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Canadian Rail 428 1992

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Canadian Rail 428 1992

Canadian
No. 428
MAY -JUNE 1992
CANADIAN RAIL
PUBLISHED BI·MONTHl Y BY THE CANADIA AAI .. ROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: Douglas N. W. Smith
PRODUCTION: A Stephen Walbridge
CARTOGRAPHER: William A. Germani:,](
LAYOUT: Fred F. Angus
For your membership in the CRHA. whiCh includes a
subscription to Canadian Rail, write 10:
CAHA, 120 Rue St-Pierre, SI. ConS1 Rates: in Canada: $29 (including G8T).
outside Can PRINTING: Procel Printing
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CANADIAN PACIFICS FIRST STEAMERS …………………………………. DOUGLAS N.W. SMITH……….. 75
LONTAAIEN, UN TRAIN POPULAIRE MAINTENANT DISPARU …… HUGUES W. BONIN……………. 84
ALL TOGETHER AGAIN (CRANBROOK REPORT) ……………………… MIKE WESTREN…………………. 90
THE NEWFOUNDLAND RAILWAY, 1988 -1991 ……………………….. CLAUDE HODDINOTI………… 94
THE RAILWAY ON SALUDA MOUNTAIN …………………………………… F. ANGUS & M. GUSTAFSON. 99
IN MEMORIAM -OMER S.A. LAVALLEE ……………………………………. FRED F. ANGUS …………………. 102
BOOK REViEWS ……………………………………………………………………. FRED F. ANGUS …………………. 103
Canadian Rail is continually in need 01 news. slOfles. historical data, photos. maps and other matenal. Please send all contributions 10 the
eoitor: Fred F.
Angus. 3021 Trafalgar Ave. MofItreal, P.O. H3Y lH3. No payment can be made lor contributions, but the contributerwlll
be glvencredil formaterial submitted. Material will be returned to the contributor if requested. Remember Knowle<1ge is 01 lillie value unless
it is shared wilh others.
NATIONAL DIRECTORS
Frederick F. Angus Hugues W. BOllin J. Christopher Kyle
Jack A. 8eany
Robert Carlson William Le Surf
Charles De Jean Bernard Martin
Waller J. 8edbrook
Gerard Frechetle Robert V.V. Nicholls
Alan C. Blackburn David W. Johnson Andrew W. Panko
The CRHA has a number 01 local divisions across the country. Many hold regular meetings
and issue newslelters. Further information may be obtained by writing to the division.
NEW BAUIoI$WlCK DIVISION
po. IJ(oo-11152
s…m .)om N e, Ell 0107
S
T IJ,WAENCE VALLEY DIvISION
P.O. Box
22. SlabOn V
MonIrtai PQ. H3B 3J5
AIOEAU V-Ley OMSION
P,O,80.~
$mIIh, F~. 0lIl. K7A5A5
KINGSTON DIVISION
P,O. Box 103. StIollonA
Kingllon. On K7M 6P9
lORONTO YORK DIVISION
P.O.
80x 5849. T~ ./>,
T omnia. Om. MSW 1 P3
N1,IOAAA OIVlSlON
P.O.80×593
$I. CalttarlMs. Ont l2R 6W8
W ~ u..on Re9 Norris Adams
P..atic CQ.oOl DivIaion
CALGARY & S()I.JlM WESTERN DlVISKm
CIO· Cll00 .111 Ave H.E.
CaIIWY. AIbena T2A SZ1I
ROCKY MOUNT AIH OMSION
P.O 80. 6102. SIaIIonC
edmomon, Ahr1a T!iB SElKIf!<; OMSION
P.O 50.39
Aev.IsIoIc •• B,C. voe 2SO
CROWSNEST & KETILE VALLEY DIVISI()N
P.O. 80 • ..00
Crarorook. B.C. VIC ~H9
NELSON ELeCTRIC TRAMII/>Y SOCIETY
123 VIew SIfM!
-.,B.C. VIL2V8
PRINCE OEORGE·NEa–w P.O. Box 2408
Pri..,.~. B.C, V2N ZS6
PACIFIC COAST DIVISION
PO 80. 1006. SIaIIon A
V8<1OO Douglas NW. Smith
Lawrence M. Unwin
Richard
Viberg
A. Stephen Walbridge
John C. Weir
FROf,rr COVER: FQr M~mJurJ On) j JUltt
1989. a nu,buQ/piu/f tJ/ tquIpmtnt, gtlttr.
1111) J/Q~d i1Uidt … trl! bmuglll ,.If! IQr dis·
1/(1), (1111 COnadiM Rai/ .. ·oy Ml/uI. BasI;·
;S in ,ht do)s sUflslIIt .. ·trt 111,. CI101-1.U.
n 1938 Bllkk s,.lIo ((}1I1rlu/l/olI rtlil i/url«;·
lion .d!klt; CP 89Q5. 0 TmilUtI(ls/u blfill by
Iht Cunadilm LQcQmO/llt COIIflolm.,· i/j 1956.­
OIld CP 7077. Oil 5·1 :ft;lchtr bllill by Iht
MQlllr,ollhcOilltmvt .ort.J in 1945-. 1111 /m·
tcr llS 1/ff firSI pmdJlt:li()tj llicstl built by
MLlV. PhotQ by Deuglos N.IV. Smith.
As pan of lis activities, the CAHA operates
the Canadian Railway Museum at DelSon I
$1. Constant, Que. which is abOut 14 miles
(23 Km.) Irom downt
own Montreal. II is
. open from late
May to early October (dally
until labour Day). Members, aod their 1m·
mediate families, aB admitted Iree 01 Charge.
GOAl. Of TIE ASSOCkATlON: THe COlLE:CTlON. PRESERV/>TlON AND DISSEMINATION Of ITBIS ReIJ,TlNG TO THE HISTORY OF RAlLW/>,YS IN CANADA
I c
MAY -JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 75
Canadian Pacifics First Steamers
By Douglas N. W. Smith
For many years, Canadian Pacific advertised itself as The
Worlds Greatest Travel System. Passengers and freight shippers
could avail themselves
of an network of trains, ships, trucks and
planes which spanned much
of the globe.
The first attempt by the company to provide non-rail
service was the acquisition
of three steamers built for use on the
Great Lakes. An article, by an anonymous reporter, in the April 18,
1884 issue
of The Globe of Toronto, describing these vessels,
recently came to light. As a relatively limited amount
of material
has been published on these three steamers, this article has been
used as the starting point for a review of these early vessels.
THE c.P. STEAMERS}
The Finest Vessels on the Great Lakes
Port Colborne, April
12 -It is not velY long since vessel owners
used to consider that any old hulk which had passed its usefulness
on the lower lakes
of the chain of great unsalted seas on which this
Province borders, was quite good enough for service on the Upper
Lakes
and the Georgian Bay. Wall-sided, flat-bottomed tubs with
square ends, on which marine underwriters were doubtful about
taking risks, were shipped
off to travel on the Upper Lakes. They
were altogether unfitted, both in model and construction,
to battle
with the rolling seas
of the Georgian Bay, and Lakes Huron,
Michigan and Superior. The terrible results
of the policy are still
fresh in the minds
of the reading public, and much more so in
hundreds of homes along our shores. Loaded far beyond their
capacity, with much
of their cargo on the main deck, carrying
thousands
of bushels of grain in bulk without shifting boards or
bulkheads, craft after craft went down on the
Northem Lakes.
Their shape made them bad steerers
in heavy sea. The first great
wave that struck them swung them around, and the waves that
followed crashed into the vessels before they could be
put before
them. With the cargo once shifted, especially a grain cargo, not
one craft
in a thousand could be righted again in a storm, and the
bottoms
of Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, and Lake Erie are strewn
with the corpses
of brave sailors sent afloat in such coffins.
The evil has brought its remedy and men have come to see
that battered old hulks are not the craft that should navigate the
upper lakes. With the opening
of the new Weiland Canal, and the
introduction
of such vessels as the United Empire and the
Campana, a new era began. The highest point has been reached
with the placing
of the Canadian Pacific steam ships on the route
to Lake Superior. These vessels are now fitting out at Port
Colbome for the seasons business. These is a missing link in the
route through Canada by the Canadian Pacific Railway from the
older Provinces
to the North-West. The traveller, say from
Toronto, goes
to Owen Sound by the Toronto, Grey & Bruce Railway2. The other end
of the Canadian Pacific is at Port Arthur
on Lake Superior. To reach Port Arthur, it is necessary
to take
passage from Owen Sound, crossing the Georgian Bay outside the
Manitoulin Islands, up the Sault River and through the Sault Ste
Marie Canal into Lake Superior. It
is this link that the new boats
will supply, and they are well worthy
of a visit and extended
comment, not only as part
of this road which has cost the people
of Canada so much, but as the grandest additions yet to the Lake
marine.
THE
NEW LINE
The line consists
of the three steamships, Athabasca,
Algoma , and Alberta. They were built last year by Aitken
&
Mansell, and Chas. Connell & Co of Glasgow, Scotland, especially
for this route, and under the personal supervision of the manager
of the line. They were delivered at Montreal by their builders,
having made the trip across the ocean
in excellent time, and
weathering splendidly storms more severe than had been met by
the regular ocean steamers
for several years previously. The test
was a thorough one, but the steamships went through it successfully.
At Montreal they were cut in two, and then towed through
the St Lawrence Canals
and up Lake Ontario to Buffal0
4
They
were put together again, and steamed thence
to Port Colborne.
The steamers are lying in the Weiland Canal, and the army
of
shipjoiners, painters, caJpenters, rivetters, plumbers, and other
mechanics at work on them makes Port Colborne quite a busy
place.
The vessels are exactly alike in model and dimensions, and
a description
of one will apply to all. There is something so very
dijferentfrom ordinary lake steamers
in the plain, black hulls with
rows
of opened gangways and the pronounced rake aji of their tall
steel masts and red banded funnels that they will be sure
to attract
attention at every port they enter. The model
is admirable, not a
hollow line about the bows,
and without the tendency to sit down
by the
stem so noticeable in many of the old style. The graceful run
of the lines indicates strength, seaworthiness, and adaptability for
speed even to the eye unlearned in the science of shipbuilding.
The hulls are built
of steel plates of varying thickness: the
frame has a moulded depth
of 23 feet 3 inches. Each vessel is 270
feet long by
38 feet beam, and has a depth of hold of 15 feet. The
Plimsoll mark, a white circle with a black band through it, is a
novelty on the lakes, but every sailor knows that it points out the
line beyond which no vessel shall be loaded, thus preventing
overloading. The Plimsol/ marks on the C.P.R. vessels will allow
them
to load to 15 feet of water, on which they could carry 2,000
tons dead weight offreight, but as a rule they will only be loaded
to 13 feet. The hold is divided into compartments by six water-tight
steel bulkheads.
Page 76 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
There is no discount on their being water-tight, said Mr
Beatty, manager
of the line, because when the steamers were CUI
in halves they were towed up the lake against the bulk-heads, and
that is a pretty severe test.
There is no communication whatever between the
compartmellls,
and 20 feet of the bow might be knocked offwithol/l
affecring the seaworthiness of the vessel.
PROPELLING POWER
The motive power is supplied by compound engines driving
a screw
J 3 feet 6 inches in diameter {Ind having a pitch of 21 feet.
The cylinders are
35 and 70 inches, with a stroke of 4 feet. The
boilers, two
in number, are each 12 feet 3 inches long, {Ind are
made
of Siemens-Martin steel, 15-16 inch thick, and tested to a
cold waler pressure
of 210 pounds. The furnaces are the latest
improvement, being built
of corrugated iron. The indicated horse­
power is 1,700. The screw is not cast ill one piece, but the blades
are bolted to the cenlre-piece, so that an injury to one blade does
not necessitate the renewal
of the whole screw. These vessels are
steamships
in reality as well as in name.
Each carries two steel masts, with such a spread of fore
and aft canvas as to be quite easily handled
in case of a breakdown
of the steam power. They were at first intended to be square­
rigged, but Mr Beattys knowledge of the lakes convinced him that
the fore and aft rig was the better for the trade in which the
steamers will engage. Besides the main engine each vessel has
auxilimy donkey
and hoisting engines, steam pumps, and siphons.
The anchors, windlasses,
and capstan are handled by steam, and
allfreight is taken in and out by a hoisting engine on the main deck
running the four hatches.
STEERING APPARATUS
The equipment is
in keeping with the superior hull and
motive power. These vessels are steered by steam, and large as
they are, their course can be directed by a touch of the lillie finger.
There
is no top-heavy texas [sic] as is usually seen on lake boats,
but instead there is a spacious bridge above the wheelhouse
and
extending the whole beam of the vessel. In the wheelhouse, a small
wheel, not three feet in diameter, stands before a regulat
ed
compass. Under thefeet of the wheelsman is a small but exceedingly
beautiful steam engine, controlling the wire cables, which serve as
tiller-chains,
On the bridge
is another similar wheel facing one of Sir
William Thompsons patent compasses. The Thompson compass
is the one in general use on ocean vessels, and is worthy
of more
than a passing notice on account
of its pel/ection and the ingenuity
of its mechanism … The steering apparatus is not completed by
the two wheels already mentioned, There is another wheel aft, to
be used in case
of accidenllO the others. It is a large hand-wheel.
on the shaft
of which are right and left handscrews, with a binnacle
compass
in front of it.
MODE OF SIGNALLING
Instead
of the bells and whistle as signals to the engine
room, there
is a self-acting telegraph from the bridge. On a good­
good-sized dial are marked all the signals used to control
Ihe
engine. A touch of a small handle swings the hand of the dial
arollnd to the signal inte
nded to be given, say stop! A bell rings
in the engine room, the engineer looks up and sees the hand on his
corresponding dial pointing stop. There can be no mistake
there,
I/O dispute as to whether the officer in command of the deck
rang one bell or tw
o, The commllnication between the bridge and
the engine
room is pel/ect, the engineer being able to repeat the
signals to the bridge,
Each steamer carries six large lifeboats and about 600
life-preservers, with a liberal allowance of life buoys about the
decks.
Of chain and steel wire cables, and patent anchors, hcmdled
by steam, there
is also a good supply, The steamers were built and
equipped according to the English Board
of Trade regulations,
and are well found in every respect.
THE ELECTRIC LIGHT
Large as
these vessels are they will be without oil lamps,
/.
/nless it is deemed to use oil for the masthead and port and
starboard lights. The Canadian Edison Electric Lig
ht Company,
of Hamilton, will iliwllinate them in a style never before seen all
the lakes. Each vessel will have a 6.5 by 8 Amington & Sims engine
of330 revolutions driving an Edison dynamo supplying I J a lights
of sixteen candle power each, and having all the regularatlachments
and details as used by the Edison Company in steamships. The
fixtures, which are more elaborate than usual, have been impo
rted
from New York, but with this exception all the apparatus is
of
Canadian manufacture.
The engine is manufactured by Daty, of Toronto; the
dynamo by
the Osborne Killey Company, of Hamilton; and the
other apparatus by
the Edison Company at Hamilton. The lamps
can be controlled by
the engineer of the dynamo, or each single
lamp can be turned on or
off by a key at/ached to its socket. The
electroliers are so arranged that alternate lights can be turned
off
by a switch in the main saloon, Every light is provided with a safety
plug, which instantly cuts
off the currelll through any branch in
which there is a short circuit or a disarrangement of the wire.
OPPOSITE PAGE: With curious spectators out in their skiffs for a recreational paddle, the Alberta awaits a new cargo
in this view which
shows the vessel in its original
condition in the 1880 s. Careful inspection of the photograph will reveal five sets of doors in the lowerportion
of the hull. These gave freight handlers at Owen Sound, Port Arthur and Fort William ready access to the storage areas of the ships. During
this period, grain shipments were handled
in bags.
Canadian Pacific Archives

MAY -JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 77
_., ….. ..
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,
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Page 78 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
A novel and exceedingly useful feature of the lighting of
these vessels is an electric lamp with a 10llg flexible conducror. It
can be taken from the boat and carried up dark decks, or can be
used
in the examination of the screw, rudder, or any submerged
part
of the hull. It is of course enclosed ill an air-tight glass globe,
alld sheds its light when under the sUiface of the water as well as
when
in the air. Marches will not be lIsed on board, nor even for
lighting pipes or cigars, electric cigar-lighters being provided for
that purpose. The boars are the first on the lakes 10 be lighted hy
any system
of electric appliances.
PASSENGER ACCOMMODATION
The passenger accommodation will be of rhe highest class.
Single berths are
provided for 180 first-class passengers, and
steerage bllnksfor 200, withroomro increase steerage accommodation
suffici
entfor 1,000 persons. The steerage is on the main deck, and
is roomy and well lighted. All the bunks are single, and the
steerage
is supplied with hot and cold water. Closets are numerous,
and steerage passengers are well provided for in every way.
The furniture
of the main saloon is not yet in place, but it
must be first-class to accord with
rhe general equipment of rhe
steamers. Bathrooms and smoking rooms are provided, and the
stewards room is
on rhe upper deck instead of on the main deck.
The engineer s,porter S,purser s, and express messenger squarters
are on the main deck, which is weI/lighted by dead lights. The crew
will have a very co
mfortable forecastle.
FIREPROOF VESSELS
The protection against fire is the most ample that human
ingenuity can devise.
III the first place, the vessels themselves are
of steel, and the hul/, of course, cannot bum. The main alld upper
decks are steel, though they have an extra flooring
of wood. Only
the cabins or the cargo can burn. The cabins, and
in fact a/l parts
of the boat are furnished with cold water pipes for fire purposes,
the water being supplied by a donkey engine.
The hold being divided by firepr
oof bulkheads,fire can not
spre
ad heyond the compartment in which it originates, and there
it can be controlled by the steam pipes
in each hold, through which
steam can be blown
to extinguish it. The cooks quarters and the
oil-room are encased
in steel, and a steel casting about the boilers
and funnel runs clear 10 the crown deck. The engine work, which
is seen in the main saloon, is encased in teak.
OPPOSITE PAGE. RIGHT GOOD CAPTAINS TOO
The command
of these vessels, the finest on the American
Inland wate
rs, is an office of which allY sailor might feel proud, and
as a .result the management has had the choice of the master
marines
of the lakes. The captains that have been appoimed are
men
of 10llg experience on the Upper Lakes, and of the highest
capa/JiJities as to seamansh
ip. Capt Ed. Anderson of Oakville,
formerly in command
of the Campana, will take charge of one,
and Capt Jas. Foote,
of Owen Sound, formerly of the Pacific,
and Capt Moore, of the Quebec, will he the masters of the
others
5
Associated wirh them as chief mates will be Capt
Hastings, formerly of the Allan line of trans-Atlamic steamers,
Capt Simpson, of Owen Sound, and Mr Peter Telfer,formerly mate
of the Magnet. The chief engineers will be Messrs George and
Thos. Pettigrew and W. McLean. Mr Henry Beattys ability and
long experience in the management of lake steamersfit him wellfor
the position of general manager of the line, and he has had charge
of the vessels since their keels were lairf.
READY FOR SEA
It is expected that they will be ready to leave Port Colborne
by the I st
of May. They will go to Owen Sound and load for Port
Arthur? Boats will leave Owen Sound three times a week, and it
is expected to make the trip to Port Arthur in40 hOlllS. A channel
which
is being cut by the American Govemment through the reach
known as May
Lake, near Sugar Island, will assist very much to
make the trip a short one. The new channel is 300 feet wide, giving
16 feet
of water, and shortening the navigation of the Sault River
by ten miles.
A 40 hour trip between the two ports would reduce
the time
of the trip from Toronto to Winnipeg to about 65 hours.
As to the speed of the Canadian Pacific Railway boats, Mr
Beatty said that most people had very wrong ideas about the speed
of steamships, but he continued, ]11 tell you what these
steamers have done. When they left Buffalo, coming out
of dry­
dock, with everything new and tight and not sell led into place,
and
carrying only 35 to 45 pounds of steam where we carry 100 pounds,
they ran to Po
rt Colborne, over 22 miles, in an hour and twenty
minutes.
Their cost will be about $300,000 each, perhaps a little
more.
It will be a magnificent sight to see one of these grand
vessels
011 a summer night with her decks crowded with people and
her cabins blazing with the electric light. When the enterprising
people south
of the lakes see these steamers, they will open their
011 the left,from the CPR timetable of November 19, 1888, is the diagram and information about CPs lake steamers. The Algoma had
been lost three years
before, so only the Alberta and Athabasca are shown. Also shown is a condensed timetable of the transcontinel1lal
rail service which was then less than two
and a half years old.
011 the right is a somewhat later timetable and diagram, dated October 17,1892. By this time the Manitoba had joined the fleet, and is
shown as 300 feet long compared to 270 feet
for the other two ships. Additional information on sailing times is also given. SOOIl after this
tim
e, CP stopped printing the diagrams of the vessels in its timetables, although information on sailings continued to appear for many more
years.
Collection
of Fred Angus.
CONDENSED
THROUGH
TIME
TABLE-TRANSCONTINENTAL
ROUTE.
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OF
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..
.A-I….:SE::FI..
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.a.~d.
.A-
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Will,
during
Season
of
La
ke
Navigation
(from
about
1
st
May
to
15th
Nov.
),
make
bl-weekl
y
trips
In
eithe
r
direction
between
OWEN
SOUND,
SAU
LT
STE.
MARIE
and
PORT
ARTH
UR.
~1i
..
nli
~:
r
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l
i:;
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~
n
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l
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1
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nmHlImtlljJm
.p~:;:
PLAN
OF
SALOON
AND
UPPER-DECK
CABINS
STEAMSHIPS
ALBERTA
AND
ATHABASCA.
Th
C
le
S~o.mlhip9
nrc
Elect
ric
lighted
nnd
fit
t
ed
lip
with
every
mo<.lcrn
applia.nce
for
,peed,
comfort
and
Io.fety-they
arc
unr
l
vnllcu
on
tho
lnkel
.
They
ar
c
270
feet
(rom
stem
to
stern;
2000
ton,
burden.
Eaeh
,to.teroom
huao
upper
&lId
l
ower
berth.
nlHl
Q.
Bofa
which
cnn
be
co
nverted
.
into
an
additionl
berth.
The
olid
numb
eN
on
abolc
diagra.m represent
upper
berths, the
do.rkened
part
in stateroom represents the
80
(a.
CONDENSED
THROUGH
TIME
TABLE

Transcontinental
Lake
and
Rail
Route,
via
Owen
Sound
and
Steamship
Line.
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re
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en
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urn
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r
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by
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ill
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Page 80 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
INlERWIt CANADIAN PACIFIC SlEA:-(SllIP~, ETC.
A montage of drawings showing the illterior and exterior of the CPR lake steamers. Published in Summer Tours by the Canadian Pacific
Railway,
No.3, printed in 1888.
Collection
of Fred Angus.
eyes and acknowledge thaI they can learn from Canada in the
malter
of marine equipmenl. No such vessels have ever been seen
on the grea
llakes, bllllheir excellence lies, nOI in the gorgeousness
of their furnilure or the gingerbread work of decoration, bUI in
Iheir superiority over all other lake craft in model, conslruclion,
and equipmenl, and
inlheir Ihorough adaplability for Ihe business
in which they will engage.
Owen Sound became a major steamer port following the
conversion of the Toronto, Grey & Bruce Railway (TG&B) from
na
ITow to standard gauge in 1883. In the spring of 1883, the TG&B
entered into an arrangement to have the vessels Spartan, Magnet
and Af
rica run out of Owen Sound in conjunction with the
railway service. The first two ve
ssels, which were iron side-wheel
steamers, were
to run between Owen Sound and Lake Superior
ports.
The last was a propeller driven vessel which would operate
only as far
as Sault Ste Marie
8.
Business during this first season threatened to overwhelm
the vessels of the Owen Sound Steam Ship Company. The
Advertiser, an Owen Sound newspaper, reported in the fall of
1883 that the amount of freight to be moved far exceeded the
expecta
tions of the steam ship company. The steamship company
had to add vessels to its fleet to move the freight so freely sent
forward since the change in management of the TG&B. By the
month
of November, the company had engaged eight vessels to
accommodate the flow of traffic from the CPR
9.
The three CP-owned vessels entered service in May 1884.
The
Algoma inaugurated the new service. It sailed from Owen
Sound for Port Arthur with I, I 00 passengers on May 11th ,a.
During their first season of operation, they were only the link
betw
een CPs lines in southern Ontario and the railhead at Port
Arthur .
Even after
the rail line to the west was completed, many
passengers preferred to travel on the steamers which offered a
more comfortable ride and bigger quarters. Each vessel made one
round trip per week. Train and steamer schedules were arranged to
provide convenient connections at either end
of the lake voyage.
MAY -JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 81
The following schedule for the steamer Alberta during the 1884
season
is typical of the easy connections available to the traveller
l2
Train Toronto Dep. 10:45 Tuesday
Train Owen Sound Arr. 15:05 Tuesday
Steamer Owen Sound Dep. 16:00 Tuesday
Steamer Port Arthur Arr.08:00 Thursday
Train
Port Arthur
Dep.09:15 Thursday
Train
Winnipeg Arr. 07:00 Friday
The vessels were an immediate success. The completion
of grain elevators in Owen Sound and Port Arthur in 1884
permitted
the grain trade begin in earnest over the CP route. In the
fall
of 1884, the local Owen Sound newspaper reported that the
Athabasca and
Algoma had each brought down 30,000 bushels
of wheat on their most recent sailing from the lake head
ll
.
Tragically, the Algoma was wrecked in a severe gale on
Lake Superior on November 7,
l885 [by coincidence the same day
that the Last Spike was driven at Craigellachie
B.C. on CPs main
line]. In order to maintain the schedule
of three round trips per
week between Owen Sound and Port Arthur,
CP chartered the
Campana for several seasons.
While the Algoma was a complete wreck, her engines
were salvaged.
They were placed in the Manitoba, a steamer
built for
CP by the Polson Iron Works shipyard in Owen Sound.
The Manitoba was placed into service in 1889 to replace the
Algoma.
The low cost of water transport over the long distance
between southern Ontario and the head
of Lake Superior made this
the preferred way
to move bulky, low value goods. The CP service
proved to be particularly attractive as
it offered an integrated
package
to the shipper as it operated both the rail and lake service.
Their main competitor, the Grand Trunk, relied upon outside
steamship companies to provide the service from Lake Huron and
Georgian Bay ports
to the lakehead.
In 1893, freight shipments through Owen
Sound can-ied by
CPs vessels amounted to 54,983 tons moving westward and
50,745 tons moving eastward. In addition, the three steamers
brought 2.4 million bushels
of grain from the lakehead. It required
233 trains to
move this mountain of grain from Owen Sound to
eastern
markets
l4.
A decade later, CPs traffic through Owen Sound had more
than doubled. Package freight shipments amounted to 99,430 tons
moving westward and 148,500 tons moving eastward. Grain
receipts increased to 3.2 million
bushels
l5.
In order to cope with illcreasedfreight shipments, CP lengthened the Athabasca from 263 feet to 299 feet in 1910 and Alberta from
264 feet to 310 feet ill 1911. This 1914 view taken near Sault Ste Marie shows the Alberta. A number of changes are readily apparent
such as the new bridge, the built up bow,
al1d different paint scheme on the funnel. While it is more difficult to detect the 46 foot addition
to the vessel, the keen eyed reader will no
te that all extra set of freight doors in the lower hull.
National Archives
ofCanadalPA-151890
Page 82 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
To cope with the rising tide of freight traffic, CP placed
two new st
eamers, the Keewatin and Assiniboia, in service in
1908.
In addition, the Alberta and Athabasca were lengthened
at Collingwood in 1910 and 1911 In 1916, two
of the steamers
ceased to handle passengers and were only to handle freight traffic.
After periods
of inactivity during the early 1930s, they
were placed on a n
ew service between Port McNicoli and the Lake
Michigan ports
of Milwaukee and Chicago. The new service
began on May 2,
1938 with the departure of the Alberta from
Port McNicoll.
The steamers were scheduled to depart from Port
McNicoli Monday and Friday and arrive at
Milwaukee Wednesday
and Saturday and at
Chicago Thursday and Monday.
,
,
The service was established following CPs successful
application to the Interstate Commerce
Commission to establish
the
Canadian Pacific Great Lakes Line and to maintain differential
rates
16 The CP application was supported by commercial interests
in
New England, New York, Chicago, Milwaukee and across the
American Midwest who would benefit from the lower rates to ship
their products.
This service replaced one previously offered by the
Great Lakes Transit Corporation which had discontinued its
service between
Windsor and Lake Michigan ports early in 1937
17
They remained fixtures on the Great Lakes until 1946
when they were sold to American interests for selvice in the Gulf
of Mexico. With their sale, one of the few remaining links with the
early days
of the CPR passed from active service.
,

,~l, ~-EAM~~I–P
t~~Y=:])oC<.
cv{,-
C,O).. ~ Nc. W 0 ob
ABOVE: This picture shows the Athabasca in the dry dock at the Collingwood shipyard on January 10, 1910 prior to being lengthened.
National Archives
of Canada/C-6759.
OPPOSITE: An artists conception
of one of the CPR lake steamships from Summer Tours by the Canadian Pacific Railway, 1888.
MAY-JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 83
NOTES
I The Globe. Toronto, April 18, 1884.
2 CP acquired the Toronto, Grey & Bruce Railway on July 26, 1883. Its reason for the purchase was to provide a link between its lines in
eastern Canada and the transcontinental line being built across northern Ontario and the western territory. In 1883 the TG&B converted its
lines from narrow to standard gauge.
l The three vessels were launched in July 1883. They arrived in Montreal in November 1883.
4 It was necessary to cut each vessel in two as they were too long for the locks on the St Lawrence and WeIland Canals. The locks at Sault
Ste Marie was substantially longer than the locks east
of Port Col borne.
The
Athabasca was the first vessel to arrive in Montreal. The Owen Sound Advertiser of November 9, 1883 reported that the movement
of the steamers to Buffalo was proving more difficult than hael been planned. It had been thought that the two sections of the vessel would
float and thus could be easily towed to Buffalo.
It was found that pontoons would be necessary. The tug Conqueror, which had been hired
to tow the steamer, struck a rock and sank while on the way to
Montreal, further delaying the movement through the canals.
)
These three vessels formed part of the Northwest Transportation Company line of steamboats. Beatty had been manager of this company
prior to accepting a similar position manag
ing CPs new steamboats on the Great Lakes.
6 Beatly was appointed manager of the CPs great lakes steamship service in 1882. CP sent Beatty to Scotland to supervise the construction
of the three lake steamers.
7 The Algoma inaugurated the new service between Owen Sound and Port Arthur. It sailed on May 11. 1884 with over 1,000 passengers
and a considerable quantity
of freight.
8 The Advertiser, Owen Sound, March 8, 1883.
9 The Advertiser, Owen Sound. November 9. 1883.
10 Barry, J. P. Ships of the Great Lakes, Howell-North, Berkeley, California, 1973.
II Rails were laid between Port Arthur and Winnipeg and this job was completed in June 1882. However, delays in bringing the trackage
up to a useable standard precluded the operation
of revenue trains until the summer of 1883. The transcontinental was not completed between
Carleton Place and Port
Arthur until May 16, 1885.
12 CPR Timetable, September 9, 1884.
13 The Advertiser, Owen Sound, October 23, 1884.
14 Owen Sound Times, December 14, 1893.
IS Owen Sound Times, June 3, 1904.
16 Differential rates were set at levels below regular railway rates. The differential rates compensated for circuitous rail routes or slower
combined intermodal rail and water routes. The Interstate Commerce Commission had to approve these special rates. If the rates had not
been granted,
CP would not have inaugurated the service as the rates it would have had to charge would have been the same as for through
freight servi
ce offered between New England and the Midwest by such lines as the New York Central Railroad.
17 Canadian Pacific Staff Bulletin, May I, 1938. page 1.
Page 84 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
L Ontarien
Un Train Populaire Maintenant Disparu
Par Hugues W. Bonin
(Toutes les photos par lauteur)
The Ontarian : A Dear Friend Now Gone
By Hugues W. Bonin
(All photos by the author)
Le 15 janvier 1990 va etre retenu par tous comme un jour
noir ou la moitie des services de VIA Rail a cesse delre offerte aux
contribuables Canadiens. Parmi les trains disparus figurent les
Ontariens, soient les trains 651 et 652 qui reliaient six jours par
semaine les villes de Kingston et de Toronto. Alors que ces trains
netaient quun service de plus a Ihoraire de VIA Rail, il est
evident quils etaienl consideres comme un fardeau pour les
gerents
de VIA; parcontre, ils avaient certes une valeur.sentimentale
pour leurs
equipages el leurs usagers. LOntarien procurait un
excellent service
pour les gens de Kingston, et des vi Iles et vi Ilages
sur son parcours. On pouvait Ie prendre iI des heures raisonables
et arriv
er a temps iI Toronto pour des reunions daffaires, ou encore
profiter de loute la journee pour visiter ou magasiner, puis prendre
Ie temps dun diner tranquille a Toronto avant de reprendre Ie train
#625
a 2015 pour Ie retour, Ie tout en relaxant. Parconsequant,les
Ontariens avaient beaucoup de clientele el je me souviens qu a
plusieurs occasions, des voyagers faissiant Ie trajet Cobourg­
Toronto debout, faute de place.
Les
Ontariens etaient bien plus que de simples trains: ils
avaient
tOUjOUfS des equipages amicaux: conducteurs polis,
assistants-conducteurs affables (l un d eux etait meme un mocteliste
ferroviaire (HO», un
prepose a la cuisinette toujours souriant, et
ces
conductrices it la superbe allure … Meme les passagers etaient
plus enclins
a la conversation que d habitude.
Une journee typique voyait quelques 25 11 30 personnes
monter dans Ie train
a 0700 11 Kingston, auquels se joignaient 5 ou
6
a Napanee, et une autre vingtaine a Belleville, plus 6 11 10 autres
II Trenton Junction. Sou vent Ie train se remlissait completement
a Cobourg ou a Port Hope. Apres Ie debut du service de GO iI
Whitby, on ne voyait que quelques passagers monter II bord a
Oshawa, mais avant, it n etait pas rare d y voir manter plus de deux
douzaines. Apres
Oshawa, Ie train effectuait un alTet it Guildwood
pour y laisser descendre des passagers seulment. Personellement,
jutilisais ce train de douze a quinze fois par an, et je ne suis arrive
en retard
a Toronto quune seule fois. En ce jour dhiver 1983, trois
des
quatres petits moteurs diesel du train alors forme de deux
autorail Budd rendir
ent lame, et moteur restant fut tout juste
suffisant
pour mouvior Ie train jusqu a la prochain voie garage pres
January 15th 1990 will be remembered by all as a black
day: this is the
day when 50% of VIA services ceased to be offered
to the
Canadian tax payers. Among the many casualties were the
Ontarians, alias trains 651 and
652 providing service six days a
week between Kingston and Toronto.
While this particular train
was just another train in the VIA schedule, and obviously a burden
to VIA management, it bore a sentimental
value to most of its
cr
ews and patrons. It provided and excellent service at convenient
times for the Ontarians of Kingston, Toronto and the cities and
villages
in between. One could take it and arrive in downtown
Toronto in time for business meetings, or have a full day for
shopping or sightseeing, then have dinner in Toronto and catch
Train 652 at 2015 hours or so and return in the evening without
having to IHIITY. As a consequence, it was a well patronized train
and I
remember having standees between Cobourg and Toronto on
several occasions.
The Ontarians were more than just a train: they always
had friendly crews: polite
conductors and assistant conductors
(one of them is an HO trains modeller), an ever-smiling snack bar
attendant, and those attractive
young lady conductors. Even the
passengers
of these trains felt more open and would readily engage
conversation with you.
On a typical weekday, about 25-30 persons would board
train 651 at
0700 in Kingston, then joined by 5 or 6 in Napanee,
another 20 or so in Bellevi lie and 6 to 10 at Trenton Junction. Often
the train would be filled at Cobourg
or Port Hope. Since the GO
Transit service at Whitby, only a handful of passengers would
entrain at
Oshawa, but before, abolLt two dozen people were
boarding there. The train used to stop at Guildwood and, finally,
Toronto Union Station only to detrain passengers. Personally, I
used train 651 about 12-15 times a year, and only
once I arrived late
in Toronto. On that
winter day in 1983, three of the four small
diesel engines
on the 2-car RDC (Rail Diesel Car) train managed
to quit, and the last engine was just enough for the train to crawl
to the next siding near Newtonville. Help arrived in the form
of one
of the CN SW1200RS switchers assigned to Oshawa, and this little
loco hauled
the RDCs to Union Station at a quick pace exceeding
60 mph.
MAY -JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 85
de Newtonville. De Iaide
futenvoyeedOshawa, sous
la
forme d une des
locomtives de manoeuvre
du CN, et il fut plutOt
surprenant de voir cette
I SW1200RS tirer les deux
autorails
velS la gare Union
de Toronto a des vitesses
de quelques 60 miles
a
lheure (100 km/h).
Pour I amateur de
trains, les Ontariensfurent
toujours interessa
nts, bien
que difficiles a
photographier les matinees
ensoleillees, avec
Ie soliel
derriere
Ie train. Meme
lexpliotation
du train etait
particuliere, car I
.es trains
circulaient pour
la moitie
du parcoufs sur la voie de
gauche de
la I igne principale
de CN, afin daccomoder
les passagers pour
qu ils
montent
ou descendant du
train sur Ie quai de cote de
la gare. Par example, Ie
train 651 voyageait com me
suit: il pamit de la vielle
gare du Grand Tronc de
Ki ngston (ou Ie trai n passai t
Ie nuit) jusqua la gare de
Le train #651 quitte La vielle gare du Grand Trone de Kingston it 0640 Le matin du 2 mai 1981. It arrivera
It La gare de VIA Rail vers 0655 et partira pour son periple vels Toronto it 0700. Ce matin-lit, Ie train etail
conslilue des
aUIOJails RDC1 #6118 (aux couleurs du CN), RDC2 #6005, et RDC2 #6204.
VIA sur la voie de gauche,
pour
s arreter a la gare sur
la voie de droite apres avoir
change de voie juste avant
la rue Counter. Le train
Train 651 leaves the old GTouter station al around 0640 in Ihe morning of2 May 1981. It will arrive at
the new VIA station in Kingston at 0655 and departfor Toronto at 0700. The equipment
oflhe day consisted
of RDC-l 6118 (in CN colours), RDC-9 6005 and RDC-2 6204.
circulait sur la voie de droite et changeait de voie 11 Erneston et
continuait sur la voie de gauche pour desservir les gares de
Napanee et de Bellville, puis revenait sur
la voie de droite avant de
sarreter
11 Trenton Junction. II continuait sur cette voie jusqua
pres de Coburg, ou il changeait encore de voie avant d atteindre la
gare. Le trajet se faisait sur la voie de gauche pour desservir la ville
de Port Hope,
etle train changeait encore de voie pour reveni.r sur
celle de droite pour larret dOshawa.
Le reste du voyage etait
normalment sur
la voie de droite jusqua la gare Union de Toronto.
Les sieges pres des fenetres de gauche offraient
Ie plus
daction pour lamateur de trains, surtout
11 cause de la presence de
la voie principale du CP Rail juste au sud de celie du CN entre
Trenton et Cobourg. Cependant, lors d
un voyage typique, on ny
voyait aucun lJain du CP, mais celtains jours, on pouvait y voir
trois trains. Une des
lois de Murphy voulaitque lorsque I Ontarien
rattrappait
un des trains de marchandises du CP, les locomotives
de celui-ci disparaissaient derriere les arbres au des petites collines
juste au moment
Oll vous alliez en prendre une ou deux photos.
Les triages dOshawa
el de Don etaient toujours interessants, et,
rarement, une des locomotives de laciere LASCO
11 Whitby For the train buff, the Ontarians were always interesting,
albeit hard
to photograph on sunny days, with the sun behind the
train. Even its operation was unusual,
as the trains ran half the time
on the left-hand track
on the CN mainline, to stop on the station­
side track. For example, Train 651 would travel
as follows: from
the old Kingston station
to Counter Sheet on the left track, then
switch
on the right track before stopping at the VIA station. It
would then remain
on the right hand side lJack until Emestown,
then move onto the left track to serve Napanee and Belleville, then
go back
to the right track for stopping at Trenton Jet., until Cobourg
where it would switch
to the left track just before entering town.
It would then stop at Cobourg and the Port Hope Stations, and most
often cro
ss to the right track around Newtonville in order to stop
at Oshawa. Then, it remains on the right track until Toronto.
The left hand side windows offered the most train action
for the traveller, as between Toronto and Cobourg, the CP mainline
was right beside the
CN mainline. A typical day revealed no CP
trains at all, but there were days when one could see three CP trains.
Typically also, the train would catch up with a CP freight, just to
have the freight train locos disappear behind trees or small h.ills
Page 86 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
LOnlarien a connu tine exislance somme tottle tranquile sans accident majeur el avec peu de pannes graves. 1/ afail les manchettes
des journaux une fois, losque sa locomotive FPA4 a connu
fa paiute seche a Collins Bay simplement pour la bonne raison que lon avait
oublie de faire
Ie plein. La photo, prise Ie malin du 30 juillet 1987, montre la RDC1 #6104 et la RDC2 #6208 eb route vers [Est, tOUles
par deux grosses locomotives du Canadien National (M636 #2325 et GP40-2L(W) #9422), apres que les autoraUs eurent rendu I arne. Les
passagers ant
da voyager en autobus (horreur!), etles autorails ant ejfectue luer trajet vels Toronto un peu plus tard derriere une GP40-
2L(W) du
eN.
The Ontarian had a rather quiet existence with no serious accidents andfew breakdowns. Once it made the headlines of Kingstons Whig­
Standard newspaper when its FPA-4 ran out
of fuel at Collins Bay simply because someone forgot to fill her up. More recently, on the
morning
of 30 July 1987, RDC-1 6104 and RDC-2 6208 were heading EAST behind Canadian National M636 2325 and GP40-2L(W) 9422
after the
RDC engines gave up the ghost. The passengers had to be bussed to their destinations, and the RDCs were hauled back to Toronto
later behind a CN GP40-2L(W).
sapprochait suffisamment de la ligne du CN pour permettre une
photo prise sur
Ie vif. Une attraction recente etait celle dun train
local du
CN rencontre pres de Scarborough et tire par une paire de
locomotives hybrides SWl200RS/GP9 de la serie
7100 du CN.
La plupart du temps, lorsque Ie train 652 (Ie
656 avant
nov
embre 1981) anivait a Kingston tard dans la soiree, il continuait
simplement vers
lest et quitter la voie principale du CN a la rue
Division pour passer la nuit a
la vielle gare du Grand Trone
(maintenant un restaurant), sur la rue MontreaL Lorsque
lon avait
besoin de retourner la train, ceci etait effectue sur
Ie Y du tirage
Queens de Jusine dAJcan. Une fois retourne, Ie train reculait
jusqua la vielle gare. II etait plutot rare de faire la manoeuvre de
retournement
Ie matin de depart pour T01onto. Linteret majeur
pour Jamateur de trains reside dans
la variete exceptionelle de
lequipement utilise. Au cours des annees, 1Ontarien a eu peu
pres tous les types de materiel roulant de VIA rail,
sauf les wagons-right at the time you were about to take a picture
of them .. , The
Oshawa yard and the Don Yard in Toronto were always interesting,
and
on rare occasions, one of the LASCO (Lake Ontario Steel)
orange
GE 70-tonners would be visible. A recent attraction was a
local
CN freight train usually met at Scarborough, hauled by a pair
of 7lO0s, hybrid SW I 299RSIGP9s.
Most often, when Train 652 (656 before Nov. 1981)
arrived at Kingston late in the evening, it simply continued onto the
old CN mainline to spend the night at the old
Grand Trunk Outer
Station on Montreal Street.
The station has been preserved and
was recently a restaurant called the Pig and Whistle, When the
train needed tmning, this was done around midnight at the
wye at
Queens Yard, near the AJcan plant
in Kingston. Once turned, the
train backed all the way
to the old station to spend the night. It was
rare
to have the train turned in the morning, For the rail fan, the
Ontarian was super because
of its varying equipment. Over the
MAY -JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 87
lits, les trains Turbo et les voitures panoramiques it dome du
Canadien .
II est permis de regretter que Ie Gouvernament Canadien
nait pas eu la sagesse de respecter ses pro messes
de faire la
promotion et
Ie developpement dun service de trains de passagers
viable et, en particulier, de garder 1Ontarien.
Linvestissement
d un certain 1.5 million de do.IJars pour maintenir Ie service de
I Ontarien auraitete bien meilleur service itrendreaux contribuables
que de gaspi
lLer cette somme dargent sur cette peinture stupide
appelee Stripes
of Fire. Dapres moi, les bandes bleu fonce et
jaune que Ion voit sur les cotes dinox des autorails Budd de VIA
ont les memes qualites artistiques que Stripes
of Fire. Peut-on
considerer les
RDCs de Iontarien comme des chef doeuvre
ambulants?
Les photographs qui accompagnent ce texte couvrent les
quelques dix dernieres annees de 1Ontarien.
EI1es illustrent la
variete du materiel roulent qui equipait ces trains, photographies
it differents endroits de leur parcours. years
it managed to have about every type of VIA equipment,
except sleepers, the
Turbo Trains and the Dome cars used on the
Canadians.
One wishes that the Canadian government had been wise
enough to respect its promises about promoting and developing a
viable Canadian passenger train service and, in particular, maintaining
the
Ontarians. Investing 1.5 million dollars in maintaining the
Ontarian service would have been a better service to the tax
payers
than having spent this money on acquiring that si.lly
painting
cal.1ed Stripes of Fire. To me, the dark blue and yellow
bands adorning the stainless steel side
of the VIA RDCs have the
same artistic value
of Stripes of Fire: May we consider the
Ontarian
s RDC cars as rolling masterpieces?
The fol.1owing photographs
cover about the last 10 years of
operation of the Ontarians. They give an idea of the diversity of
equipment used on the trains photographed in various surroundings.
Une journee nonnale pour 1Ontarien: apres une arrive ponctuelie it Toronto, Ie train #651 continue vers Ie centre dentretein de VIA
it Willowbrook. Les autorails RDC1 #6107 et 6109 sortent lentement de la Gare Union et serpentent Ie didale daiguillages au peid de la
Tour
CN, Ie 20 amt! 1987.
A normal day for the Onlarian.
Afler an on-time arrival al Union Station in Toronlo, train 651 conlinues empty 10 Ihe VIA Rail maintenance
facility al Willowbrook.
RDC-Is 6107 and 6109 crawl oul of the station shed and snake their way in the maze of split switches at the fOOl
of the famous CN tower on 20 August 1987.
Page 88 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
Assez sou vent, 1Ontarien arrivait en Care Union de Toronlo jusle it cole dun autre train fameux: Ie Northland (#129) qui arrivait
de Cochrane et de North Bay, et qui a ele lui aussi e/imine par M. Bouchard. Ce train elait exploile conjointement par VIA Rail el par/Ontario
Northland, el avail en principe tine locomotive de IONR une journee sur deux. En ce 9 mars 1989, Ie Northland elait ma parla FP7A
#1520
de IONR el par une FP9A de VIA Rail, landis que 1Onlarien avail {aulorail RDCl #6120 cI sa lete.
On several occasions, the Ontarian would pull up alongside anotherfamous train,
No. 128, the North/and operated jointly by VIA and
Ontario Northland between Kapuskasing, Cochrane, North Bay and Toronto; this was another casualty of the Bouchard cuts. 011 this
particular day, the Ontarian was headed by RDC-1 6120, and the Northland was hauled by Ontario Northland FP7 A 1520 and a
VIA
FP9A.
Voici
I autorail RDC} #6} 07 (inerle) toue parle train #651 il Bellville Ie 10 amtt 1988. L aulorail venait alors d etre recol1struit aux aleliers
dUTDC de Napanee.
He
re we see RDC 6107 dead ill transit at the el1d of train 65} in Belleville on 10 August 1988. The RDC has just been partly rebuilt at the
UTDC shop
in Naponee.
MAY -JUrlE 1992 CANADIArl RAIL Page 89
Les jours ensoleiiles, il est possible de reaLiser de belles photos des trains dans la Care Union de Toronto, comme le demontre celie vue
de LOntarien, tire par la FP9A de VIA Rail, le 23 novemhre 1988.
On sunny da
ys, nice photos are possible in the train shed a/Toronto Union Station. On such a day, 23 November 1988, VIA FP9A 6512 had
just brought train 651
in/rom Kingston.
Un Ontarien en service en 1990 est vraiment une chose rare, puisque seulement onze paires de trains lont/ait. Le demier Ontalien
pris par lauteur attend
Ie depart a la gare VIA de Kingston, Ie 10 janvier 1990. Le train de wagons conventioneiles e/ait propulse par la
F40PH-2 #6442. Les /errophiles observateurs auront note lahcence
du logo VIA it [avant de la locomotive: eile vena it tout juste detre
reparee
a la suite dune altercation avec un cam ion it un passage Ct niveau.
An Ontarian running in 1990 was a rare event indeed, as only eleven pairs did so. The last train the author took is pictured here, on 10
January 1990. The conventional consist was hauled by F40PH-2 6442, shown at the
VIA station in Kingston. Keen-eyed observers have
noti
ced the absence of the VIA logo on the nose of the locomotive; it had been recently repaired after an altercation with a truck at a grade
crossing some time before.
Page 90 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
All Together Again
The Trans Canada Limited at Cranbrook
By Mike Westren
A special mi lepost has been passed
in this very important project of
the Cranbrook Railway Museum;
the complete train set, less the
locomotive,
of the Trans Canada
Limited has been assembled in
one place. This is what makes
the
cO.llection unique, an example
of a train purpose-built for a
particular duty. What is more, it
represents a most important piece
of Canadian heritage.
Introduced in
19l9asafirstclass,
sleeping cars only, train between
Montreal and Vancouver, this
train was re-equipped
in 1929
with ten sets
of new rolling stock
specifically built for this service.
Unfortunately that very year
of
1929 saw the stmt of the Great
Depression, and after only two
seasons the train was discontinued
and the rolling stock dispersed
to lesser duties. The Cranbrook
Railway Museum has been able
to gather together one
complete
The Trans Canada Limited sits, apparantly poised to leave Elko station, in this early morning shot
on March
11, 1992.
set of these cars, comprising a representative of each individual
type
of car used.
Four
of these cars were restored in time for an appearance at Expo
86
in Vancouver, B.C. These were: a full baggage car 4481
(originally a combination baggage-sleeper), a 36-seat dining car
Argyle
, an 8-2-1 sleeper Rutherglen, and solarium-lounge car
River Rouge. The superintendents car British Columbia
(number
19 in later CPR days) accompanied the train on this
odyssey. Combination baggage-sleeper 4489
joined the collection
at Expo; five cars went,
six. came back. Since that time, the
remaining two types
of sleeper, l O-compartment Glencassie and
l2-1 Somerset, as well as 30-seat full parlour 6751 have joined
the train.
The overwhelming significance of this display is that the
complete set was built for the
Trans Canada Limited. All these
cars were built in Canada; steel frames and sides were assembled
variously by National Steel
Car and Canadian Car & Foundry, with
a
ll outfitting, carpentry, cabinet work, plumbing and electrical
work undeltaken in
CPs own Angus Shops.
The lO-compartment sleeping car Glencassie was known to
exist as a boarding car on the Coquitlam auxiliary. It was one of a
batch
of five built in 1928, with TCL service in view; in 1961 it was
relegated to work train duty as
No.4] 1660. The car was essentially
complete and not too badly modernized, apart from liberal coatings
of green paint over the Honduran mahogany veneers. Sash windows
were intact, though outer sashes were later replaced with easier to
maintain aluminum frame
s. Onecompm1ment was missing altogether,
but otherwise the accommodations appeared to be intact. CP Rail
released the Glencassie from the active
list in mid-1989 and
generously
donated it to the Cranbrook collection.
The years] 990
through early 1992 saw a major reversal of history. Layers of paint
were painstakingly stripped, green in the compartments, deep
mushroom and rust-brown in the corridor; in fact the brown was
glued on vinyl. Mahogany surfaces were thoroughly cleansed and
sanded.
Eight coats of varnish have been rebuilt, so that the car is
ready to re
ceive one final fine sanding and finish varnish. The
luxurious glow of the wood and striking grain pattems are once
again a delight to behold. Inlays in this car were confined to a bold
border set into the upper berths. Nevertheless, once reupholstering
and finishing are completed in the fui1ness
of time, this will indeed
be a
most handsome car. This will be the Museums hotel car
where the overnight experience will become available on a limited
basis.
Both the S-class sleeper Somerset and the full parlour
car 675l
were acquired through negotiations with the South Simcoe Heritage
Railway Association, formerly Ontario Rail.
These two cars,
needed to complete the set, had been
in storage at Tottenham,
Ontario. They were promised a good home in B.C., close to their
MAY -JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 91
With all three patterns of Trans Canada Limited sleepers
secured, the Somerset / Travers was seen as a golden
interpretive opportunity.
It is being restored to demonstrate
the
developments that these well-built heavyweights
underwent.
Thus the car is beginning to exhibit signs of
severe schizophrenia, with one side being restored as built,
the other as modernized. Thus
one half is being returned to
varnished inlaid mahogany
grandeur including paired­
sash windows, including re-rivetting and welding the
exterior, and so on.
The opposite half will retain the later
green paint treatment and large picture windows. Work is
continuing with this car, and will for
some while yet.
GP9uNo. 1622 moves parlour car 6751 into a spurfor exterior painting prior
to bringing it onto the Museum site, October 6, 1989.
Considerable modifications had befallen the fU.11 parlour
car 6751. This piece, built in 1930, was destined for day
travel, exclusively for diplomatic and parliamentary
use,
between Ottawa and Montreal only.
Thirty plush swivel
chairs were arranged
in two rows of 15 each down the
length
of the spacious open interior. This was in fact the
largest room aboard the train, being about ten feet longer
than the regal dining room in the Argyle. During later
years, relegated
to day coach duty, the end walls had been
moved in to provide enlarged men
s and ladies lounge and
Inferior of car 6751 on August 5, 1989, before work was begun.
immediate family. Rail connection had been severed in 1989, so
the pair had
to be trucked from Tottenham over to active tracks.
Thence both were transported on their own wheels, courtesy
of CP
Rail, to Cranbrook.
The
Somerset was one of a batch constructed in 1930, and
probably entered service
just too late to actually run with its
intended train.
It was later (after World War IT) modernized, sash
window pairs replaced by single rectangular picture windows,
ceilings were lowered to accommodate air-conditioning ducting,
and the Honduran mahogany veneers and inlays obliterated with
the almost universal green paint. Interestingly, the inlays found in
this car, a delicate leaf motif, are identical to those in the R-c1ass
sleepers like Rutherglen. In
this 1948 rebuilding the car re­
emerged as the Travers. Faded silver paint bore mute witness to
its duty, from 1968 to 1972, on
CP Rails Atlantic Limited
between Montreal and
Saint John, N.B. A service record card,
found during restoration, showed this service in eastern Canada.
smoking rooms. The ubiquitous green paint had struck again over
the inlaid Honduran mahogany, and even the brass racks
I Obtained
The interior of6751 on March 19, 1992, after major restoration
work
had been completed.
Page 92 RAIL CANADIEN
Glencassie as it appeared in work train service, September J, 1989.
Somerset I Travers, still wearing faded silver paint, in Cranbrook
yard on September
5. 1989.
in 1972 by Ontario Rail, the car was used in Credit
Valley service as 561.
Terra Cotta. No. 6751 now
stands with its interior re-expanded
to its former
lon
ger layout. So far. only five swivel chairs have
been found. One has been re-upholstered in atlracti ve
floral plush. similar to the fabric it would have worn
when new.
The original wood once more glows
quietly under fresh varnish. AlI 1930 light fixtures
were long gone; basic lamp holders will have to
suffice until funds can be raised to replicate the
originals.
MAl -JUIN 1992
station. Recommended background readi ng is Canadian Pacifics
Trans Canada Li
mited, 1919-I 930 by Garry W. Anderson.
published by
BRMNA of Calgary, and available at most book
sto
res stocking railway literature, or directly from the Cranbrook
Railway Museum.
The acquisition and preservation of the 1929 Trans Canada
Limited truly constitutes a national heritage treasure. Locomotive
2341, a class G3d Pacific. from the Canadian Railway Museum
co
llection. is designated to be transfelTed to Cranbrook and
head up this fine train. Development plans call
for expansion to
five representative train sets, and constructing a large covered
trainshed exhibition facility.
The institution proposed a name
change to
The Canadian Museum of Rail Travel, and plans to
open in the new premises during 1998.
Veneer repairs. Project worker Peter Heather carefully
remov
es a patch, which had carried a later Light fitting, in
preparationfor selling in a new piece of matching Honduran
mahogany. Taken
in car Somerset on January 7, 1992.
—–
Previous coverage of the train has appeared in
Canadian Rail as follows: issues 327 (1979) and
365 (1982) on
car restoration and museum set-up.
issues 393 (1986) and 396 (1987) describing the
appearance at
Expo 86, and issue 403 (1988), Elko
As this view, taken on December 13, /991, of Somerset I Travers shows, the
starting point can often be close
to heartbreak!
MAY-JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 93
ABOVE LEFT: A corner of a section in car Somerset undergoing
cleaning and repair
to the mahogony veneer, on Februmy 8, 1992,
before varnishing. Note the delicate inlaid leerf
motif in the upper
berth.
ABOVERlGHT: Schizoid treatment of gangway door in Somerset
/ Travers. March
19, 1992.
LEFT: Detail
of inlaid leaf motif in Somerset. March 19, 1992.
NOTE: All photos were taken by the author.
Page 94 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
The Newfoundland Railway: 1988 -1991
By Claude Hoddinott
The Newfound land Railway was abandoned in 1988, and the removal of the track was completed late in 1990. Yet a surprisingly large number
of relics of the lines stiJJ remain in the province. Numerous pieces of equipment, and even sections of track have been preserved, and other
structures have been converted to other uses. Our member Claude Hoddinott has sent us a number
of photos taken between 1988 and 1991.
We hope you will enjoy them.
LEFT: One of the last trains to proceed
east from Bishops Falls
to Gander on
the Newfoundland Railway; April
23,
1990. A work train hauled by engines
917 and
924, this was the beginning of
operations, in the spring of 1990, to
dismantle the remaining sections of
the railway in the former Clarenville
Subdivision. Operations ceased in
November, 1990, when the last
of the
main line rails were
ta ken up at Bishops
Falls.
BELOW: Trainnumber203, westbound
to Comer Brook on August 21, 1988,
photographed at the Summit near the
Gaff Topsails. / had the oppertunity to
ride this train to Comer Brook, and
managed
to get afew interesting photos.
MAY -JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 95
LEFT: The station at Gander
Oil December 3, 1988, looking
east onthe rail line. This station
was torn down during the
summer
of 1991.
BELOW: Locomotive
932, with
three cabooses, all
storedfor
the winter at Grand Falls.
photographed
on December
13, 1988. Engine 932 was used
for hauling dismantled rails
from the Gaff Topsail area
during November and
December 1988. Dismantling
of the railway commenced 011
October 12, 1988.
Page 96 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
ABOVE: Avondale station, the oldest station in Nev.10undland, built about 1882, photographed 011 July 28, 1990. This historic structure
has been refurbished as a tourist allraction. Avondale also boasts one
of the better train displays in the province.
BELOW: The display traill at Avondale, situated on Conception Bay, NeH10undiand on July 28, 1990. These units are well cared for by
the people from the local area and attract many visitors during the summer months.
It is interesting to note that one mile of main line track
was left
in place at Avondale.
MAY -JUIIE 1992
The CN Rail bridge over/he Exploits
RiveratBishopsFalls, Nel110undland
on November
14, 1990. Thiss/rtlc/ure,
abou/
927 fee/long, was /he longes/
bridge
onthe Newfoundland Railway.
It
is now used by pedestrians and
all-terrain
vehicles.
CANADIAN RAIL
. ,,:.
,-
,
… , ….
. .,.,.
:. : ……. ~ .-
Page 97
The last days of the Clarenville
rail
yard as seen on November
12, 1990. Shown here are
locomotives 937, 932, 914,
following the end of dismantling
operations. All main line trock
has been removed in bo/h
directions .
Page 98
RIGHT: Locomotive 917 at
Bishops Fa/lsonApril 15, 1990.
This engine hauled the last
scheduled westbound train
to
Comer Brook on September 30,
1988, and was later used for
pulling dismantled rails from
the rail bed.
BELOW: Old
932 makes its
final move, on a tractor trailer
rig, from the Cia renville yard
to the town of Bona vista where
a display train
is to be set up.
The motors and trucks have
been removed fr0111 the
locomotive in order to allow
transportation
by road. The
complete diesel unit could never
be
moved in this manner. I
thought this was a rare
opportunity and a unique
photograph. Taken on October
25, 1991.
RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
MAY -JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 99
The Railway on Saluda Mountain
By Fred Angus and Mark Gustafson
SALUDA! Very many North American
railway enthusiasts have heard this name
and know that it is something special.
Those who are more knowledgable know
that the steepest grade on a class I railway
in either the United States or
Canada is
that which ascends Saluda Mountain in
North Carolina, via Norfolk
Southerns
route between Spartanburg South
Carolina, on the former Southern Railway
main line, and Asheville, in the mountains
of North Carolina. This grade, completed
in 1878, reaches a maximum of almost
5% and has been famous for generations.
On March 21, 1992
occurred a rare
event; for the first time in almost two
decades a passenger train,
on which the
public could ride, ascended
Saluda grade,
a
nd we had the privilege of being aboard
this historic train.
The early settlements in the Carolinas
and Virginia were close to the sea
coast
and were cut off from the interior by the
formidable Blue Ridge which forms a
The historical marker indicating the crest of the grade, in the centre of Saluda village. Note
the road sign that says bump!
Photo by Fred Angus.
very effective barrier to east-west travel. By the nineteenth century
some roads crossed this range, and, in the second half of the
century, railroads were projected in the area. At least three lines
were
planned to tackle the
Blue Ridge and, in the years after 1865,
the plans gradually turned to reality.
Some plans involved curves,
switchbacks a
nd tunnels in order to lengthen the line and so reduce
the grade. However, all the
se features require heavy expense, and
the Spartanburg and Asheville Railroad did not have the funds to
attempt this. Their approach was to build the shortest practicable
line which
meant a rise of more than 700 feet in less than three
miles. This compares to a distance
of thirteen miles employed by
a rival railroad to SUlmount the
same grade. Since the grade in this
area is on the edge
of an escarpment, there is no corresponding
descent on the other side –
once the line gets up it stays up. Hence
a lengthy tunnel would be
of no use even if the money was available
to build one. During the
1870s construction of the Spartanburg &
Asheville Railroad continued, and at 10:30 A.M.
on July 4, 1878,
the first regular train surmounted the Saluda grade and pulled into
Paces Gap, now the village of Saluda. In 1881, the company was
reorganized as
the Asheville & Spartanburg, and, in 1885, the line
was finally completed to Asheville.
From the first there were problems negotiating the grade, both
ascending and descending.
In the steam era, helper engines were
stationed at the foot
of the grade to assist the upbound trains. There
were num
erous runaways, some of them very serious. One of the
worst was in
1893 when a trainload of cattle got out of control and
eventually derailed, with a horrendous crash, on a curve, in a
cutting
which is called Slaughter Pen Cut to this day. A number
of crewmen have lost their lives in these incidents, but there was
never a passenger fatality in more than 100 years. In 1903, the
Southern Railway, which had taken over the S & A, installed two
runaway tracks whose switches are normally set for the safety
track and only changed to the main line when the train
is known to
be fully under control. In 1955, with dieselization and
improved
steep hill procedures, the upper safety switch was removed, but the
lower one, at Melrose, is still in regular use. Although the grade
extends for a dozen or more miles, it is the 2.9 mile section from
M
elrose to Saluda which constitutes the true Saluda grade.
One point that should be clarified is the term Saluda Mountain.
Although the term is frequently used, there is no such geographical
feature; no mountain
is called Saluda. In earlier times the grade
was called Saluda Hill, but time has dignified
it with the term
mountain; geography notwiths
tanding.
R
egular passenger service on this route ceased on December 5,
1968
when trains 27 and 28, the Carolina Special, made their last
run.
Freight service has continued until the present time, although
all through freight
sthedllies on the line were suspended on.
November 1, 1991, except the Belmont Coal Train (Appalachia
Va. to Belmont N.C.) and its counterpart hopper train. There were
strong rumours that the line was soon to be abandoned, but regular
freights, consisting largely
of woodchip cars, have resumed running
on Saluda. Talk of abandoning the line has been around for almost
Page 100 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
90 years, at least since the
Rutherford (N.C.) Tribune
reported in its issue of August
20, 1903, that Freight traffic
on the Asheville and Spartanburg
Road ma) be wholly abandoned
and all freight brought over the
Knoxville and Augusta division.
Now, however there is much
more talk of closing, and the
future is
anything but clear.
NOIfolk Southern isnow seriously
considering
adopting alternative
routing for its freights, and may
reach a final decision within a
year, although it
is said that all
these alternatives
also present
problems. Meanwhile the freights
still
go up and down the famous
grade, but who knows for how
much longer.
The operation of trains on the
grade is very interesting and
fascinating to watch.
Coming
up, the usual method is to triple
the hill, bringing one-third of
the train up from Melrose to
Saluda on each trip, and
reassembling the train at the top.
The special train, March 21,1992, at Slaughter Pen Cut, below Melrose. Although before the start of
the main grade, this is a spectacular local ion, Ihe scene of the infamous wreck of 1893.
Photo by Fred Angus.
But it is the descent that is the
most spectacular.
Upon arriving from Asheville, the eastbound
trains stop at
Saluda and the air brake retainers are set on each car
in order to assure that there is an uninterupted application of brakes
during the whole descent.
Depending on the length and weight of
the train, a compulsory stop is made near Stop Board No. I Uust
below the crest)
or Stop Board No.2 (about 2200 feet further
down). Eastbound trains
of 30 cars or less will stop just west of
Stop Board No.1, while longer trains may pass the first stop
board and proceed to a point between the two. This ensures that the
train is balanced
on the crest while crew members turn on the
retainers and inspect the brakes.
The Road Foreman of Engine
always boards the locomotive, and he acts as pilot, or even operates
the train. The train is not permitted to depart until the brake pipes
have been charged to 100
Ibs. pressure for at least 5 minutes. The
dynamic brakes are turned on as the train starts down, and they
remain on for the whole descent. While the dynamic brakes are
important, they are not relied upon to be the only means
of
controlling the descent. As soon as the speed reaches 6 MPH,
several applications and releases of the air brakes are made so that
the brake cylinders and retaining valve pipes are charged.
Thereafter,
brake applications are
made as often as necessary to maintain a
speed that will
permit a brake application of less than 8 pounds
reduction to stop the train.
Maximum permitted speed is 8 MPH,
except for light engines (or engine with caboose only) which may
reach 15
MPH (12 minutes from Saluda to Melrose). However
trains consisting of 50% or more of loaded coal hoppers may not
exceed 6 MPH and so must take at least 29 minutes for the descent.
There is a timing device that records the time the train passes a fixed point and this automatically sets the safety switch for the
main line after a given time.
If the train arrives at the switch too
soon, it
is considered to be out of control and it will not be switched
to the main line (which has a slight
curve at that point), but will
continue straight
on to the safety track at Melrose. At this point it
will, hopefully,
be stopped by the 10% up grade at the end. One
time a few years ago the train did go on to the safety track and was
not able to back
out on to the main line because of the weight of the
train on the down grade behind it, so it had to be rescued by another
lo
comotive pulling from the rear. The last true runaway occurred
on
November 14, 1971. By this time computers were on the scene,
and the
computer said that the train could make it safely down
despite some problems that had been encountered earlier. Well,
the
computer Ilad made a slight miscalculation and the train
crashed at Melrose; however the
crew jumped safely out at Sand
Cut (the last safe place to bailout).
On March 9, 1992 we were at Saluda Mountain and walked a part
of the line, including from the crest down to the site of long-gone
Safety
Track No. I. That night we observed one of the most
impressive examples
of railroading that can be seen, as a freight
descended Saluda
just before midnight. We watched the retainers
being
set and the brakes being inspected, then we followed, by
automobile, along a parallel road as the train went
down, amid the
distinctive sound
of whining dynamic brakes, at a steady speed of
about 8 miles an hour. The slightly misty, drizzly atmosphere
reflected the light
of the heacll ights and amplified the sound of the
dynamic brakes. Truly a never to be forgotten experience that may
soon be gone forever.
MAY -JUNE 1992
Twelve days later we were at Spartanburg,
ready to board the
Saluda Special. Norfolk
Southern 6-axle GE diesel locomotive 8651
hauled a five-car train
consisting of gondola
65095 (used as an idler car), and private cars
Pine Tree State, Clinchfield, Cimarron
River, Caritas. Three of the cars have a
Canadian connection, for the Cimarron River
and
the Caritas were, before being rebuilt as
private cars,
in selvice as sleepers on CN and
later VIA.
The Pine Tree State often came
into Montreal on Amtraks Montrealer. On
March 21, about 90 passengers rode the train
which left Spartan
burg at 10:00 A.M. Shortly
after departing, there was an unfortunate incident
when a woman
drove her car into the side of the
locomotive.
Luckily there were no injuries,
although the front of the automobile was
demolished. Despite the delay, the full program
was followed, and the lost time regained. There
were several ex.cellent runpasts including two
on the famous grade it
self. After reaching the
summit at Saluda, lunch was served in a park
adjacent to the tracks, before the train continued
on to Asheville.
Although the future
of the Saluda line is in
doubt, one more event is planned. On October
CANADIAN RAIL Page 101
The special train ascending the grade neal Stop Board No.2, about half a mile from
the crest.
Photo by Fred Angus.
24 and 25, 1992, the Piedmont Carolinas Chapter of the National
Railway Historical Society, in cooperation with Norfolk Southern
Corporation, will run two Autumn Leaf Excursions from Charlotte
N.C. to Asheville N.C.,
using former Norfolk and Western steam
to see the big engines and to count the cars. Both young and old
pause along the way to wave back as the engineer waves and,
sometimes, toots his whistle.
Long may this 114 year old railroad
epic continue.
locomotive 611.
The
October 25 trip will
go by way
of Saluda,
thus afford ing an
opportunity to see and
ride behind steam on
this famous line, the
first since 1972.
Thus
after a long hiatus,
1992 will see two
passenger trips on
Saluda, although the
good news is partly
t
empered by the
thought that the end
may be near.
As the
Saluda Signal
(Jan-Feb 1992) aptly
put
it Today, railroad
buffs visit Saluda,
many from distant
places,
to watch, and
often photograph, the
trains
as they reach
the top
of the grade
neal
Saludas main
street. Children run The
four passenger cars of the Saluda Special, with the idler gone/ala, as the train reaches the Saluda
nameboard just before the crest
of the grade. Photo by Fred Angus.
Page 102 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
In Memoriam
Orner S.A. Lavallee 1925 -1992
By Fred F. Angus
The entire railway historical movement was shocked and saddened
to learn of the death, on February 5 1992, of Omer Lavallee who
was, without a doubt, the foremost railway historian in Canada.
Born on September 14, 1925, Omer Lavallee was the son of Joseph
O. Lavall
ee and Florence OShaughnessy. Coming from a railroad
family, his interest in trains began at a very
early age and continued
all his life. In
1942 he began work with Canadian Pacific Airlines,
but soon transferred to the
Canadian Pacific Railway (now CP
Rail) and remained with the CP organization until his retirement
in 1986. For many years he was in the Treasury department of the
CPR, and one
of his duties was paying the CP employees on the
International
of Maine division. Each pay period his home was Pay
Car 52, that most welcome of all official cars to the employees
from Jackman to Vanceboro in the State of Maine. In those days
all payments were
made in cash, and the exact amount for each
employee was made up and placed in an envelope, to be handed out
on pay day. As a
symbolic gesture, some of the pay was in the form
of U.S. silver dollars, recalling the pioneer days of railroading.
Omers connection with the CRHA began in 1945 when he joined
as
member number 89. This was a time when the Associations
activities and membership were at an all-time low after the severe
curtailment
of railway enthusiasts functions due to six years of
war. However, by late 1-945 the war was over, and new blood and
new enthusiasm began to foretell a great revival
of interest in the
post-war years. Orner
Lavallee well exemplified this new blood.
Barely twenty years old, his enthusiasm and ability to organize was
of immense benefit to the Association in this critical time. For the
n
ext twenty years, from 1945 to 1965, it is safe to say that no CRHA
member did more for the Association than Omer Lavallee. During
this time the
CRHA resumed publishing a periodical; this was the
CRHA News Report, now Canadian Rail, started in 1949 and
edited by
Omer for many years. Excursions resumed in 1949,
usually on chartered trains and street cars, and these were a major
feature of activities until recent times. At the same time the
Associations
interest was extended to include street railways.
Omer was a leader of this movement, and it is significant that the
first piece
of rolling stock acquired by the CRHA was a street car,
MSR 274, which is 100 years old this year. This led to the biggest
and
most significant CRHA event of these twenty years, the
establishment
of the Canadian Railway Museum. By 1950 it
appeared that ste
am locomotives and street cars would soon
disappear from service in most of Canada, and the CRHA began to
consider whether its mandate to preserve railway history included
the preservation
of fuJi size railway equipment. After the acquisition
of 274 in 1951, the precedent was set and the formation of the
collection was begun. At that time there was a great variety
of
equipment, still in service, from which to choose, and the selection
of a representative collection was a formidable task. It is here that
the
expertise of Omer Lavallee showed to its highest as he used his
vast knowledge
of railway history to justify the decision to acquire,
or to decline, the various pieces of equipment that were retired
from service.
Having secured the beginnings of a collection, the major task was
to find a pla
ce to keep and display it; no mean task when one
considers the size of the exhibits. For this purpose a Museum
Committee was set up and for more than five years it considered
the pros and cons
of the various possible locations, until the Delson
-St.
Constant site was acquired in 1961. Once the location was set,
the work
of construction began. All during the first half of the
sixties, Omer led groups of volunteers in the various jobs of
restoration, construction, tracklaying and maintenance. This was
in add
ition to his work as editor of Canadian Rail and as a director
of the Association; not to mention his real I ife work at the CPR.
Many times his organizational capabilities and historical knowledge
were called into use to solve some of the numerous problems with
which the Association was confronted.
In
1965, the organization of the Museum was changed and, soon
after, Orner ceased active participation in that
phase of CRHA
activities. In 1967 he left the Association altogether and concentrated
his historical activities in publications as well as his new appointment
in the Corporate Archives
of CP Limited. I recall with sadness the
departure
of Omer Lavallee from the CRHA; it was truly the end
of an era. However it was still reassuring to know that Orner was
still there and was able and willing to help in historical matters.
Since becoming Editor of Canadian Rail in 1980, I have often
sought his advice and opinion regarding various points in railway
history, and this advice has always been freely and cheerfully
given.
Orners career in CP Limited continued, and his true capabilities
were realized upon his appointment,
in 1973, as Corporate Archivist
and Historian. As a
member of a publishing company, he undertook
the hu
ge job of producing historical works such as Van Hornes
Road, Canadian Pacific Steam Locomotives, and many others
including
some still unpublished which, it is hoped, will appear in
the future. Upon retiring from CP he was made Emeritus Corporate
Historian and Archivist and, in
1989, his lifelong work in the
historical
hne was officially recognized by his being awarded the
Order of Canada. In 1988 Omer had re-joined the CRHA, and had
reassumed his old membership numb
er 89. We all hoped for a
further long association between him and
theCRHA but, unfortunately
this hope ended with his death.
For more than ten years, Omer had been in indifferent health, but
did not appear to be
in serious danger. He had been working on
several new books, and their publication was
eagerly awaited.
Thus the news of his sudden passing came as a great shock to all
who
l before his time, yet one cannot help but think of all the information
that died with him, and all the historical works that will
never be
written by him. Had he been spared a few years
more the railway
history
movement would have been the better. We have alJ
suffered a loss, some as a friend, others as an acquaintance, but it
is
our duty to continue the preservation and recording of railway
history as was done for so many years by
Orner Lavallee.
MAY -JUIJE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 103
Book Reviews
Reviewed by Fred Angus
A TRIO OF BOOKS ON EARLY ELECTRIC
RAIL WAY DEVELOPMENT
The year 1892 was an important year in the history of electric
railways. It marks the close
of the pioneer period, and the beginning
of the quarter-century of unprecedented growth of what, by 1892,
had
become a well-tried practical technology. It was in this year
that the two lar
gest manufacturers of electric railway equipment,
Edison General Electric and
Thomson-Houston, amalgamated to
form General Electric. In
Canada, the year 1892 marked the
commitment
to electrification by the street railways in the Dominions
two largest cities, Montreal and Toronto. Before 1892 electric
railways were looked
on with some hesitation as something not
fully proved. After J 892 the electric street railway was tried and
true;
it was a big business.
It is fortunate that on the centennial of this important year we have
no Jess than three important books dealing with this
pioneer period
of electric railway development. This is all the more fortunate
since the pioneer
days have been neglected, orcovered inadequately,
in most histories of electric railways. Each of these three books
covers an important
segment and, together, they provide a detailed
look at the history and technology that
made the electric railway
a practical proposition.
PIONEERS OF ELECTRIC RAILROADING: THEIR STORY
IN WORDS AND PICTURES.
John H. Stevens, Editor.
Published by El
ectric Railroaders Association Inc.
P.O. Box 6588,
Grand Central Station, New York N.Y. 10163,
U.S.A.
Available
in both hard cover and soft cover editions.
This
monumental book seems destined to be the definitive work on
the history
of the development of electric railway technology up to
1893.
It consists of 240 pages, 8 1/2 by II inches, printed on high
quality paper.
There are more than 350 illustrations, photos,
drawings and diagrams, most
of them more than 100 years old, and
many
of extreme rarity. Despite the age of the pictorial material,
the reproductions are
of very high quality and clarity, and show a
great deal
of detail.
The main t
ext of this book is made up of a series of articles dealing
with the various aspects of
early electric railway history. Each
article
is written by an authority on that particular subject. Most
articles
were written especially for this book, although one, an
extremely interesting one on the pioneer syst
em at St. Catharines
Ontario, was written in 1893 and appeared in
The Electrical
Engineer
of October J 8 of that year. Following an introduction by
John
White 1r. of the Smithsonian, we learn Some Traction
PIONEEUS OF
ELECTRIC
RAILROADING
Their Story in
Prehistory dealing of the earliest attempts at electric traction
dating back to 1840
or even before. This is the period that is usually
dismissed with a line
or two in the usual texts; here it is a whole
chapter, and a fascinating chapter it is, telling
of the times when
electricity was som
ething new and with endless possibilities. Next
we read of the experiments
of the 1850s, in articles written in the
1
880s when some eyewitnesses were still alive. It is apparent that
these experimenters were on the right track (literally), but failed
because
of the lack of an economical power supply. Obviously
primary batteries would not
do, and the dynamo was not developed
until the 1870s.
Starting in the 1870s, the story moves
more rapidly. By 1879
Werner Yon Siemens had built a practical electric locomotive, and
in the 1880s electric railways became a reality.
Some of the ideas
and plans at that time were far reaching, and many failed because
of financial rather than technical reasons. Some were successful
and ran for many years; the
Giants Causeway line in Ireland ran
from 1883 to 1949, while the smaller Yolks Railway
in Brighton,
England began in 1883 and is still running. It is in this decade that
engineers like Siemens, Edison, Sprague, Yan D
epoele, Daft and
others
made their contribution to the technology. However, there
are
lesser-known names like Bentley and Knight, and some
persons, now almost unknown, such as Benson Bidwell, Cyril S.
Page 104 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
Smeeton and Henry Bock Binko. All these people, and many
others played important parts, so it can be seen that the electric
railway was the end result
of the work of many minds over a long
period
of time.
It is popularly supposed that Spragues successful instaUation at
Richmond Virginia
in 1888 proved the practicality of electric
traction and started the rush to electrify the already
overloaded
horse car systems. This may be so, but it must be remembered thaI
Sprague had the great advantage of having his motors built at the
Edison plant, whereas others, like Van Depoele, built motors
in
their own shops. It soon becomes apparent that, in the 1880s, no
one syst
em was clearly the winner, everything was so new that any
system had the
potential for success or failure. In retrospect it is
obvious that the overhead trolley was
the most practical, but this
was far from obvious in the
1880s. It took a lot of work and many
disappointments before the best system was developed. In any
case, the years from 1888 to 1892 marked a period
of standardization
in the industry, and most of the oddball systems were converted
to the conventional overhead trolley, or else were de-electrified
and returned to horse
or mule operation (usually to be re-electrified
with trolley within a few years). By 1892, the overhead trolley was
almost standard for city service, and the ensuing conversions were
carried on at such a pace that
by 1900 the horse car was almost
extinct.
It can be seen that Canada played a considerable part in this story.
The Toronto Exhibition had an electric railway as early as 1883;
although this one was unsuccessful, its successor, built
by Van
Depoele in 1884, was,
in the words of the authors of the book, not
only
CI practical, but an eminently successful public demonstration
of all electric railway in America. This was the forerunner of the
city-wide
installation in Montgomery, Alabama (the first in the
world) and others, including the pioneer el
ectrification in St.
Catharines, Ontario, started in 1887.
An entire chapter
of this book is devoted to St. Catharines. Written
in 1893, when the Van Depoele system was being converted to
conventional trolley, it shows how fast the technology had advanced.
An installation that was state
of the art in 1887 was, only six
years later, very old fashioned and obsolete. The author, Thomas
C. Martin, males this interesting observation: My respectful
advice to the museum authorities
in Callada is that they secure Mr.
Symmes
[one of the proprietors of the St. Catharines system]
scrap heap before the last traces of this early electric railway work
in the Dominion are losl forever.
This was written ninety-nine
years ago! Unfortunately, and typically, nothing was saved and
by
1895 a search for some of this technology was fruitless. One
wonders if museum authorities of 1992 would have been any more
receptive to saving any
of the equipment. St. Catharines seems to
have
been the last to go of the old technology, and before 1893 was
out it had been converted to the trolley system. One Van Depoele
locomotive has, miraculously, survived. The 1888 locomotive of
the Derby Horse Railway in Connecticut, said to be the first
succe
ssful freight locomotive in the world, has been preserved and
is
now at the Shoreline Trolley Museum in Connecticut.
Near the end of the book is a list, with descriptions and photos, of
early equipment known to have been preserved. Most interesting
are the forty-five passenger cars a
nd three special-service cars
built before the end of 1894 and still in existence. The criteria used are that, to qualify, a
car must have been used in electric service
before the end of 1894. Thus a horse car used as a trailer would
qualify, whereas a cable car,
or a horse car retired at the time of
electrification, would not. It is surprising that five of these
passenger cars are in Canada, two of them (Montreal Street
Railway cars 274 and 350, both of 1892) are at our own Canadian
Railway Museu
m. Even more surprising is the fact that 13 of these
45 pre-1895 cars are still
in regular service, one in Brighton
England
and 12 in the Isle of Man! (The Isle of Man has 35 pre-
1900 electric cars
in service, but the other 23 were built after 1894).
Twelve pre-1900 electric locomotives are listed, but no Canadian
ones here;
our Cornwall No.7, built in 1900, misses the cutoff date
by a few month
s. The Ontario Electric Railway Historical Association
has an Ed
ison General Electric Co. single-reduction traction motor
used by the Toronto Railway in 1892. Some other surprising facts
come to light. For example, the oldest surviving electric street car
outside of Europe is one, built in 1889, preserved at Americus
Georgia.
Your editor passed through that city in April 1992, and
did
not then know of the existence of that car. The book concludes
with a chronology
of experiments and development milestones in
electric railway technology between 1835 and the end of 1888.
There are also tables of electric railway statistics covering the
period from 1885 to 1891 in America.
Pioneers of Electric Railroading : Their Story in Words and
Picture
s is a book that should be studied by anyone with even a
mild
interest in knowing how electric railways came to be.
THE GLORY DAYS: A CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF
THE DRAMATIC RISE OF THE ELECTRIC TROLLEY IN
THE GOLDEN DECADE, THE YEARS 1888-1897
Compiled by A.W. Mankoff
Published by Railhead Publications.
P.O. Box 6579, Canton, Ohio
44706, U.S.A.
This
200-page book is a compilation of articles, dealing with
electric railways, from the publication
Engineering News and
American Railway
Joumal. All articles are exact facsimiles of the
originals, and are taken from the actual publication, not from
microfilm, thus they are quite
clear despite the age and condition
of the original century-old paper. They are arranged in chronological
order from the earliest, January 28, 1888, to the latest, Dec
ember
30, 1897. This is the decade in which the electric railway evolved
from a few pioneer installations to spread into
most cities and
towns
of North America, and much of the rest of the world,
Some articles are quite lengthy, describing details of new
developments or particular installations, while others are made up
of statistical tables relating to transit operations as of a particular
date (e.g.
May 23, 1891 and December 31, 1892). Statistics such
as these
show the growth of electric traction over the years, and the
corresponding decline of other types of power. The greatest
decline, of course, was in the horse car systems but, as the decade
advanced, the cable technology, which showed such promise as
late as 1890, also began its decline as the electric car took over.
However the bulk
of the book, and the most important from the
historians point
of view, are the many thousands of small news
items describing happenings, proposals, and even rumours, on the
MAY -JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAIL Page 105
The
Glory Days
A Chronological History of the
Dramatic Rise
of the Electric
Trolley
in the golden decade­
the years 1888 -1897.
Compiled by A. W. Mankoff
very numerous street railways (electric, horse, cable, steam dummy
and even ammonia powered) throughout America and the world.
While the very great majority
of the articles are from the United
States, there are
enough from Canada to make the student of
Canadian electric railway history very happy indeed. A few
examples will prove this.
Under date August 24, 1889 we read:
Niagara, Ont.-The St. Catharines, Niagara & Port Dalhousie
Street Ry. Co. has been organized
to build an electric line.
President, Capt.
P. Larkin. On November 23, 1889 was the
report:
Montreal, Canada -An elevated cable road is projected
on Craig St., from Lachine
to Maisoneuve (sic). July 19, 1890:
Electric Railways -Electricity has been adopted as a motive
power on the lines at St. John, N.B..
February 16, 1893: Halifax,
N.S. -The Old Colony Trust Co.
of Boston, Mass. will build all
electric street railway. September 6, 1893: Cacollna, Que. -A.J.
Corriveau, Montreal,
is interested in a proposed electric railway
between this place and River
(sic) dl! Loup. Finally we come to
this gem from April 29, 1897:
Montreal Que. -The Montreal &
Southern Counties Ry. Co. has been organized to build an electric
railway about 150 miles long
ill the eastern townships at a cost of
about $2,000,000, according to reports. Albert 1. Corriveau,
Montreal,
is interested.
The Glory Days thus ·gives a day to day-picture,as ·read at the
actual time,
of the hopes, plans, actions and progress of an industry
that was
new, in great demand, and with seemingly endless
possibilities ahead
of it. As would be expected, many of the
proposals were too visionary
and never came to pass. Still, a great
many
were completed in this decade, long before automobile competition
became serious. The electric railway network built
between 1888 und 1897 continued to
expand in the early 20th
century, but then the automobile and its side effects nearly wiped
it out in the fifty years following 1914. Now, however, the electric
transit industry
is undergoing a renaissance, as it is more and more
realized that mass transit
is a better solution to traffic problems.
The one serious fault with this book is the lack of an index. Since
there are so
many anicles, it is very difficult to extract those
dealing with a particular line or region. A vast
amount ofinfonnation
is there, but
is hard to retrieve. The publishers have indicated that
such an index is in preparation, and this should
solve the problem
and make this work even more valuable.
They also hope to produce
further volumes carrying the story forward from 1898.
We sincerely
hope that tllis will be done, and that The Glory Days will be the
first
of a series covering the day-to-day vicissitudes of tbe entire
era
of electric transit.
STREET RAILWAYS -THEIR CONSTRUCTION
OPERA TION AND MAINTENANCE
By C.B. Fairchild
Originally published by
The Street Railway Publishing Company,
New YOrk N.Y. in 1892.
Reprinted in 1991 by
Havelock House,
5211
Lansdowne Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 4L2
This 494 page book, containing more than 800 illustrations (760 in
the text, plus 44 in contemporary advertisements), is a practical
manual and text book for the operator
of street railways in 1892.
The author states: The work is not based on theory, but is the
outcome
of actual practice, and is designed to be helpfu/to street
railway men and engineers in every department, whether mechanical
orjinancial, and also to be of interest to the student of economic
subjects, who may wish
to inform himselfregarding this particular
industl)Jor it
is the first and only work that covers the entire field.
The book
is not to be read through and laid aside; hut as its name
implies, it
is designed as a handbook for those building or
operating either electric, cable, horse or elevated lines, to
which
reference can be had as occasion demands.
As previously noted, 1892 was a pivotal year, the time when
electric traction had proved itself and was starting its unprecedented
expansion. However, it should be remembered that, in 1892, the
vast majority of street car systems were still horse operated,
although it appeared that the days
of horse traction were numbered.
Hence, much of this book deals with horse operation, after all it
was a practical book, and much of the street railway industry still
involved horse cars.
As the author says at the beginning of the
chapter on Horse Traction: It is by no means aforegone conclusion,
as
is oftell Slated, that mechanical power will eventually supersede
animal power on all street railways.
It will continue to increase,
nO doubt, till a majority of roads are operated under some form of
mechanical power, but the living motor is in the field, new men are
constantly coming into this branch
of the street railway business,the
veterans need sometimes
to be reminded of things they already
know; hence this chapter
is of prime importance. Nevertheless,
horse traction was relegated to chapter 3, after electricity and
cable
traction. Clearly electricity was the way of the future.
Page 106 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1992
The first chapter is on electric traction, and this begins with the first
principles
of electrical theory and progresses through the earliest
experiments to the latest motors, generators and distribution and
control systems
of 1892. Also covered are truck designs, lighting,
battery operation, overhead wire construction and power stations.
Chapter 2 deals with cable
car systems and all their ramifications,
while, as previously noted, chapter 3 is on horse traction, then the
most proven and easily understood system. Chapter 4 is concerned
with steam, air and gas motors, while chapters 5, 6 and 7 deal with
inclined planes, rack rail inclines and elevated roads respectively.
Chapter 8
is on car building, and this is a most interesting section
with scale drawings
of many types of car bodies, trucks and related
accessories which would be
of great use to the model builder of
today, as well as anyone restoring an actual car of the period.
Electric, cable, horse and elevated railway cars are covered in this
chapter.
Chapter 9
is devoted to track construction, and we find examples
of all types of rail from flat horse car rail to the latest girder
designs.
Of course all types of roadbed are covered, as well as
switches, curves and a great variety
of special work which is
necessary at locations such as car barns. Chapter 10
is all about
discipline and rules, and covers everything from operation
of
equipment to fare collection and neatness of dress. In chapter 11
will be found financial information, including means of raising
capital, stocks, bonds and such instruments. Chapter 12
concerns
bookkeeping and classification of accounts, while chapter 13
illustrates
leading types of cars (46 of them). Auxiliary appliances
are fully illustrated
in chapter 14, while there follows an appendix
regarding up-to-date developments regarding electric railways.
The book concludes with a 45-page section of advertisements by
the leading
car and equipment manufacturers. It is interesting ·to
note that one of these advertisements shows a Brownells
Accelerator car (billed as The most important improvement in
street cars
up to date) identical to Montreal Street Railway
Rocket (later 350) delivered that same year.
The most serious shOltcoming of this reprint is the quality of
reproduction. Undoubtedly to save expense, the page size has been
reduced from the original which was, evidently, somewhat larger.
This has caused problems with some
of the illustrations which
come out rather muddy and with loss of detail, and in addition, the
reduced-size print
is not quite as easy to read. Of course the
reviewer does not have access to an original copy, so it is difficult
to say how much
of the loss of detail is due to the reproduction and
how much was in the original.
It should be emphasized, however,
tJlat the great majority
of tlle illustrations are quite clear and easy
to follow, and the paper is acid-free and
of very good quality.
Nevertheless,
one feels that an important work of this kind might
have been reproduced in actual size even
if the cost was substantially
greater; after all this
is an enduring work.
The republication of this book fills an important gap in the library
of the student of electric railway history. It is one of the last to give
detailed information on the practical features of horse car lines, a
technology destined to be almost extinct within a decade. It also
shows how well developed the electric traction technology was,
and how it
soon became almost universal. Together with the other
two books reviewed herein, it gives a full insight into this important
industry as it was in 1892,
just a century ago.
SHORT REVIEWS
SIGNATURES IN STEEL
By Greg McDonald
Published
by Boston Mills Press for Stoddard Publishing
132 Main Street, Erin, Ontario
NOB lTO
Price: $50.00.
This magnificent book, published late in 1991, is a photo story of
Canadas railways covering the period from the 1940s to the
present time. It
is a large format (12 by 11 inch) hard cover volume
of208 pages containing 250 photos in colour. Geographically, this
work covers from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the U.S.
border to the sub-arctic.
The drama of Canadian railroading is well
captured, and the quality
of the photos, as well as their reproduction,
is superb. This book should be in the library
of anyone with an
interest in contemporary railroading in Canada.
THE BRITANNIA COPPER MINE RAILWAY
By David Ll. Davies
Published by Pacific Coast Division,
CRHA
P.O. Box 1008, Station A, Vancouver, B.C. V6C 2Pl
Price: $10.50 postpaid.
This book is the first
of a series of publications planned by our
Pacific Coast Division. It covers the history of the three-foot gauge
electric mining railway that served the Britannia Copper
Mine
which operated near Howe Sound in British Columbia from 1905
until it closed in 1974. Today the site
is an industrial museum, and
some
of the railway and equipment has been preserved. Also
included is a brief outline
of the two-foot gauge railway that
existed
at the site, some of which is also preserved. There are 32
pages
containing 25 photos and five diagrams, together with text,
locomotive rosters and other information on this interesting but
little-known railway operation.
CANADA SOUTHERN COUNTRY
By Robert D. Tennant Jr.
Published by Boston Mills Press
132 Main Street, Erin, Ontario
NOB lTO
Price: $35.00
This is an extremely interesting and informative history
of The
Canada Southern, a railway that was initially projected in the
1850s, planned in the 1860s and constructed
in the 1870s. By
1875 controlling interest in the
company was owned by the
Vanderbilts, and soon after it was leased to the Michigan Central,
a subsidimy
of the Vanderbilt-owned New York Central. Control
of the CSR by the New York Central and, more recently, its
Sllccessors Penn Central and Conrail, continued until 1985 when
the line was bought by Canadian National and Canadian Pacific.
MAY-JUNE 1992 CANADIAN RAil Page 107
This 208 p3gC book ha~ 220 pbologmphs. muny of them early and
m
rc, in addition numerous diagrullls. maps and timetables.
11lerearemany stories of all types, ulCluding I~ of IhcconSlrucliol1
of those grc~lI fellls of engineering. the i3g3m Call1ilever bridge
(1883) and the
Windsor-~Inlil tunlltl (1907·1910). This volume
is a welcome addition 10 the literature Olllhc hi~101) ofrnilw3yS in
Canada.
ST.
CLAIR Tl 1NfL -RAIL.1ii HEE:TH THE RlVER
By Clare Gilbert
Pllblished
by The DoslOn Mills Pres~
132 Main Streer. Erin. Ontario NOB ITO
As
most reader.> of C;madi:ln Rail should knolV by now. last yeaT
marked the ]OOth anniveMry of the completion of the Sf. Clair
Tunnel.
built by the Grand Trunk Railway, and connecting Sami.1.
Ontario wilh Pon Huron Michigan.
This book is the hislory oflhe
construclion and opcrJlion of the tunnel from the first projeclion
of [he idea in [he 1870s, unlilthe centennial in 1991. There are 96
pages in this sofl-cover book which conlains 60 pholographs and
a number
of m:lps :md diagf,lIns. This \cll rcsearclletl and well
written
book adds considerahl), !O the knowledge about [his
pioneer imcrn;lIional tunnel.
LINE CLE.R FOR UP TRAI~S -A HISTORY OF No.1
CANADIAN RAILV
AY OPERATING GRP, RCE 943-1945
By Allin J. Mallc;;r
Published by Mu~um Restoration Service
P.O. Bm, 390, l3loomfield, Ontario KOK IGO
OJ: P.O. Box 70, Alc.~:ll1dri!l Bay, ~.Y. 1-607 I..S.A.
Price: $26.22 in ClOada, $24.50 in U.S.A., 14.50 pounds in U.K.
Cmadian railway technology has played a consid~rable part in
wa
rtime for more th:ln 150 years. As early as 1836. the Champlain
& 51. Lawrence RR. was used to move troops in the rebellion of
1837, and [he lISC of Ihc nOIyeH;omple[cd CPR 10 Irdnsport the
anny 10 Ihe Northwest Rebellion of 1885 is well known. More.
famolls than these is Ihe part pla>e<1 by Canadians in building and
opcralion milil:uy mi
lw8)S nfar the frol11 lines in Fr:mce and
Belg
ium during World War I. Thi$ book deals with World War II.
and the
Canadian Railway Operaling Group orthe Royal Canadian
EngiTlCCrs. This group WIIS fonned in March, 1943 and continued
unlil it was disbanded in November. 1945. following lheend oflhe
war. Ii is a fascinating slOry which is, alaS, lillIe known by Ihose
of
[he present gencralion who were nOI brought up in wartime. This
112 pilge book has 35 photos. many of Ihem rare .md laken under
Ycry difficult
wartime conditions. as well U~ maps and diagrams.
An exccllent :lccount
of onc of Canu,da s many cOlliribuliollS 10 the
war effort.
A HiSTORY Or THE NEWFOLJJ)LANO RAILWAY,
VOLUMES I AND II
By A.R. Penney
Pbli~hed b) Harry Cuff Publicalions LId.
Y4 LeMarch:101 Rood. 51. Johns. Ncwfoundland A IC 21-12
Price: $9.95 101 Volume I, $11.95 for Volume II.
We had previously
nOled the appcaf.loce of Volume I (1881 to
1923) of Ihis importal11 hislOl) of Ihe Newfoundland Railway.
111al volume appeared in 1988 just as the r.lilway was being closed
down. Mr. P
enney, the aulhor, died III 1990: however his work on
Vo
lumc II WU$ far advanced and it was ompleted by Fabian
K~lmedy. This volume C:lrries the Newfoundland Railway SIOry
from lhe
limc of govemm.:.nt takeover in 1923 until Ihc final
aband
onmcnt uf the line in 1988. The twO volunl!~ togclher fonn
an
import.11ll lotllribmioll 10 Canadian railway hi~lory.
CLOSE TIES RAILWAYS, GOVERNMENT AND THE
BOARD OF RALLW.AY COMMlSSIONERS, 1851·1933
By
Ken Cruikshank
Publish
ed by McGill – Queens Unive~ily Prc~s
3400 ~kTavish Stree!. Montreal. Que. H3A I X9
nIb b a ~cholarly work which focuses on Ih.:. historic conlrovcrsies
surround
ing high freighl rales. and explores Ihe way~ in which
C:madians Iricd
[0 rcgulatc lhe nalions first big busin~ss, its
r
ailways. Cel1mlto Ihe sludy is the Board ofR ai Iway Commissioners
whic
h. from 1904 onwards, hns been Ihe centr~picce of the
Canadian GovemmcllIS regulatory stralcgy. TIlis is a vcry
comprehensive analysis and puiS the whole eoncerl of railway
regulalion in a bener his
lOric perspeclivc.
WELI.I ….. (;TO COUNTY HISTORY· RAILW Y ISSllE
VOLUIE 4, 1991
Pub
lished by Wellington County Historical Research Society
Box 5, Fergus, Ontario N I M 2W7
The 1
991 isslle of this cxcellent hislOrical pubJicEuion is entirely
dCV()1Cd 10 Ihe history of mihHlYs in and u,round Wdlingloll
County.
Onlario. Included nre The Railw C01l111Y By Slreetcnr 10 Toronto. Commuting from Guelph the
Electric W
ay, Remembering Those Old-Ii mc CPR Branch Lines.
WeltinglonCoUllly s T rdin Robber … A l.ool: at R Reminisccn(.Cs oflhe Railway in Wellington CounIY. Working
on Ihe Railway. For anyone interesled in railways in that part of
Can
:1da, or, in facl. for anyone who likes good raitwll) Slorie~, [his
issue is recommended.
BACK COllER. 0111 day ill Of/ob.I. 1954. /It,,,ly-buill ditset l(}ComOlin! 908 II(lS phOlogmphed alongside SIN/Ill tll.t:illt 305 oll/sitl!
Ille mumihollse 01 St. )01111, Newfoulld/mili. AIIO/he/ SleOll! 10(01l101;lc (lnd mro/lI .. r dh,.·e/ apfiar ai/he (.IHeme (lil;tS of 1/11: phow.
CRHA Arcl!il·(S. Tonlrt, Colleeri,.,r. Ih()lo No. 54·141.
Canadian Rail ~
120, rue St-Pierre, St: Constant, Quebec
Canada J5A 2G9
Postmaster if undelivered within
10 days return to sender, postage guaranteed
PLEASE DO NOT FOLD

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