Louise Beaudoin, Provincial
member for Chambly and minister of culture and communications.
Ventilation de la collection des petits objets:
La collection des petits objets est variee mais on
peut tracer quelques tendance: Ioutillage, Iuniforme,
Iequipement de telecommunication, la vaisselle et ses
RAIL CANADIEN -454
future, with the new building, that will be fixed. Nonetheless, we
have a small exhibition area in the Hays building where we present
Soul of the railway, an exhibition on railway workers and their
contribution (until october 19th, then after that
date it will be
available for other museums:
contact me if you want to borrow the
package).
The collection is almost 100 % computerized and accessible
via the Internet
on the server of the Canadian Heritage Information
Network (CHIN) which house a database of more than 2 millions
artifacts from canadian museums.
Sadly canadian government
policy is different from its French counterpart: access is not free
to the people, and
youll have to subscribe to gain access (and its
not cheap) whereas anybody in the world can enter French, Swiss,
and British databases,
downloading files and pictures …
If you want to know more, CHINs coordinates are http:/
/www.chin.gc.ca/
My wish list. ..
As curator, I am interested in the development of the
collection.
The rolling-stock is well taken care of, but the small
artifacts collection has several
holes which could be filled. For
example, we do not have anything which could illustrate the
recreational activities
of railways workers. Ill be glad to had
sports memorabilia (tropheys, hockey shirts whith logos etc … ),
or
have more uniforms. The scientific instruments collection is not
as complete as it could be (surveying
equipment), and there is
always a lack
of artifacts which could illustrate the first and
second world wars where canadian railway workers were so
appreciated for theirs skills and knowledge.
IF you can help us
with this,
Ill be glad to hear from you !
Conservation and Restoration: some achiements …
Of course, the most difficult part of our activities is the
preservation and restoration of our collections. The small
artifacts are quite well stored and protected. It cant be the same
for the rolling-stock… The Canadian Railway Museum is quite
fortunate to have
the help and expertise of severaJpeoples whose
passion is a real driving force toward ours goals, which will
culminate with the new building before 1998 and after.
Then, it is quite evident that every restoration project is
unique,
and that the research and the work take a lot of ressources,
both human and financial. Several had been completed, several
are in progress, several are planned …
And we need more people
and all the help you can give us
!
In the last year we completed the restoration of: (a)
Canadian Pacific Reefeer, built in 1928; (b)London & Porl­
StanleyS
Flanger FA-I, 1938; (c) Continued restoration on the
Malahat, formerly an observation car from the Esquimalt &
Nanaimo Railway; (d)Canadian Pacific 999, ten-wheeler formerly
used on the
Dominion Atlantic Railway (and the last one of this
company preserved; (e) Canadas oldest electric locomotive
preserved, Cour/aulds #7, built about 1899-1900 by Montreal
Street Railway Company.
140 SEPTEMBRE -OCTOBRE 1996
accessoires. Une petite collection dalt sur Ie theme ferroviaire ou
liee
it des personnages importants de I histoire felToviaire existe
aussi. Nous
possedons ainsi quelques oeuvres [aites par William
Van-Horne, pas
seulement president du Canadien Pacifique,
mais egalement excellent peintre post-impressioniste.
Des pans entiers de 1 histoire ou du patrimoine ferroviaire
ne
sont pas couverts encore. l aimerais personnellement voir des
artefacts moins techniques
se rajouter it la collection. Le theme du
sport
et des activites second aires des employes, par exemple Ie
hockey, devrait etre represente dans la collection. Egalement
j
aimerais avoir des artefacts pour illustrer des grands evenements
com me la seconde guerre mondiale. Des uniformes Oll des
affiches de ceUe
epoque seraient les bien venus …
Si vous
en possedezou connaissez quelqu un qui aimerait
en faire don
pour Ienrichissement de la collection et la pre­
servation pour les generations futures, nhesitez pas it me contacter
au Musee ferroviaire canadien …
Restauration et Conservation: quelques realisations
Bien entendu, I aspect Ie plus difficile reste la preservation
et la conservation
de ce materiel, avant meme de pouvoir aborder
sa mise en valeur historique. Pour ce faire Ie Musee ferroviaire
a la
chance davoir Iaide de ses nombrellx benevoles, dont
plusieurs travaillent avec acharnement it la restauration.
II est evident que tout projet de restauration est unique,
et qlle la recherche preaJable puis la realisation des travaux
prennent
beaucoup de temps. Il reste que de nombreux projets
ont ete menes it bien, que dautres sont en cours et que plusieurs
sont prevlls.
En 1995-1996,
nOlls avons donc restaure: (a) un Reefer
du Canadien Pacifique de 1928; (b) poursuivit Jes travaux de
restauration de la Malahat, ancienne (1893) voiture-lit du
Canadien Pacifique, modifiee en 1923 comme voiture-observatoire
par la
Esquimalt & Nanaimo, qui lui donna son nom actuel; (c)
la locomotive
c.P. 999, une ten-wheeler anciennement allx
couleurs
de la Dominion Atlantic Railway -etla seule preservee
de cette compagnie -; (d) un flanger de la London & PO/t-Stanley
Railway
de 1938-; (e) commence la restauration dune des plus
anciennes locomotives electrique au Canada, la Courtauld #7,
construite velS 1899-1900 par la Montreal Street Railway
Company.
Dans ce dernier cas nous avons besoin de documents
visuels supplementaires.
En plus de nous occuper de la restauration active de
vehicules, ce qui est assez spectaculaire, il faut aussi se rappeler
que lentretien reglllier de lensemble des vehicules, surtout ceux
en operations, occupe egalement une bonne part des ressources
humaines
et financieres.
Les
tramways et locomotives operes par Ie Musee ne
sont pas
couvert par Ie theme restauration bien que leur
entretien regulier, vu leur grand age et la difficulte it trouver les
pieces,
commence it sen approcher…
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996
Beside these projects,
completed with a small staff and
very limited ressources, we have
also, as a museum, to look after the
vehicules operated on site. Technically
speaking
its called maintenance,
but, due to the historic natul:e
of the
equipment and the ever increasing
difficulties encountered in the
provision of parts, it should be included
in the
restoration side of our
actIvIties. Our priorities are to
complete the restoration
of everytrung
earmarked for the new building.
Of
course we also have to prioritize our
workon a most-urgent-most-needed
basis.
Museums site and building
improvements
We are continuing the
permanent improvement of our actual
facilities (beside so many others
projects, all
in the five-years plan).
Several tracks had been added to
help reduce the crowding
of the present
layout, and thus help improve our
ability to move quickly and safely all
the equipment.
141
.
CANADIAN RAIL -454
Amelioration du site:
Dans Ie but de mieux
amenager Ie site pour la
collection de materiel
roulant, de nombreuses voies
supplementaires ont ete
posees. Ceci est largement
bienvenu etant donne
I augmentation dll trafic sur
Ie site et I accroissement de
la collection dll mali~riel
roulant.
A vec
un personnel
limite et des coOts de
restauration eieves, i I faut se
rappeler que ces efforts sont
menes conjointement avec
les
activitesregulieres du
Musee et en ayant en
perspecti ve les projets du plan
de developpement.
Le batiment 1 qui abrite
les locomotives a ete asphalte
Ian passe. Ceci a eu pour
effet de reduire
la poussiere
au minimum et surtout
Ihllmidite ambiante, grande
destructrice des surfaces.
Shed 1, which house the
locomotives, had been asp halted
in
the spring of 1995. This helped
reduce dust and humidity. Shed 2,
which house the tramways and the
Some vlsUors to the Museum who have just disembarked from
Montreal street car
No. 1959. In the background is the Hays
Le batiment 2 Ie sera
d ici it octobre de cette annee.
Ainsi, par ces actions,
Ie
Musee accrolt la qualite de
la preservation generale des
materiels roulants.
building. Photo courtesy of Canadian Railway Museum.
waiting line (3 tracks of rolling stock waiting for restoration)will
be asphalted at the end of september or the beginning of october.
This will do the same as for Shed 1, beside improving the
walkways for the visiting public.
A movable shelter will be added to shed 2 to protect the
vehicules which had been restored and are now exposed to the
elements once again

With those small improvements, all achieved with
limited staff and ressources, we are working toward the permanent
preservation
of the collection, to help protect it for future
generations.
Last word
I hope to have answered some questions put forward by
some in the past, and look forward to hear from all those who wish
to help us achieve more for the next year.
lean-Paul Viaud
curator
Canadian Railway Museum Un ajout amovible est prevu pour prolonger
Ie batiment
2 dans but de mettresous abri les verucules restaures qui normalement
auraient ete soumis aux intemperies
et aux rayons UV du Solei!.
Le lecteur prendra egalement en compte Ie fait que toutes ses
mesures sont faites dans la perspective du plan quinquennal qui
doit aboutir
it la construction du nouveau batiment abritant
Iexposition permanente, avec des sections reservees pour les
expositions temporaires, les reserves, les ateliers et les bureaux.
Le nombre de vehicule laisse
it lexterieur devrait alors (dici
1999) etre reduit
it peu de chose.
Ceux
et celles qui visitent Ie site du Musee ferroviaire
canadien
pOUlTaient alors avoir la surprise de decouvrir un musee
refondu, avec son materiel roulant
et ses riches collections de
petits artefacts.
En attendant nous y travaillons, lentement mais
silrement.
lean-Paul Viaud
conservateur
Musee ferroviaire canadien
RAIL CANADIEN -454 142 SEPTEMBRE-OCTOBRE 1996
The Business Car
THE NEW VIA FLEXLINER TRAINS
Effective September 30, 1996 rail passengers in southern
Ontario will have additional trains
to and from Toronto and a new
way
of getting there. At I :50 P.M. on Monday, September 30, VIA
will launch a four to six month trial of its new expanded schedule
using the
IC3 Flexliner train, on lease from ADtranz (ABB
Daimler-Benz Transportation).
The basic idea of
the Flexliner is the same as that employed
on the Budd Rail Diesel Cars almost half a century ago, namely
individual self-propelled cars which can
be coupled into trains of
any reasonable length, operated with multiple-unit control, and so
provide flexibility of operation. However the similarity ends there.
The
new Flexliner is far more than an updated version of the once­
familiar Budd Car. It
is a new system, aimed at the traveller of the
21st century (after
all the 21st century is only 51 months away).
The three-car Flexliner, built
in Europe, offers 140 seats
complete with hook-ups for
the business travellers latest technical
devices such
as laptop computers, phones or fax machines. The
train
is designed to travel at lligher speeds on existing track while
offering exceptional safety
and comfort with low operating costs,
according
to VIA Marketing vice-president Cluistena Keon Sirsly.
As she says: Over the past three years, we have demonstrated that
a high-quality, low-cost passenger rail service
is good business.
With the Flexliner trains
we are taking innovative customer-driven
service
to a new level. We believe there is a demand for additional
trains and frequencies
in the short-to-medium distance market. We
are optimistic that these trains will provide the combination of low
operating costs and high-quality service needed
to take advantage
of this opportunity. This initiative with short
to medium distance runs, using
increased departures and the Flexliner, will affect several areas
in
Ontario. A new daily Toronto -Ottawa round trip will increase
capacity
by 25 percent. A morning departure from Toronto to
London, and an additional return service in the afternoon, will
increase options for business travellers in southwestern Ontario.
New trains will arrive
in Toronto by 8:45 A.M. on weekdays from
Kingston, Belleville, Cobourg, Stratford, Kitchener
and Guelph,
with convenient end-of-business-day returns, and a
new mid­
evening departure from Toronto
to Cobourg, Belleville and Kingston.
A
new weekend train wilJ provide service from Toronto to Niagara
Falls every Saturday, with a
new return departure every Sunday.
The Flexliner embodies todays concept of safe
and highly
efficient 21st century rail service. With
its innovative European
design
and world-class technology, the Flex liner provides adistinctive
new level of on board comfort, ease and convenience. As the name
suggests,
its flexibility makes the Flexliner the perfect solution for
short-to-medium-distance regional, intercity and commuter rail
service over conventional rail lines.
Adtranz, the designer and manufacturer
of Flexliner, is a
50-50 joint venture combining the worldwide transportation business
of
ABB Asea Brown Boveri Ltd. and Daimler-Benz. The company
is a complete global provider of transportation products, systems
and services, especialJy passenger rail systems, automated guideway
transit systems and automatic train control systems.
The Flexliner
is an advanced technology self-propelled,
bi-directional passenger train capable of higher speeds. Its unique
automatic coupling system allows individual trains
to be joined
and separated within minutes, and its precise computerized control
requires
no support personnel. One way the Flexliner has achieved
outstanding fuel economy
is by using a mechanical transmission
system with a
94 percent efficiency. The low-emission engine runs
without smoke and eliminates the smell
of diesel fuel.
VIA is to be congratulated on introducing this new concept
of passenger rail travel. One sincerely hopes that passengers use it
to capacity to ensure that it will remain.
VIAS TRIAL TRAIN DELIVERS HOPE TO COMMUTERS
Via Rail will bring back its early morning commuter run
between Kitchener and Toronto for an I8-week test, though riders
and politicians are hoping
it will stay on the tracks forever.
Beginning
in late September, a Danish-made train on loan to VIA
will leave Kitchener for Toronto every weekday at 7:00 A.M. and
return at 6:00 P.M.
Its the lightweight train itself, rather than the commuter
service, that VIA
is interested in testing. But for now, commuters
in the Kitchener -Waterloo area will get a taste of a service theyve
hungered for since losing it in 1990. George Bechtel of Kitchener,
who
has lobbied hard for the extra train run as past president of
Transport 2000, praised VIAs move. He said A good transportation
system
is the heart of a community. If renewed permanently the
early run will allow Kitchener people to consider taking a job in
Toronto and not having to drive on the 401.
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 1996
The train would leave Stratford between 6 and 6:30 A.M.,
leave Kitchener at 7:00 and arrive at Toronto at 8:45, allowing
most
business people to get to work on time. It would then make
a second trip, leaving Toronto at 2:30 P.M., returning by 6:00 P.M.
CUITently the earliest train leaves Kitchener at
9:06 A.M. and
arrives at
Toronto at 10:55 A.M. which just isnt good enough for
p
eople who need to arrive in time for their business. Now we are
getting a better time and its up to the people living along the way
to use it.
Its great news said Waterloo MP Andrew Telegdi, who
joined other area politicians and train supporters at a recent
meeting with VIA.
It was the best meeting Ive ever had with VIA
Rail.
The bottom line is this makes sense financially for VIA. Its
a win, win, win situation. But will it be enough of a winner to
convince VIA to keep the extra trains on forever, or at least for the
forseeable future?
One suppOiter is not sure but said Its a big step
forward, let
s put it that way.
The Record, Kitchener, July 19, 1996.
HAMILTON STATION GETS NEW LIFE
A station once busy in the heyday of train travel has come
to life again, this time as a hub for GO Transit train and bus routes.
More than 300 people turned out on July 12 to mark the official
completion of a $25.5 million restoration of the former Toronto
Hamilton and Buffalo Railway (TH&B) station. Another $39.5
million was
spent on track work.
Were calling it the Hamilton GO Centre, but I think most
people will know it as the TH&B, GO Chairman David Hobbs
said to the cheers of many retired railway employees who attended
the
noon-hour event. The building, downtown on Hunter Street
near John Street, consolidates the citys GO train and bus services
under one roof. It has actually been open since the end of April,
although the official opening was only held now.
Les Gowman, a former stationmaster, said the hustle and
bustle
of the packed concourse was just like a Sunday night in the
stations heyday, when passengers wai ted to catch trains to Cleveland,
Montreal, Pittsburgh and Toronto.
The restoration of the station is
excellent, couldnt be better Gowman said. Theyve got one
thing now I always wished we had, and thats an elevator to take
the passengers up to the trains.
The station was opened in 1933 as a terminal for the
prosperous independent TH&B. The last passenger train stopped
at it in 1981 and in the years since, the architectural landmark had
become derelict. The project returned the station to its OIiginal
1930s art model11e look. Its just like walking back in time, said
Paul
Johannsson, GOs director of rail services.
The Toronto Star, July 13, 1996.
143 CANADIAN RAIL -454
LOCOMOTIVE29STARSAS CANADIAN PACIFIC OPENS
NEW HEADQUARTERS IN CALGARY
Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) held the opening of its
new Calgary head
office facilities on September 8, 1996. CRHA
was represented at the event by President Fran~ois Gaudette,
director DavidJohnson, Walter Edgar and, most important, locomotive
No. 29.
The locomotive was unveiled by Calgary Mayor Al Duerr
in spectacular fashion when he activated a switch, detonating
pyrotechnics which
cut the cords holding the shroud in place.
Shortly after, Alberta
Premier Ralph Klein climbed into the cab to
ring the bell.
Master of Ceremonies for the occasion was Calgary
&
South Western Division member Norm Haines. After a typical
Calgary
beef bar-b-que, guests were invited to tour the new
headquarters offices which are extensively decorated with historical
photos, posters and rail artifacts.
Number29 statted life in 1887 as a class SA, built in CPRs
New Shops in Montreal. At that time it bore number 390. Over the
years it underwent several modifications, including a
major rebuild
in 1913. It also bore road number 217 between 1908 and 1913.
Eventually it ended up as a class
Ale with road number 29. Its
original 62-inch drivers
were later replaced with 70-inch ones, and
the original slide valves
were replaced by piston ones during the
1913 rebuild.
Number 29 is featured on the cover of Canadian Rail
No.
442 for September -October 1994. Unfortunately inside this
issue is the news
of the disastrous fire at the Salem & Hillsborough
in which 29 was badly damaged.
The locomotive was leased by the CRHA back to Canadian
Pacific who moved
it by flat car from New Brunswick to their
Weston shops in Winnipeg. There it was restored, after which it
was shipped to Calgary and is
now on display in front of CPs
Calgary head office building. Word is that the whistle will be wired
up to blow every day at exactly 12 noon.
Contributed by Walter
Edgar via e-mail.
CEREMONY MARKS 160TH ANNIVERSARY OF
CANADIAN RAIL WAYS
On the morning of July 21, 1996 Amtraks train the
Adirondack made
an unscheduled stop at St. Johns / Sl. Jean
Que. for the purpose
of celebrating the 160th anniversary of the
opening of the Champlain & St. Lawrence Rail Road. The
Adirondack travels on a portion of the original C&StL roadbed,
and it is very fitting that
Amtrak be involved in the celebration,
since the
C&StL was built as a link in the transportation route
between Montreal and New York City.
After the halfhourceremony,
many
of the participants went by special bus to the Canadian
Railway Museum where they saw,
among other things, a full-size
replica
of the Dorchester, the first locomotive in Canada.
BACK COVER: Fresh out of the shop of the Canadian Car and Foundry Co., Montreal Tramways street car 1202 had j~lst been delivered
to the MTC when this photo was taken in JanuclI), 1912. Notice the exterior double windows to protect the passengers from Montreals cold
winter winds as the 1202 starts out on its first run on
St. Denis Street. Between December 1911 and June 1913 there would be 125 of this
type built, by Can Car and Ottawa Car. These were the last built with the traditional Montreal roof,
and they served the MTC we/!; the
last
of the type being retired in 1956.
CRHA Archives, Binns Collection.
Canadian
Rail
120,
rue
St-Pierre, St. Constant, Quebec
Canada J5A 2G9
postmaster
: if undelivered
within
10 days return
to sender, postage guara
nteed.
. ., :
A-,
.
. .. . -.

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