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Canadian Rail 429 1992

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Canadian Rail 429 1992


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CANADIAN RAIL
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PUBLISHED 81-MONTHLY BY THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: Douglas N. W_ Smith
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us
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PRE-CPR PROMOTION FOR A TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAY … GEOFFREV A. LESTER M.A .. 111
DRAWINGS OF CANADAS RAILWAYS IN WORLD WAR Ii, … THURSTAN TOPHAM… 128
THE CONNAUGHT TUNNEL 1916·1991.. ………………………………………………………………………….. 130
RAIL CANADA DECiSiONS ……………. .
… ……. ………. ….. DOUGLAS N,W SMITH …. … 135
THE BUSINESS CAR ……………………………….
………………………………………………………………………… 141
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GOAL Of THE ASSOCIATKlN THE COLLECTION. PRESERVATION AM:! DISSEMINATION OF ITEMS RELATING TO THE HISTORY OF RAILWAYS IN CANAOA
JULY -AUGUST 1992 CANADIAIl RAIL Page 111
Some
Pre -Canadiall Pacific Promotions For
A Canadian Transcontinental Railway
By Geoffrey A. Lester M.A.
Nay, more; we shall yet place an iron belt from the Atlantic to the
PaCljic, a railroad from Halifax
to Nootka Sound, and thus reach
China
in a pleasure voyage. So declared Sir Richard Henry
Bonnycastle in his work, Canada & The Canadians in 1846,
thus revivifying the Asian dream and again prompting the idea of
an all red route binding Great Britain with her colonies.
Soon after
Bonnycastles prediction, Millington Henry Synge, a
lieutenant in the
Royal Engineers, stationed in Canada, promoted
the
concept of a transcontinental communications system in a
pamphlet with the lengthy title Canada in 1848. Being an
examination
of the existing resources of British North America.
With considerationsfortheir further
and more prefect development
as a practical remedy, by means of colonization, for the for the
prevailing distress in the united empire,
andfor the deJense oJthe
colony.
Four years later, in 1852, Synge, by now a Captain,
enlarged upon his earlier thoughts by publishing the
pamphlet
Great Britain one empire. On the union of the Dominions oj
Great Britain by inter-communication with the Pacific and the
East
via British North America with suggestions for the proJitable
colonization
oj that wealthy territory. In the preface, the author
acknowledged the works of Carmichael-Smyth, Wilson and Richards,
and others, which, no doubt, had an influence on his thinking
about
this subject.
Critical
of what appeared to be indifference, if not ignorance, on
the
part of the British government towards British North America
and citing the treaties that
led to the surrendering of territory to the
United States,
Synge wrote that only by a secure, rapid, complete
and independent transportation system could the resources of
British North America be developed and the territory strengthened
against the aggressive tendencies
of the United States.
Synge felt that
by bui lding such a transpOitation system the British
government
could help alleviate the problem of unemployment in
Great Britain
and also provide a means of defense against external
aggression. Building
such a system would provide relief for the
poor, and
employment for the surplus population of Great Britain,
provide inter-provincial communication, aid
in the building up of
a trained labour force, and of capital. In addition it would provide
knowledge about the country, open up vast areas suitable for
agriculture and the exploitation
of the abundant mineral resource,
substitute organized and directed colonization for spontaneous
and haphazard immigration, and finally strengthen the ties between
colonies and the mother country.
In the initial
pamphlet Synge designed a mixed route in ten
sections, utilizing both water (river and canal) and land (railway),
and he describes the route. Although he proposed an eventual transcontinental railway,
Synge felt that, given the economic
situation of the colony, the continuous railway would have to be
preceded by a water-land route, using
what rivers and canals were
available and adding pOitage railways.
This would be a system
initially easier to utilize and
cheaper to build and operate. The
water-land system was only a temporary expedient as it did not
take an engineer to realize that the severity
of Canadas winters
made navigation on rivers and lakes an impossibility for a good
portion
of the year. The transcontinental railway would be realized
once the country had been colonized and the resulting economy
could justify building a system of such magnitude.
In 1852 Millington Synge reiterated what he had written in 1848,
but emphasizing the desirability of a route across British North
America as being the shortest and strategically the most secure.
Politically and economically the route would strengthen the colonies
and forestall a United States
monopoly in trade.
Captain
Synges ultimate plan was a continuous transcontinental
railway, but this could be achieved only
when the territory over
which it was to be built was minutely and accurately mapped. As
he wrote
but the great trunk line railway should be laid downfrom
ocean to ocean, where it would most pel/ectly realize the utmost
benefits
10 be derived from the intra-oceanic connexion of the
distant extremities
in opposite hemispheres.
Between the publication of Millington Synges two monographs,
Major Robert Carmichael-Smyth had his own pamphlet published
in
1849 (although he had written an open letter to Thomas
Chandler Haliburton, author of The Clockmaker, in 1848) on the
subject
of a transcontinental railway which would assist the
employment
of the people and capital of Greal Britain in her own
colonies at the same time assisting emigration, colonization and
penal arrangements, by undertaking the construction
of a great
national railway between the Atlantic and the Pacific from Halifax
harbour Nova Scotia
to Frazers River, New Caledonia.
It would appear that this work was done without knowledge of
Captain Synges treatise, for in the conclusion Major Cmmichael­
Smyth states The last correction for the press was scarcely
finished, when Canada in
1848 was pUI into my hands. Had 1, a
month ago, seen that little pamphlet, written as
it is with so much
spirit and ability,
I should hardly, perhaps, have fell sufficiently
inclined
/0 have suggested one line of railway, in opposition to the
views
of irs talellted author. I trust I need scarcely assure Lieut.
Synge that
in any observations I have made upon canals, I had no
reference whatever
to his grand scheme, -/lor the least intention
of treating lightly his magnificent project, of which, until a day or
two ago,
I did not even know the existence.
Page 112
From the outset, Carmichael-Smyth proposed a
railway across the continent, the building
of which
wou
ld encourage the opening (of) the shortest
road
to the most extensive regions of wealth …
and provide the great link required to unite in one
physical chain the whole English race
. The author
was convinced that neither the expenditure
of vast
sums
of money nor such topographical barriers as
the Rocky Mountains should deter Britain from
such a noble work.
If Britain was willing to spend
millions
of pounds on destructive wars, surely
monies could be found for so constructive a project
as a railway which could not have but beneficial
effects on societies around the world.
The railway would serve to achieve several ends,
the use
of the surplus labour of Britain (including
many convic
ts made so by unemployment and
poverty), the exploitation
ofthe resources of British
North America, the opening up
of markets as the
result
of emigration and settlement, provision of a
short
er and more secure route to the Orient, and
the means by which the aggrandizing tendencies
of the United States would be thwarted.
The railway was initially to be financed and
guaranteed by a loan from the government
of great
Britain in the
amount of 150,000,000 pounds
Sterling (the estimated cost being 24,000 pounds
per mile). A Board
of general arrangement and
control would be established to build and manage
The Atlantic and Pacific Railway, made tIP of
fifteen directors, three each from Great Britain,
The Hudsons Bay Company (whose best interests
would be served by cooperating in the realization
of the scheme), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and
the Canadas. The Board would be responsible in
negotiating with the several parties involved
for
the retiring
of the debt. Carmichael-Smyth was
aware
of the scale of the economies involved.
The line was to be built with convict labour in the
more isolated and difficult areas, and by emigrant
(sic) labour in the settled areas.
The convicts were
to be guarded by soldiers induced to serve with the
promise
of freehold land at the completion of their
tour
of duty. It was also suggested that Indians
might profitably be employed as guards. Also, it
was suggested that, in the populated areas,
all
local towns and districts that have sufficient capital
and labour to undertake any pari
of the line, have
the benefit
of the profits oj the whole line, in
proportion to the parts they may finish. Active,
RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
A LETTER
MAJOR ROBERT CARMICHAEL-SMYTH
TO
HIS FRIEND
THE AUTHOR OF THE CLOCKMAKER,
CONTAINING
OF
A BRITISH COLONIAL
RAILWAY OO:JiMUNIOATION
BETWEEN
THE ATLANTIC AND THE PACIFIC,
FROM
THE MAGNIFICENT HARBOUR OF HALIFAX,
IN
NOVA SCOTIA
(NORTH-EASTERN AMERICA),
TO
THE MOUT.H OF FRAZERS RIVER,
IN
NEW CALEDONIA
(NORTH·WESTERN AMERICA),
on Buell OTHER PORT AS MAY DE DETER:-.rrNED UPON.
Let those, who discard speculations like these as wild and improb:tblc, recur
to the state of public opinion at no vcry remote period on the subject of Steam
Navigation.
II Within the memory of persons not yet past the meridian of life the impos­
sibility of traversing by Steam Engine (he channels and seas that surround and
jntersect these isJnnds was regarded as the dream of enthusiasts.
DR. LARDNER, 18+0.
LONDON:
W. P. METCHIiI, 20, PARLIAMENT STREET.
11l49.
The title page of Major Robert Carmichael-Smyths 1849 pamphlet on the
possibility
of a transcontinental railway through British North America. Notice
the quotation about
the steamships which had seemed equally improbable a
generation before.
intelligent and scientific young men were to be sent to find a
su
itable pass through the mountains, and a port, should the mouth
of Frazers River not be suitable. The work was to commence at
both extremities
of the railway and at suitable intermediate points.
Montreal and Toronto would be by-passed, but served by means
of
In answer to the criticism that the railway should be a private
enterprise and not involve the governments, Carmichael-Smyth
made a distinction at the outset between economic viability and
social need.
The former would be vindicated once the railway was
built, the latter expressed
one of the most important lessons in
Canadian transportation history, which
is that government ….
branch lines.
JULY -AUGUST 1992
cannot be a mere bystander in the transportation process (Chodos
p. 15). The railway was to be a grand national work … the great
high road between the Atlamic and the Pacific.
In 1850, Britain Redeemed and Canada Preserved co-authored
by Captain F.A. Wil
son and Alfred B .. Richards, Barrister-at-law,
proposed
a scheme for the COl1stlUction of an Atlanti(, and Pacific
railway communication traversing ourpossessions in North America.
As these two gentlemen worked on the problem they were made
aware of Major Carmichael-Smyths pamphlet, and in due course
incorporated many
of the Majors ideas in thei.r book, amplifying
them in the
process. The uniqueness of Wilson and Richards
concept lay in the elaborate logistical plan by which the railway
was to be built.
The impelling motives for such a venture were -the attempt to
solve the problem
of overpopulation in Great Britain with the
commitant matter
of unemployment (pauperism), the colonization
of British North America as a bulwark against the expansionism of
the United States, and the opening up of an expedient commercial
route to the
Far East, part of a strategicaJly secure all red route.
By fostering a great emigration
to build the railway, Britains
greatness would be enhanced and British North Americas future
assured.
The line of railway was to run as straight as the nature of the
country could render
it practicable from Halifax to the Gulf of
New Georgia and would cross territory 2800 miles in breadth,
opening up land for settlement and agriculture and the exploitation
of the vast resources to be found there. The line was to be divided
into 7 sections each
400 miles in length:
No.1, or the Atlantic Division, running from Halifax to Quebec.
400 miles.
No.2, the Quebec Division, from Quebec to Tamiscaming Lake.
400 miles.
No.3, the Lake division, from Tamiscaming to Lake St. Anne. 400
ITIiles.
·No. 4, the Central division, from Lake 5t. Anne to Fort Garry. 400
miles.
No.5, the Prairie division, from Fort Garry to Saskatchewan River
(elbow). 400 miles.
No.6, the Mountain division, from Saskatchewan across the
Rocky Mountains by
Devils nose to Upper Arrow Lake. 400
miles.
No.7, the Pacific division, from Arrow Lake to New Georgia Gulf.
400 miles.
Total length.
2800 miles.
Each
of the sections was described in terms of the potentialities of
the country it traversed. Realizing that difficulties might be
encountered in breaching the Rockies, Wilson and Richards
tended to dismiss the problem by
noting … were not the chain
broken by ravines which should offer a varied choice
of passage;
while we know that science, improved by the daily practice
of
railroad ascensions, can fortunately overcome far, far greater
obstacles than these.
AU the physical resources necessary for building the railway were
in place ready to be exploited, what was sorely lacking was labour.
CANADIAN RAIL Page 113
This situation was easily rectified by recruiting from the mass of
pensioners, paupers and prisoners in Britain which were making
enormous claims upon the public purse.
Twenty thousand convicts
were to be employed to
break ground and rough hew the line.
These were to be divided into seven divisions, each of 2800 men,
the most obdmate being relegated to the western prairies and the
mountains.
When the railway was completed those convicts still
serving their sentences would be established on Anticosti Island
which would be made into a
permanent penal colony.
To oversee the convicts, a body of 5000 men, to be known as the
Pioneer Rifle Guards, was to be recruited, again divided into seven
divisions. They were to
be assisted by Canadian Woodmen and
Indians who would round up any convict deserters.
Augmenting the convict labour would be an army
of 60,000 Civil
Fencibles, drawn from the poor and unemployed and enroled for
three year
s. Though subject to military discipline, this would not
be
allowed materially to affect their civil character, or intel/ere
with the propel freedom
of their general private habits, the
inllocent use
of their leisure time, and their customary manller of
peljorming their work. These labourers would be divided into six
sections
of 10,000 persons each, with the provision that they would
not be required to work in the mountainous areas. Each division
would
be subdivided into corps of 1000 individuals each made up
of 500 husbandmen and 500 artisans. An additional 600 women
and children would be allowed to accompany each corps. Attached
to each civilian corps would be two Chaplains, one surgeon and an
assistant, two schoolmasters and two assistants. Available also
would be a chapel. hospital, library and reading room.
Each
400 mile division was to be controlled by the establishment
of an headquarters as the centre. East and west of headquaJ1ers
were to be located sub-stations, churches and forts. Work parties
would work east and west from a central point
in each segment.
Wilson and Richards provided drawings and plans
of barracks,
block buildings, prisons, and
womens retreats. A uniform for the
workers is also iUustrated in their book.
The railway was to be built at an estimated cost of 5,000 pounds
per mile, so that the total cost would be 14,000,000 pounds. This
amount would be provided as a government loan and reimbursed
as a result
of the saving of the poor rate due to emigration. the
increased value
of the land served by the railway and the revenues
from the operation
of the railway. Following Carmichael-Smyth,
Wilson and Richards advocated an Imperial Commission to direct
and manage the railway.
Convinced that British genius, capital and industry were equal to
the task, Wilson and Richards concluded
that … grand works
depend more on grand men than grand means.
A sentiment
vindicated when the Canadian Pacific Railway finally spanned
Canada.
Immediately following the publication
of Wilson and Richards
book there appeared a pamphlet by the civil engineer Alexander
Doull comprising a plan for a railway from Halifax to Quebec with
letters to
The Morning Chronicle enlarging upon the scheme and
envisioning an extension
of the line from Quebec to the Pacific
coast. Published by the Canadian Land and Railway Association,
the pamphlet carried the impressive title
Report and outline of a
plan by which an extensive railway may be COllstructed in the
Page 114 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
. __ . …L ..
JULY -AUGUST 1992
British North American colonies, combining its execution with
all elllarged scheme of colonization and reclamation of waste
lalld,
and executing the works so that the company and emigrants
shall be mutually benefited. With map
and plan.
The primary purpose of the Association was to open an extensive
field on which to emp
loy the surplus labour of the United Kingdom
and thereby to promote
the Social elevation of the industrious
classes
. It was the aim of the Association to obtain a charter to
build the Halifax and Quebec Railway, with the backing
of the
colonies based
on the report (to which Doull makes ample reference)
of Major Robinson, Royal Engineers, who had been engaged to
find the
most practicable route (based on political and military
necessities) for an intercolonial railway.
Doulls pamphlet concludes with a few remarks on the Continuation
of the Railway from Quebec to near Vancouvers island, ill the
Pacific
as a logical extension to the Halifax and Quebec line.
Though avoiding details, Doull nevertheless proposed a nearly
direct line from Quebec City to the Rockies with
branches to
Montreal, Kingston and Toronto. The line would be built
simultaneously in sections and the use of convict labour, proposed
by others, would be eschewed as
absurd, impolitic and cruel.
Payment for the railway would be based on a land grant extending
ten miles
on each side of the right-of-way. The prospective value
of the land and the mineral wealth would be the basis for the issuing
of paper money endorsed by the governments involved! The cost
per mile would, presumably, equal that
of the line between Halifax
and
Quebec, estimated at 7,000 pounds.
Following his pamphlet
of 1850, Alexander Doull in 1852 once
again, and in more detail, published
some more thoughts on a
transcontinental railway in
A Project for ope1ling a North-West
Passage betwee1l the Atlantic
and Pacific Ocea1ls, by mea1lS of a
Railway
01l British territory. Although acknowledging the plans
of Carmichael-Smyth, Synge and others, Doull felt these had not
been
professionally or practically treated, since these writings
were deficient in fully comprehending the physical characteristics
and resources
of British North America. Nevertheless he did
borrow ideas from those he criticised!
Citing the preoccupation with canals as being detrimental to the
progress
of railway building in the provinces, DouU referred to the
survey
of Major Robinson for the Intercolonial railway from
Halifax to
Quebec City, and, in anticipation of its early construction,
used it as part
of his scheme for the transcontinental railway. As
to the rest of the line fron! Quebec to the Pacific coast, Doull
suggested four matters had to be considered -the direction
of the
line, the
mode of exploring the country for the purpose of selecting
the line, various means by which the expenses
of construction
could be
met, and the resources of the country proposed to be
traversed.
His railway was to take as direct a line as feasible, from
Quebec
City to north of Lake Superior, with little deviation across the
prairies, penetrating the Rockies tluough a suitable pass,
if one
could be found, about the 50 degree north latitude, though, because
of the nature of the country, an easier route would be for the railway
CANADIAN RAIL Page 115
to cross the mountains at the 54 degree north latitude. The
southerly location of the line would then curve gently to the Pacific
coast opposite the southern tip
of Vancouvers Island. The mode
of selecting the line would be determined by the physical nature of
thecowltry. The arduous nature of the survey would be compensated
by the IUlowledge
that such an enterprise would be serving not only
the interests of one counlly … but the cause of universal man.
Continuing:
The operation being rather al1 extensive one, the most judicious
plan would be to divide the distance into numerous sections, by
ascertaining andfixing the points at which the principal obstacles,
such as rivers and mountain ranges, would be most easily crossed.
These sections would
then be treated as integral lines, although
forming portions
of the whole, and thus the undertaking would be
much simplified
… the points selected would be the most suitable
for railway stations, and would become the nucl
ei of more extensive
settlements.
A portion of those settling at the points would put in crops and put
up permanent buildings, while the remainder would be employed
in tracing out the line
of railway east and west of each settlement.
The building of the railway would then follow.
Feeling that the prospects for an early and adequate return on
investment were not realistic, and unless there was the inducement
of a land grant or guarantee by the government, Doul! predicted
that no private company could be enticed
to build the railway. He
therefore suggested that it should be a
joint undertaking of the
Imp
erial government and the Colonial governments, both realizing
benefits from such cooperation. The Colonies would benefit
because
they would be the recipients of the surplus population of
industrious workers of the British Isles who would prove to be
exemplary and productive settlers who would contribute
to the
internal prosperity
of the country. The homeland would also
benefit because the colonies, with their increased population and
prosperity, would become a fruitful market for Britains exports.
Doull proposed that a
Commission be formed empowered to
select and construct the line, and that a land grant be established,
the width
of the line varying in accordance with its value. The land
grant would be used
to help pay the costs of construction. In
addition, a 1,000,000
pound low-interest loan was to be advanced,
to be repaid upon completion
of the railway. With this loan and the
land grant the Commissioners would be allowed
to i1lcrease their
working capital by an
issue of paper cUITency, or land notes,
cOllvertible at any time into land at
afair valuation, amounting to
2,000,000 pounds, which shall be constituted as legal tender, and
be issued
in payment of all tra1lsactions or claims c01lnected with
the operation
of the Commission in the execution of the works, the
scale
of land, timber, minerals, & C..
The line having been staked out, the Commission could then enter
into agreements with individuals or associations whereby these
would be granted blocks
of land provided they brought in settlers
and provided labour for building portions
of the railway. Others
would
come as individuals who, having repaid their passage,
would
be allotted freeholds to be purchased on annual instalments.
OPPOSITE PAGE: A map of the World showing the route proposed by Major Robert Carmichael-Smyth. This map was published in 1849
as part
of Carmichael-Smyths pamphlet.

Page 118 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
Captain M. H. Synge, R.E.
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JULY -AUGUST 1992
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CANADIAN RAIL
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h,H) 10 be omincd. Thus rOUles I -VII afe nOI shown
V[II S La S D J United Siales:. Mountains
. an UIS [0 an lego impraclicable.
IX. Chica
go [0 Pugers Sound. The beslline in thc Uni(cd S[at(~
X Conlinuous railway 1
. Through 811115h AmtfIC(l, The
bes[
roules on [he-COnlin!.nl
X I. ContinUOUS navlg3110n
XII. SUmmrr routr throuJ!h Hudsons 8ay
©1988
Department of Geography
University
01 Alberta
Page 119
Page 120 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
Major R. Carmichael -Smyth
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University of Alberta
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Page 121
Page 122
50
40
RAIL CANADIEN
130 120
PART OF NORTH AMERICA
©1988
Department 01 Geography
Unlveralty 01 AIbef1a
Shewing the Proposed Line of Railway
JUILLET -AOUT 1992
100
100
MANNER OF WORKING THE RAILWAY BET
TERMINUS -WESTWARD LOG FORT
Nol WEST MIDDLE TERMINUS-WEST
LOG FORT
No 2 WEST CENTRAL FI
or HEAD aUAR
~~
I, II I II _, I I . I •
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Womln-l66 Womtn-7 Women-)) Womtll-7 Women-/33 Women- Women-]3 Women-l WomtII-266 Women-
Convicts-500
Guards-1M
Women-54
175
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Convicts -500
Guards· 166
Women-54
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Women-7 Women-33 Women-l Women-500
JYiP~ ri
JULY -AUGUST 1992
HUDSON
BAY
90 70
EEN EACH OF THE 400 MILE DISTANCES.
T
RS
M-lO
LOG FORT
No2 EAST MIDDLE TERMINUS-EAST
Mtn-J(JO Mfn·l0 Mm-400 Mtn-10 Mtn-/OO /tItn-10 Mtn-Boo Mtn-10
CANADIAN RAIL
F. A. Wilson and A. B. Richards
60
50
NOR T H
T L A N ….. T Ie
~
o C E A N
*
Main Slal/ons 400 Miles aparl
70
LOG FORT
Nol EAST
TERMINUS -EASTWARD
7J 6}1/} 5 J7tJ} 15 Il,/} OMit
Mtn·J(J() Men-IO Mtn-400 Men-]O Mtn-IOO Mtn-20 Mtn-800
nrn-7 Womtn·JJ Womtn-J Womtn-IJJ Women- Womtn-JJ Womtf/-J Womtn-}66 Womm-7 Worn/n·1J WOfflm- Womtn-IJJ Women·- Women-)] Womln- Womtn-l66
ConJiCIS -500
Guards-l66
Wom.n-54
C0I1t1ICIS-500
Guards-l66
Womm-54
Page 123
Page 124
T. Rawlings
o
©1988
Departmenl 01 Geography
University 01 Alber1a
RAIL CANADIEN
c
JUILLET -AOUT 1992
Asnabl
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i o~
bes Mome~ ,Muse
Pop. 674,948 B~
/
Pop, 4314
JULY -AUGUST 1992
HUDSON
BAY
CANADIAN RAIL
NORTH
STATISTICAL M
SHOWING ARE A P
A. & POPULATION OF THE
BRITISH
AMERICAN CON
,.0 mE FEDERACY
UNITED STATES
INClUDIHQ
BRITISH COLUM BIA
0
HUDSONS BAY TERRITORY
SHOWING
THE TRUE AND 0 Nl Y PRACTICABLE ROUTE
fROM THE
ATLANTIC TO TH F. PACIFI
PREPAREO FROM THE LA C OCEAN
USf AUTHENTIC MAPS
Oy
THOM AS RAWLINGS
CRESHAM HOUSE, LONDON
, .. ,
Page 125
Page 126 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
A. Waddington
JULY -AUGUST 1992 CANADIAN RAIL
80 75
MAP
PROJ(CHD OY~RlAHO R
h,OC ..
r
AllllOlG
BRITISH NO!T·; AMERICA
ALFRED WADDINGTON
S,p![ 1868
70
Page 127
Page 128 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
Drawings of Canadas Railways in World War II
By Thurstan Topham
Fifty years ago Canada was in the midst of World War II. After
three years of war there appeared to be no end in sight although, in
retrospect, 1942 was the year when the tide began to turn in favour
of the Allies. It would be another three years before victory was
achieved and the fighting stopped.
Canadas railways played a major part in the war effort. Working
far beyond their prewar capacity, they moved immense amounts of
supplies, both material for the war as well as the many items
needed for the
home front. In addition, troop trains carried many
thousands of soldiers, sailers and airmen to ports from which they
would depart for overseas.
Regular passenger service was always
overloaded since gasoline rationing and other shortages curtailed
automobile traffic. During the war, Canadian National
Railways published a series of
drawings in more than 900 newspapers in Canada and the United
States. Later, the
se drawings were published as a book. This book
is undated, but appears to have been printed in the latter half
of
1942. In this and forthcoming issues of Canadian Rail we will
reprint these drawings as a tribute to the
part played by the railways
in the greatest war in the history of the world. In this issue we
reproduce the introduction to the book, together with the first two
drawings. Others will follow until the entire series has been
reproduced.
To those old enough to remember, the drawings
should bring back memories
of those critical days. To others, they
will give a
brief glimpse of the conditions under which the railways
operated half a century ago.
A MIGHTY WAR MACHINE
The railway is a mighty war machine. The great conflict was not an hour old before the fact that Canadas railways were
the life lines of the country was recognized by the appearance of armed guards at bridges and other vital points. This
is a war of transport -transport
on land, transport at sea, transport in the air. The railways are the arteries through which
flow the natural resources of the forest and of the mines
to Canadas great war plants, and which carry the products of
these plants to the seaboard. They transport, swiftly and safely, hundreds of thousands of Canadas armed forces
to
and from naval stations, training camps, manning depots, and to embarkation ports. In addition to this great
transportation service, the railways are engaged
in many other activities directly related to Canadas war effort. The
drawings
by Thurstan Topham, reproduced in this booklet, graphically depict some phases of the big war job now being
carried on
by the Canadian National Railways. The series was published by 520 Canadian newspapers and by over 400
papers in the United States.
THE ARTIST
Thurstan Topham, a native of Sponden, Derbyshire, England, came to Canada in 1912 after studying architecture and
painting
in London and in Continental Europe. He served in France with the 1 st Canadian Siege Battery from 1916 to
the close of the last war and returned to Canada with a large number of war sketches, many of which were published
in leading U.S. and Canadian magazines. A set of these sketches was purchased by the National Gallery of Canada in
1918.
Mr. Topham
is a regular exhibitor at the Royal Canadian Academy exhibitions. He has won the coveted Jessie Dow
award (Montreal Art Association) for both water colours and oils. One of
Mr. Tophams pictures was selected to hang
in the Royal Suite during the visit to Montreal of Their Majesties, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. This picture was
later purchased for the permanent collection of the Montreal Art Gallery.
THE FIRST DRAWING
The enlistment of Canadian National Railways employees recorded in the drawing on the top of the opposite page
includes only those who
have joined Canadas fighting services -the Navy, the Army and the Air Force -up to July 31,
1942.
In addition some two thousand C.N.R. men are on war duty in the merchant marine ships operated by Canadian
National Steamships under Admiralty direction, and
in other auxiliary war service. Thousands more are in the Reserve
Army and other part-time war services.
JULY -AUGUST 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 129
Cat1adian Rat!wOljmerl were quick to respond toth.e Co.lI to Arms.
6562 Emplol)ees of ih.e (al1ldiMI. National System Hcwe [111 isted for
Active Service.
RECRUITS
·V foy VidOYlj i5 trte sjmbol thes moysh.all inq y~rd5 foy U)o.~ materic./s th.~t 01E loci:. ed Ort tne
Co.n(;.di~n No.fiorto.! System. Th.ELJ ore tne Ib.rqcst railll)iUl war
~ards in. Cartada.
fst freiqh.i ir-c:>.ins IOllded wiift
WilY m~feriils 1011 unc€lIsingllJ
O)Qr (al1.ado.S yZi I lI) countrys biggest tr3.nsporl job. SUJlft
an.d efficl(ni lodinq and ualoading of
Car5 by roik0cl) m.en. assures Yllpid
frdns,sh.ipmeni of tnesc Jit~l producb.
Page 130 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
The Connaught Tunnel 1916 -1991
Submitted by Ruby Nobbs
Last year marked the 75th anniversary of the Connaught tunnel on
the main line
of the CPR through the Selkirk mountains of British
Columbia. Though now
somewhat overshadowed by the new
tunnel through these mountains, the
Connaught tunnel is still an
important link and was, for almost three quarters
of a century, the
only way the CP used
to make this vital mountain crossing. To
commemorate this anniversary, Ruby Nobbs of Revelstoke B.C.
has sent these two articles dealing with the Connaught tunnel.
THE CONNAUGHT TUNNEL AND ROGERS PASS
Told by Andy Stewart. September 4, 1962.
A snow slide which came down Rogers Pass early in the century
took out the original station.
At that time the railway hugged the
toe
of Mount McDonald and then crossed the valley and hit the side
hill below [Mount] Cheops; but after this
slide that PaIt of the line
was abandoned and a new line thrown
out into the middle of the flat
to continue into what was the final yard location in Rogers Pass.
Indications
of the old snow sheds can be seen yet under Cheops.
Sometime prior to 1910 the CPR had come to a decision to double
track all the way from Calgary to
Vancouver. In the fall and winter
of 1909 -19 101 was on a survey paIty at Ruby Creek working on
this project between Ruby Creek and
Spences Bridge. When the
great slide came down on March 5th, 1910, killing 58 men
just west
of Rogers Pass, the party I was on was moved to the Windermere.
The first slide came off Avalanche Mountain, which is to the left
side
of the track going west. During the time they were clearing it,
another slide came down
off Cheops on the other side and caught
the work train, crew, and extra gang, in that portion
of the track
which was being cleared
of the first slide.
We ran a line up Toby Creek and down Hammill Creek to the head
of Kootenay Lake, with the intention of coming into Revelstoke
through
Trout Lake and Arrowhead. Due to snow conditions we
had to abandon line in October 1910. Th.is route, because
of
insurmountable difficulties, proved impractical and was abandoned
altogether.
The idea had been to by-pass Rogers Pass completely.
When this alternative route did not prove feasible a group
of
consulting engineers was brought in from New York to decide
what could be done
to reduce gradients through the Selkirks, and
also the feasibility
of driving a tunnel under Rogers Pass. It was on
their recommendation that Connaught Tunnel was built, and their
recommendation was also that the tunnel be part
of the double
track
scheme from Calgary to Vancouver.
The original [proposedllocation of the east portal of the tunnel was
a half mile up the Beaver River from its present location, and it
would have come out at approximately Ross Peak, making
it 5.5 miles long.
By relocating the tunnel to its present site the length
was reduced
to 5 miles. The tunnel was commenced in August of
1913 and completed in December, 1916. After the outbreak of war
in 1914 it was decided no more work, outside of the tunnel, would
be done on the Calgary to Vancouver double track scheme.
The
east approach to the tunnel, as contemplated, was supposed to have
been on a one percent grade which would have taken
it down below
Stoney Creek bridge. It would have gone up Mountain Creek,
swung around and crossed the Beaver river at a very high crossing
in the vicinity
of Rogers. However, because of the war, a temporary
line was built from the
east portal to the west end of Stoney Creek
bridge and it was never changed.
The question of double tracking
was abandoned.
In constructing the tunnel, two pioneer tunnels were driven –
one
at the west and one at the east. These pioneer tunnels parallelled the
main tunnel
by 45 feet and were 5 by 6 feet in size. At approximately
1200 foot intervals drifts were driven over to the centre
of the
proposed tunnel, and a centre heading 9 by
11 feet was driven, from
which the main bore was shot. When the two pioneer tunnels were
approximately 10,000 feet apart they angled
over to the centre of
the proposed main bore and the centre heading continued until they
met.
The tunnel was partially lined with concrete at the time of
construction, but due to frequent rock falls it was decided, in 1920,
to line the entire structure. This work was given to S.E. Junkins of
New York who did it on a cost plus basis. The job was finished in
the fall
of 1923.
During construction the ventilating system was handled through
the pioneer tunnels, with huge fans to drive the air
in. When
shooting [blasting]
in the pioneer tunnels they had suction fans
which were operated while shooting was in progress
to draw out
gases.
CONNAUGHT TUNNEL
From CPR records. Winnipeg, July 15th, 1943
A double track
tunnelS miles long under Mount MacDonald in the
mai n range
of the Selkirks. It was named for the Duke of Connaught,
youngest son
of Queen Victoria, and Governor General of Canada
from 1911 to 1916,
The diversion of which the tunnel is a part, is lOA miles long and
replaces the fon11er route across Rogers Pass.
The tlllmel shortens
the main line by 4.5 miles, reduces summit elevation by 552 feet,
and eliminates
2600 degrees of curvature.
There were 4.5 miles
of snowsheds 011 the abandoned line. Work
on the tunnel was started in August, 1913. The new line, including
tunnel, was turned
over for operation on December 9, 1916.
The first train through Connaught tunnel, other than work trains,
JULY -AUGUST 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 131
The scene,y on the old Line over Rogers Pass, be/ore the Connaught Tunnel was buiLt, was highLy spectacular, aLthough an operationaL
nightmare. On this and the next three
pages we present some photos of that scenery, now inaccessable by rail. These photos were/rom
a collection/armed about
1887 by Richard B. Angus, one of the pioneers of the CPR. Above we see the main line in the shadow of
the Snow Range in Rogers Pass.
was on December 6th -Extra 3869, westbound, Engineer Ruthelford,
Conductor COlwie
r, with fourteen loads, 20 empties, and private
car Champlain; total load 918 tons, exclusive
of the Champlain.
Mr. D.C. Coleman, who was at that time Assistant General
Manager, occupied the
Champlain. The train passed the east
portal
at 21:01k and the west portal at 21 :49k.
This train could not make the
complete passage west by the new
main line because the old main line was still
in place just west of
Glacier station, blocking passage on the new line. West of the
tunnel a temporary line was used from the tunnel to old Cambie.
The portion of the old line that blocked the new was removed on
the morning of the 9th.
The first train to make the continuous passage by using the
Connaught Tunnel, and the new main line, was train No.1,
December 9th with 12 cars, Engine 567, Engineer Louis Patrick,
Engine 3846, Engineer
Dan MacLeod assisting, Conductor Chester
Armstrong. The train passed the east portal
at 14: 19k and the west
portal at 14:35k.
The officials Present at the opening
of the Connaught Tunnel on
December 9th, 1916 were: Grant Hall, 1.M. Cameron, W. Miller,
D.C.
Coleman, W.A. Mather, J.H. Sheahan, Wm. Pearce, F.W. Alexander,
Y.z. Choats, Wm. Cross, C.l. Turquand, W.A.
James, P.L. Nainsmith, F.E. Trautman,
G. Wady, J.G. Sullivan,
T.H. Crump, c.L. Leighty, Frank Lee, R. Sinclair, C.B. Home
(sec.
), C.H. Temple, A. Sturrock, lM. McKay, F.W. Peters, A.
Brown. [It is intere
sting that this distinguished group included two
future Presidents
of the CPR (D.C. Coleman and W.A. Mather) as
well as the father
of another President (N.R. Crump»).
The cost
of the turUlel when turned over, including 7917 feet of
lining, was $4,527,000. This figure was taken from figures supplied
by W.A. James
who was in charge of work. After the tunnel was
turned over,
Carter Halls Aldinger lined 786.3 feel. The railway
furnished most
of the material for the work done by them, so their
voucher
of $65:015.31 does not represent the value of 786.3 feet
of lining. The difference is buried in charges to the Appropriation
which cannot
now be segregated. The value of the 786.3 feet of
lining is estimated at $110,000.
Later S.E. Junkins finished lining, amounting
to 17,818.5 feet.
This company was paid (net) $2,559,756.00.
The total cost of the
10.4 miles
of the line revision, including the complete concrete
lining in the tunnel, was $8,451,639.45.
The total cost for the
tunnel alone, estimating the value for the 786.3 feet lined by
C.H.A., is $7,196,756.00.
Page 132 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
ABOVE: Ross Peak showing the loop 011 the main line over Rogers Pass.
OPPOSITE, TOP. The mountains in the vicinity
of Ross Peak.
OPPOSITE, BOTTOM Mount Hermit in Rogers Pass.
All photos from collection
of RB. Angus.
JULY -AUGUST 1992 CANADIAIJ RAIL Page 133
Page 134 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
ABOVE: One oj the prime tourist attractions
along the CPR
mainline in the earlY days was the
great glacier
in the Selkirk mountains. Here we see
it in all its glory, about 1887, as two adventurers
take a liesurely
walk! After the Connaught Tunnel
was built the main line bypassed the glacier,
and
the gradual warming oj the climate over the last
100 years has caused the glacier itself
to recede
out
of sight of the former hotel that used 10 be a
favourite slOpping place for tourists.
LEFT: One
of the trestles all the old main line near
Ross Peak, as seen from
(he (ate road which was
used
to haul supplies 10 the railway workers during
construction days.
Collection
oj RB. Angus.
JULY -AUGUST 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 135
Rail Canada Decisions
By ·Douglas N.W. Smith
Napierville Junction Railway 4-6-0 No, 207 as it appeared at CPRs Angus Shops on August 29, 1937. This locomotive was built by
the Montreal Locomotive Works
in 1910, Photo by Fred 1. Sankoff. Collection of Doug/as N.w, Smith,
QUEBEC RAILWAY DISAPPEARS
In 1990, CP was the successful bidder for the Delaware &
Hudson Railway (D&H).
The D&H, which was the oldest operating
railway company
in North America, had been placed under
receivership
in 1988 due to insolvency. The acquisition of the
D&H has provided
CP with access to Washington, Philadelphia,
and New York.
Included
in the D&H holdings was the Napierville Junction
Railway (NJ), which runs from the Quebec-New York State border
near Rouses Point,
New York to Delson, Quebec, a distance of27.1
miles.
The NJ was chartered by the Quebec legislature in 1888 to
build a line from Saint Remi to Saint Cyprien with powers
to
extend the line to Saint Johns, In 1900, the legislature amended
the NJ charter to permit the building
of a line from St Constant to
Lacolle or to Rouses Point, New York. The project languished
until 1906 when the Dominion goverrunent accorded the project a
subsidy
of $3,200 per mile, On August
1, 1907, the Department of Railways and
Canals Inspecting Engineer reported that the line was completed
from Rouses Point, New York to Delson, Backed by the weJl­
heeled Delaware & Hudson Railway (D&H), the new trackage was
built to main line standards. Heavy 80 pound rail laid on tie plates
supported by an
11 inch depth of gravel ballast made this the equal
of the best main lines in Canada, Up to this time, the D&H had
relied upon a connection with the Grand Trunk at Rouses Point for
its Canadian traffic. The desire
to gain alternate connections led
to construction
of the NJ which permitted a link to the Canadian
Pacific at Delson,
-For the next t{lIl-years, the D&H .continu.ed to forward its
New York-Montreal passenger trains over the Grand Trunk
to
Montreals Bonaventure Station. In October 1917, it forsook the
GT. Its Montreal-New York passenger trains were moved from
GTs Bonaventure Station to CPs Windsor Station, The NJ, which
in its entire lifetime owned three steam locomotives and two
Page 136 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
diesels, began to haul freight direct from Rouses Point to CPs
Montreal freight yards.
The collapse
of the coal business in the 1950s started the
D&H on a downward spiral. Its deteriorating financial condition
was mirro
red in the deferred maintenance along both its and the
NJs trackage. Following
CPs takeover of the D&H, it was decided to
simplify corporate relationships
by leasing the NJ to the Atlantic
& Northwestern Railway (A&NW) for 944 years. The A&NW
is
a company completely controlled by CP through another long term
lease. The National Transportation Agency (the Agency) approved
the arrangement on January 31, 1992.
ROSTER OF LOCOMOTIVES OF THE NAPIERVILLE JUNCTION RAILWAY
N J ORIG. OWNER DATE SENT
NUMBER AND
NUMBER TO N J TYPE CYl..lNLffiS DRIVERS BUILDER DATE BLT.
————————————. —————————————————————
STEAM LOCOMOTIVES
207 QM&S 207 Dec 1910 4-6-0 21 X 36 63 MLW Jun 1907
914
D&H 914 Jan 1930 2-8-0 23 X 30 57 ALCO 1903
1089 D&H 1089 Sep 1942 2-8-0 25 X 30 57 ALCO Sep 1942
DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES
4050 Mar 1950 RS-3 MLW Mar 1950
4051
Mar 1950 RS-3 MLW Mar 1950
SOUTHBOUND MONTREAL AND ROUSES POINT NORTHBOUND
Read Down-Lire oe houl en has.
Bend lJp-Lire tlo hus ell hout..
10 34
35 9
Daily Daily Daily Daily
STATIONS —-
Tou. Tous Tous Tous
le8 les le8 les
jOUfS jours jours jours
P.M. A.M.
(N. J. l1y.) P.M. A.~1.
9.30 8.4r,
Lv ..
••
MONTHEAL .. . Ar . 6.00 8.~O
9.37 8.51 . . …. Vcstmollnt. ..
5.03 8.22
9.45 8.57 …… MoolrenllVest .. . …. 5.10 8.15
/10.21 /0.36 ………. Nnpicrville . . . . . . . . /4.59 /7.33
10.32 9Af> . . . . , . Lneollc …. ..
4Ao 7.22
10.44 f),!)8 Ar. 110U8,S POI NT , Lv. ~.:;, 7.12
P.M. A.M. (I). & II. 1.1.) 1.11. A.M.
Light lnee fi~ures denote A.M. and dark face figures Chillres I~gers itHJiquent A.M. Chill res noirs lheure
P.M. Time. P.M.
/ -Stops 00 signal. f -ArrH sur Rignnl.

Lea pnssugcra en tro atn tiona ruralcs DO accont paa

Passengers not carried locally between these atations. admis .
NAPlERVILLE JUNCTION RAILWAY timetable No. 128, dated April 26, 1970.
Collection
of Douglas N.W. Smith.
DATE
RETIRED
————-
Apr 1942
Nov 1951
Nov 1951
JULY -AUGUST 1992
No. 128
Cancels No. 127
NAPIERVILLE JUNCTION RY, CO,
LOCAL TIME TABLE
HORAIRE LOCAL
Effec[ie Sunday April 26[h, 1970
En vigueur dimanche 26 avril 1970
Time sho/l/l hereo/l is Daylight
SaL.illg. Stalld,tld Tillie is olle
hOllr earlier.
Lbellre
d he avallcee est ell
llsage dallS cet horah·e. LiJellle
solaire est IIlle iJellle
pls tot.
Train Times are not guaranteed.
Lcs eliTes des Ira ills lie S01l1 pas garalllies.
G. CLAYTON SEAMAN,
Vice~Presidell(
MONTREAL, Que.
File II 5-1 ~1.
___ __I
The from of NJ timetable No. 128. The timetable was in
the form
of a small card. Only 1000 were printed.
Collection
of Douglas N. W. Smith.
SHIPPERS PAY TO KEEP LINES OPEN
In order to continue rail service to its facility on CPs St­
Gabriel Subdivision, the company Bell Gas Ltee has agreed to
recompense CP for its losses to keep the 10.7 mile branch line open
between Joliette and its plant at St-Felix-de-Valois. Pursuant to
this agreement, on December 23,
1991 the Agency has varied the
abandonment date from January 25, 1991 to August 31, 1992.
BASFFibres Inc and CN reached an agreement in December
1991 whereby the firm has agreed to pay CN a surcharge of $2061
per
carload delivered by CN to their Amprior, Ontario plant. This
amount is sufficient to pay the costs
of serving the plant by rail. On
an application by
BASF Fibres, the Agency has altered the date for
the
abandonment of the Renfrew Subdivision between Nepean and
Arnprior to July
31,1992. As BASF is now seeking a provincial
charter
for a railway line between Nepean and Arnprior, it is
expected that the line will eventually be sold to the company.
CANADIAN RAIL Page 137
PORT MCNICOLL VANISHES
Canadian Pacific has won the right to remove its trackage
in the Georgian Bay area. On May 4, 1992, the Agency ruled that
three separate portions
of the Port McNicoll Subdivision did not
fall under the definition
of a branch line within the meaning of the
Railway Act.
This gives CP the authority to abandon these
segments without a public hearing.
The portions under review were the segments from Mile
14.1 to 15.9 in Coldwater, from
Mile 28.3 to 29 in Port McNicoll,
and from Mile 31.2 to 3
J .4 in Midland. In order to access the latter
two segments, CP operated
over the CN Midland Subdivision from
Coldwater.
Under
thecharterofthe Georgian Bay &Seaboard Railway,
CP built a line from Port McNicoll to Bethany, the junction with
its Toronto-Peterborough-Montreal main line.
The GB&S was
completed in 1912.
That year, CP moved the eastern terminus for
its vessels on
the Great Lakes from Owen Sound to Port McNicoll.
The reason for the construction of the GB&S was to reduce the
costs
of moving western grain to export markets. The GB&S
offered a shorter, low-grade line from the Georgian Bay area
to
Montreal.
The trackage in Midland was built under the charter of the
Midland Simcoe Railway
(MSR) in 1928. In order to connect the
MSR trackage to CP lines at Port McNicoll, running rights over the
CN Midland Subdivision were acquired in 1928.
CP leased the
MSR in 1930.
Effective
September 1, 1968, CP acquired running rights
over the CN Midland Subdivision between Coldwater and Port
McNicol!. This lead to the abandonment
of the CP trackage
between Coldwater and Port McNicol!.
CP has handled no traffic west
of Coldwater since late
1991.
The loss of traffic was due to the federal government
decision to terminate the At and East freight subsidies which lead
to the termination
of grain shipments through the elevators at Port
McNicol] and Midland. In
November 1991, CP cancelled its
running rights agreement with
CN for the trackage between Port
McNicoll and Midland.
CP stated that its trackage agreement with
CN for running rights between Port McNicoll and Coldwater had
been left in force pending the abandonment
of the trackage in the
Port McNicoll area. Currently, CN has an application before the
Agency seeking
to abandon the Midland Subdivision.
SOUTHWESTERN ONTARIO SHUFFLE
The redrawing of the railway map in southwestern Ontario
arising from the sale
of the Canada Southern Railway (CSR) to CN
and
CP in 1985 continues. On May I, 1985, CN took over the CSR
trackage between Windsor and Weiland and CP the trackage
between WeIland and Niagara Falls and between Weiland and Fort
Erie.
The two companies share the ownership of the Windsor­
Detroit tunnel.
Page 138 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
These two classic images of branch line railroading in the 1950 s are from the collection of At Paterson and Dick George.
ABOVE:
CN 4-6-0 No.
1371 has thirteen cars, including a combination cal, trailing her tender. The 1371 was built by the Montreal Locomotive Works
for the Canadian Northern Railway in 1912. This view was taken ill the vicinity of Hallboro, Manitoba on July 28, 1956.
OPPOSITE PAGE:
A
1913 graduate of the Angus Shops in Montreal, 4-6-0 No. 925, heads up the ubiquitous mixed train. On April 21, 1954, photographer L.
A. Stuckey captured Train 222 passing under the CNs branch line between Muir and Beulah at Rapid City, Manitoba. Train 222, which
operated between Minnedosa and Brandon on Mondays and Thursdays, was due at Rapid City at 1515. Two and a
half hours were scheduled
for the 51 mile trip to permit the switching of freight cars, the handling of mail and express and loading of the occasional passenger info
the wooden passenger car on the rear
of the train.
III the intervening forty years since these photographs were taken, both the branch lines shown have been abandoned as the truck and cal
replaced the train.
JULY -AUGUST 1992
CNs former-CSR trackage between Windsor and Weiland
parallels anotherCN line between these points which was completed
by the Great Westem Railway
in 1873. The ex-Great Western
route was handicapped by lack
of direct access to the Windsor­
Detroit tunnel. In order
to reach Detroit, CN operated a fleet of
railway car ferries. The City of Windsor has been actively seeking
to have CN remove its trackage from the waterfront. CN, however,
needed the trackage to access its car ferry slips.
The acquisition of the CSR provided the means to resolve
the dispute over the waterfront lands if CN could hammer out a
deal
to use the portion of the Chessie System (now called CSX)
trackage between Fargo and its main line in Chatha.rn.
The Chessie System was no stranger to the CSR as it has
longstanding trackage rights over the CSR between
St Thomas and
Niagara Falls. In 1903, the Pere Marquette Railway leased the
Lake Erie & Detroit River Railway (LE&DR) which owned lines
from
Windsor to St Thomas and from Sarnia to Erieau via
Chatham.
The same year, the Pere Marquette completed an 99 year
agreement with the Michigan Central Railroad, which had leased
the CSR, for running rights over the CSR between
St Thomas and
Niagara Falls.
CAIJADIAN RAIL Page 139
By the mid 1980s, CSX desired to abandon substantial
portions
of the former LE&D main line between Windsor and St
Thomas. When
CN sought trackage rights fmm Fargo to Chatham,
the CSX was ready to accord them
in return for an agreement
providing CSX with trackage rights over the
CSR between Windsor
and
St Thomas. On June I, 1985, CSX transferred its Detroit­
Niagara Falls trains from its line between Windsor and St Thomas
to the CSR. Since then the
CSX has abandoned portions of its
former St Thomas-Windsor line.
During the
summer and fall of 1985, CN built a connection
between the CSR and
CSX lines at Fargo to permit freight trains
from Windsor to travel lip the CSX Fargo-Sarnia rail line as far as
Chatham where its trains would regain the ex-Great Western line.
111 December 1985, CN re-routed its Windsor-Niagara Falls and
Windsor-Toronto freight trains
off the ex-Great Western line
between Windsor and Chatham.
This left the Nolfolk & Western (now Norfolk Southern)
trains as the only freight trains using the former-Great Western
line. The Wabash Railway had acquired trackage rights from the
Grand Trunk between Windsor and Niagara Falls
in January 1898.
Page 140 RAIL CAIJADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
When the Norfolk & Western leased the Wabash in the 1960s, it
continued
to exercise these trackage rights.
On September 20, 1990,
CSX and Norfolk Southern (NS)
completed an agreement permitting the NS to use
CSX trackage
between Fargo and Chatham, Ontario.
On August 12, 1991, the
Agency approved the agreement which required the approval
of
the Govemor General in Council. This sanction was given on
September 5, 1991.
NS abandoned its Windsor-Detroit
car ferries and re­
routed its trains through the Windsor-Detroit tunnel. This step
removed the last rail operations along the Windsor waterfront and
has left
VIA Rail as the only lIser of the ex-Great Western line
between Windsor and Chatham. In 1874, the
Great Western had
double tracked the line between these points
making it the first
significant piece
of main line to be double tracked in Canada. In
December 1991, the second track was taken out of service.
WELCOME TO CANADAS NEWEST RAILWAY
On August 19, 1991, the Agency approved an agreement
between CN and the Goderich-Exeter Railway
Company (GER) by
which the GER would take
over70 miles ofCN trackage comprising
its Goderich Subdivision between Stratford and Goderich, Ontario
and its Exeter Subdivision between Centralia and Clinton Junction.
The GER is owned by Rail Tex of San Antonio, Texas which
operates a number
of short lines across the United States.
Seeking approval by the provincial
government through
the Ontario Municipal Board delayed the transfer until April
of this
year.
At 23:59 on April 3rd, GER assumed ownership of the line.
Initial motive power for the line consists
of three GP9 diesels
which formerly operated on the Cartier Railway.
NORTHERNMOST RAIL LINE TO GO
On April 3, 1992, the Agency approved an application by
CN to abandon the Pine Point Subdivision from Pine Junction to
Pine Point Mines, a distance
of 42.3 miles.
NEW RAILWAY LINES TO BE BUILT
On March 3, 1992, the Agency granted a CN application to
build a new four mile line to serve the Deschambault Industrial
Park.
The line will commence at Mile 38.65 of the La Tuque
Subdivision near Saint-Marc des Carrieres.
The first mile will be
built on a new alignment while the remaining three miles will be
on an abandoned
rightofway. CN expects to complete construction
of the $4 million line by July 1992 which will serve a new
aluminum plant.
Earlier in the year, on February 19, 1992, the Agency had
approved another CN application to build a 22.4 mile long branch from Mile 71.1
of the Lac La Biche Subdivision near Boyle,
Alberta.
The line will serve a new Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries
pulp mill near Grassland, Alberta.
CPS AMERICAN RAIL HOLDINGS TO EXPAND
CP and Conrail have concluded an agreement whereby CP
will purchase the Conrail line between Buffalo and Binghamton,
New York.
The D&H has had operating rights over the line.
SHORT TURNS
VIA will continue to operate its Montreal-Halifax and
Montreal-Gaspe trains into the Levis, Quebec station until this fall.
On April 22, 1992, the Agency extended the effective date for the
abandonment 7.8 miles
of the Montmagny Subdivision from April
3, 1992 to October 31, 1992.
The reason for the extension was to
allow time for the construction
of a new station on the south shore
of the St Lawrence to serve these trains.
An application by
CSX to abandon 1.9 miles of its former
mainline between Windsor and St Thomas in West Lome, Ontario
was turned
down by the Agency on April 24, 1992. The Agency
ruled that while the trackage currently was uneconomic, the
shippers had d
emonstrated that it could become economic in the
foreseeable future.
On April 24, 1992, the Agency gave
CN approval to
abandon two separate lines in Saskatchewan: the 28.2 mile long
Carlton Subdivision between Dalmeny and Laird and a 13.3 mile
portion
of the Weyburn Subdivision between Talmage and a point
near Weyburn.
The Carlton Subdivision was built by the Canadian
Northern and opened for service in February 1910.
The abandoned
portion
of the Weyburn Subdivision was the only rail Jine built
under the
chalter of the Grand Trunk Pacific Saskatchewan
Railway Company. The line was opened to traffic in December
1914.
The Agency approved a CN application to abandon the
Sheerness Subdivision from Batter Junction
to Sheerness, Alberta,
a distance
of 13 miles, on January 10, 1992. This trackage once
formed part of a 59 mile line between Batter Junction and
Stevensville which was built under the charter of the Canadian
Northern Western Railway between 1919 and 1921.
On March 4, 1992, the Central Western Railway (CWR)
acquired the 59.5 mile portion of CPs Lacombe Subdivision
between Stettler and Coronation and the 73.4 mile portion
of the
Coronation Subdivisions between Coronation and Compeer, Alberta.
Comprising 133 miles
of trackage, the acquisition more than
doubles the length
of the CWR.
JULY -AUGUST 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 141
The Business Car
BRITISH RAILWAYS -MAY 1992
On the 6th May, at the State opening of Parliament, the Queen
outlined the new Governments plans for further privatisation.
Whilst the coal mines are
to be sold off, the railways will be only
partly privatised.
An immediate bill,
in Parliament, wiJl break British Railways
monopoly and provide public money to be spent on privatisation
studies. This will be followed by legislation, to take effect next
year, allowing BR to be split into two sections (Operating and
Tracks), franchise individual services, permit private operators to
use
BR tracks, and sell off BR freight and parcels services and
individual stations. A regulatory body will control the franchises
and ensure fair competition between
BR and the private operators.
A subsidy will
be guaranteed to ensure the survival of loss-making
passenger services, including
commuter lines such as Network
South East. Within the legislation there will be Citizens Charter
content.
As a first measure, on 11th May, Stagecoach, the Scottish bus
group, started an Aberdeen to London rail service by attaching two
rail coaches
to the overnight BR sleeper service. Staffed by their
own people, separate ticketing, light refreslunents etc. are offered.
Bus connections from Inverness and Perth are available through an
Edinburgh stop.
Submitted by Alan Wilkinso
n.
THAILAND CANCELS TRANSIT DEAL WITH SNC
BOMBARDIER
Thailands rapid-transit authority cancelled, on July 3, a master
agreement with SNC-Lavalin International and Bombardier Inc.
to
build and operate a $3-billion transit system in Bangkok, a city
with an official population
of 6 million, with unofficial estimates
as high as
10 million. However the project is not dead, for the two
Montreal-based firms will continue to negotiate with the Thai
authority, known as the Expressway and Rapid Transit Authority
of Thailand, or ETA.
The project has been interrupted repeatedly since it was first
proposed
in the mid-1980s. While the agreement is renegotiated,
the two Montreal companies will still need a good deal
of time to
finance their part
of the deal.
Source:
The Montreal Gazette, July 4, 1992.
ASSISTANCE WANTED
Mr. Tony Van Klink, of 21 Byron Street, Georgetown, Ontario
L7G
3W6 is interested in any data on the fonner CPR line between
NOlton and Chipman New Brunswick during the 1950s. He
is
especially interested in photos of engine houses, engines and
servicing facilities, stations, bridges, scenery shots, locomotives
in consists etc.
Mr. William E. Robertson,
of 4421 Haggart Street, Vancouver
B.C.
V6L 2H4 is trying to research the history of the DRESSEL
RAILWA Y LAMP WORKS. An example of a product of this
company is shown
in the photo. The secondary name plate reads
THE COMMERCIAL ACETYLENE Co. 80 BROADWAY NEW
YORK. CHICAGO ILL. TORONTO CAN. ATLANTA GA. Any
help that our
members can supply will be greatly appreciated by
Mr. Robertson.
NEW BOOK
Mr. Clayton D. Cook, of P.O. Box 88, Lethbridge, Newfoundland
AOC I VO, has some copies of his recent book TALES OF THE
RAILS in hard cover for sale. The price is $25.00 (reduced from
$30.00) plus $3.00 postage. He
is also offering original 31 train
orders from the Newfoundland Railway. These date from the
1940s, are
in fairly good condition and will be sold at prices which
will be supplied on request.
Mr. Cook
s latest book, a pictorial history covering both trains and
ships
of the Newfoundland Railway, should be ready this fall or
early in 1993.
WAKEFIELD STEAM TRAIN IN SERVICE
After many delays, and the fear that it might never began, steam
service on the former CP line between Hull and Wakefield Que.
began on June 27, 1992. Motive power
is a steam locomotive from
Sweden, one
of many which had been held by the Swedish
government for possible emergency use. The engine was originaJly
built
in 1914, but has been upgraded and modernized over the
years. This locomotive, plus two additional ones, as well
as a total
of fifteen coaches, aJJ from Sweden, will comprise the fleet.
During the summer, two round trips a day, seven days a week, are
being offered.
Page 142 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1992
THE CRHA CONVENTION, MONTREAL 1992
The annual convention of the Canadian Rai Lroad Historical Association
was held
May 14 to 17 in Montreal to celebrate the 60th anniversary
of the founding of the association. The convention was hosted and
organized by the SI.
Lawrence Valley Division. The organizing
committee was made up
of Fred Angus, John Godfrey, Gerard
Frechette and James Bouchard and was assisted by Warren Mayhew,
Mary Finlay, Diana Bouchard and
Marthe Frechette. Preparations
started last fall and culminated in a three-day
event that was
blessed by good weather for the
outdoor activities. There were 41
attendees from four provinces plus another seven who joined us for
the banquet only and four more who presented papers
on Saturday.
We started off with a wine and cheese get-together on the Thursday
evening that was attended by
almost evelyone, allowing people to
get to know each other at the start.
Friday morning we visited the
VIA repair shops in Pointe SI. Charles, in the afternoon the Metro
and then the electric line under the mountain.
The banquet was held
at the Mount Stephen Club, the
former home of one of the founders
of the CPR. The dinner was actually held in the original dining
room with portraits
of Lord and Lady Mount Stephen watching
over us. Dr. Nicholls
gave a brief account of the first years of the
association. This was fo.llowed by slides
of the building of the
Canadian Railway Museum and the arrival
of many of the pieces
in the collection presented by John Godfrey and Fred Angus.
On Saturday we heard six presentations
on railway themes. Doug
Smith started off with an exposition of how a Canadian railroad
managed to obtain so
much of the grain trade from the US for the
port
of Montreal. Judith Nefsky of Canadian Pacific Archives
provided a look at what the archives are and how they can be used.
Phil
Jago described the history of the rail lines in Brockville, a
complicated and interesting story. Ken Gos1ett surveyed the
Quebec stations
of the CNR and how they came to be so varied.
Ken Heard gave an analysis
of museum funding for art museums
versus technical and scientific ones.
Our final speaker was Duncan
Dufresne whose accounts
of the trials and tribulations of operating
a steam
engine were very well received by all. After lunch at Bens
we visited the newly re-opened McCord Museum to see in
particular the exhibit on the building
of the Victoria Bridge.
Sunday
we took a bus tour around some of the remaining historic
rail installations
in Montreal and some that are still in service. The
Bombardier shops on Dickson provided a nice 0pp0l1unity for
photos, as did the locks
at the south end on the Victoria Bridge. The
afternoon included the Annual General Assembly of the Association
and a tour
of the Canadian Railway Museum. A few special
runpasts were arranged as well as visits to parts
of the collection
not normally available to the public.
Our afternoon ended with a
drive through Lachine and then by the former Canadian
Car and
Foundry works with a stop
at the Turcot yards for more photos. We
ended as we had started at Windsor Station with a group photo for
the record.
Once again I would like to thank the
members of the organizing
committees and our helpers as well as the people at VIA and the
Metro
who received us and those who spoke on Saturday. I also
want to thank
our members who attended and had a good time –
without you the convention would not have been the same.
James BOLlchard, President, SI. Lawrence Valley Division.
CRHAANNUALAWARDSFORl~l
The persons selected by the Panel of Judges to receive the
Canadian
Railroad Historical Associations Annual Awards for
1991 are as noted herewith. It is a privilege to honour those who
have contributed so much to the recording and preservation of
Canadas railway history.
As noted by
one of the judges -Again this year the task of judging
the nominees in the various categories was a difficult one due to
the high
quality of their accomplishments. I am particularly
pleased to see the breadth of subject matter, both systematic and
regional, that is being dealt with by railway historians and to note
the innovative search for primary sources that many
of the authors
have undertaken.
One other judge stated that he was impressed by
the quality
of the articles submitted and had to read them twice to
be as objective as possible.
Selected to receive the
LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT A WARD is
PETER MURPHY. Peter has been involved in most phases of the
CRHA over a period of more than thirty years, being involved in
the publications
of the Association, including being Editor of
Canadian Rail, and as a member of the Board of Directors. He has
also been a
worker at the Canadian Railway Museum, Chairman of
some of the committees, and is presently Chairman of the Collection
Committee. Through his efforts, the Newfoundland railwayequipment
was obtained for the collection.
One other person, Colin Hatcher, was nominated for this award.
Colin has been a
judge on this Award program since its inception,
except for this year, but will continue in next years Award plans.
He has been an active
member in the CRHA and other societies for
many years and has written, and continues to write, books and
articles
on railway subjects.
There were three nominations for the ARTICLE AWARD IN A
CRHA PUBLICATION. The winning article was THE RAIL WAY
TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE by ROBERT G. BURNET.
This article is an excellent piece of work -well written -professional
-well researched -extensive -excellently referenced. II is an
interesting topic in terms
of its historical and scientific perspective.
The article was published in Canadian Rail No. 425, November­
December 1991.
Another nomination in this category, which also appeared in
Canadian Rail was The MSR 600-series Street Cars by Fred
Angus. A third nomination was for B.C. Electric Railway
Construction Locomotives by Mike Green, published in The
Sand house of the Pacific Coast Division.
The winner of the ARTICLE AWARD IN A PERIODICAL OR
MAGAZINE is ELIZABETH A. TANCOCK. The article SECRET
TRAINS ACROSS CANADA 1917 -1918 appeared in The
Beaver, published by the Hudsons Bay Company. Based on the
remembrances
of a relative, and extensive research at the National
Archives, this article tells of the special trains, with locked doors
and armed guards, used by the
CPR to move Chinese labourers and
railway workers across Canada. It is a very interesting, although
frightening, story which is well wOlth reading.
Five other nominations were received in this category. Mr.
Nick
Andrusiak wrote Living Near the Rails -Our Spur in CN
Lines; Mr. JamesA. Brown The Saga of the Station in Branchline;
Mr. Ken GaJber
The Essex Terminal Railway Ul Canadian
Railway Modeller; Mr. Tom Grumley Montreals Major Rail
Terminals in Branchline; and several authors wrote Wellington
JULY -AUGUST 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 143
COUnty History -Railwuy Issue by the Wellington County
J-lislOrical Research So!:icIY.
1l1e BOOK A WARD goes lu ROBERT O. TURNER for his book
LOGGING BY RAIL. This is an c~cellem history uf logging
lJilwuys and i~ a professional publication. II is a cumprehensive
lell wilh m
My reference notes and bibliography, a~ stated by Oil.
of the judges. 11e book covers all aspects of the .~tory from
en
vironmental eoncems to operation.
[11( mher (our books nominated were by Messrs. Ken CU3tes and
Bill Morrison forThe Sinking of lhe p(illce.~s Sophia: Mr. Greg
McDonnell for Signatures in Steer: Mr. Garry Anderson for
Canadi
:m Pacifics Trans Canada Limitcd: and Mr. Kenneth
Cruikshank
for Close Tie.~ -Railw of Hailway Commissioners -1851-1933.
There were three nominations forlhe PRESERVATION A WARD.
with the majority
vOle choosing KING TOWNSH II HISTORICAL
SOCIETY
[or the Iestor STATION. The ST:uion. reponedly the olde~t stmion in Canada.
was built in 1851
and has been moved from the CN Ime lind plac
in the King
Township Museum grounds. 11 has been fully restored
extemally. completc with
11 wood platfoml. nle interior has not yet
been refurbished.
}
.. Ir. Russ Robin~o. of the Smiths Falls Railway Museum, was
nominated
fur this award. He is a –wizard controlctor who clln fix,
modify and invcnt anything one mighl think of. He n01 only keeps
the
museums dies~1 locomotive in top 5ha~. but h3S rtCently
rebuilt and made operational an order board for Ihe slation. A third
nomina
tion was submiued for the Provincial Museum of Alberta.
for jts Ir,welling elthibit
–All Aboard the NAR·.
The C
RHAs Anllual Awards for 1991 Commillee is ple:L~ed and
hunoured to pr
es,nt these Awards to those herewith nmn~, and
th:mk the panel
of Judge.~ for their difficult ta!>k in S(lecting the
winlle~.
DEl
SE OF TWO OIVISIONS
[t is with deep regret that the ASSOCl31lon herewith anliOUllces the
d
emise of the Windsor-Essell and Keystone Divisiolls.
Due to Inck
of interest of the entire membership of the Windsor­
Essex
Division, the executive members resigned their positions in
Sept
ember 1991. with the hope that this action–would encourdgc
some members to come forward aOO take over these jobs. These
actions of the exccutive were ~nnounccd as probable in previous
issucs
ofThe Scmaphore·. but there was no responsc. The rc.sult
has been th
at:m announcement ill a laterissuc of1be S … maphare·
states that all support f
or lhe Division has disilppeared and. to all
intents and purposes,
it 00 longer exists. lbc Division existed for
six,
een yeluS and W:IS once very active: its publication ha.~ been
infonnative and often quotcd by other railfan clllb~. II will be sadly
miss
… d. The lasl cllecutive has held the same offices for the paSI
eight yearS and the A~SQCialioli congratulaTcs them for all their
w
ork.
The Kcystone Divi~ion, loc:ltro in Winnipeg, had not been nctive
in the P.%t year.
Accord
ingly. the Board of directorn. Ilt II. meeting held on January
6. 1992, unanimously revoked the certifications of lhe WindSQr­
Ess … .x and the Keystone Divisions.
Walter B
edbrook. Presidcnt.
P
ACIFIC COAST OIVISIOf IUUllCATIO/loS
The following publinllions are availnble frOI1l Ihe Pacific Const
Division, P.O.
Box 1006. Station ··A
u

Vancouver B.C. v6C 2Pj
A RAILROAD MAP OF THE LOWER MAINLAND AREA OF
B.C. TODAY. by Lome NicklaSOIi. 36-X 46, full colour,
laminated, 1991.
$70.00 per copy for PCD!CRHA members.
$80.
00 for non-members. OR colour-I inc, laminated. $40.OU for
members, $50.00 for lion-members. Un-laminated copies are SIC)
less. Please add 53.50 per order for ~tage and handling.
AN HISTORIC.lI,L RAILROAD MAP OF THE LOWER
MAINLAND AREA OF B.C. (1882-1992). by Lornc Nickla~on.
36 X 46, colour line. l;uninatcd. 19)2. 550.00 per copy for
members. $60.00 for non-members (SIO.OO less for unlaminated
I heavy b..1cking). OR black and white. unlaminated. 58.00 for
mtmbers.
S 12.00 for non-members. Please add 53.50 per order for
postage
1U1d handling.
Note: Da
magw copies of thc laminated mllp:> are on sale !It reduced
prices al the monthly geneml meetillgs
of the Division.
THE BRITANNIA COPPER MINE RAILWAY. by David Ll.
Davies. Card covers with Ccrlox binding. 48 pagcs of lext.
ilJust
1,1ted, with rosters, black and whitc phOlogmph~ aOO maps.
1
991. $5.00 for members. 58.95 for non-members. Please add
52.
50 per order for postage and handling.
INDUS
TRIAL LOCOMOTIVES: A Catalogue of industrial
Locomotives
and Short Lines of Brili~h Columbia a.nd Yukon
Territory (
an all-time listing, including museums), by Mervyn T.
MikcGrcen. Oml (;overs whh Cerlox binding. 226 pages ofTe.l:t
a
OO datll, illustrnted with maps and black lind white photographs,
1992
.529.95 for members. $39.1;15 for non-members. plus $3.50
~r order for postage and handling.
DEATH OF NORRIS ADAMS
As we were goi.ng to press, word was received of the dcath. 1Lboul
June 27, 1992, in Vancouvcr
B.C., of Norris Adams, our Western
Liaison reprc…entative. and long time member of our Pacifi(: Coasl
Dii~ion. Formany years. Norris has been lin enthusiastic promoter
of the CRHA, and wiU be greatly missed by the Association and by
his many friends.
A more
completc lribute 10 him will be published in Canadian Rail
al
l! later date.
BACK COVER: Fire dijJ(/clII m{(II1.f of hllld IrtmSIJOr/(lliOIl (ll}~(Ir in Inis c/cl.s;r photo w/..ell ill £(1)>10111011, Alber/a ubo/f/ 19/2. From /(ft
/0 righT Mt sr( Grand Trl/l1k Pacific locomolil( I J N. IlIl ubiquitoU,f Model T Ford.ll covered wagoll hem/ttl by a hull leam. smcl ((II NI),
31. miff a gem/emlm 011 /001. The photo 11(1$ /ak(11 Oil what is //011 101 SireN /JelIulI 104 and 105 An:Ofllles when Ih( CNR OI(fIXlSS I /s
iJuill abClI1 fiftftll yea/.~ latN (1917).
Cill of £(/mOIllOIl Archillof. No. NC.6·34/. Pho/(J lJy McDumid slJ/dios. £llmoll/oll. SlIlJmilled by Lo MI/fS.
Canadian Rail
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