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Canadian Rail 440 1994

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Canadian Rail 440 1994

DOINGS IN A SLEEPING CAR, CIRCA 1890 ………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
MUSIC AT THE RAILWAY STATION ………………………………………………. LYNNE L. MACLEOD ………….. 121
THE BAGGAGE COACH AHEAD …………………………………………….. . ………………………………………… ….. 123
rHONf COliER: Ml)lrlr(!ol street car N(J. 1600 i.t setn headill8 HtSI 0/0118 Notre Dame Siru/.
JUI-ing jlls/lejlthe trrmilllll (If George V, Ihe em/lm lilllil of Ihe dry. 011 illl1( 17. {957. Car
1600 was 111( finl of Iht modem )lJe trailer cars to nlll ill MOII/rcai. II was bllill by J.C. Brill
of PJriladeip/litl ill 19/4. OIll/ItYiS cOl1w!rIed /0 a Ollt-rJUIII car;1/ 1934. Less Ihall (/ week after
lilt photo was lakel/. ,/rln car seniu ce(ls,,(lolI this lin( olld./ot(T in /957. /6()() 11(1$ refired.
NIOta by Fred AllglIs.
For your membership in the CRHA, which
includes a subscription
10 Canadian Rail.
rite 10:
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Membership Dues for t994:
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Material will be returned to the con­
tributor if requested. Remember
edge is of little value unless il is shar
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As part of i
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the Canadian
Railway Museum al Del son I
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Day). Members, and their immediate
families, are admitted free of charge.
The CRHA has a number of local divisions
across the coumry. Many hold regular
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EDITOR: Fred ~. Angus
CO·EDITOR: Douglas N.W. Smith
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o, ON M4Y t H7
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Phone: (506)· 734-3467

The Report of the Collectioll Committee
This Rolling Stock Collections Report was prepared by
the Collection Committee between 1988 and 1992 at the request
the Board of Directors of the Canadian Railroad Historical Association
and the management
of the Canadian Railway Museum. The
Committee was requested to define the National Collection and
to summarize the reasons for the artifacts being
in the Associations
The Committee was established
in 1986, and has been
of the following persons:
Chainnan: Peter Murphy
Secretary: Fred Angus
CharlesDeJ ean
Gerard Frechette
John Godfrey
Janet Homewood (CRM Director, 1988-1991)
David 10hnson
David Monaghan (CRM Director, 1985-1988)
Stan Smaill
Len Thibeault
The Committee is extremely thankful for the input and
assistance received from many individuals including
Gaudette, Ken Goslett, the late Omer Lavallee and Dr. Robert
The Canadian Railroad Historical Associations National
of Railway Rolling Stock is defined as those artifacts
that are representative, and/or historically or technologically
significant, and which illustrate and contribute to an understanding
of the evolution and social impact
of rail transportation systems in
The evaluation
of each artifact was done on the CRHA
Collection Committee: Artifact Evaluation Form. The fOlm
provides a standard format listing basic information (company,
road number, date built, builder, date acquired, terms
of donation,
source etc.), reason(s) for the piece being
in the collection (historic,
technological, representativeness
of Canadian railways, social),
condition, etc. The results
of this analysis is presented by category.
Each category has a brief introduction followed
by a listing of each
artifact including a description and brief statement
of why it is in
the collection. Each category is subdivided into two sub-catagories:
those artifacts that constitute the National Collection and those
preserved for other purposes, such as operation, animation
of the
museum, or for local or regional interest.
The system utilized
in the collections analysis did not
permit definitive ranking between adjacent items on the list, but
the relative positions
in the list are significant. For example,
within the steam locomotive collection,
CN 6153 and CP 2850 are
both extremely significant in the collection, and either
is more
important to the collection than those lower
in the table. However,
items lower in the list may be important to completely tell a
particular story, so
it cannot be assumed any item at the end of the
is unnecessary to the collection and hence available for deaccessioning. Each item must therefore be considered on its
own merits.
The artifacts in the National Collection are those required
to tell the complete story
of the railways of Canada and their social
and economic impact. The choice
of what to include in the
National Collection was not easy. After much discussion, the
Collection Committee recommends that those artifacts listed
the first part of each table be considered the National Collection
at this time.
It must be remembered that there is other preserved
or operating railway equipment which may
be worthy of being part
of the National Collection.
Algoma Central
Algoma Central and Hudson
British Railways
Canadian Government Railways
Canadian Northern Railway
Canadian National Railways
Canadian Pacific Railway (CP Rail)
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway
Grand Trunk Railway
Intercolonial Railway
London and Port Stanley Railway
London, Brighton & South Coast Railway
Montreal and Southern Counties Railway
Montreal Street Railway
Montreal Tramways Company
Northern Alberta Railways
Newfoundland Ry., Terra Transport, CNR
National Harbours Board Railway
SI. Catharines & Toronto Railway
Ontario Northland Railway
Pacific Great Eastern Railway
Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway
Quebec Street Railway
Roberval and Saguenay Railway
Salem and Hillsborough Railroad
Sydney and Louisbourg Railway
Societe Nationale des Chemins de
Toronto Suburban Railway
Toronto TranspOltation Commission
(Toronto Transit Commission since 1954)
Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia,
and Smith, Dayton, Ohio
London, Brighton
& South Coast Railway,
Works, England
lG. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa.
Brownell Car Company, St. Louis, Mo.
Canadian Car and Foundry, Montreal,
Canad ian Locomoti ve Company, Kingston,
Canadian National Railways, Transcona
Shops, Winnipeg, Man.
Canadian National Railways
Canadian Pacific Railway, Angus Shops,
Montreal, Que.
Canadian Pacific Railway, Delorimier
Shops, Montreal, Que.
Canadian Pacific Railway, Hochelaga
Shops, Montreal, Que.
Canadian Pacific Railway, Perth Shops,
Perth, Ont.
Car and Foundry, Montreal,
London & North Eastern Railway,
Doncaster Works, England
Car Company, Trenton, N.S.
General Electric Company, Erie, Penn.
General Motors Diesel Division, London,
GTR-PLSt.Charles Grand Trunk Railway, Point St. Charles
Shops, Montreal, Que.
Jackson and Sharp Company, Wilmington,
Car Company, Newark, Ohio
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Osaka, Japan
G. C. Kuhlman
Car Company, Collinwood,
N. & A. C. Lariviere, Montreal, Que.
Montreal Locomotive Works, Montreal
Montreal Street Railway, Montreal, Que.
Montreal Tramways Company, Montreal
New burypolt Car Company, Newburypolt,
National Steel Car, Hamilton, Ont.
MAl -JUIN 1994
Ottawa Car Manufacturing Company,
Patterson and Corbin, St. Catharines, Ont.
Pittsburgh Locomotive and
Car Works,
AlIeg~eny, Penn.
Plymouth Locomotive Works, Plymouth,
K. Porter, Pittsburgh, Penn.
Preston Car and Coach, Preston, Ont.
Pressed Steel Car, Pittsbmgh, Penn.
Rhodes Curry and Company, Amherst.
Societe Alsacienne de Constructions
Mecaniques, Belfort, France
Schenectady Locomoti ve Works,
Schenectady, N:Y.
John Stephenson
& Company, New York,
Wagner Palace Car Company, Buffalo,
Westem Steel Car, Chicago, Ill.
The Collection Committee endorses the following general
of an ideal national collection of steam locomotives.
First, the following features should be represented:
2. Every common wheel arrangement used in Canada. Major technological advances in Canadian steam
3. Every principal pre-1922 Canadian railway, including:
a) Canadian
b) Grand Trunk,
c) Intercolonial,
Canadian Pacific,
4. Every major Canadian locomotive builder.
5. Every major variety
of steam locomotive, i.e. freight,
passenger, transfer, switchers and special service locomotives.
6. Foreign, i.e. non-Canadian, locomotives, for comparison
and contrast to the Canadian locomotives.
In addition, a balance should be maintained between the
CPR and the
CNR sub-collections.
CNR 6153 at Toronto, Ontario about 1935. Patterson-George Collection.
CPR 2850
at Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1955. Patterson-George Collection.
CNR 6153, 4-8-4, MLW, 1929
CN 6153 is one of 203 Northern class locomotives on
Canadian National Railways that fOlmed the mainstay of
steam power in the 1940s for both passenger and freight service.
CN 6153 took part in the End of an Era ceremony at Turcot Yards
on September 4, 1960, and was used in special excursion service for about two years after that date. It
is essentiaUy unmodified and
is in moderately good condition.
CPR 2850, 4-6-4, ML W, 1938
CP 2850 was the locomotive on the Royal Train
in 1939
that earned the designation Royal for these Hudson class
locomotives. 2850 has been declared a National Historic Site by
the Government
of Canada. Tt is also a fine example of a
locomotive designed
by H.P. Bowen, and is typical ofCP passenger
motive power.
Maritime Ry. 5, 4-6-0, Pittsburgh,
Maritime Railway #5
represents an unmodified late 19th
century North American locomotive
with flat slide valves.
It was used on
the construction of the National
Transcontinental Railway, Canadas
third transcontinental railway.
CPR 144,4-4-0, CP-Delorimier, 1886
CP 144
is the oldest Canadian
built steam locomotive
in existence
and was rebuilt
in 1914 at CPs Angus
Shops with a steel cab, superheater,
etc. for branch line service where it
served until 1960. It is in good
CPR 5935,2-10-4, MLW, 1949
CP 5935 was the last
standard gauge steam locomotive
bu ilt
86 MAl -JUIIJ 1994
for a Canadian railway. It represents CPR 144 at Norton, New Brunswick in October, 1955. Patterson-George collection.
the Selkirk class of locomotives
which were designed by Canadian
Pacific for service
in the Rocky Mountains. It is the heaviest type
of steam locomotive in the British Commonwealth.
GTR 713, 2-6-0, GTR-St. Charles, 1900
GTR 713 represents a Grand Trunk-buill Mogul class
locomotive. Moguls constituted
28% of the locomotives on the
GT at the time of amalgamation into Canadian National Railways.
is the only GTR-built locomotive, and the only Mogul in the
CPR 2341, 4-6-2, MLW, 1926
CP 2341 represents a
CP heavy Pacific class locomotive
and was
the first to be equipped with a nickel-steel high pressure
boiler and was used extensively in MLW promotional material.
was also one of the earlier stoker-equipped locomotives.
CPR Selkirk class 2-10-4 No. 5935 at Field, British Columbia on June 7, 1952. Patterson-George collection.
MAY -JUNE 1994
CPR 5468, 2-8-2, MLW, 1948
CP 5468 represents a high
pressure, oil-fired, heavy freight
locomotive. It is one of the last class of
freight steam locomotives built new for
a Canadian railway.
It is currently
under lease
to the Selkirk Division of
the CRHA, Revelstoke, B.C.
CNR 5550,4-6-2, MLW, 1914
CN 5550 was originally built
for the Intercolonial/Canadian
Government Railways and was widely
used throughout the CNR system. It
was built with the enclosed cab. It
is the
only Intercolonial locomotive in the
CNR 49, 4-6-4T, MLW, 1914
CN 49
is an example of a double­
ended tank locomotive designed and
used for commuter service.
It was the
last regular steam engine out-shopped
at the Point
SI. Charles Shops. (August
23, 1957.) CNR (GTR) 713 at Portland, Maine on May 24,1939. Patterson-George collection.
CPR 492, 4-6-0, CP-Angus, 1914
CP 492 represents a relatively unmodified Angus-built
locomotive, designed
to replace the 4-4-0s on branch line service.
10 Wheelers constituted the largest and most varied class of
locomotives on the CPo
. ,
CNR 5702,4-6-4, MLW, 1930
A CN Hudson class locomotive with the largest drivers
(80) and largest Vanderbilt tender ever used
in Canada. This
locomotive type saw the first application
of smoke deflectors and
unit brake in Canada.
It represents
high speed passenger motive
CPR 999, 4-6-0, MLW, 1912
CP 999 is the only Dominion
Atlantic Railway locomotive
preserved. On the DAR, it
operated with the name
Fronsac. It is aD-I 0 class
locomotive, one
of over 500
operated by the CPR.
CNR 4100, 2-10-2, CLC, 1924
CPR 2341 hauling train No. 54 at Brandon, Manitoba on August
25,1947. Patterson-George collection. CN 4100 has been declared
a National Historic Site by
the Govern
ment of Canada and
represents a heavy transfer
locomotive that was the most
in the British Common­
wealth when built, with 91,735
Ibs tractive effort, with booster,
and weighing 327 tons. It
is the
only Santa Fe class locomotive
in the collection and was of the
first class equipped with
Vanderbilt tender.
RAIL CANADIEN -440 88 MAl -JUIN 1994
ABOVE: CPR 999, with the
Dominion Atlanlic Railways
Evangeline herald on the tender,
at Kentville, Nova Scalia
on June
8, 1942,
LEFT: CPR 6271 on the Swansea
Turn at Sunnyside (TolOnlo),
Ontario on February
24, 1952,
BELOW CNR 2601 on the
Vaudreuil wayfreight al Beau­
repaire, Quebec on June
All photos from the Patlerson­
George collection.
MAY -JUNE 1994
CNR 3239, on the Woodstock Turn, at Burlington, Ontario on
21, 1958. Patterson-George collection.
CPR 6271, 0-6-0, CP-Angus, 1913
A typical yard switcher seen across the country on both
major railways, many smaller railways and industrial sites.
LB&SC 54, 0-6-OT, Brighton, 1875
& Brighton and South Coast Railway #54 is the
oldest locomotive in the collection and represents a 19th century
British locomotive. This unmodified piece with its inside cylinders,
provides an interesting comparison with CP 144. It is equipped
with the 1875 Westinghouse air brake.
CNR 2601, 2-8-0, MLW, 1907
CN 2601 represents a Consolidation class locomotive.
This class constituted 26% of the CN locomotive roster
in 1931. It
originally operated on the Grand Trunk Railway
as a compound
CNR 3239, 2-8-2, CLC, 1917
CN 3239 represents the Mikado class and the Kingston
Locomotive Works. It was originally Canadian Government
Railways 2839, where it was part
of the class that constituted 25%
of the motive power fleet.
CPR 2231, 4-6-2, CP-Angus, 1914
CP 2231 represents a light Pacific class locomotive.
pulled the special train for the Prince of Wales (later King Edward
VIII) in 1919. It also represents the first class
of locomotives to
have an enclosed cab that became the standard for Canadian
CNR 1520,4-6-0, CLC, 1906
Canadian National 1520 (originally Canadian Northem)
represents the most popular wheel arrangement on the CNoR. It
is the oldest Canadian Locomotive Company locomotive in ex iSlence.
E.B.Eddy 2, 0-4-0T, MLW, 1925
E.B.Eddy 2 represents industrial railways.
It was the first
locomotive acquired by the CRHA.
BR 60010 Dominion
of Canada, 4-6-2, Doncaster, 1937
British Rails 60010, Dominion
of Canada, represents
British railways and serves
as an interesting contrast to CN 5702.
The Mallard class of locomotives held the world speed record
for steam at 126 1/2 miles per hour.
The Dominion of Canada
in the speed trials. It is a streamlined locomotive, equipped
with a speedometer and a corridor lender with a water scoop.
These features permitted it
to cover the 393 miles from London to
Edinburgh without service stops, whereas most Canadian locomotives
in the same service would stop every 125-150 miles for water.
A magnificant view oj CPR 2231, along with 5171, allslington
(Toronto), Ontario in} amtal) 1955. Patterson-George collection.
CPR 2928, 4-4-4, CLC, 1938
CP2928 represents the Jubilee class, light prairie branchline
motive power designed
by H.P. Bowen. The wheel arrangement
was peculiar
to the CPR in Canada and was developed to replace
the older, smaller locomotives used on these Jines.
SNCF 030C841, 0-6-0, SACM, 1883
Nationale des Chemins de Fer 030C841 represents
an early French mainline locomotive based on an 1867 design. The
tender was provided
by Germany as First World War reparations.
The locomotive was unofficially named Sl. Millo after its
by the CRHA. Earlier locomotives of this. class did bear
names, and it was felt that St. Malo was appropnate due
to Its
connection with Jacques Cartier,
as well as it being situated on the
railway where this locomotive first ran. This locomotive serves as
a comparison
to British (Waddon) and North American practice
(CP 144).
It has outside valve gear.
90 MAl -JUIN 1994
CPR 29,4-4-0, CP-Delorimier, 1887
Last CP steam locomotive in regular and excursion service.
It has been heavily rebuilt and served in branch line service out of
Onawa, Farnham and in New Brunswick.
QNS&L 1112, 4-6-0, MLW, 1912
QNS&L 1112 represents the largest class
of Canadian
Northern locomotives.
ft served as CN 1112 from 1919 to 1952,
when it was sold
to the QNS&L as a construction locomotive.
QNS&L converted
it to an oil burner.
CNR 1009,4-6-0, MLW, 1912
CN 1009 served
as a Canadian Govemment Railways
constructiollengine. It has flat valves which were essentially out­
in 1912. It is currently in operating condition and under lease
to the New Brunswick Division, CRHA, Hillsborough, N.B.
OSC 25, 2-4-0, Baldwin, 1900
Old Sidney Collieries 25 represents a light maritime
colliery engine.
[t is the only Baldwin built locomotive in the
as well as the only one with the 2-4-0 wheel arrangement,
and 4 wheel tender.
TOP: CNR 1520 at Lindsay, Ontario during the
of 1957.
2928 in the Hamilton Yard of the
Toronto Hamilton and Buffalo Railway about
LEFT: Somewhat the worse for the wear, CNR
1112 is seen, without main rods, at Moncton,
New BllIl1swick
in December, 1937.
All photos from Patterson-George collection.
CPR 3388 at Aroostook, Maine 011 August 30,1958. PatterSOI1-
George collectiol1.
NHB 4, 0-6-0, MLW, 1914
National Harbours Board #4 represents
the 0-6-0 switcher,
and the National Harbours Board which operated railways in all
major Canadian ports.
NAR 73
,2-8-0, CLC, 1927
Northern Alberta Railways #73 is
of regional interest as it
is the only NAR steam locomotive in existence. It was originally
built for the Edmonton, Dunvegan and British Columbia Railway.
NAR #73
is cunently located at the Alberta Pioneer Railway
Museum, Edmonton, Alberta.
Anne Paper 3, 0-4-0, MLW, 1916
St. Anne Paper #3 represents an industrial locomotive and
was one
of the last operating al the time of acquisition.
CPR 3388, 2-8-0, Schenectady, 1902
CP 3388 is the oldest CPR freight locomotive in Canada.
Built by the Schenectady Locomotive Works,
it represents the
many American built locomotives that operated
in Canada.
JOHN MOLSON, 2-2-2, Kawasaki, 1970
The John Molson
is a reproduction of a late 1840s
steam engine. The original John Molson was built
by Kinmonds,
Hutton and Steel
of Dundee, Scotland,in 1849 and operated on the
Champlain and St. Lawrence Rail Road.
92 MAl -JUIIJ 1994
The CRHA collection of steam locomotives can also be
organized on the basis
of wheel arrangement as follows:
St.Anne 3
CPR 6271
LB&SC 54
SNCF 030C841
None in collection
2-6-0 MOGUL
GTR713 –
CNR 2601
NAR 73
CPR 3388
MAY -JUNE 1994
2-8-2 MIKADO
CPR 5468
CNR 3239
2-10-2 SANTA
CNR 4100
CPR 5935
CPR 144
CPR 29
CPR 2928
Maritime 5
CPR 492
CPR 999
QNS&L 1112
CNR 1520
CNR 1009
CPR 2341
CNR 5550
CPR 2231
BR 60010
4-6-4 HUDSON
CPR 2850
CNR 5702
CNR 49
None in collection
CNR 6153
The Collection Committee suggests that the CRHAs
national collection of diesel locomotives assure:
I. Representation
of the major Canadian designers and builders of
internal combustion locomotives. The major Canadian builders
include CLC, MLW, GMD and GE.
2. That industrial units, switchers, road switchers and main-line
units be included, with representation
of both low horse-power and
high horse-power units among them.
2. First units of regular production should be acquired, when
3. Early experimental units from both Canadian National and
Canadian Pacific Railways be included.
4. Both major railways and other Canadian railways be represented.
CNR 15824, Railcar, OTTAWA/CNR, 1926
Although not a true diesel Locomotive, #15824 a circa
1926 oil electric built by Ottawa Car is one
of a class of the earliest
self propelled diesel-electric cars
in existence; no other in Canada
has been preserved.
It is similar to the oil electric that crossed
in 67 hours establishing a speed and endurance record at
that time.
It was used mainly in branch line service and its success
led to acceleration
of the establishment of the Diesel as a reliable
of motive power, and the replacement of steam. The unit
is preserved as built except for the 1940s power technology.
CP 8905, H-24-66, CLC, 1955
Canadian Pacific TrailUnaster #8905 was the first high­
horsepower diesel built in Canada.
It was a Canadian-buill attempt
to dieselize Canadian Pacifics western region with high horsepower
diesels; it is the only Trainmaster left in the world.
It is the only
diesel (other than #77 below)
in the CRHA collection preserved
that represents
CLCs diesel-building era.
CP 7077, S-2, MLW, 1948
Canadian Pacific Diesel switcher 7077 was exhibited in
Windsor Station in 1948
as ML Ws first production diesel. It is
part of MLWs first diesel production run in Canada. Its 539
turbocharged engine is representative
of 1940s technology; the
is standard switcher configuration. All major Canadian
railroads used them in the early diesel era.
CN 77, Diesel Switcher, CLC, 1929
is the oldest surviving Canadian National diesel
locomotive. It
is a diesel electric based on the contemporary
Westinghouse electric locomotive end-cab design
of the period.
The unit has been re-engined but retains its original electrical
equipment; it is a good example of the early experimental diesel
R&S 20, RS-2, MLW, 1949
Using 1930s
US technology, #20 was MLWs first road
diesel built in Canada in 1949. It is a classic example
of an early
RS-2 standard road switcher design which was widely used
eastern Canada. It is largely unmodified and remains in operating
CN 9400 , FA-I, MLW, 1950
Canadian National 9400 was the first Aleo A road unit
streamlined design. Locomotives of this type were used extensively
by Canadian National and Canadian Pacific in both freight and
passenger service
in Eastern Canada.
CP 7000, Diesel Switcher,
NSC, 1937
Builtby National Steel
Car 8 years after CN #77,
is Canadian Pacifics
first diesel locomotive.
Although historic in Canadian
Pacifics history, #7000
is a
of a kind oddball; it was
outdated and inefficient when
built. It influenced the
of the diesel in
yard switcher service on
Canadian Pacific. Sold by CP
in the early 1940s, it was
acquired by the
CRHA from
Marathon Paper in 1964 and
was restored cosmetically by
to its 1937 appearance.
94 MAl -JUIN 1994
NFLD 805, G-8, GMD, 1956
This narrow gauge
locomotive is of a type built
CNR 9400 hauling a freight train across lie Perrot, about 25 miles west of Montreal, on June 4. 1950.
Patterson-George colle
for both standard gauge (CN 850-
854) and narrow gauge operation.
is also a good example of a typical
Canadian-built export locomotive. It
is the only example of a narrow gauge
diesel locomotive in the CRHA
Hydro QuebecSwitcher, 15ton,PLY,
of a very early gas –
mechanical industrial switcher built
by Plymouth in 1922.
NHB 1002, S-3, MLW, 1951
Acquired as a tool
by the CRM
in 1987,
it is an unmodified Alco
design in operating condition.
ffEEEFEE ~~~i.-=1
…….. ..
CN 30, GE 70 ton, GE, 1950
Roberval and Saguenay No. 20 as it appeared when new.
National Archives of Canada, Merrilees collection, photo No. PA-185885.
#30 is a good example of
territorial dieselization. Although acquired as a tool by the CRM
is typical of short line and heavy industrial dieselization.
of this type were used on the f.G.E. and Thurso &
Nation Valley as two examples. This locomotive saw its operating
days spent on the now extinct Prince Edward Island Railway.
Stelco 9, Gas-electric, PORTER, 1928
This gas electric was the first operating piece at the CRM.
Although significant
in CRHA/CRM history, it is an oddball and
not representative
of any major class of locomotives.
NOTE. Due to lack of space, it is not possible to
illustrate all the equipment in the collection. We
hope to show more photos of the diesels, freight
and passenger cars, and miscellaneous equipment
in. a later issue. However the entire report appears
in this issue.
The original freight car acquisition committee was formed
in October 1979 with the mandate to assemble a reputable historic
of railway freight cars for public display. The subject
was fully researched so that a
tndy representative collection could
be assembled. A report was submitted to the CRHA Board
March 1980. Many hours of research and travel physical searching
were calTied out over the ensuing years by committee members to
locate exhibits worthy
of preservation. Unfortunately, some
highly desi.rable freight cars were in too poor condition to move
and had to be passed over; however the committee succeeded in
assembling a core collection
of basically pre-I925 historic freight
equipment which has been placed in order
of importance.
ACR 10302 (nee AC&HB 4341),Hopper, PSC, 1901
This car survived almost 80 years
in its original condition
before being discovered by accident on the Algoma Central
Railway. It
is the oldest steel freight car in Canada and
in North America. It is representative of mining in the
North and
of the Algoma Central Railway.
NAR 14005, Gondola –
Canadian design and patent, the Hart Otis side and centre
dumping car was instrumental in the building
of the Western
It was also used extensively for filling in wooden
trestles. This particular
car was used by the contractor in the
of the Edmonton Dunvegan and British Columbia Railway.
CPR 435288, Caboose, CP-Perth, 1884
Early CPR caboose that was heavily rebuilt with a steel
in 1905. This caboose may have been in the first lot
built new for the
CPR in 1884. Also representative of a small
builder in Perth, Ontario.
CPR 284845, Reefer, NSC, 1923
The fUst refrigerated car concept designed in Canada used
to transport fruit and perishable goods. Double sheathed with hair
felt insulation, cars were
iced at regular intervals and remained
in service until replaced by the express reefer.
CPR 420800, Flat, builder unknown, 1919
In the early years
of railroading the flat car played a much
more significant role in transporting freight than today. A flat
could be loaded and unloaded at a dock or ramp without the use of
a crane, (cranes were rare in 1920). Many of the goods transported
in a gondola car today would then have been transported on a flat
car. This particular
car is a prized example of an early flat car. In
over 20,000 such cars were in service on Canadian National
and Canadian Pacific alone. This may be one
of the first flats
equipped with Bettendorf ttucks and without truss rods.
CNR 71933, Box, nee CGR 551672, CC&F, 1916
This was the most significant box car design ever used in
Of a Canadian Government Railway design, over 75,000
of these cars were in service in 1920. Designated the Dominion
Car by the C.G.R., production extended from 1908 until the
1920s. This was a truly Canadian design which the US was slow
to adopt. Canadian National was still purchasing them
in 1923;
they were used by all major railways
in Canada.
CNR 10582, Reefer, CN-Transcona, 1949
Early reefers like 284845 above were iced in either end,
leading to poor cUculation
of cooled au and rotted goods in the
of the car and near doors. Pacific Fruit Express experimented
with belt driven ventilation but Canadian Railways decided to
distribute the ice more evenly throughout the
car and so invented
the 8 hatch reefer, top bunkered.
At the start of World War II the
Canadian Government funded the development
of this car with the
National Research Council and the Dept.
of Fisheries and Agriculture
in order to develop a refrigerated car to carry more fish from B.C.
to the Atlantic to feed the troops.
The Atlantic fishery was closed
of submarine activity. This car is the most efficient iced
refrigerator car ever developed
in the world. The first prototypes
were used on the
CPR and had increased carrying capacity because
of the lack of end ice storage tanks; ice and brine were sprayed into
overhead tanks.
In a 1941 test from Chicago to New Orleans, the
Canadian design was tested against the US design end-bunker car.
The Canadian car experienced a 1 degree F temperature rise
without re-icing, while the American
car experienced 40% perished
goods and had to
be re-iced several times. US Railways got out of
the perishable market and companies like PFE went directly to
mechanical reefers after World War II. The Canadian design was
never used extensively
in the US.
NATX 5377, Tank, PSC, 1929
This car, typical
of the second generation of tank cars
shows the evolution
of these cars. It has a larger capacity and lower
running boards that the earlier versions.
CNR 650002, Flat, Builder unknown, 1914
Although not
as impressive looking as most freight cars,
the lowly flat car has played a very important part
in railway
history. This is an example
of an old flat car that survived into the
1980s by being used in the CN Belleville frog shop.
CNR 124882, Gondola, 1915
GS gondola -Enterprise patent. These cars were
used to move almost
aU loose commodities including the vast
of coal used to power the railways in the steam era. All
coal on the CPR and
GTR moved in GS dumping gondolas and they
were designed to dump into the coaling towers. There were two
main designs, both Canadian, the Otis
car and the Enterprise patent
from tbe Maritimes which was promoted by the CNR.
CNR 14016, 36 Gauge flat, CC&F, 1954
Typical pulpwood car used on the Newfoundland Railway,
these were used extensively
to haul pulp wood across the system.
car to have included in a mixed train display.
ULTX 11204, Tank, CC&F, 1916
is known about this car other than it is a typical tank
car of the 1898 -1920 period. Most tank cars were leased and never
owned by mainline railways.
GTR 17084, Box, WSC, 1910
This early double-sheathed box car was built
in Chicago,
USA for the Grand Trunk Railway. Because
of its fish-belly steel
frame, it
is an exceUent example of the transition from truss rods
to steel construction. Our first choice was the acquisition
of a truss
rodded turn-of-the-century box car located on the Algoma Central;
it was in too poor condition to be moved. This double-sheathed
box car was the best representative
of the period that could be
CNR 44206, Hopper, PSC, 1907
At one point
in GTR history, the two bay hopper was the
second most numerous type
of car on the roster. This car was built
in the USA and is representative of US practice at the time. The
GTR used this type
of car because of its US influence.
CNR 70004 (nee GTR box car), CC&F/CNR, 1913
This car was built as a box car and re-built into a stock car
in 1948; it is typical of a stock car of the 1920-1945 period. In 1925
the stock car was a very significant car on Can
adian railways. Prior
to refrigeration, beef had to be shipped on the hoof and many
communities such as Chapleau had major stock exercise pens to
comply with the law that required animals
to be exercised after
for a specified time. Today beef is shipped dressed, and
the stock car is a thing
of the past. In 22 CNR and CPR owned over
10,000 stock cars.
CNR 78214, Caboose, CN-London, 1939
A typical CNR end-cupola caboose that serves as a good
contrast with the
CP caboose.
CNR 7035, 36 Gauge Stock, ECCo., 1958
NotreaUy typical
of Newfoundland operations; unfortunately
a wood sheathed box car could not be saved. This car shows the
relative size difference between mainline and narrow gauge cars
and should be included
in a mixed train display.
NJ34, Caboose, D&H, 1912
NJ caboose represents the Napierville Junction Railroad,
a subsidiary
of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad that joins the CP
at Delson Qc. It has a low centre cupola, and the interior is set up
as a display for the public.
The Collection Committee recommends that the CRHAs
national collection of passenger equipI1)ent r~present each. area of
passenger car usage:
1. Head-end equipment, including baggage, mail, and express
2. Coaches.
3. First-class equipment such
as sleepers and dining cars.
4.Business cars, particularly those
of historic significance.
96 MAl -JUIN 1994
The collection should include 19th century wooden
equipment, early 20th century heavy-weight steel equipment and
the streamlined equipment
of the latter half of this century. The
streamlined equipment
is presently under-represented in thecollection.
CNR 2737, Tourist Sleeper, Pullman, 1911
CN 2737 is one
of the earliest aU-steel Pullman cars, and
the second oldest still
in existence. It was purchased by the CNR
in 1941 to meet war-time traffic demands
and was converted to a
tourist class sleeper.
CPR 1554, First Class Coach, CP-Angus, 1908
CP 1554 is a typical wooden coach with steel underframe.
is the best example of an early 20th century coach still in
existence. It may have been one of the earliest coaches to be
equipped with electric light.
CPR 51, School Car, CP-Hochelaga, 1898
Currently configured as a school car, this vehicle was built
in 1898 as CP coach #442. In 1942 the Ontario Government
equipped the car as a school and provided the teacher while the
railway moved the car between remote points where students were
in the car. It was one of the first to be equipped with wide
CPR Neville, 12-1 Sleeper, CC&F/CPR, 1921
Neville represents the first group
of CP steel first class
sleepers. and a very early (1936) conversion to ice-activated air
CPR 1, Business Car, Builder unknown, c.1867
Acquired by the CPR
in 1881 from the St. Lawrence and
Ottawa (#9). The car has been extensively rebuilt. This car was
on the first transcontinental CP passenger train, July
4; 1886,
CPR 38 Saskatchewan, Business Car, B&S, 1883
The Saskatchewan was built for
Sir William C. Van
Home and served as his business car from 1883 to 1915.
CNR 760, Coach, CC&F, 1949
A narrow (42) gauge coach ordered when CN when took
over the Newfoundland Railway when Newfoundland entered
CPR 3987, Baggage, CP-Angus, 1913
A typical head-end car; it is
in excellent condition with its
original wooden ends (many were converted
to steel).
CNR 2335, Coach, CC&F, 1914
CN 2335 was built
for the Grand Trunk and has a steel
frame and a wooden body representing the transition between the
two modes
of construction.
MAY -JUNE 1994
CNR 63 Canada, Business Car, Wagner,
Built for the Grand Trunk railway,
Car Canada served as the business car
Charles M. Hays while he was president of
the GTR prior to his death on the Titanic
in 1912. The car continued in service until
the mid-1960s. The sides have been metal
sheathed. The interior
is basically the
original 1890s decor.
CPR 3618, Mail Express, CP-Angus, 1940
An example of a light -weight, smooth
sided head-end car. Head-end traffic, mail,
express and baggage, provided much
of the
revenue from passenger trains. The mail
could be sorted on-route
in these cars, and
the mail equipment is still
in place.
S&L 4, Combine, RC, 1894
Montreal Street Railway observation car No.1 as it appeared when new in 1905. National
An essentially unmodified example Archives of Canada, Merriiees Collection, photo No. PA-164716.
ofa wooden pre-turn of the century passenger
car designed for lighter travelled lines. It still has
its original
shutters. In
1901 this car may have been used by Marconi when
setting up the first trans-Atlantic radio transmitter.
CNR 1265, Diner, CC&F, 1921
A typical heavy-weight diner in use for more than forty
CNR 15767, Trailer, Brill, 1926
Originally a Central Vermont oil-electric self-propeUed
car, it was convelted into a combine-trailer. It
is suitable to be
paired with CN 15824.
CPR 56, Official, CP,1893
Last used
as a Rules Instruction car, this car started life
in 1893 as the 12-1 sleeper Calcutta and served as the parlour car
on the Esquimalt and Nanairno Railway until 1952.
CPR Brookdale, Sleeper, Pullman, 1939
This light weight car was built
as the Cascade Lane for
service on the modernized 20th Century Limited. It was bought by
CP in 1959 and renamed the Brookdale. In 1993 this car was
to a museum in St. Thomas, Ontario, where it is to be
restored to its appearance when on the New York Central.
The national collection of electric street railway equipment
should includ
I. All the phases of tectmological evolution of the city street car
from the pioneer electric cars
of the late 1880s to the present-day
light rail vehicles.
2. Examples from different geographical areas of Canada. 3. Representation
of a variety of car builders as an illustration of
the numerous car shops that provided rolling stock for Canadas
street car systems.
4. Examples
of work and maintenance-of-way equipment.
MTC 3517, SE DT PCC, CC&F, 1944
Because of the war, a fifty car order at CC&F intended for
Toronto was divided up three ways between Vancouver, Toronto
and Montreal, the latter city receiving
18 cars. ThePCC (Presidents
Conference Committee) was a committee-designed
car to attempt
to stem the decline
of streetcar systems throughout North America.
The shells of these fifty cars were made by St. Louis Car; final
assembly took place at CC&F
in Montreal. Of note is that the first
electric streetcar, MSR #350, and the last, MTC #3517, built for
Montreal were built
in St. Louis Mo. The PCCs spent most of their
operating life on the Outremont #29 line.
TTC 2300, SE DT Peter Witt, CC&F, 1921
First new car acquired by the Toronto Transportation
Commission when it was created
to take over all streetcar operation
in Toronto on Sept. 1,1921. One of 575 (motors and trailers, large
and small) Peter Witt type cars built for the
TIC from 1921 to
1923. Re-gauged from 4 10 7/8 to standard gauge in 1963. This
is the only example of a Toronto passenger car in our collection,
and the only example
of a Peter Witt car in our collection. It is an
excellent example
of earliest type of lightweight (for that period)
of construction. TIC 2300 is presently stored at the John
Street Roundhouse
in Toronto.
MTC 1 , SE DT Observation, MSR, 1905
First observation car
of its type ever built. Used in popular
excursion service known
as the Two Mountains tour in Montreal.
MTC 350 The Rocket, SE ST Psgr.,
Brownell, 1892
Car 350, known as
The Rocket,
was the first electric
car to operate in
Montreal, Sept.
21,1892; it was owned
by the Royal Electric Company and was
their demonstrator car. It was acquired
by the Montreal Street Railway about
1894. Car 350 has Brownells patented
accelerator design with two doors in
end bulkheads, one for entrance the
other for exit. Longer and more elegant
than other cars (like 274)
in Montreal at
that time and so was chosen
to be the
first car
to inaugurate the electric service.
It was retired from passenger service
1914 and preserved by the Montreal
Tramways Company at that time.
Probably the first streetcar to be preserved
in Canada for its historical significance.
MTC 859, SE DT Psgr., Kuhlman, 1906
98 MAl -JUIN 1994
Built as a PA YE (pay as you
enter) car with ten foot rear platform,
that was shortened by two feet around
1914 because
of the rear swing, and
ing when loaded. Ordered from
Brill, butBrilisubcontracted
to Kuhlman
in Collinwood Ohio due
to shop load at Montreal Street Railway No. 350, The Rocket, as it appeared whell
passenger service in 1914. it was retired from
CRHA Archives, MUCTC Collection.
Brill. These were the last wooden cars built for Montreal, and the
largest city cars ever used there. (Except for the
two experimental
aniculated cars). Only surviving example
of original concept of
a PA YE car. Oldest PA YE car in existence.
MTC 997, SE DT Psgr., Ottawa, 1911
of the last group of cars ordered by Montreal Street
Railway. First type
of steel streetcars built in Canada.
MTC 200,DE ST Birney, Brill, 1919
Acquired from City
of Detroit Dept. of Street Railways in
it was originally Detroit No. 223. Used in passenger service
until 1947, then used for hauling fareboxes, later
as an advertising
car, or rolling billboard. Example
of a Birney Safety Car, some
4000 such cars were put into service
in North America around
1920. These cars were the first really successful one man cars.
MTC 274, SE DT Psgr., Newburyport, 1892
Used in passenger service from 1892
to 1912, it was
to a salt car and used as such until 1949. It was acquired
by the CRHA in 1950. This car was saved because it was
in the best
of the remainiilglot of -salt cars. Out first choice was 268
which was built in Montreal by Lariviere but that car had been
scrapped before acquisition could take place. This car was restored
by volunteers at the MTC carbarns between 1950 and 1956.
Typical electric car
of the 1890s and one of the earliest placed in
in Montreal. First piece of rolling stock acquired by the
CRHA, and hence the beginning of the collection
of the Canadian
Railway Museum.
Courtaulds 7, SE DT Loco., MSR, 1900
Built for Shawinigan Falls Terminal Railway, #1, it was
in 1908. Designed for high voltage, it had a pantograph, but
was converted
to 600V. It became Cornwall Street Railway #7
before being sold
to Courtaulds. Oldest Electric Locomotive in
Canada, and one
of the first built. One of the oldest surviving
electric locomotives
in North America.
MTC 1953, SE DT Psgr., CC&F, 1928
Built as a one man car with all the safety devices that were
developed on Birney cars.
It was used on more lightly travelled
lines than were the two man cars.
OTC 6, SE ST Grinder, Ottawa, 1897
Formerly double-ended passenger car #66. Oldest Ottawa
electric car in existence. One
of the earliest surviving streetcars
which was built with enclosed end vestibules.
NB Pwr. 82, DE ST Psgr., Ottawa, 1912
of the first PA YE cars in the Maritime Provinces, re­
buiitabou! 1924
to resemble Birney car exterior, interior anangement
made more simple. Example
of one of the types of cars used on a
smaller street railway system. Example
of a modernization of a car
by a small company.
MTC 1801, SE DT Psgr., CC&F, 1924
as a motor car to haul a motorized trailer car on the
Sl. Denis and St.Laurent routes. The motor units had four motors
while the trailers had only two. The 1600 class trailer cars were
ABOVE: A builders photo oj Montreal Street
Railway car
No. 861, identical to our 859, on the
transjer table at the Kuhlman Car Company
works at Collinwood, Ohio on January
9, 1907.
This was the last wooden street car built
jor the
Montreal system.
to No. PA-/66521.
LEFT: Montreal Street Railway car 274 on
Notre Dame Street on a CRHA excursion, June
23, 1957.
Photo by O.S.A. Lavallee.
BOITOM. Courtalds No. 7 at Cornwall on
August 15, 1945. Note the V jor VictOlY sign,
commemorating the end
of fighting in World
War J1that day.
National Archives
of Canada, Merrilees
Collection, Photo
No. PA-/66503
convened to one man operation
and none was ever saved. This
car is equipped with a
ic multiple unit control
OTC A-2, DE ST Sweeper,
Ottawa, 1913
Older version
of car
#51, used for clearing snow
from Ottawa streets for many
OTC 859, SE DT Psgr.,
Ottawa, 1928
typical of an
Ottawa streetcar and a very
late example of a streetcar
with a clerestory roof.
MTC 1317, SE DT Psgr.,
Ottawa, 1913
100 MAl -JUIN 1994
Of lighter weight
construction than previous type
(like 997), last type built with
the Montreal
Roof (others
Montreal Tramways Company car No. 1317, seen at St. Denis car barn in 1956, about the time it was retired
from service and preserved. Photo by O.S.A. Lavallee.
are 997 & 859). These cars were in service for over forty years.
of the first type of cars built for the Montreal Tramways
MTC 1339, SE DT Psgr., Ottawa, 1913
First Montreal cars with the modern arch
roof, most
numerous (200) class
of Montreal cars, used throughout the
system without restriction for up
to forty five years. This car is
equipped with a dynamic brake system for use on the Mountain
#11 line. It always was a 2 man car.
TSRy. 8, DE ST Open, P&C, c.1895
Acquired from Gillies Brothers in Braeside,
Ontario and restored by the MTC with volunteer
help from the
CRHA in Youville Shops. Rare
example of a single truck open car, very similar to
those that operated in Montreal.
MTC 2222. SE DT Psgr., CC&F, 1929
Lightweight two man car similar in
to 1953 and 1959 but slightly longer,
used on heavily travelled routes.
MTC W-2, SE DT Crane, MTC, 1923
OTC 423, SE DT Sand, Ottawa, 1906
of three cars especially built to haul the mail between
main post office and railway station
in Ottawa. Replaced older
cars formerly used for this service. After the OTC lost the mail
contract on Sept.
1, 1911, these cars were converted for work
service. 423 eventually became a sand car. Roof was modified
following an accident
in the late 1930s, in use until end of streetcar
in 1959. When operating as a mail car and for many years
thereafter, it was painted white with gold lettering. Only Royal
Mail streetcar
in existence.
in Youville shops in 1923, originally
#2 re-numbered W-2 in 1925. These cranes
on the system were used for lifting rails and clearing
as well as general lifting duties. All three
cranes have been preserved. Example
of a street
railway crane. StiIJ
used at the Museum for its
intended purpose.
MTC car 1339 on the scenic line up Mount Royal ill 1957, the last year the line
operated. Photo by O.s.A. Lavalle
MAY -JUNE 1994 101 CANADIAN RAIL – 440
Montreal Tramways crane car No.2, n.ow W-2, as it appeared just after it was completed in the companys Youville shops in 1923.
CRHA Archives, MUCTC collection.
TP-I0, DE DT Plow, NSC, 1945
of the last street rai I way work cars built in
Canada, and the only example of a street railway plow
in the collection. Standard gauged by NSC prior to
acquisition by the CRHA.
MTC 1959, SE DT Psgr., CC&F, 1928
as a one man car with all the safety
devices that were developed on Bimey cars. [t used on
more lightly travelled lines than were the two man
MTC 3, SE DT Observation, MTC, 1924
This car used on the first CRHA chruterexcursion
in 1949. Similar construction to No. I except it has a
steel underframe. On lease
to Heritage Park in Calgary
until 1989.
MTC 51, DE ST Sweeper, MTC, 1928
Example of the most common type of
snowfighting equipment used by street railways.
MTC 3151. SE DT FIt., CC&F, 1925
in work service for the transport of heavy items such
as special track work. Example of a motorized work flat car. Ottawa Electric Railway car
No. 423 as it appeared in the 1930s,
before its
roof was rebuilt and when it was still painted white.
National Archives
of Canada, Merrilees collection, photo No. PA-
MTC 3200, SE DT Tool, MTC, 1928
new as a farebox car in 1928 using older trucks from
a retired
passenger car of about 1904 vintage. Converted to a tool
car in 1929, was never repainted (inside
or out) throughout its life
on the
MTC. Example of a special service car built by the company
in its own shops.
MTC 5001, Locomotive, MTC, 1917
in Youville Shops and originally numbered 1, this
locomotive had automatic air brakes for
switching standard railway
freight cars on industrial spurs along the
companys lines. An
example of a heavy (90,000 Ibs.) centre cab switching locomotive.
A contrast to Courtaulds #7.
MTC Y-5, Switcher, MTC, c. 1923
Built from
one of a pair of double trucks vintage 1901.
Used to shunt cars within Youville Shops, especially on and
off the
transfer table. An
example of a shop shunting locomotive.
Following the electrication of street railways in the 1890s,
elctric lines were built into the suburbs
of cities (suburban lines)
and also between cities (interurban lines).
Canada had a
number of such lines, and the collection has
a good representation
of most major types from the very early 20th
centllly until the decline of the industry in the 1920s. Because of
this decline, many early cars were not replaced, and so they
remained in service until the lines were abandoned as late as the
Thus a number of good examples were available when the
collection was formed.
The only major types of interurban passenger cars missing
in the collection are the very earliest
(1890s) which were scrapped
early, and the latest (c. 1930) lightweight cars which were built in
small Jlllmbers, of which none was preserved in Canada.
L&PS 10, DE DT Interurban, Jewett, 1914
Example of a heavy steel interurban car, this was a
prototype car and the L&PS a prototype railway for the proposed
Radial Railway network throughout Ontario as put forth by
Adam Beck and Ontario Hydro. Only the L&PS and Toronto
Suburban (Toronto to Guelph) were ever built. It was acquired to
make a two car train with No. 14.
QRL&P 401, SE DT Interurban, Ottawa, 1902
Built two years after the interurban line was electrified to
Anne de Beaupre below Quebec City, this car was in use until
of service in 1959. Often hauled trailers similar to 105. Same
width as mainline railway cars (as are the L&PS cars), whereas
M&SC cars are built to streetcar width. Oldest interurban car
preserved in Canada. Unusual three sided front construction as
opposed to rounded; it was not rebuilt throughout its life.
102 MAI-JUIIJ 1994
M&SC 104, DE DT Interurban, Ottawa, 1912
Example of an early double-ended, wooden interurban car,
later used in suburban service between
Montreal and Marieville.
M&SC 611, SE DT Interurban, Ottawa, 1917
Originally 606, re-numbered to 611 in 1927 because
of the
jokes made at the time as 606 was then a cure for a venereal
disease. Operated as an electric interurban between Montreal and
Granby. This is a true wooden interurban
car as opposed to the
smaller suburban cars such as 104.
The coupler height of 611 is
higher and will not mate with 104.
Fine example of a typicaJ
wooden interurban car.
QRL&P 105, DT Trailer, J&S, 1889
Built as a combine
car for use in steam operation. When
QRL&P line was electrified in 1900 this car was used as a
trailer until the end
of service in 1959 with motor cars such as 401.
TSR 15702, SE ST Psgr., Preston, 1909
Single truck suburban branch line
passenger car, later used
by Canadian National for transportation
of railyard workers at
Neebing Yard in Fort William (Thunder Bay), Ontario. Example
of a wooden, single truck suburban car. Representative of the
Toronto Suburban Railway. Presently leased to Edmonton Radial
Railway Society who are presently restoring it.
MP&IR 1046, SE DT Psgr., MSR, 1902
Built by the Montreal Street
Railway for its subsidiary
company the Montreal Park and Island Railway which operated
suburban lines to Cartierville, Montreal North and Lachine.
Completely rebuilt
in 1924 with substantially new body. These
cars were painted orange for better visibiHty in suburban service.
Fine example of a suburban car. Only surviving representative of
a passenger car of the Montreal Park and Island Railway.
L&PS 14, DE DT Interurban, Jewett, 1917
Similar to no. 10 only larger,
see above. Largest interurban
car type ever operated in Canada.
Before the days of electric traction, urban transit vehicles
were pulled by horses.
The first horsecar line in Canada (Toronto)
opened in 1861, and the last
to operate with horses (Sarnia) was
converted to electric power early in 1902.
Thus the horsecar era
in Canada lasted more than 40 years, during thirty
of which horse
operation was the
main means-of urban public transport. Thus the
3 horse drawn vehicles represent an important aspect
of Canadian
transit history and must form
part of the Associations national
The cars preserved represent the three basic types of horse­
drawn public transit vehicles, missing only the open-sided
horsecar which disappeared early in the electric era with none
having been saved.
Montreal and Southern Counties Railway car No. 6J J leads a two-car interurban train as it departs from Montreals McGill Street station
about 1950. National Archives
of Canada, Merrilees collection, photo No. PA-J64579.
MSR 20, SLEIGH, Lariviere, c1875
Used during the winter when tracks were not plowed and
retired from service in 1893 when it was decided that tracks would
be cleared year-round.
It was preserved in 1893 by the Montreal
Street Railway.
QSR #?, HORSECAR, Stephenson, c1880
Typical North American horsecar
of the 1880s built for
Quebec City and probably the only surviving representative
urban rail transit from the Quebec City system. This vehicle
survived as a hot dog stand for many years and was acquired
by the
National Museum
of Science and Technology and donated to the
1983 in exchange for MTC trolleybus #4042. The
original number is presently unknown, but research is continuing.
This car body
is largely original.
MSR 7, OMNIBUS, Lariviere, c1875
Omnibusses pre-dated horsecars, having been introduced
in some cities as early as 1830. After the introduction of horsecars,
they were used during the spring and fall seasons when the
horsecar rails were not clear, and there was not enough snow
to use
the sleighs. Omnibuses were also used on lightly travelled lines
where track
had not been laid.
CNR 55361, Rotary Snow Plow, MLW, 1928
The rotary snow plow used
aU the energy produced by the
steam boiler
to turn the rotary blades. In active service it would be
pushed by 2 or 3 steam locomotives.
CPR M-235, Track Inspection Car, GM, 1938
A 1938 Buick that has been modified
to operate on railway
tracks only, and was used by superintendants
to inspect the portion
of the the railway under their responsibility and frequently inaccessible
by road. The car is equiped with a small hydraulic turntable
pennit it to be turned.
CPR M-260, Track Inspection Car, GM, 1947
A 1947 CadiJlic that has been modified to operate on
railway tracks and was used
by superintend ants to inspect the
of the the railway under their responsibility and frequently
inaccessible by road. The car
is also equiped with a small
hydraulic turntable similar
to that on M-235.
RAIL CANADIEN -440 104 MAl -JUIN 1994
The Sixteen Hundreds
Montreal Tramways Companys Trailers
By Fred F. Angus
Now that you have read the repOlt of the Collection Committee, you will note the great representation of Montreal street cars,
including most types that were in service during the last twenty-five years
of street car operation. In this article we will consider the one
that got away, the one major type
of Montreal street car, in use in the 1950s, that was not preserved.
of the things that made Montreals street car system
so interesting was the great variety
of equipment that could be seen
in operation. As recently as the early
1950s one could see,
especially during rush hours, a very great variety
of street cars
ranging from large wooden two-man cars dating from 1906 to the
PCC streamJiners
of 1944. Fortunately that great variety survived
well into the days
of the preservation movement. As a result,
of most major types in use after 1940 were saved
by the Montreal Transportation Commission and were later donated
to the CRHA for preservation at the Canadian Railway Museum.
There is, however, one major type
of that era that was not saved.
This is the 1600-series
of trailer cars, all 100 of which were
scrapped, even though the class had remained intact
as late as
1957, only two years before the end
of all street car service in
In the early years of electric cars there was considerable
of two-car trains. In most cases a single-truck closed car would
an open trailer which was usually a fonner horse car. If the line
did not have serious grades the concept might
be carried further;
in Winnipeg a single motor car hauled two trailers. There was also
a limited use
of closed trailers (also fOlmer horse cars) but this is
not as well documented. Starting in 1893, the Montreal Street
Railway converted 120 horse cars (60 open and
60 closed) to
trailers. There are at least four good photos
of open trailers in use,
but so far none
of their closed counterparts. The suburban Montreal
Park and Island Railway also used open trailers for a few years, but
these were built new about 1895 and were identical
to the motor
units that hauled them. By the turn
of the century the street railway
was building larger cars and the use
of trailers was phased out over
a period of two or three years. The use
of trailers had never been
very satisfactory, one major problem being that the conductor had
be ready to apply the hand brakes at the same time as the
motorman, especially
if he had a full load of passengers. Since
of these cars had air brakes, this could be a tricky operation,
and there are many stories
of unwary pedestrians being run over by
two-car trains. Furthelmore, the old horse cars were not suited to
the higher speeds
of electric cars and it had been anticipated from
the first that their use would not
be of long duration. It appears that
the use
of trailers declined sharply after 1895 and, judging by the
of lower numbers by newer cars, it seems that the last of the
trailers had been retired in 1899 or, at the very latest, the spring
1900. During the first decade
of the twentieth century the street
car systems all over the world expanded at a great rate. The Pay As
You Enter system had originated in Montreal
in 1905 and allowed
the use
of much larger cars. However there was a limit to the size
of a car due to track clearances and other operating considerations.
At this time most street cars were operated by two men, a
motorman and conductor, and no one had attempted to run one­
man cars except on very lightly-travelled lines. Between 1906 and
1914 the Montreal system had acquired no less than 465 new cars,
of them large two-man PA YE cars!
There was, however, a way in which a street car could be
by one man; it could be run as a trailer. Faced with ever­
increasing traffic, and attempting
to economize as much as possible,
the Montreal Tramways Company, soon after it took over the
Street Railway in 1911, began to think
of trailers. The new trailers
would be quite different from the old ones
of the 1890s. They
would be
of identical construction to the motor units and would be
of the most up-to-date design. In fact it was planned to order an
equal number
of both motors and trailers at the same time. The
advantages were obvious; two full-size street cars could be operated
by three men, one motorman and two conductors, a saving
in the platform charges. Furthermore, a two-car train could clear
intersections and crossings
in a shorter time than two single cars,
so speeding up traffic. Accordingly,
in 1913, the MTC ordered
fifty cars (25 motors and 25 trailers) from the well known firm
J.G. Brill in Philadelphia. The new cars were of basically the same
design as the previous lot
of arch-roof cars (the I 325-series) that
were built
in 1913 and 1914. However they had a somewhat more
modern, and even streamlined, look about them, perhaps because
of their clean lines and the sharply curved rear end of the trailers.
Although built to Montreal specifications, they bore more than a
passing resemblance to the Philadelphia
Nearside cars; not
in view of the fact that they were built in the same city
at the same time. Even in later years they looked surprisingly
modern and
it was hard to believe that they had been in service
since before the First World War.
The new cars arrived early
in 1914 and were placed in
service on Ste. Catherine Street on February I. This was the same
line where most
of the old trailers of the 1890s had been used. The
new motor units were numbered 1525 to 1549 while the trailers
were numbered 1600
to 1624. One feature of the new system was
that the entrance door
of the motor car was at the rear (the same as
ABOVE: Two views of the a two-car train, cars 1525 and 1601, taken in FebruGlY, 1914,just after they had arrived from the Brill plant
in Philadelphia. Note that the trucks on the trailer do not have motors and differ from those on the motor unit.
BELOW: The interior
of trailer 1603 in FebruGlY, 1914. All photos on this page from CRHA Archives, Binns collection.
the regular two-man cars) while that of
the trailer was at the front. Exit from the
motor unit could
be either by the front or
rear door, but the trailer could only exited
from the front.
There was a rear door in
the trailer but it was an emergency exit
only and was
not used under normal
conditions. The configuration
of the doors
had two big advantages; the first was that
two entrances being adjacent meant
people were almost as likely to board
the trailer as the
motor, thereby tending
to equalize the load. The other advantage
was that, under less crowded conditions,
motor unit could be run alone the
same as a regular car. The trailers did not
have trolley poles
but obtained the power
lights by means of ajumper wire from
motor L1nit. There was also an air hose
between the cars to operate the brakes on
the trailer.
RAIL CANADIEN -440 106 MAl -JUIN 1994
Closeup broadside views of motor 1540 and trailer 1611 when new in 1914. Note that the rear door on the trailer is closed up except for
emergencies. The photo
of 1540 was the basis of a drawing used in MTC advertisements for many years. CRHA Archives, Binns collection.
The use of two-car trains on Ste. Catherine Street appears
to have been successful, so it was decided to use the same basic
system on St. Lawrence Blvd. and St. Denis Street. Here there was
another problem. Unlike the Ste. Catherine line, which was mostly
flat, the St. Lawrence and St. Denis routes
had some steep grades.
It was felt that a loaded street car hauling a loaded trailer would be
too slow for running on schedule, thus it was decided to have
multiple-unit operation.
It was not, however, fully multiple unit,
for the trailers had only two motors, both located
on the front· truck.
Thus they were not really trailers at all, but, in the interests
simplicity, they will be refelTed to as trailers in this article, rather
than calling them something like semi-trailers or second units!
Both cars were controlled
by a standard controller which was
located horizontally under the car. Instead
of being turned by a
motorman, each controller was operated by a pneumatic engine
which was controlled by a system of relays. These relays worked
on a
12 volt, battery operated system and were controlled by a master controller
in the usual place in the motor unit. The batteries
were kept charged by being connected into the ground side
of the
compressor motor. The master controller could be operated notch
by notch, as is done with a regular controller, or it could
be turned
to the desired position and automatic notching would cause the
main controllers
to advance step by step.
The July, 1917 issue
of the Canadian Railway and Marine
world printed a long article
by D.E. Blair, Superintendent of
Rolling Stock of the Montreal Tramways Company, on the subject
of two-car trains. The following extracts are from that article:
Bad rail conditions and heavy grades encounlered on all
cross town lines prevenllhe general use
of ordinary trailers in this
city. In order
to overcome this diffiCUlty, the managemenl decided
to order 50 two-car trains, with molors on both cars, all operated
by a master controller in the fran
I cal. Each car might be operated
as a separale unit, but on account
of the special arrangement of
A multiple-unit train, cars 1597 and 1627, when new in 1917. Notice that the truck frames on both cars are identical, even though the rear
truck on the trailer does not have motors. Note also that both cars have trolley poles. CRHA Archives, MUCTC collection.
at the frOnl end of the trailer, which has the important result
of eliminating indecision of passengers in making choice of car, it
is not likely that advantage will be taken of this fact for other
purposes than
for shunting.
of Cars
of body (excluding platforms} ……………………… .32 ft. 3 in.
Width of body ……………………………………………………… 8 ft. 5 in.
Weight of motor car without load ………………………… ..43,800 lbs.
of trail car without load………………. . ….. .36,470Ibs.
of train without load…………… . …………. 80,270 lbs.
Motors, motor car ……………………………………………..
.4 of 50 h.p.
Motors, trail car ………………………
……………………….. .2 of 50 h.p.
Brakes …………………………..
……………………………….. .Automatic air.
Doors …………………….
……………………………………………. Airoperated.
Steps ……………………………
………………………………….. .Folding type.
Seats per motor car……
……………………… …. …. ………. ………. ….. . ….. 42.
Seats per trail car ……………………………………………………………… .45.
Control ………………………………………. Electric ,pneumatic, automatic.
Colour ………..
…………………………………….. M ontreal Tramways green.
is interesting to note that although the total rated power
of motors per train is 300 h.p., they can safely develop 600 h.p·for
short periods. About 400 h.p. per train is necessGlY to operate the
heavier cross town grades on a fair rail.
Control:-After due investigation
of the possibilities and
of the various systems of controlling multiple unit
trains, and taking into account the fact that all modern cars
in this
city are already equipped with the
£-35 controller, it was decided
to adopt the Westinghouse P-K apparatus. The standard equipment
has been modified to suit our conditions. All main wiring and
apparatus will be located under the car body. A master controller
will be on
the front end of each car, and the auxiliGlY 12 volt
storage battery under a seat. The master controller will he a
miniature copy
of the K-35 in arrangement of notches, and will be
in exactly the same manner, except that an extra notch has
been added, which will give automatic acceleration, within the
of a current relay, over the whole range. Owing to the fact
that motormen may only occasionally
be called upon to operate
this type
of COnlrol, and that all motormen would have to be
specially trained, it was thought unwise
to adopt any system that was radically different
in operation from an ordinGlY car. When
making a start the motorman can either throw the controller wide
open to the automatic position, or he may advance one notch at a
to take care of unusual traffic or rail conditions, or if he
should have to acceLerate on a grade on which the automatic
advance would be too slow or inoperative altogether.
The P-K engine has an inherent time lag that
is sufficient
to prevent any undue rushes of current. The result is that if a
motorman should throw his controller open too quickly to any
notch, the main controller will notch up at a slower rate to that
point. Additional features
of the P-E control as applied to the
Montreal Tramways Co. s cars are: a line switch controlling all
of main motor circuits, to relieve controller fingers; a
door interlock in the master controller circuit, to prevent cars
starting until all doors are closed; a train line switch arranged
open the master control circuit, in case of emergency application
of the brakes; an emergency hand operated switch to short circuit
the door and train line switches, in case they are out
of order;
buzzer system and motormans signal light operated from the
control battery; paralleling
of batteries, the train to load all
batteries equally; automatic charging
of batt eries from compressor
The air brake system
is so designed as to provide a high
of safety. The motorman applies brakes to all wheels of both
cars. Furthermore, should he fail
to do so in case of danger, the
of either car can instantly apply the brakes on all wheels
of the train without moving from his position. Should draw bars
part, power is cut
off and the brakes are automatically applied on
both cars. The doors will be so interlocked with the power system
that the motorman will
be unable to start train until all doors of
train have been closed tight. All automatic features are operated
from storage batteries, so as
to ensure their normal operation
when power
is off or trolley should leave wire.
A new system
of lighting has been arranged that will have
a much better appearance, as well as providing better light. Five
94-watt tungsten lamps, with semi-opaque reflectors and automatic
ing cut-outs will be located down the centre of car. An
auxiliary circuit
of five 23-watt tungsten lamps will serve to
illuminate signs, and provide an emergency light over conductors
in case of a burnt out fuse.
MAl -JUIN 1994
Car 1660 photographed in 1927, at the time the rear door was fitted with a treadle mechanism for the use of the passengers.
CRHA Archives, MUCTC collection.
Electric heaters will be controlled by a special thermostat
and automatic switch,
to maintain a uniform temperature in car,
and will overcome the discomfort due
to local overheating of
certain seats in mild weather. The difficult matter of ventilation
has received special attention, and it
is hoped that the new scheme
will ensure sufficient circulation
of air in mild weather, without
consequent draughts and discomfort during the extreme colds
winter. In addition to the regular floor ventilators, there has been
provided a hinged sash at the top
of the left hand front vestibule
Further improvements
in truck design will tend to make
cars ride even more smoothly than at present. Springs are arranged
to give a graduated reaction that will largely eliminate the track
vibration when cars are light. Vibration
is further reduced by the
of hinged bolster guides in place of ordinary rubber
The question
of whether a simple trailer system, or a
multiple unit system,
is the best, and whether trains should be
operated continuously or only during rush hours, can only be
decided after an intelligent study
of local conditions, both physical
and financial. From a strictly engineering point
of view, the
of multiple unit operation leave velY little roomfor the
of simple trailers, unless the traffic demand is such
that trailers can be operated continuously on fairly level streets,
without extreme climatic variations. Under these ideal conditions
the operation
of street cars would be guided by the same principles
as steam trains. ABOVE- The most spectaaular -accident in the entire histOlY
Montreal streetcars was on the morning of October 31, 1921 when
two two-car trains
(1575-1663 and 1573-1628) collided head-on on
a single-track line. Car
1663 was photographed soon after the
If we make allowance for the damage we get a good idea of
what the front of a trailer looked like without the motor unit.
CRHA Archives, MUCTC collection.
One secret of success of the two-car trains. was that passengers could board either car with a minimum of indecision, since both entrances
were adjacent. The passengers did tend
to favour the motor unit, however. This photo was taken on St. Denis Street in 1924.
CRHA Archives, Binns collection.
For this service, 100 cars were ordered from Brill early in
1917. This lot was composed of fifty motor units, numbered 1550
to 1599, and fifty trailers, numbered 1625 to 1674. The first of
them were delivered late in 1917, and the remainder during 1918.
They looked almost identical to the 1914 motors and trailers, the
major difference being that the trailers had trolley poles which
supplied power for their motors.
use of two car trains on SL Lawrence and St. Denis was
even more successful than on Ste. Catherine; so successful that
they remained the mainstay
of these routes for the next thirty-five
By contrast the two-car train operation on Ste. Catherine
became more and more confined to rush hours only and was
eventually given up entirely. In 1924 a further fifty cars (25
motors, 25 trailers) were ordered,
of similar design. These were,
however, not built
by Brill but by the Canadian Car and Foundry
in Montreal. While essentially the same as the Brills,
they did differ very slightly
in appearance, notably in the letter­
board and the roof line which was not quite the same. They were,
however, fully interchangeable with the Brills, i.e. a Brill trailer
could be used with a
CC&F motor and vice-versa. Of course the
1914 Brills could not interchange with either the 1917 Brills or the
CC&F units as they operated on an entirely different system.
The new motor units were numbered 1800 to 1824 while the
trailers were numbered 1675 to 1699. The 1700 series was left
._N ewExit Door
at. Rear of Trailers
Tiff trirtmtt _/ ,k twlfJ It.
,.f~T(I·IMI #!lJrmloJilt tlriNrI
mUllltrial, lfU1I rtii/A Artidr
0:. B{;,/~. 8£nr,j 1::;:~~!~
!! .. Jrt. !/,.,u kiwi lI~t {lUll
!l:; r.Aidt ~.tll.
/r4,(6 ItAirA iI IflUiofl6?!Iil
,/( pJt?OIt oj 14!i,,,, II< t,,;,
~~~;£: ~!t,:~:;:;!.i;,~r~~~
i~~UI(;~~j:~; ::: .. 7 ~:I ~~;:
1; !l:,w Mrt olilNII lA.4l1
Jr THE Comp3ny hujuncomplefcd rhecquip-
ping of all irs fniler~cu, with automaric
reir~rir deor.. Formerly these cars had a feu
door which was used (or emergency purpmc1
not for the convenience of paueQgcr~.
Experience h:u shown th:lt the lack. of :I second
ait ac thenar of trailers results in IVl appreciable
delay in
the unloading of the cars, Furthtrmore.
there has been a tendency on the par t of
pJ.$.!engers to crowd the (ront end in order thon
may remain ncar the only exit,

The operation of these doors is the S3me as those
theono-man safety cars, They are fully inre~­
loclced with the braku and power in such a man.
ner that doors cannot be opened until elf i …
stopped ,nd brlkes ire (ully applied, nor on thc
car besrured until the door is completely closed
andJtep folded.
It i5upected that the addition of these doors will
r~ult in the filling upof the empty space soorce;,
.secn at the rear o( tnilercars during rush hours,
The notice in the papers all March 11,1927 annoullcing that the
rear doors
011 the trailers could be used by passengers.
~. f ~,
, ,
j : .~~
:.~ j:
,,~ ..
:~ .
t ~
o. j,1
, MAl -JUIN 1994


(j 0
(j Ui
0 0
fo————4/3 45-3————…;
Plan and elevation drawings of the 1917 and 1924 two-car trains. Drawing by Richard M. Binns.
Can-Car built trailer 1680 as it looked new in
1924. Photos of these cars as trailers are rare since they only ran as such from 1924 to 1935.
CRHA Archives, Binns collection.
vacant for possible future trailers; these never materialized and the
numbers were never use
d. All the new cars went into service early
in 1925 and so, by this date the entire group of 100 cars, 1600 to
1699, were in use. All were similar looking trailers although,
as we
have see
n, the first 25 were straight trailers while the other 75 were
actually second units
of a two car multiple-unit train. AU 100
would remain
in service for more than a third of a century after
1925, although their configuration and method
of operation would
change greatly in the years ahead. Operation
of the two-car trains continued with little change
until 1934, the only significant alteration during that time being in
The introduction of one-man cars on a trial basis in 1925, and
on a permanent basis
in 1926, brought the innovation of the rear
treadle-operated door. There was no reason why this could not also
be applied to the trailers so, starting
in March 1927, the rear doors
of all trailers were equipped with treadles so they could be used as
exits by the passengers and not simply for emergency use as
heretofore. The rear steps
on the early (1600 to 1624) trailers
OPPOSITE PAGE: A scale drawing of a 1675-c/ass trailer built by the Canadian Car and Foundry Company in 1924. The drawing, and
the illustration on the next page, mefrom a 1925 pamphlet, produced by Can Car, describing these new cars. The basic dimensions of motor
and trailer are the same, so this drawing, together with the one on this page, will enable the modellers
to build an accurate model of the
complete two-car train.
RAIL CANADIEN -440 112 MAl -JUIN 1994
Issued February, 1925 Bulletin No.
P, 17
General Offices
-~~… .
Lot No. 601 Montreal Works
Car 1624, the last oflhe original unmotored trailers, as it looked in 1934,just after COil version to a one-man car. Note thaI it does not have
indirect dash lighting.
CRHA Archives, Binlls colleClion.
Can-Car built car 1690
in 1936, soon after its conversion. Contrast this with the view of 1678 opposite. The indirect dash
lighting was installed on all Montreal street cars
ill 1935, which is why it was not on 1624 (lOp) Of the time of ils conversion
a year earlier
CRHA Archives, Binns collection.
differed from the others in that they came out
horizontally when the door opened instead
hinging down; this distinction continued even
after the trailers had been converted to one-man
The provision of a rear exit door tended to
reduce the annoying habit of passengers crowding
to the front
of the trailer and leaving the rear
almost empty.
By 1934 the country was in the midst
the Great Depression and the MTC tried every
means to economize. Despite objections from
labour unions and others there was a considerable
increase in the operation
of one-man cars. The
original trailers, 1600 to 1624, built in 1914, were
motorized and converted to one-man cars, and at
the same time were painted cream the same as the
J900-series lightweight one-man cars. Since their
tlUcks were not suitable for motorizing they were
exchanged with the fifty rear trucks
of the two­
motor trailers 1625 to 1674. These trucks were the
same as motor trucks so were easy to motorize.
This conversion was successful so in 1935 the
of the trailers, 1675 to 1699 were also converted to one­
man fully motorized cars.
These trucks did not present any
problem to convert. As a point
of interest, 1936 saw the conversion
of the former two-man motor units, 1525 to 1549, of 1914 to one­
man cars also. By 1936, therefore, fifty
of the 1600s, 1625 to
1674, were still used as trailers while the others were now one-m
cars. Interestingly, there were 75 cars, 1550 to 1599 and 1800 to
1824, which could be used with these fifty trailers, so even when
all trailers were in use 25
of the motor units would have to operate
FoLlowing the conversions
in the 1930s there were no
significant changes to the 1600s until the 1950s. In 1952 the
Lawrence Boulevard line was converted to bus operation, followed
by St. Denis Street a year later. This released the two-car trains for
use on other
I ines, and thirty of them were transferred to Hochelaga
MAl -JUIN 1994
LEFT: For many years the 1675s
were the mainstay
of the line to
In this winter scene
about 1950, car
1693 heads back
towards the city through the open
fields that then stretched from the
CNR crossing at Val Royal all the
waytoCartierville. TheSacreCoeur
is visible in the distance,
with not a building
in bel1veen.
CRHA Archives, Binns collection.
BELOW: Photographs
of trailers
alone are quite scarce. This view
1653 was taken at Youville shops in
just before the car was
to a one-man car.
of Jacques Pharancl.
TOP: Just before Garland Terminal opened, in
1949, Cartierville
1686, en route to Snowdon, paused at the site of the future
southern terminus
of the line. The notices pasted in the car
windows announce that the terminal will open on May
Photo by A. Clegg.
BOTTOM. Former trailer 1626, built in 1917, looking fresh
new as it poses outside SI Denis car barn il1 the spring of 1954, soon
after its conversion from a trailer. Notice that it still has the
1917 Brill velltilators which were quite different from
on other Montreal cars. Despite their new appearance, the
fifty cars
of this type would survive only another four and a half
CRHA Archives, Binlls collection.
116 MAI-JUIIJ 1994
THIS PAGE: Some detailed views of the 1675 class cars,
It is the Christmas season in the 1940s as 1694 rounds a
curve en route
to Cartierville, This is the way many Montrealers
remember the 1600s, with their big headlights and lantern hung
at the rear, In later days the cars were equipped with sealed-beam
headlights which gave them a different appearance, The run
number indicator had not yet been placed on the cars, which dates
the photo
to the time before 1947, The sign on the jiont, is a
Christmas greeting to alljiom the Montreal Tramways
Photo by k Clegg,
BELOW.· How they looked at the end! Two very interesting views
of 1675s at the St. Henri carbarn in their last days of service. The
three-quarter rear view
of 1691 is unusual and was especially
taken to aid in the making
of a model of these fine cars. After the
outremontline was cut in the late summer
of 1958, the Cartierville
cars were transferredjiom St. Denis
to St. Henri. They ranjiom
there until the line was abandoned
in June, 1959. By the time these
photos were taken the 1675s were used mainly
in rush hours.
Notice that they are beginning
to look rather run down and
neglected, since they were soon to be retired and hence received
only a minimum
of maintence. Such a dingy appearance would
have been almost unknown a few years earlier.
Both photos by Peter Murphy.
MAY -JUNE 1994
TOP Thefirs, 1600 to be retired was 1692
which was wrecked
in his disasterous collision •
all September 3. 1957.
Photo from the Montreal
BOTTOM: A sad sight! MTC 1676, the last of
the 1600s, burning at the bortom of a group of
scrapped street cars all August 28, 1959. This
was the car which had originally been slated to
be preserved along with motor unit 1801.
from the Montreal Star.
calbarn from where they were used mostly on
the Ontario Street line. However it quickly
appeared that the days
of two-car trains were
numbered. In late 1953 and early 1954 the
twenty trailers that remained atSt. Denis carbarn
(1625 to 1644) were converted to one-man cars
the same as the others had been almost twenty
years before.
The remaining 30 trailers (1645
to 1674) were used in rush hours only and,
during the summer
of 1954 were scarcely used
at all. As several of the remaining two-man
were changed to one-man operation,
there was a shortage
of the latter type of car. So
the decision was made to convert the last
of the
trailers as the others had been done. Since the
rear trucks (the original trucks from the motorless
of 1914) were still not suitable to be motorized they were
retired. Fifty
t.rucks from retired two-man cars were put under 25
of the the converted l625-c1ass cars, while the fifty motor trucks
from this class were put under the other 25 cars. Thus half
of the
converted trailers rode on trucks which had previously been on the
older 1200 and 1325-c1ass cars. On October 30, 1954 the
operated a farewell excursion on a two-car train using cars 1555
and 1664. Actual two-car operation continued another week, the
run being on the Ontario Street route during the evening rush
on Friday, November 5, 1954, so ending forty years of trailer
By the end
of 1954, all of the 1600s were running as one­
cars and were found on most of the surviving parts of the
On some routes, such as Cartierville and Notre Dame East,
they provided the basic all-day service. The first gap
in the series
OCCUlTed on September 3, 1957 when car 1692, heading north on
the Cartierville line, was hit broadside by a heavy truck at the
of de Salaberry Street. The impact was so great that the car
was bent in the middle and damaged beyond repair. Its body was
taken to the back yard
of Youville shops where it remained, off its
trucks, for a year before
it was scrapped. By the end of 1957,
reduction of street car service led to the complete retirement of the
to 1624 trailers (along with their former motor units 1525 to
1549) which had been builtin 1914. During 1958, major abandonments
led to the retirement
of many more street cars among which were
of the 1625 to 1674 series. However, most of the 24
remaining units
of the 1675 class remained for use on the
Cartierville line, where they saw considerable service especially
during rush hours.
On Sunday, June 21, 1959 a farewell excursion was held
using car 1699 (appropriately the last
of the series) and one week
later the Cartierville line was abandoned and the remaining 1600s
were retired.
It had been hoped to
preserve car 1676 to go with
corresponding motor unit
1801 which had previously been saved.
Unfortunately, for reasons which have never been satisfactorily
explained, this was not done, and 1676 was burned, along with
many other cars, on the morning
of August 28, 1959, just two days
before the end
of all street car service in Montreal. This ended
plans to display, other than by models,
an example of a Montreal
two-car train, a type
of transportation that played an important part
in Montreals transit scene for more than forty years.
RAIL CANADIEN -440 118 MAl -JUIN 1994
Doings in a Sleeping Car – -Circa 1890
The following amusing tale was preserved in a scrapbook compiled in Saint John N.B. by Nellie Troop (1867-1953), the grandmother
of your editor·. The scrapbook begins in 1879 and ends at·.the time of-her·.1893, Unfortunately this.story does not show either
the name
of the newspaper or the date. However, from the context of the sunounding articles, as well as advertisements on the reverse side,
it can be determined that it appeared
in a Saint John paper between November 1889 and March 1891. The railroad is not identified but one
could imagine it to have been the CPR line from Saint John to Montreal (soon
to be abandoned) which was opened in 1889, just in the period
of the article. This story certainly shows that not all Victorian humour is dry and unintelligible to modern readers! One can easily visualize
this plot being used by the Marx Brothers in a slapstick movie forty years later.
We hope the readers will have a good laugh at this century­
old story.
Mistakes and Mishaps or a Night in a Railway Sleeping Coach
It seemed as if the devil had broken loose among our
passengers last night said the conductor
of the sleeping car to two
of his comrades, as he sat twirling his blond moustache in the
restaurant opposite the depot.
We had the liveliest kind of a time
nearly all night. Oh, I could split my sides laughing when I think
of the two men, the nervous man and the old dame in berth No. 10.
Then there was the bald headed man, too. Ha, ha!
You want the yam, do you? Well
Ill begin by telling you
that we had a big load -that is, a big load
of passengers. We were
so full that in several cases we made two friends occupy the same
The first il1(~ident that occurred to make things lively was a
or rather, a sort of outburst of popular indignation against the
of the sleeping car, the restless chatter-box. It was a little after
oclock and we were bowling along at the rate of about
forty-five miles an hour. Most everybody had retired to their berths
and were trying to get to sleep.
They were seriously disturbed in this attempt by a couple
of fellows who occupied upper berths close together, and who
persisted in jabbering away
to each other. As for the nature of their
conversation, it was just
of that kind which is calculated to put
murder into the heart of the man who is compelled to listen to it.
was just about like this:-
Can you sleep?
Can you sleep?
Can I sleep?
Good night.
Good night.
Good night!
It was about the fifty-ninth time that he had begun Can
sleep when suddenly the head of a thin faced man with small
eyes and a big black frown, protruded from the curtains of
the next berth. He was evidently a nervous man, and it was also
evident that he was wrought up to the highest pitch.
You confounded b—–d, he cried, Who in the name of
ensanguined Hades can get a wink of sleep with that infernal can
you sleep dinging in ones ears? Its worse, I swear, than two
tabby cats on a housetop,
Youve kept it up long enough. Shut up,
now, both
of you, or Ill build a head on you as big as Pikes Peak.
of approval of this threat came from behind
several curtains
in the immediate vicinity. But presently a voice
was again heard.
What did that fellow say about Pikes Peak?
What that fellow say about Pikes Peak?
Oh, I know about
Pikes Peak.
At this instant the curtains of the nervous mans berth flew
wide apart and the nervous man sprang out upon the floor.
stepped up to the berth. All the fury of his manner had disappeared
and had been replaced by a sort
of calm, cool, determined
deliberation. There was a glitter, though,
in his eyes which was not
pleasant to look at.
See here, he said very slowly and quietly; its a question
of either you or me leaving this car. If this thing was kept up much
longer thered be a homicide here; thats
whats the matter. Either
youd pitch out of the window or I would. Now, shall I murder you
or will you murder me?
Which is it to be?
After this little argument the affair came
to an end somewhat
in this wise:-
Shall we stay here to be murdered
in the companys car.
Oh, shall we stay here and be murdered?
Then well stay up and go smoke a pipe?
Well stay up and go smoke.
A few minutes later, followed
by withering looks from the
nervous man, the two were heavily plodding their way towards the
smoking car.
For a time there was peace and quietude in the sleeper. The
car lamps burned with a dim and yellow light as the train rushed
through the darkness with a gently swaying motion. Scarcely
twenty minutes had elapsed when suddenly a loud, piercing shriek
rang tluough the car. In
an instant curtains were dashed aside to
A scene in a sleeping car of the 1880s. Customs inspection at Rouses Point aboard the overnight train from New York to Montreal. The action
in this story would have taken place in a similar setting.
Frank Leslies Illustrated Newspaper. New York, February 10, 1883.
make way for sleepy looking heads, all the attaches of the car who
were on duty came running forward and the voice of the nervous
was heard in angry protest.
In the name
of a thousand furies, he cried, whats the
matter now? Has the en-jine burst her boiler, or is
it only somebody
s cut one of those infernal mens throats? All this car needs is
a throttle valve and a stretch of river to turn it into a first-class
In the meantime the initial scream had been repeated
several times with added energy and strength. The screams
from berth No. 10, from which could be seen protruding a pair of
legs and the coat tails of a stout man. The porter seized these coat
tails and asked the owner what the matter was. In reply there came
a smothered voice explaining
Theres a devil in my berth, and shes got me by the ears.
This remark was supplemented by another shrill scream
and an equally shrill female voice, which cried out:-
Take him away! Take him away! TheviUain, the scoundrel!
The porter squeezed his head into the berth and a mome
later was heard saying:-
Perhaps if you stop screaming, maam, and let go of the
genelmans ears, he may be able to get his self out.
Oh, the rascal! the villain! cried
the shrill female voice
At that moment there was an exclamation of agony from
owner of the legs, as if his ears had been violently wrenched,
followed by an agitation of the coat tails. The next instant a bald
head and a very red face were withdrawn from the berth.
into the vacancy thus made we all perceived an elderly lady, thin
grim looking, and with her hair done up in crimps, sitting half
upright in the berth. Beside her laid another female form.
Hastily throwing a shawl over her head, and about her
scraggy shoulders, the old
dame lit into the bald headed man. She
called him a mean cowardly villain, a shameless old scamp, who
insulted unprotected women. She said that he ought to be lynched,
would be if there were any men around who really were men.
At length
she was calmed down and her story was got out of her.
She was lying in the berth with her servant girl. She had been
awakened by someone trying to gel into the berth. She had at once
seized the intruder by the ears and had called for assistance.
And very effectively you did it too remarked the
man. Considering the disturbance that has been made, I dont
know but what youre right in that there remark as to there being
call for a case of lynching in this car.
The baldheaded man protested. He told his story. He had
engaged a berth which he was to occupy with his
nephew. The
latter had left him some time before to go to their berth, as he
He had just finished reading his book in the parlour car
and had come in to go to bed. He thought he recognized this berth
as his, and in the semi-darkness it was impossible to distinguish the
figure in the berth from that
of his nephew. Just as he had put his
in he had been seized by the ears and the screaming had
He really thought that the devil had taken possession of
him. Such a vicious and unreasoning old wretch of a woman it had
never been his misfortune to come across before. And the old
gentleman put his hand feelingly to his outraged ears.
What was the number of the gentlemans berth? No. 14.
Oh, yes; that was two berths further up, and the porter took the old
gentleman in hand and showed him the way. His nephew was not
yet in
bed? No; he had been in the car a few minutes before, and
had remarked that he would join some gentlemen in a
game of
cards in the smoker. With an angry glance toward berth No. 10, the
gentleman clambered into bed.
It seems that the elderly lady had some difficulty in getting
sleep after the excitement. Anyway, in less than half an hour
after her encounter with the elderly gentleman she was seen to
emerge from her berth and go forward, presumably bent on a visit
to the
ice-water tank. Before starting out she loosely pinned a
pocket handkerchief with a violet border to the curtains of her
benh, so that she·-should have no difficulty in recogni.zing her·
place on her retorno Hardly was her back turned, when the
men who had earlier been tJueatened with murder and had
gone to the smoking car, came blundering back to their beds. In
passing No. 10, one clumsily knocked against the handkerchief,
brushing it away with his shoulder. It dropped on his arm, and after
being carried a few steps by him, fell to the ground. In
so doing it
attracted the
others attention. He pointed to it, and then picked it
Who does it belong to?
Where does it belong?
There! replied the other, pointing sleepily to the curtains
opposite which it had fallen.
In another instant he had pinned the
handkerchief with the
violet border to the curtains
of No. 14.
Five minutes later the elderly lady reappeared.
She stepped
in front
of where the violet bordered handkerchief hung. She parted
the curtains and, with a chilly shiver, crawled hastily into the berth.
Fully twenty-five minutes must have elapsed after the two
men had sought their respective berths, when from No. 14 there
came an unearthly, blood curdling shriek, followed by angry
exclamations in a deep bass. Again the car attaches rushed
forward, again affrighted and sleepy heads appeared from behind
curtains, again was the voice
of the nervous man to be heard
upraised in a flowing and
prolonged outburst of profanity. The
curtains of No. 14 were torn apart by the porter, and the elderly lady
and the baldheaded man were found struggling desperately
in each
others arms. With some difficulty they were torn apart and
assisted from the berth. The elderly lady was speechless with rage;
the bald headed man was
almost equally angry. He managed to get
to the floor first.
I think I am in my own berth this time, he cried, I have
not moved from it since I got in, This is a conspiracy, I say. I shall
sue the company for loss
of character.
What! screamed the elderly lady. This is your berth,
you old villain?
Where is the girl? Where are you, Mary Jane?
Here, if you please, maam, answered the girl, her head
protruding from the curtains
of No. 10.
What are you doing in that berth, you hussy?
maam, this is our berth. I have not stirred from
it since we went to sleep.
Sure enough, put in the porter, with a broad grin, thats
your berth, maam, and this ere berth belongs to this gene!man.
My benh -his berth -in the berth with a man -Mary Jane
-Oh! Oh! He! Oh! —
And the elderly lady
was in hysterics.
I shall sue the company! repeated the bald headed man,
with austerity.
Sue the company? Sue the company, is it? howled the
nervous man, with dilating eyeballs.
Well, I should smile if we
wouldnt. Call this den a sleeping car do they? All thats needed
here is a pinch
of brimstone and a pitchfork to convert it into a first­
class Inferno!
The lull of silence which followed the nervous mans
stormy anger was broken by two voices from the occupants of the
upper belths:-
Can you sleep with all the noise?
Can I sleep with all the noise?
Music at the Railway Station
or Of Music and Trains
By Lynne L. Macleod
Trains and locomotives served as a unique source of
musical inspiration for three major composers -Antonin Dvorak,
Honegger and Heitor Villa-Lobos. The integral role that
these marvellous pieces of machinery have played in the lives of
these composers will be related in the following account.
Dvorak (1841-1904), best known for his New
World Symphony, was a lover of trains and locomotives throughout
his entire life. In fact, wherever he lived or travelled he could be
at the local railway yard.
Dvorak observed his first railway train at the age of nine
when the railway line from Prague to Kralupy opened. His great
love and passion for trains took another leap forward when he
visited his
Aunt Josepha in Prague. Her husband was a railway
employee and took the young Dvorak with him every day when he
went to work.
Dvoraks locomotive hobby was all-consuming and an
integral part
of his life. His love for trains was so great that he
became extremely frustrated whenever his composing and other
professional duties prevented him from going down to the railroad
station to catch the
departure of a particular express train. Although
music was the ruling
passion of his life, he once told his students
the Prague Conservatorium-I would gladly give all my
symphonies, had I been able to invent the locomotive!
Dvorak often made early-morning visits to the Franz Josef
railway station. While there, he avidly studied the engines in the
and memorized their numbers in addition to learning the
of the engineers and keeping track of their destinations. One
day when he was unable to make his daily trek down to the station,
sent one of his students, Joseph Suk, to go and find out the
number of the locomotive which was taking out the express that
But Suk, who was courting Dvoraks daughter, came back
the number, not of the engine but of the coal-tender instead!
The irritated
Dvorak told his daughter -So thats the kind of man
want to marry!
When Dvorak later spent time in America, he dearly
missed his beloved locomotives that he left behind in Bohemia.
Unfortunately most of the stations in New York were located
across the water
and they didnt allow anyone on the platfOlm
the passengers. Thus, the disappointed Dvorak wasnt able
to observe his locomotives up-close. At first, the talented composer
would travel by overhead tram to 155th Street and then anxiously
on the bank for the Chicago or Boston Express to pass by.
However, being over an hour from Dvoraks house, watching the
locomotives from such a distance paled in comparison to the highly
accessible locomotives in Dvoraks home land of Bohemia.
Dvorak had to eventually give up locomotive-spotting until he
moved back to Bohemia.
On March 30th, 1904, Dvorak unfortunately caught a chill
after visiting Franz Josef Station to spend time with his beloved
His health had already been deteriorating but this was the
final blow.
His diagnosis was arteriosclerosis, complicated by an
of influenza. Dvorak, who passionately loved trains to the
end, died
on May I, 1904.
The Swiss-born composer Arthur Honegger (1892-1955)
created a sensation with his innovative musical work Pacific 231
when it was first heard. In this modernistic locomotive program
music, Honegger attempted to paint a musical portrait of the visual
and physical impression of a speeding locomotive.
I have always had a passionate love of locomotives,
which are to me like living creatures. These were the words of
Arthur Honegger, which were later printed in the leaflet of the
score of.his Pacific.231. Even as.a child Honegger was intrigued
by the majestic power, sound and speed of locomotives. He found
himself continually drawn to the locomotive which he felt represented
the kinetic
energy of our modern age.
The music of machines was the latest fad in Europe at the
time, and Honegger certainly broke new musical ground by being
the first to write a musical composition about a locomotive.
Inspired by the
power and glory of the American-built Pacific,
Honeggermusically c.aptured the captivating sound of this particular
locomotive in his Pacific 231.
The symphonic poem Pacific 231 is a superb piece of
music. The opening sounds of this composition imitate the soft
hissing of the Pacifics three hundred ton piece of machinery at
rest. As the lo
comotives wheels begin to spin and gradually pick
up speed, its accelerating movement is depicted by the use of notes
of shorter time value (quarter notes, eighth notes, triplets and
sixteenths) in the
opening section. An increasing musical crescendo
depicts the quickening motion of the locomotive as it plunges
through the stillness of the night. As the piece reaches its final
destination, the
tempo of the music decreases in response to the
imaginary trains decrease in speed.
In addition to his Pacific 231, the prolific Honegger
wrote more than a dozen operas, five symphonies, twelve ballets,
thirty film
scores, chamber music, piano pieces and song. But to
train lovers, this
much-admired composer, who died in Paris at the
age of sixty-three, will always be remembered for his Pacific
231 .
An ardent nationalist and folklorist, the Brazilian composer
Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) left behind his Little Train of the
Caipira for train and music enthusiasts to enjoy. Villa-Lobos
created a lasting musical memory
by putting down on paper the
sounds he recalled
of a Brazilian train as it made its way along a
mountain road.
Throughout his lifetime, Villa-Lobos attempted to
the melodies
of his homeland with the traditions of Westem music.
In fact, he made frequent train trips to the central provinces of
Brazil. Villa-Lobos had many delightful and happy memories of
riding on these trains which carried the local berry-workers
enroute from their homes to their work
in the fields. (A caipira
is a Brazilian peasant).
In this charming keyboard piece, the movement of the train
is represented by a steady rhythm throughout.
The sound of violins
122 MAl -JUIN 1994
is soon heard, singing a melody in the style of a Brazilian folk song.
The train nears its destination amidst dissonant hatmonies and a
gradual decrease in tempo. A bell then resounds and a tra
in whistle
blows when the berry pickers have arrived at their destination.
Villa~Lobo.s Rio de Janeiro, Brazil at the age of
seventy-two. His impressive musical output included twelve
symphonies, operas, ballets, fifteen string quartets, choral music
and more than a dozen symphonic poems.
Its hard to imagine what our world would be like without
s. Certainly Antonin Dvorak, Arthur Honegger and Heitor
Villa-Lobos found them
to be a rich source of joy and passion. The
musical train works that these great men of music left behind
will be enjoyed
by train and locomotive lovers everywhere for
generations to come.
Having just read some fascinating stories about railroads in the lives of famous classical composers, let us now hear about quite
a different, but also most enjoyable, type of railroad music.
Albert Coughlin, Railroad Composer and Singer
To Canadian railroad buffs, Van Horne to VIA pretty
well describes the program
of songs and narration presented by
railroad historian and lecturer Albert
Bert Coughlin. He was
born into a railroad family
in 1935 at Montreal, Quebec where his
father was
employed at Canadian Pacifics Angus Shops until
1941. Bert currently resides in the town
of Newmarket, Ontario.
His mother was the daughter
of the late Charles Hewitt Buell, one
of the chief officers of the CPR from 1895 through 1929, reporting
to the Companys President (Lord Shaughnessy until
18, and Sir Edward Beatty thereafter). Back in 1928 when the
CPR fired up a
new steam locomotive, 4-8-4 No. 3101, for a trial
run between Montreal and Smiths Falls, Berts mother was on the
That test run was featured in the movie The Miracle of the
The Buells originally came from England to America
in 1620, and during the American Revolutionary War of the 1770s
many of them came to Canada as United Empire Loyalists. One of
the founders of the town of Brockville was William Buell, a direct
ancestor of
Berts mother. Finally, there was Professor Oliver B.
a CPR photographer, who travelled across the nation in the
1880s in a private railway car, giving lantern slide shows and
lectures that promoted the future
of railroading in Canada. Now,
more than a hundred years lat
er, we have Bert Coughlin, a
of the Buells, giving lectures about the past gloties of
the vanishing railway. .
Bert started composing railroad songs
after learning about
the abandonment
of the railway in Newfoundland in 1988, and
later the cancellation
of VIA Rails daily transcontinental train,
running on
CPR lines, The Canadian. Among his compositions
are songs about each
of the following pioneers involved in binding
Canada together with a transcontinental railway: Sir John
Macdonald, Sir Sandford Fleming, Walter Moberly, William C.
Van Horne, the Chinese coolies, George Stephen, The Hon.
Donald Smith, Edward Mallandaine (the 17 year old l
ad who stood
beside Smith as the latter drove the
Last Spike on the CPR at
in 1885) and Louis Riel. There is a song about Lady
Agnes, the wife
of Sir John A. Macdonald, who rode on the cow
of the locomotive of the special train when the Macdonalds
made their first trip over the new CPR in 1886. Bert has also written
a song about Nicholas Morant, the famous CPR photographer, and
other songs about famous people unrelated to
the railway such as
Canadian figure skater Kurt Browning.
of the memorable experiences that Bert had with some
of the great railroad men that he met, OCCUlTed -in 1948 at Perth,
Ontario. A local passenger train stopped at the station before
continuing its journey to Montreal and the engineer invited Bert up
into the cab and, since it was only a couple
of weeks before the
festive season that year, the engineer enquired as to what kind
Christmas Bert was going to have. Bert told him that since there
as not much money, there would probably not be any presents or
turkey because the family had just moved from Quebec. The
engineer hauled out his pocket book and handed young Bert a ten
dollar bill to give to his mother. That ten dollars was probably a
days wages to him back then, and it provided enough turkey, with
all the lrinUllings, for the family with four children. A year later,
Bert met a CPR conductor
by the name of Stewart Gendron in the
locomotive roundhouse at Smiths Falls, Ontario. Within a few
weeks Bert was making a few ttips in the caboose
of his way
freight, and that wonderful conductor even shared his lunch with
him on those memorable journeys.
He also made unscheduled
stops near Maberly, Ontario so that young Bert could simply
fence and climb up the hill to his home. Berts life is full of rich
experiences that he shares with all his devoted listeners.
8EWW: Y Cl (/flO/lIer /YIN o/raifr()(ld mllsie COIISiSIS of Ihe old boll(l(l.f (Indio/bongs abollllhe railrQads (llId railroader:s of North America.
A lligh propofliclll of IIwse deul will! lhe SOlllh, hI/I fher( {jr~ other~ frolll widely uparmed (Ireas. One 0/ the/I:II SOllgs actually lIrilllll (1//(1
~()mpoJed by a railrOtld ln.p/o)ct was 111 The Baggage Coach This SOllg Wf/S Ihe work 0/ Gllssie L. Dmis, a Pullma/! car pOller.
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(I.{ Ihe/tlllesllfuill ill the world. /11 Ihe 1890s, )(Id sOl1g.v like litis we,., Iel) JWlm/W, ami In The Baggage Coach Aead~ was ( hit fnl years .
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