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Canadian Rail 423 1991

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Canadian Rail 423 1991

Canadian Rail ct=b
No. 423
JULY -AUGUST 1991
CANADIAN RAIL
ISSN 1)(1(18..4875
PUBLISHED St-MONTHLY BY THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL
EDITOR: F(d F. Angus
CO-EDITOR Douglas N. W. Smith
PRODUCTION. A. Stephen Walbridge
CAATOORAP
HER: William A. Germaniuk
LAYOUT:
Fred F. Angus
For your membership in the CRHA, which includes a
subscription to
Canadian Rail, write to:
CRHA. 120 Rue St-Pierre, 51. Constant, Que. J5A 2G9
Rates: in Canada: $29 (including GST).
outside Canada: $25. in U.S. funds.
PRINTI
NG: Procel Printing
TABLE OF CONTENTS
MINING AND TUNNELLING LOCOMOTIVES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TODAY …… J .. EAVYN T. GREEN…. 111
THE ST. CLAIR TUNNEL CENTENNIAL -1891-1991
THE RESTORATION OF CPA 7077.
RAIL
CANADA DECiSiONS ….•………………..•………………………………….
….•……..
THE BUSINESS CAR …………………. . …. GERRY ELDER ……… .
122
…. KEN CARROLL. …… . 128
.. … DOUGLAS N.W. SMITH. 131
143
Canadian Rail is continually in need oj news, stories, historical data, pIlotos, maps and other material, Please send all contributions to the
editor:
Fred F. Angus. 3021 Tralalgat Ave. Montreal, P.O. H3Y t H3. No payment can be made for contributions. but the contributer will
be given Cfedillor material SUbmitTed. Material will be relUrned to the contributor if requested. Remember Knowledge is 01 little value unless
it is shared with others.
NATIONAL DIRECTORS
Frederick F. Angus Hugues W. Bonin J. Christopher Kyle
R.C. Ballard Robert Carlson William
La Surf
Jac
k. A. Beatly Charles De Jean Bernard Martin
Walter
J. Bedbrook. Gerard Frechelle Robert V.V. Nicholls
Alan C. Blackburn David W.
Johnson Andrew W. Panko
The CRHA has a number of local divisions across The country. Many hold regular meetlllQs
and issue newsletters. Funher in/ormation may be obtained by writing to the divisIon.
HEW BRUNSWICK OIVlSKJN
POBox 1182
s.n.Jo/wlN8. E2l~7
ST LAWRENCE VmEY OMSION
P O. eo. 22. Stiwo ~PO H383J5
RIOEAU VmEY DlVlSICW
PO BoxIile-2
SWf$ F … , On!. K7 …. 5A5
KINGSTON tHVISION
PO eo.. 103. sw.on ……
KlnQsIoo. Ort. 10M &P9
TORONTO YORK OIV1SKJN
PO 60>;5848 T ……… • …. •
TOf N1.II(l)o.R..II DIVISION
PO 80><503
St. ~ en. L2R 6W8
WINDSOR·ESSEX DIVISION
300 c–.. Ao.:1 East
II
RIsoo. Ont. N9G 102
KEYSTONE OMSION
1. Aeynoids BIoy
~ Man. R3K 0tM
CALGARY & SOUTH WESTERN DIVISION
60·100 .tt> ….. NE.
CaIgaty. J..bna T2.115Z&
FIOCI(y MOUNT I>.)tI DIVISION
PO eo..&lo:z.~C
E SElJ(IRK DIVISION
PO 8cx39
~.BC. Vl)£2SQ
CflIQWSNl:ST & KETTU: V-LtEY OMSION
POao.400
Ct~B.C. V1C~
NELSON ELECTRIC TlIAMW … Y SOCIETY
123 VII-w Str_
HMonBC VltM
PRINCE GEOAG£·NECkAK(}.FAASER DIVSICIN
PO.8cx2408
Prinol GIoorge. 8 C. V2N 2SfI
P-CIFIC COAST DIVISION
PO.8cx 1001!I. StaIIOII ….
V, 8. :11
Douglas NW. Smith
Lawrence
M. Unwin
Richard Viberg
A. Stephen Walbridge
John C.
Weir
Mix~d /rain No. 352 steams majeslically
Olfl
of Trtnlon /Uwanls Piclot/ III Ihi.f
March f2. 1952 I·kw. OriKinming (lIlhr
dilisiot/af yards in Btllelilfe. Ihe mixed
was scheduled fI) spemllhrCt hOl/r.f olul
fiffy mill/lies corerillN the 44 II/I/es be·
fWttll
B~lfriIIt and Picton.
Sourre. PaterSOIIGeorgr Col/rajon.
As part of ItS activities. the CRHA operates
the Canadian Railway Museum
at Delson I
51. Constant, Que. which is about t4 miles
(23 Km.) /rom downtown Montreal. It Is
open from late May to early October (daily
until Labour Day). Members, and their im·
mediate families, are admitted free of charge.
GOAl. OF THE ASSQCTIQN THE COLLECTION. PRESERVTlQN!-.NO OISSEMIN.IITION OF ITEMS RELATING TO THE HISTORY OF R.t.ll.WAYS IN CNADA
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 111
Mining and Tunnelling Locomotives in
British Columbia Today
By Mervyn T. Green
INTRODUCTION
By the very nature of their purpose and usage, railway locomotives
owned by mining and tunnelling operators spend most of their
working lives hidden
away from the cameras and notepads of
railfans and recorders. This attempt at chronicling all such units as
are in existence today in British
Columbia is therefore fairly
accurate
in recording any locos that are out of use or are preserved,
but is not completely accurate
in defining all the units still at work
in mines and tunnels today.
Over the last 110 years, several thousand mining and tunnelling
locomotive units
have been used in the surface and underground
workings of the hundreds of B.e. mines, quarries, tunnels, cuttings
anel pits. They have used a variety of different power sources,
including steam (both saturated and dry), compressed air,
electricity (from an overhead
power line, or from batteries carried
on the unit) and diesel or gasoline engines (usually with mechanical
transmissions using
gear trains or chain drives).
The units that exist today fall into four distinct categories. First,
there are those few still in use at four mine/tunnel operations.
Second, there are units stored at mines, usually awaiting a
buyer
since the mine closed down, or they are mine units for sale at the
sites
of second-hand dealers. Third, there are five units still in use
at two
non-mine sites. Fourth, there is a sizeable number of units
thM have been preserved and are
on public display at museums and
similar locations.
MINE AND TUNNEL UNITS STILL AT WORK
The Kemano Completion Project, some 75 km. southeast of
Kitimat, started in 1989. Its purpose is to add a second tunnel to
bring
down stored water from Tahtsa Lake to sea level to feed
hydro-electric turbines in the Kemano powerhouse. From there,
e
lectricity is sent by an overland transmission line to Kitimat.
Most
of this new power is destined to be used in the expansion of
the smelters of the giant Alcan Canada Products Ltd. aluminum
processing plant, located on the western side of Kitimat, on
Douglas Channel. Tonto Drilling Co. of Kamloops won the
contract to drill the new tunnel: in September 1989 it bought two
JMD24 dieseJ-mechanical 4-wheel units, built by Plymouth
Locomotive Co. of Plymouth OH, from Nelson Machinery Co. of
Savona Uust west of Kamloops). These two 36 gauge 25-ton units
are now
Tonto No. I (serial number 7371, built March 1982) and
No.2 (7137, built 1976). Nelmaco had acquired them late in 1988
(its numbers 106 and
II I) after the sale of equipment used in
building the new Canadian Pacific Railway tunnel under
Mount
MacDonald. They both came from one of the two main contractors
there, Manning Kumagi Joint Venture Inc. (MKJV), which used
them as its K20 106 and K20
III. MKJV bought them both as 42
gauge units and had them converted for use on 36 gauge track. The
number 106 came from Atkinson Commonwealth Construction
Co.
of Chetwynd in 1984, where it had been stored since late 1982.
Purchased new
in March 1982, it was one of a group of eight new
Plymouth 42 gauge units acquired to build the northwestem
extension
ofB.e. Rail to Dease Lake. However, the B.e. government
(owner of the railway) stopped work on the construction the
following year, leaving the
eight locos to wail for buyers. MKJV
bought the
number III in 1984 from the KennyJPaschen/S&M
Group of Argo IL, where it had been in use since its purchase as a
n
ew unit in 1976.
The second group of mine units is located in Kimberley, at the
Sullivan Mine, on the northern side
of town (some 30 km. north of
Cranbrook). The giant mining corporation Cominco Ltd. (once
owned by Canadian Pacific, and now by
Teck Corp.) also owns the
smelting complex at Trail. It
announced in January 1990 that the
mine is to be closed, but it was in at least partial use during 1990,
although its future is dim.
One of three 36 gauge 40-ton General
Electric Co. 8-wheel units (built in
Schenectady NY) pulls out
trains
of 40 Kimberley-bui It steel ore cars, each canying IS tons,
from the
upper levels of the mine to the rotalY dumper. The first
two units, numbers
101 and 102, were built in September 1948
(serial numbers 29447
anel 29448), while the third (103) followed
four years later.
101 was to have been rebuilt and upgraded next,
but this is now unlikely given the
dubious future of the mine. The
mines .lower levels are worked by an unknown number of 18
gauge mine mules (built by Westinghouse?), weighing 4 to 8
tons apiece and producing
20 to 40 horsepower from an overhead
trolley wire.
The numbers and bui.lders of these are not known to
the author, nor how many are current.ly at work; 6 such units were
noted outside the portal to the lower Sullivan Mine entrance
in
September 1989. The upper level mine yard also houses tllree
unique specimens:
a4-wheel GEoverllead electric linecar(probably
home-built), a 4-wheel railtrack tamper using compressed air, a 4-
wheel home-built snow
blower driven by a Euclid CII-OI engine.
Both the concentrator and the fertilizer plant are connected with
Canadian Pacific
Railways Kimberley Subdivision (built 1899-
1900), which
I1I11S 26.5 km. south to North Star, near Cranbrook.
are concentrates travel this route to reach the Cominco smelter at
Trail, in short trains
of hopper cars powered by one or two CP
SD40-2 locomotives from Cranbrook.
Using an open-pit technique since 1988, Westmin Resources Ltd.
of Vancouver has cut into the side of a mountain high above the
Salmon River, some 20 km. north of Stewart. This company is a
joint venture between Westmin (60%) and Pioneer Metals Corp.
(40%). Gold production began in
May 1989, but the mines future
is unsure, being somewhere from less than
one year to more than
five years, depending
on the amount of ore now available and the
Page 112 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
after ore was discovered in the area in 1891. Sandon
became a sizeab
le mining town, served by both the
Great Northerns narrow-gauge Kaslo & Siocan
Railw
ay (to 1910, when it was rebuilt to standard
gauge
by tbe CPR), and by the CPRs Nakusp &
Slocan Railway (to 1957).
MINE & TUNNEL UNITS STORED FOR SALE
Of the eight Plymouth units bought by ACCCo. for
BCRs Dease Lake
extension, at least five were
purchased
in 1984 by MKJV fort he MountMacDonald
contract of CP Rai I. It is not known what became of
t
he other three; whether they were sold to dealers or
contractors, or whetber they are still stored
in
Chetwynd.
Two Plymouth JMD24 36 gauge 25 ton diesel-mechanical units sit in the yard
ofNelmaco. ill Savona in Seplember 1989. wailingfor road trallspor/alion to their
Furtber north, and accessible only via Alaska over a
rough gravel road.
the Granduc Operating Co. of
Vancouver built a copper mine (1964-1969) beneath
Tide Lake, some 60
km. north of Stewart. From
1985
this site (called Canada Wide Copper Mines)
new owners in Kemano and Minneapolis.
continuing investigation of new sources. Cutbacks were announced
in December 1990, with the workforce cut from 165 to 100
persons. The area was worked before, by Big Missouri Gold Mine
Co., us
ingverticaJ drilling techniques (1923-1932), then by Premier
Gold Mines Ltd. and then
by Silback Premier Exploration, using
horizon
tal adits. Within one of the latter is an 18 gauge line, which was serviced by a
52 km. gravel road, kept open all
year, across the Salmon Glacier and along the edge of the Salmon
River to Hyder Alaska. The ore from the concentrator was brought
d
own in cylindrical road tankers, each carrying 25 ton dry loads,
to a new ore terminal built on the north side of the Portland Canal
between Hyderand Stewart.
The fi rst shipload ofGranducconcentrate
left Stewart for Japan
in January 1971. The three 42 gauge
Plymouth 4-wheel DMD24 units, built in 1962 and 1963, formerly
is still in occasional use by geologists to
check on ore bodies. It contains two 4-
wheel 1.5 ton battery-electric Little
Trammer
mine mules built by Mancha
Locomotive Works of Chicago IL, one
numbered
17. the other without a number.
Their origin
and age are not known, but
they date from the days of the Premier
Mine (1927-1932), when
all the ore was
sent out by gravel road tluough Hyder
Alaska or by an overhead bucket line to an
ore tranShipment at Stewart (at the bead of
the POItland Canal). Today, the partially­
r
efined gold is carried to Stewart by
company truck. t
hen forwarded to the
bank on the six-times-per-week (not
Sundays)
run of the Stewart-Terrace public
bus service!
The last group of mine units in use is a
sma
ll one of a single unit of Dickenson
Cominco 8-wheel General Electric 36 gauge olerhead-electric unit 102 inlhe dumper yard
above the Sulli)lan Min
e. Kimberley in Seplember 1989. [I wears the original yellow paint
scheme
of 1948.
Mines Ltd., a division of Silvana Mines of Vancouver. Since 1970.
Dickenson h
as been operating 2 km. of underground track ill the
tiny mining
settlement of South Sandon. some 110 km. north of
Nelson. via Kaslo.
In this silver/lead/zinc mine is at least one 24
gauge mine mule. probably a 4-wheel J.5 ton Mancha battery­
e
lectric Little Trammer unit. which hauls 4-car trains of 4-wheel
ore car
s. each carrying 16 tons of ore. Sandoll is a ghost town. since
a 1955 flood removed most of the few buildings that were then still
standin
g. It was the centre of Silvery SJocao for over 50 years. u
sed to help dig out the mine, were sold in 1969. Mine haulage of
ore out
and personnel in/out was handled by five 42 gauge
Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries 8-wheel overhead electric locomotives:
these were 750 horsepower double-ended units built in Tokyo
Japan –
the only Japanese-built mining locomotives ever used in
B.C. (so
far). Active from 1969 in the 16 km. tunnel constructed
from Tide Lake ponal to the Leduc ore faces. they handled all the
trains of 15 to 20 ore cars (holding 50 tons apiece) and also the 4-
car passenger trains (each car holding 55 miners per work shift).
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 113
Cominco 8-wheel General Electric overhead-electric unit 103 pulling a train of are cars OFer the are dumper, in September 1989.
Note that both trolley poles are
in use to pull the heavy train OU! of the SulliFan mine.
The mine was closed down in 1984 and all the rolling stock was
sealed within the mine. Four
of the mine units are stored there still,
waiting for a reopening or a buyer;
one was wrecked and scrapped
after an
avalanche accident in 1971 (its makers plate is on display
in the Stewart Museum on Columbia Street).
About 150 km. east of Vancouver is the small town of Hope. At the
corner of Tom Berry and Starret Roads (southeast of the airport)
and south
of the Canadian National Railways bridge at mile 43.5
of the Yale subdivision of the Mountain Region, there is a dealer
in second-hand vehicles (mostly from logging operations nearby).
There is no direct rail access from the CNR main line to the yard
of second-hand equipment. In the centre of the lot, lined up in a row
(but
off rails) are four units bought from the Giant Mascot Mines
Ltd. operation after it closed down in 1974. Previously known
(before 1965) as the B.C. Nickel Plate Mine, it was located several
thousand metres up in the mountains northwest
of Hope. The four
30
gauge mine units are two British-built units from Ruston &
Hornsby Ltd.
of Lincoln England, built with closed cabs in the
1950s (serial numbers 349059 and 392572) of type DLU 48.
There is also a third unit built by Plymouth and equipped by
BCNPM/GMM with a protective body made of heavy sheet steel
plate
designed to protect both the loco and its operator from the
inten
se heat while working near the smelter. The fourth loco,
number 15. is another British-built unit from the North British
Locomotive Co. of Glasgow Scotland, serial number 27492, of
1955, weighing 15 tons and producing an output of 100 horsepower
from a Crossley diesel-mechanical engine and drive. It is a sister
to
number 36 in the B.C. Mi.ning Museum (see below). Nearby is
a fifth unit, a compressed air front loader/mucker built by ATCO
of Sweden (serial number 191581). This has been recently refurbished
and repainted for sale (June 1990), but the other four are deteriorating
badly
in the open. AlI five are 4-wheel units; the first four have
diesel-mechanical power.
The largest collection of mine locomotives lies in a vast area 40
km. west ofKamloops, lying between higllway I and the Canadian
Pacific main line at Savona.
This is the yard of Nelson Machinery
Co. (Nelmaco), who have been dealers in
small industrial units for
many years and who have
donated several of the units now
displayed at the B.
C. Mining Museum (see below). Most of the
units are
in 24 and 36 gauges and are in poor condition. They
include about thirty Rocket Loaders, or compressed air front end
loaders/muckers, built by
EIMCO Corp. of Salt Lake City UT.
There are also many mine mules, including I I battery-electric
units in 18 gauge and five in 24 gauge. Among the builders
represented here are units
made by Goodman Mining Equipment
Co. of Chicago IL, Jeffrey Manufacturing Co. of Columbus OH,
Plymouth Locomotive Co. of Plymouth OH, EJMCO Corp. of Sail
Lake City UT, Atlas
Compressed Air Locomotive Co. of Sweden
and Canadian General Electric Co. of Toronto ON. There are also
many piles
of steel-bodied ore cars, 4-wheel chassis and frames.
This collection is constantly
changing as units are bought or sold,
or
cut up for scrap with oxy-acetylene torches. Scrap metal goes
out in open gondola cars
over a short spur line south of CP Rails
main line (at mile 25.2 west of Kamloops, in the Thompson
Subdivision of the Pacific Region). Recent sales have seen locomotives
sent to Kemano B.C.. to
Minneapolis MN and to Italy.
Page 114 RAIL CANADIEN
ABOVE: WesLnlin Resources Mancha 18 gauge 4-wheel LillIe Trammer 17
(with a driver to match its si
ze) outside the adit left over from lhe previous
Silback-Premier operations. Sa
lmon Valley, nOllh of Stewart, June 1990.
RIGHT: Unit 17 being driven back into storage inside the mine porlal
by the
chi
ef engineer. This line is now used only by geologists to check the ore body.
June 1990.
JUILLET -AOUT 1991
LEFT The unnumbered
General Electric 4-wheel
overhead-electric unit, used
as a line car for the power
lines, parked near the end
of
the track outside the SuI/ivan
Mil1eat Kimberley. September
1989.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 115
inside (he engineers cab of one of (he 42 gauge Mi(subishi
750 horsepower double-ended elec(ric locomo(ives used on
(he
rtll1 behleen Tide Lake and (he Grandue Mine, abou(i97i
PholO from Granduc Opera(ing Co.
Nelmacos
yard in Savona, showing the variety of rail slOck
stored there.infrol1l (from left to right) are: 4-wheel battelY­
electric unit, 4-wheel diesel-mechanical unit, another 4-
wheel battery unit, then two steel ore cars. The life-line
of the Grone/uc mine was the i6 km. tllnnel
connecting
the mine with the Tide Lake concel1lrator. Thi. is the
underground terminal at the mine, large enough to accommodate
an entire work train as well as repair shops, generators. offices
and otherfacilities. Shown is one
of the enclosed 55-passenger
cars (number
62) and two of the ore cars. about 1971.
Photo
fro/11 Granduc Operatillg Co.
Line-ups
of Rocket Loaders at Savona in September 1989. On
the right is a line
of 24 gauge versions; behind these is a
variety
of 36 gauge units. All are in a wide range of states of
repair.
Page 116 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
Parked in the dealers yard in Hope, in August 1989, are three 4-wheeled locomotives (from right
to left): North British built 30
gauge 15 ton unit number 15, Plymouth-built unnumbered unit with
locally-made protective steel
cover, also one of the Ruston & Hornsby units. All came from the
Giant Mascot Mines Ltd. operation to the northwest of here.
The other British-built Ruston & Hornsby unit, resting off rails in the Hope dealers yard. This
also came from the Giant Mascot Mines Ltd.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 117
In September 1989, Bavarian City Mining Railway 36 gauge
4-wheel diesel-mechanical unit number
1986 heads a two-car
passenger train out
of the depot onto the 2.5 km. of continuous
track. Note the
whitef/agsfor an extra The stock is ex-Hudson
Bay Mine.
MINE AND TUNNEL UNITS IN USE AT NON-MINE SITES
The Bavarian City Mining Railway (also known as the Kimberley
City Mining Railway)
is located in the Happy Hans Campground,
on Gerry Sorenson Way in nOlthwesl Kimberley. In 1978 the
Kimberley Railway and Steam Navigation
Co. was incorporated
by the Kimberley Chamber of Commerce. Rails and equipment
were located and transported
from the Hudson Bay Mine of
Cominco at Salmo,
30 km. east of Trail. This mine had been in
operation from 1973 to 1978, extracting lead/zinc ore which was
trucked to Trail for smelting. Two 4-wheel diesel-electric units
were restored
and numbered 1985 and 1986, to mark their dates of
first use
on the BCMR. Both weigh 8 tons, are powered by 4-
cylinder Deutz engines, and were built by lGA of Sweden in 1972
for
the HB Mine, where they carried numbers 2 and 4 respectively.
They
now operate over a 2.5 km. loop of 36 gauge track, hauling
passengers
in 4 passenger cars, home-built on the chassis of 4-
wheel steel ore cars (also ex-HB Mine), during
the summer
months. There are plans
to expand this tourist operation.
One
of the least likely places to house mining equipment is
Richmond, located on the low islands which comprise part of the
Fraser River delta. On one of these, Lulu Island, is the Cranberry
Farm Railway of
Art and Jack Savage. Located at 16300 Cambie
Road, about
15 km. south of Vancouver, the line has been
progressively extended since
1983 along the banks of the cranberry
bogs, which
are enclosed by earthen embankments around rectangular
basins where peat
was extracted in the past. The extensions have
brought the line
to its present length of about 5 km. over the last
eight years. This line
is a private family operation and is in service
only during
the cranberry harvest each year (around October 8 to
November 1), hauling about 1500 tons of fruit each season. The
three 24 gauge locomotives each haul seven 4-wheel flatcars
containing boxes of fruit along
the embankments around the field
edges
to a transhipment area on the road. There the boxes are
transferred
to trucks for the short haul to the Ocean Spray Cranberries
Ltd. plant
on No.6 Road. Two units came from Craigmont Mines
Ruston & HOll1sby number 3, one of three 24 gauge 4-wheel
locomotives
of the cral/berry farm in Richmond, stands ill jiont
of the PlymouthlGMC unl1llmbered unit. September 1988.
Two
of the Cranberry Farm Ry. units are lined up ready for
the harvest rush. Ruston & Hornsby 3 is on the left. while
the unnumbered Plymoll(hl
GMC is 011 (he right.
Ltd. (north of Merritt) in 1983: a Ruston & Hornsby Ltd. LDU 3-
cyJinderdiesel-mechanical 0[30
horsepower(serialnumber427806).
It was built in Lincoln England in 1958 for 24 gauge, then
converted
to 42 gauge and eventually reconverted to 24 gauge.
A second. Plymouth-built 4-wheel FMD unit (serial number 6196,
built
in July 1959) also ex-Craigmont, was re-engined with a
General Motors Corp. 3-cylinder diesel engine before delivery
to
Richmond. A third smaller4-wheel diesel-mechanical23 horsepower
unit built
by Hunslel Engine Co. of Leeds England (serial number
5286, built
in 1959) was bought in September 1988; its previous
history
is not known. There is also a 150 psi. live steam 4-4-0 on
the property. Built by Crown Metal Products Co. of Wyano PA in
the early 1980s and bought from a dealer in Minneapolis MN, it
is used once a year to haul a special train of three bogie coaches
containing the many Savage children
and grandchildren at the
annual family party held
in September.
In future, it may be possible to add two more units to this category,
when the compressed air locos at Chilliwack
and Savona are
coaxed back into action again (see below).
Page 118 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
MINE AND TUNNEL UNITS PRESERVED AND DISPLA YED
The largest collection of mine locos is on display at the British
Columbia Mining
Museum at Britannia Beach (Mount Sheer),
located 50 km. north
of Vancouver on the eastem side of beautiful
Howe Sound. This site was selected by the Britannia Beach Copper
Mining & Smelting Co. after copper was found there in 1888.
There has never been any direct rail access here, and all ore
concentrate left on an overhead
conveyor belt system from the mill
to a seaside storage dock for
carriage by coastal steamers, most of
it destined for the copper smelter at Tacoma W A. The Pacific Great
Eastern Railway (BC Rail since 1972) built along the
waters edge
in June 1956, on
Iy yards from the foot of the huge mill concentrator
(at mile 31.0
of the Squamish Subdivision, which runs south from
Squamish to North Vancouver port and the
Canadian National
Railways interchange). Today, long freight trains pass by, hauled
by BCRs diesels, with daily passenger service provided by three
to seven
RDCs, as well as the summer Royal Hudson excursion
train hauled by
ex-CPR 4-6-4 2860, or 2-8-0 3716. The first
mechanical transport system built at Britannia Beach was a 5
km.
aerial tramway built in 1905. A 36 gauge surface railway was built
in 1913-1914 and was fully operational to carry ore from late 1915.
As work progressed deeper underground, lines were laid in at
various levels from 1923 on, with
over 16 km. in operation in 1924.
Ownership
of the mine was acquired by U.S.-based Anaconda
Copper Co. in 1963 and remained so until 1974. The mine was
closed
down in November 1974, and the Mining Museum acquired
the property soon after.
There are now ten units on display, most
of them having been donated by Nelson Machinery Co. (Nelmaco
-then located
in North Vancouver), as follows, all being 4-wheel
except for one unit that
is so noted:
One 18 gauge loco:
-This unnumbered unit, on display at the
road entrance to the
Museum, is a compressed air front loader/mucker built by
EIMCO
of Salt Lake City UT. It was acquired from Nelmaco, but details
of it are not known.
Seven 24 gauge locos:

Number 21, built by H.K. Porter Co. of Pittsburgh PA in 1912 –
this is a
Pebrec type I O-ton compressed air loco, originally used
as the Canmore Mines Ltd.
21 in Canmore AB. It came via
Nelmaco in 1980.
-An unnumbered unit built as serial
number 592455 by Atlas
Copco
of Sweden, is a compressed air front end loader/mucker,
acquired by the Museum from a
Vancouver Island mine via
Nelmaco in July 1979.
-Another unnumbered unit built as serial
number 41 5137 by Atlas
Copco, and similar to that above, has operated at the display face
inside the mine since 1974. Acquired
in 1974, its previous history
is not known.
-An unnumbered compressed air
front endloader/mucker, built by
EIMCO as serial number 401-217, was acquired through the
Finning Tractor & Equipment Co.
of Spokane WAin 1986. It had
been used in a mine
in eastern Washington or Utah.
– A sister unit to that above was acquired from Anaconda Copper
as their
number 401. It is now operated in the tunnel at the mine
display face, having been acquired in 1974.

An unnumbered diesel-mechanical unit, built by Ruston &
Hornsby Ltd.
of Lincoln England in 1950 as a 7.5 ton loco, serial
number 349078. It was purcl1ased new by the Crows Nest Pass Co.
of Fernie for use in its mines there. Sold in 1964 to Vancouver Iron
&
Engineering Works, it came to the Museum in 1976 via
Nelmaco.
-An unnumbered bright yellow unit built by Mancha Locomotive
Works of Chicago IL is a 1.5 ton Little Trammer battery-electric
unit which hauls visitors into the
mine in three home-built 12-
passenger cars.
It was acquired in 1974 and its previous history is
not known.
One 30 gauge loco
-Number 36 was built in 1957 by the North British Locomotive Co.
of Glasgow Scotland, for the Lethbridge Coal Co. in Alberta. This
unit, serial number 27720, weighs 15 tons and could produce 100
horsepower from a Crossley diesel-mechanical engine. It is well­
travelled, having
come to the Museum via Dominion Coal Co.
(Alberta),
Giant Mascot Mines, Churchill Mines and Nelmaco. It
is displayed in front
of a false portal above the Museum entrance
with a 42 gauge Granby Car, a steel side-dumping 4-wheel ore
car from Stewart. Both vehicles were acquired in 1974 from
Nelmaco.
One 36 gauge loco:
-An
unnumbered 8-wheel diesel-mechanical front loader/mucker
was acquired in 1979 from Nelmaco. It was built by the Goodman
Mining Equipment Co. of Chicago IL as serial number 359 of type
75-1500A.
This large unit is displayed on the Industrial Road with
all the others not specifically located above.
There is also a wide variety of mining rolling stock on display in
the concentrator and around the grounds
of the Mining Museum.
The Atchelitz Threshermens Association on Lickman Avenue in
Chilliwack (80
km. east of Vancouver) has a single 36 gauge
compressed air 4-wheelunit, number4 built in 1903 by H.K. Porter
Co. of Pittsburgh PA. It was acquired in March 1983 by Mr. Al
Cook as number 5 from the Ginter display on Westminster
Highway (Richmond). It is now part of the Chilliwack Antique
Power Land display of (largely) agricultural equipment, which is
open to the public for only two days each august. Attempts
have
been made since 1985 to install a gasoline fuel engine and a chain
drive to permit operation on a small loop of track. This unit was
built
originaJJy for the Elk River Colliery
of Fernie as its number
4, then went to a Vancouver Island quarry operation. Frorn there,
it went to Richmond in 1981. The ATA also owns the engine from
the Canadian Northern
Railways SS Canora that was last used on
the CNR Delta (Tilbury Island) to Victoria train ferry route. It also
owns an
ex-CN caboose that was formerly on display at the Surrey
Fairgrounds.
There is supposed to be a 36 gauge GE overhead electric (250
volt) mine mule on display in the Kimberley Museum, but it has
not been seen in recent years. Not far away,
just east of Cranbrook,
at the junction of highways 3 and 93, there is a small display of a
36 gauge compressed air locomotive with two
4-wheel steel­
bodied ore cars.
Their histories are not known.
At the Creston
Tourist Infocentre on highway 3 there is a 36 gauge
0-4-0ST built in June 1913 by Porter for an unknown owner. It
became Dutton & Grant Contractors Ltd. number 30 and is
believed to have worked
in rail tunnel construction. It was then
withdrawn from service and displayed in Ryan Pioneer
Park in
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 119
The Porter-built 4-wheel compressed air locomotive on display
at Elko
is very similar 10 this Liolls Club piggy bank seell ill
Colemall Alberta in September 1989.
Yahk B.C. in the early 1960s, then transferred to its present site
in
October 1983. However, somewhere along the way, it lost its
coupling rods on both sides.
A 1901 Porter-built 36
gauge compressed air 4-wheeler is on
display at Elko B.C., at the
junction of highways 3 and 93 (30 km.
south
of Fernie). Accompanied by several 4-wheel ore cars, its
history also is not known.
The City of Fernie in the southeast of the province, at the entrance
to Crowsnest Pass, owns five
mine locomotives, which must be
some sort
of a record for a city of this small size! This is not 36
gauge diesel-mechanical unit (serial number 3428 of 1947),
acquired in the
1970s from the Elk River Colliery; and, finally, a
Porter-built 24
gauge 0-4-0ST, built in 1904, from the same
source. The first of the trio was replaced on display in Rotary Park
with a high-sided steel ore car in the spring
of 1990.
The Fort Steele Provincial Park (12 km. north of Cranbrook) has
another 36 gauge Porter-built 4-wheel compressed air unit,
acquired in the
1970s from the Elk River Colliery, where it was
bought new and carried
number 1. It has been moved several times,
but now sits close to the
passenger depot of the East Kootenay
Railway Co. This railway operates in slimmer over a loop of
standard gauge track, using 0-4-4T Dunrobin (from Scotland),
Shay 1 15 Robert E. Swanson, or B.C. government 2-6-2 1077
(both
of which originally served in Vancouver Island logging
camps).
The Happy Hans Campground in Kimberley contains two areas of
preserved mining stock, as well as the operating Bavarian City
Mining
Railway (described above). In one is unit number 69 from
the
Sullivan Mine, carrying serial number 46253, but her builder
and date are not known. Acquired in 1984 from Cominco, this unit
is a
36 gauge battery-electric unit producing 3 horsepower at 10
volts A.C.
or 15 volts D.C. Nearby are 4-wheel mine passenger and
ore cars, all from the Sullivan Mine, which
is visible across the
intervening valley.
The Nelson Machinery Co. of Savona has been mentioned before.
Outside its offices on display is a 24 gauge Gardner-Denver
Mining Equipment Co. (of Denver CO) front loader/mucker
(serial number 142119) driven by compressed air. It sits with a 4-
wheel steel-body ore car. Borh were previously on display in front
ofNelmacos office in North Vancouverfrom 1970 to 1988; their
prior history is not known. surprising, however, as Fernie was the headquarters
of
the Great Northems Crows Nest Pass Coal Co. (1901-
1957) which operated 37 km.
of 36,42 and standard
gauge trackage in 1924, the 36
gauge Elk River Colliery
Ltd. (1903-1965) and
GNRs standard gauge Morrisey
Fernie & Michel Railway (1904-1957).
Two units are
currently on display
at the East Fernie Travel Infocentre
on highway 3, with a variety of ore cars. They are both
unnumbered and were built
in Britain for 36 gauge
track: a 4-wheel diesel-mechanical unit built by Hunslet
Engine Co.
of Leeds Yorkshire (serial number 4131 of
1949), while the second is a rare J 00 horsepower 6-wheel
unit built by Hudswell Clarke & Co.
Railway Foundry of
Leeds (serial number DM641 of 1948). The fonner is
displayed with a 42 gauge steel
hopper car, while the
latter
is connected to a train of four wooden 4-wheel
coal cars.
The former unit came from the City Hall
display in 1989, where it was sent from the Elk River
Colliery in 1965.
The6-wheelerhas a Huwood Hydswell
plate across its radiator nose and
came from the International
A 36 gauge HUllslet 4-wheel diesel-mechanical ullit from the Elk River
Colliery
is paired with a 42 gauge steel hopper car at the East Fernie
Travel llljocenire. Photographed in September, 1989.
Coal & Coke plant in Coleman AB. Huwood was a Canadian
importer/dealer
in industrial locomotives. All of the other three
locos were in the Rotary Park display at 7th street and highway 3
until 1989, when they were placed in storage
in the city works yard.
They are all unnumbered 4-wheellocos: a Porter-built 36 gauge
0-4-0ST (serial number 2438 of December 190 I) acquired in 1970
from the Crows Nest Pass Coal Co. as its
number I; a Hunslet-built
The Nanaimo Museum (behind The Bastion) has on display in Phil
J. Piper Park a 36 gauge 0-6-0ST, built by the Baldwin Locomotive
Works of Philadelphia PA in March 1889 (serial number 9869). It
was
bought new as Wellington Collieries number 5, then it was
transfened to Union Collieries as number 9. It was rebuilt for a
while
(1916-1935) as a standard gauge 0-6-2T, then reconverted to
36
gauge and acquired by Canadian Collieries Ltd. who numbered
Page 120 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
it j 9, Victoria. Retired
in 1952,itwenttoNanaimo
for display, painted as
Wellington Collieries
·Wellington. All the
companies named were
part of James Dunsmuirs
empire of coal mines
and transportation
companies (including the
EsquimaJt & Nanaimo
Railway at one time) in
southeastern Vancouver
Island.
The Rossland Gold Mine
and Museum complex is
10 km.
southwest of Trail,
at the junction
of highways
3A and 3B, located in the
Le Roi
Mine property. In
and around the
Black Bear
entrance are several mine
units on display, with other
pi
eces of narrow and
standard gauge restored
rolling stock, including an
Elk River Colliery number 4. a 1903 Porler 36 gauge compressed air 4-wheellocomotive, is 011 display
with a couple
of wood-side coal cars just south of the East Kootenay Railway depot in Fort Steele Provincial
Park. Photo taken
in September, 1989.
ex Canadian Pacific caboose. Two 18 gauge 4-wheel overhead
electric trolley pole units are
permanently coupled. These are
numbers
34 and 35, mine mules built by Jeffrey Manufacturing Co.
of Columbus OH in July 1900. The mine opened in 1890, producing
copper, then from 1904 to 1942 the main product was gold. The
mine was serviced by both the Great Northerns Red Mountain
Railway (1895-1922) from
the U.S. border and Spokane W A, and
by the Canadian Pacific
s standard gauge Rossland Branch (1899-
1966) from the
smelter at Trail. Two other 4-wheel 18 gauge
compressed air front loader/muckers are also on display (both
having been donated by Cominco): one is Gardner-built (serial
number 124526), the other is EIMCO-built (serial number 1002 I).
Just east of Savona there is a single 24 gauge 10 ton compressed
air unit owned by Mr. Shane Sherman. He acquired it from
Canmore Mines of Coleman AB, where it was purchased new from
Porter in May 1912 as serial number 1451. Mr. Shelman is
converting the unit into steam operation.
The Stewart Museum in northwestern B.C.
has on display on
Columbia Street, Stewart a
24
gauge 4-wheel compressed air front loader/
mucker. It canies no number, but it was built
by
EIMCO of Salt Lake City UT as a Rocket
Shovel,
serial number 10162, for the Premier
Gold Mine. It was acquired by the Museum in
the early 1980s, together with a variety of 4-
wheel steel-bodied ore cars.
Cominco 36 gauge battery-electric locomotive number 69 sits in the Happy Hans
Campground
in Kimberley. in September 1989, with a variety of mining stockjrol11lhe
nearby Sullivan Mine.
By the Three ValJey Gap Motor Inn (20 km.
west of Revelstoke) there is a small 24 gauge
4-wheel steam-loco outline unit powered by a
gas-mechanical
engine, lettered number 102
of 3VGRR. Its origin is unknown, but for
some years (1970-1980) it ran over a circuit of
track tluough a Western Ghost Town, hauling
tluee
small passenger cars built on 4-wheel
are car chassis. Nearby (along highway I) are
three standard
gauge coaches on display, one
each ex Canadian National Railways, Canadian
Pacific Railway and Grand Trunk Pacific
Railway.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 121
There is also an unconfirmed report that there is a 24
gauge 4-wheel battery-electric mine mule in private
storage
on Sumas Mountain, about 75 km. east of
Vancouver. This unit is believed to be the fifth loco
owned
by Clayburn Industries of Abbotsford (known
as Clayburn Brickworks and Coal Mines from 1905
to 1928). Built in 1920, it was used until CI closed
down
in 1976, and has been in storage ever since. The
local community talks
of moving it to a display site
in Abbotsford.
Displayed under cover at the Black Bear entrance 10 the Le Roi Gold Mine (part
of the Rossland Gold Mine and Museum Complex) are Iwo 18 gauge Jeffrey-buill
4-wheel overhead-electric mine mules, numbers
34 (lnd 35, both datingjrom 1900.
Comillco presented
them to the Museum in the 1970s.
This is typical of the uncertainties that cloud the
history
of any kind of equipment used by the B.C.
mining and tunnelling industry. Frequent changes
of
owners (who often contracted for just one job), plus
the few records which remain
of the past operations
of mining companies, force the researcher into the
locomotives
of mining and tunnelling companies to
use locally-published histories, photographs, mine
plans and large-scale ma
ps as his most useful sources
of information. That, of course, is part of the fascination
(and the
frustration) of industrial archaeology
At Hill 60 on highway 1 (near Duncan on Vancouver Island) there
is a 36 gauge 0-4-0ST on display inside the Whippletree Junction
Mall. This Porter-built loco (serial number 3022 of April 1904) is
painted
as number 1 of the BRRCo. (Burnell Rail Road Co.). It
was acquired in 1969 by Mr. Roger Burnell.of Vancouver, who had
it brought down
by barge and road from the Yukon Territory for
restoration.
It ran for the Detroit & Yukon Mining Co. of Dawson
City YT, a subsidiary
of Yukon Consolidated Gold Corp., which
also owned the Nonhern Light Power
& Transportation Co. It was
retired from service
in 1911 and remained unused until recovered
by
Mr. Burnell. It is a sister to the loco restored in 1985-1986 by
Mr. Ken Hynek of Surrey and exhibited outside the Yukon
Pavilion at Expo-86
in Vancouver. This latter locomotive (serial
number 3025)
is now back on display again in Minto Park, Dawson
YT.
Finally, an 18 gauge front loader/mucker is on display at the
Woodbury Mining Museum on highway
31 about 15 km. south of
Kaslo. Built by EIMCO, its history and that of the accompanying
two steel-bodied ore cars are not known, like so many other items
of
displayed mining and llInnelling locomotives.
CONCLUSION
The dispositions of many mining and tunnelling locomotives used
in British Columbia are not known. The ten 42 gauge 35 ton
locomotives of Selkirk Tunnel Constructors, used on the west end
of the CP Rail Mount MacDonald project from 1984 to 1988 were
believed sold
to an unknown dealer in late 1988, but there has been
no word of them since. The eight units used by Atkinson
Commonwea
lth Construction Co. from 1982 to 1984 on BCRs
Dease Lake construction project are not accounted for either. Five
went
to Manning Kumagai Joint Venture for the Mount MacDonald
east end job, but three are not accounted for; they may still
be in
storage in Chetwynd.
MAJOR SOURCES USED
British Columbia Archives and Records Service (BCARS), Victoria
B.C.: B.C. Department
of Railways Annual Reports, 1912 to 1953;
B.C. Department
of Mines Annual Reports, 1915 to 1960; Historical
Photographs Division -Bordertown, Montgomery and Roozeboom
Collections, Cities and Towns Files, B.C. Railways and Engines
File
s.
Burrows, Roger: RAILWAY MILEPOSTS OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA. North Vancouver B.C.: Railway Mileposts Books,
Vol. I, 1981, Vol.
2,1984.
Churcher, Colin J. et al: CANADIAN TRACKSIDE GUIDE 1991.
Ottawa ON: By town Railway Society, 1991.
Davies, David Lt.: THEBRITANNIA COPPER MfNERAILWA
Y.
Vancouver B.C.: Pacific Coast Division of the Canadian Railroad
Historical Association, 1977, second edition 1991.
Green, Mervyn T.: BRITISH COLUMBIA INDUSTRIAL
LOCOMOTIVES. Richmond B.c.: Green Press, 1988.
Ingbretse
n, Roger: CPR, KINGSGATE TO KIMBERLEY. Glendale
CA: Pacific RailNews, October 1990.
Jewish Community Centre, Vancouver B.C.: Leonard Frank
Photograph Collection.
Perso
nal interviews 1989 to 1991: Kathleen Bogas of Kamloops,
Jay Greenwood
of Savona, Bob Holebof Abbotsford, Gail McIntyre
of Stewart, Alf Randall of Stewart, Susan Rutherford of West
Vancouver, Art and Jack Savage
of Richmond, Dan Tanaka of
Kimberley.
Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver B.C.: Frost Photograph
Collection; Railway
& Industry Photographs.
Vancouver Publ
ic Library, Vancouver B.C.: Historical Photographs
Section -Railroads, Mines
& Mining Files.
N.B.
All photographs are by the author, unless stated otherwise.
Page 122 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
The St. Clair Tunnel Centennial
1891-1991
Today the Channel Tunnel, connecting England and France is much in the news. Already the first bore has been holed through, and
within a few years it will be possible to ride a through train from
London to Paris. One hundred years ago a tunnel was built on this
continent that was
just as much of a revolutionary feat of engineering for its time as the Channel Tunnel is for today. There are three
major similarities between the St.
Clair Tunnel of 1890 and the Channel Tunnel of 1990. Both are international, both pass under heavily­
travelled bodies
of water, and both were the latest state of the art when built. One hundred years later, the St. Clair Tunnel is still
in regular service, and it is fitting that the centennial celebrations be called The Year of the TU!U1el. We are fortunate to be able to
print this collection
of papers, presented by Gerry Elder on May 4, 1991, together with some contemporary drawings, as a salute to the
first hundred years
of this great achievement of nineteenth century engineering, still in use today.
THE ST. CLAIR TUNNEL
By CG.Elder
Sarnia Historical Society, July 1989.
The year 1991 is the 100th anniversary
of the completion of the SI. Clair tunnel,
one
of the greatest engineering feats of
the age.
By the 1880s, there was a keen
competition between the railways to
handle the dressed
meat traffic from the
Swift Abattoirs in
Chicago to the Atlantic
seaboard.
The Grand Trunk Railway, by
its willingness to
provide refrigerator
cars and the necessary icing facilities,
was able to capture
much of this traffic
in competition with the Vanderbilt lines.
This was handled at the western end by
their subsidiary, the
Chicago and Grand
Trunk Railway, to Port Huron and by car
ferries from Port Huron to Point Edward.
The ferry operation could handle 14 cars
in
15 minutes, but even with the use of an
ice-breaker
in winter, delays were often
experienced that
could not be tolerated
in the transportation
of sllch a perishable
commodity as fresh meat.
A tunnel under the St.
Clair River had
been investigated as early as the
J 850s.
In 1883, the old reports were reviewed
and further studies and test borings
made.
These indicated a suitable location for a
tunnel
in the blue clay above solid rock
about three miles
downstream from the
ferry operation.
The St. Clair Tunnel
Company was formed
in 1886, and work
began in January 1889. The actual
tunnelling was done by shields within
which the men
worked. These were
advanced by hydraul ic pressure as the
work proceeded. Similar, but less
sophisticated shields had been used on a
….. _ ………. -…….. .
-, ….
ST.GLAIR
::.-:<;:.:::::::: .............. .
By purchasIng tIckets to Port Huron and
beyond vIa the peoples ffivorite and
reliable line, the
A Grand Trunk adleJtisel11el1t dated July, 1894.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 123
. . . I-um shaft: R, brick Air llhafts: C. cuttiug:-.: DI), lJIIlkhc.:a,d .! (11 -:~Iit)1I oflllllllll Hlld rin.r
L ::;ectloual eleatlC?ll ar
d
~1.an ofll~~leu otP~rt ~I~OU ;ud ~aruia !)howing position oftuunel. 5. Section auu piau 01 ,ron shm·lJfshart.
,:; Map ShowIUg oca lOU. do 6. Segment ofca~l irouot vbich the tunuel is composed.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE ST. CLAJR TUNNEL.
Drawillgs illustrating the construction of the St. Clair TUllnel. Originally published in Scientific American, reprinted in
the Dominion Illustrated, October 10, 1891.
much smaller scale in England and the United States. The shields
for the SI.
Clair tunnel were designed by Joseph Hobson, the chief
engineer of the Grand Trunk, based on earlier designs. They were
both fabricated
by the Hamilton Bridge and Tool Works and
assembled in place,
one on either side of the river, and lowered into
the excavations that had been prepared for them.
They were each
2l.5 feet in diameter and propeJled by 24 hydraulic jacks. As the
workers within the
shelter of the shield tore down the face of the
clay, the spoil was passed back to other crews who cleared it away
for
removal to the surface. As the shields advanced, follow-up
crews lined the tunnel with cast iron plate sections
whose joints
were
caulked and waterproofed. Shifts worked continuously, and
ten feet
per day was the average advance. When the bores from
each side dipped under the river, thick brick bulkheads were built
near each end
of the tunnel and the air pressure increased substantially
inside the bore to
prevent the incursion of water, wet clay and gas.
On August 30, 1890, the shields from either side of the river met
in
exact alignment and the dicey part of the operation was
complete. It would be another year, however, before the approaches
at each end were completed and the tunneJ made ready for
operation.
The first official train passed through on September 19,
1891.
The over all cost had been $2,700,000 of which the Canadian
government had paid about 14%. The tunneJ meant a saving of 30
minutes running time and about $50,000 per year in ferry costs.
The total1ength, portal to portal, is 6028 feet (1837.3 metres).
Page 124 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
This is but a brief outline based on information from the references
quoted below.
One of the members of the Sarnia Historical Society
is working on a comprehensive book on the St. Clair Tunnel, its
construction and operation, which
is expected to be available in
time for the centennial
in September. The St. Clair Tunnel continues
to be a most important link between Canada and the United States,
IJandling all but the tallest
of rail freight traffic, not to mention the
daily Amtrak/YIA passenger train, the International,
between
Toronto and Chicago.
Sources: Stevens, G.R.
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS,
Vol. I, Clarke Irwin and Company, J960.
Pinkpank, Jerry A.,
TRAINS, Vol. 24, No. II, September 1964,
pages 36 to 44.
INSTRUMENT WORK IN CONSTRUCTION
When one learns that the tunnelling shields met each within 1/4
inch vertically and dead on horizontally, one marvels at the
survey
instrument work utilized to attain such precision. The only good
description the writer has seen
of how this was accomplished is in
a chapter on the construction of the tunnel in the following work:
Patton,
W.M., A TREATISE ON CIVIL ENGINEERING
John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1895, First Edition.
Following
is the writers condensation of the description of this
work from the text,
beginning on page 830, paragraph 738.
Locating the Centre Line of the Tunnel.
At each of the two outside ends of the excavations for shield
placement, a 3 foot square brick pier was embedded at a depth
of
12 feet below grade and capped with a cut stone block 2 feet thick.
A theodolite, with objective lenses 2 1/2 inches
in diameter, was
placed
on the top
of each pier and protected with a weather resistant
housing.
These piers were 2100 yards apart and in direct line of
sight to each other. Each instrument was set to bisect the object
glass
of the other.
An ordinary 7 inch Stackpole transit was set up at the mouth
of the
tunnel and adjusted until
it was exactly on the sight line of the large
theodolite.
The small transit was sighted on the object-glass of the
theodolite for a back-sight, and reversed to prolong the line into the
tunnel.
This provided an accurate method of keeping the line
straight until the brick bulkhead was reached.
To carry the line through and beyond the bulkhead, a cast iron pipe,
12 inches in diameter and 25 feet long, was built into the eight-foot
thick brick bulkhead on the centre line
of the tunnel. The pipe was
provided with a hinged heavy glass plate, an iron protective plate
and a valve at each end, thus becoming
an air-lock. Near the end
of each pipe, a set of adjustable cross-wires was mounted in a ring.
To adjust these wires, a transit was set up outside the bulkhead and
adjusted to the
exact centre line of the tunnel, the iron plate and
glass plate on the outside were then removed and the cross-wires
adjusted on the
exact centre line, the iron plate only was removed
on the inside end
of the pipe and those cross-wires aligned. The
cross-wires were illuminated by a hand-held electric light. The
outside glass was then replaced, tile transit carried through a large
air-lock and set up inside the bulkhead.
The inside glass was
opened and the transit aligned on the illuminated cross wires to
allow the transit to be collimated. By this method, the transit is
always sighted
on naked cross-wires and not subject to any
possible distortion from the glass plate. The transit was then
reversed and the line prolonged beyond the air-lock.
The position of the centre of the shield and plane of the bulkhead
was tested every day and, if the shield was found to be out
of line,
it was forced into its proper place by
varying the pressures on the
appropriate hydraulic jacks.
It was important that when the shields met, there should be no
errors
in alignment or levels from the two ends. To ensure against
such errors, the shields were stopped
when about 25 feet apart and
a six-foot drift, lined with timber, was run between the two. Proper
measurements were made through this drift to verify the accuracy
of the work. As a result, when the two shields met, the error in
levels was only 1/4 inch, and in the line, unmeasurable.
FACTS ABOUT THE TUNNEL
Total length of tunnel, portal to portal, 6028 feet (1837.3 metres).
The tunnel is located at about mid-point of a 40 foot (J 2 metre)
layer
of blue clay, interspersed with gravel, that lies between the
river bed and a layer
of gas-bearing soft shale.
At its lowest point, the top
of the tunnel is 40 feet below the average
surface
of the river and there is about 8 to 10 feet (2.5 to 3 metres)
of soft river bed clay above the cast iron lining.
The cast iron lining is made up of 4000 rings of 13 segments each,
plus a key piece at top.
The total weight is 28,000 tons (25,454
tonnes).
The lining is held together by 739,230 bolts, each 7/8 inch
(22.2 mOl.) in diameter.
The segments of the lining installed from Port Huron were cast in
Detroit, and those installed from Sarnia were cast in Hamilton. All
were drilled and machined by machine shops on sites.
80-ton Tunnelling shields were prefabricated
in Hamilton and
assembled at each site.
The railway had to pay import duty 011 the
shield used from the Port Huron end!
The total work force was from 600 to 700 workers. The diggers
were
paid
17 1/2 cents per hour, the erectors received 15 cents per
hour while the others were paid 12 1/2 cents. When the men started
working under air pressure, a bonus
of one dollar per day was
added.
Electric lighting, good ventilation and portable
pumps at working
faces made for exceedingly good conditions for such an undertaking.
When air pressure was used, the work area was quite
dryas well.
Men worked under air pressure of up to three atmospheres. Rapid
decompression at the air locks caused
some cases of the bends
(then called tunnel grippe) and tluee deaths.
Work was continued around the clock with no interruptions.
Actual excavation took one year
(August 1889 -August 1890).
All excavation work was performed with hand tools. A total
of
2, 196,400cubicfeet(62, 195 cubic metres) of material was excavated
in making the bore.
The estimated cost of $2,500,000 was the basis of the Canadian
government grant
of ~375,000 (intended to be 15%). The SI. Clair
Tunnel
Company floated a Mortgage Bond issue of $2,500,000 in
the
State of Michigan, the largest ever issued there up to that time,
to
cover the cost of construction. The actual cost of construction
was $2,700,000.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 125
,
. i: J(5~r~·;!(e:~.:·o·rtl~~~~iii~I~t.. Sh.?,~i~g·,h~Oli:i·D~~~ T~m~~ . 1. lhe ~)~ttld 11I~lnce on g;lde .. ;>; rnlennI ~ te~ 01 .. hiehl AlIfl Iltfuel
~_-LOVtt3ng Orlhe_~hl~~d to the In:ad1Dg. _. __ – _. -;; -:: _
.::.~:C:OHST.RU(?rION.~~.:rHi::.8C_C.LA~R:1-U~.H..u:~,:·:>
Originally published in Scientific American. Reprinted in the Dominion Illustrated, October 10. 1891
Page 126 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
JOSEPH HOBSON (1834-1917)
Joseph Hobson was born in Guelph Township, Upper Canada, on
March 4, 1834, Educated in the local schools and at Toronto, he
served his apprenticeship as a Land
Surveyor and was qualified as
such in both Ontario and the Dominion,
After qualification, he first entered the service of Gzowski and
Macpherson, who had the construction contract with the Grand
Trunk Railway for the building of the line from Toronto to Guelph
and eventually to Point Edward, face,
The shields met on August 30,1890, but five days previously
an
opening had been shovelled through between the two, and
Hobson and a number of others walked through, Completion of the
bore was the tricky part of the operation, and the Grand Trunk did
not let the
contract for the excavation of the approaches until 12
days before the shields
met, for until then there was not full
assurance that the bore could be successfully completed, It was to
be anoth
er year before all necessary work was completed, and the
official
opening took place on September 18 and 19, 1891.
While Hobson was much involved with
the construction
of the tunnel, there is no
evidence that he lived in Sarnia, as all
correspondence relating to the tunnel and
other projects
in hand althe time originated
from his office
in Hamilton, Concurrent
with the tunnel project, basic work was
carried
out on the original suspension
bridge at Niagara Falls that had been built
by the
Great Western in J 855, In this
project, the original ma
sonry towers were
replaced by iron towers without any
disruption in traffic, Leaving this firm, he prac
tised as a land
surveyor for
some time in Berlin (now
Kitchener) and Guelph, He later returned
to railway work and, until
June 1869, was
engaged as an assistant engineer on various
lines
in Nova Scotia, Ontario and Michigan,
From June 1869 to April 1870, he was
engineer on the construction of the
Wellington Grey
& BruceRailway, leaving
that position
to again join Sir Casimir S,
Gzowski as Resident Engineer on the
Inte
rnational Bridge between Bridgeburg
(Fort Erie) and Black Rock just north of
Buffalo, This was a railway bridge being
built for the Grand
Trunk Railway, and
for which
Gzowski was the Chief Engineer.
This project presented a challenge as it
was the first bri
dge across the swirling
waters
of the Niagara River in which the
main supporting piers were
in the river.
Until the
construction of the Peace Bridge
in 1927, it was the only bridge across the
Niagara
River at Fort Erie,
MR. JOSEPH HOBSON.
In j 896, the year in which he was made
Chief Engineer for all Grand Trunk
operations, he put in place the construction
of the Niagara Railway Steel Arch Bridge
at Niagara Falls to replace the original
suspension bridge, Known technically as
a two hinged spandrel-braced
arch, it
was built out from the two walls
of the
gorge directly below thesllspension bridge
so that the old bridge rested directly on
Joseph Hobson, designer of Ihe SI, Clair Tunnel,
Dominion IlIuslroled, OC/ober 10, 1891,
With the opening of the International Bridge to traffic in November
1873,
Hobson joined the Great Western Railway, first as Assistant
Ch
ief Engineer and two years later as ChiefEngineerwith headquarters
in Hamilton. Upon the absorbtion of the Great Western by its bitter
rival, the Grand
Trunk, in August 1882, Hobson became Chief
Engineer of all the Grand Trunk lines west of Toronto, with his
offices
in Hamilton, and he served in this capacity until February
I, 1896, when he became Chief Engineer for the whole system,
It was
during this period that Joseph Hobson was responsible for
one of the greatest feats of the age, the construction of the SI. Clair
Tunnel between Sarnia, Ontario and Port Huron, Michigan, This
undertaking was entirely engineered and carried out under the
direction
of Hobson and his staff and financed by the Grand Trunk
and the GovernmentofCanada. Many original tunnelling techniques
were devised by
Hobson to complete what was then the longest
submarine tunnel in the world. The shields used to protect the
workings
and keep back the wet blue clay, and often gassy gravel
strata through which the bore was dug, were designed and constructed
under his direction, Air pressure
of up to three atmospheres was
employed in the deepest section to prevent the incursion of water,
clay, gravel and gas. Electric l
ighting was supplied to provide what
was, for the time, a dry, bright and relatively
safe work space. The
instrument work was outstanding, for when the shields met they
were only
one quarter of an inch out of alignment vertically and
dead on horizontally. Hobson himself was frequently at the work the n
ew arch, In this way, the two were integrated and the work
completed with little interruption of traffic, The new bridge
carried a double track railway line on the upper deck and a two-lane
roadway on the
lower level with the same alignment of approaches
as the original span,
Soon after his appointment as Chief Engineer of the Grand Trunk,
Hobson was responsible for upgrading of the Victoria Bridge at
Montreal.
This bridge, of tubular design resting on 24 masonry
piers
in the SI. Lawrence River, had been completed in 1859. The
bridge, carrying a single track within the tube, was inadequate for
the weight
and volume of traffic that had developed. Under
Hobsons direction, open work spans resting on the original piers
were constructed
around the tube which was afterwards dismantled.
The improved structure was four times the width of the original
bridge and
provided not only a double-track railway but also
carriageways
and foot paths. During al terations traffic was never
halted for more than two hours, The new bridge was opened
December 13, 1898, It was renamed the Victoria Jubilee Bridge
and is stiU in use today on the original piers built in the 1850s,
Though the head office of the Grand Trunk was in Montreal,
Hobson continued to reside in Hamilton, He remained Chief
Engineer of the Grand Trunk until August 1907 when he became
Consulting Engineer for the company.
Joseph Hobson was one of the first members of the Canadian
Society of Civil Engineers, of which he was councillor in 1888,
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 127
1891 and 1892. He was also a member of the American Society of
Civil Engineers and of the Institution of Civil Engineers in
England. At the time of his death in Hamilton, on December 19,
1917, one son, Robert, was President of the Steel Company of
Canada
in Hamilton. Another, J.1. Hobson, was Treasurer of
Canada Steamship Lin
es Ltd. in Montreal.
Hobsons career and works are best summarized
by an article in the
Hamilton Spectator
at the time of his death, viz:
His life was full of the noblest and grandest conquests over the
conditions and forces
of nature. At a ripe old age, well earned
repose came to him
in comparative retirement; yet still the benefit
of his accumulated and sound judgement was sought and cheelfully
yielded. Most God-like among men are the rare spirits to whom is
given in large degree the power approaching that
of creation.
REFERENCES
CANADIAN RAILWAY AND MARINE WORLD, January 1918,
page 22.
Jackson and Burtniak, RAILWAYS OF THE NIAGARA
PENINSULA, Mika, 1978.
Stevens, CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS, Volumes I a
nd
2, Clarke Irwin, 1960 and 1962.
Pinkpank, TRAINS,
VoL 24, No. I I, September 1964, pp. 36 to 44.
Discussions with Clare Gilbert, author of a forthcoming book on
theSt. ClairTunnel,entitledRAILS
w
o
.z~ . ff. 4 d ,
~ .;:?VV (/ ( ., _ c-. ../0/ A:~y~_c<,,{,<,,_____,_
~£–.:;Zf·,.,~ J,-::~.-<1-~- LdrJ~. J. LW
W ACCEPTING THE CONDITIONS ENDORSEO HEREON. WI L • CARRIED rREE ON Iii E
PASSENGER TRAIN$AND STEAMBOATS OF THE C ~~AMEOON BACK
HEREOF. DURING THE YEAR ~.tN?D( M ~893.
~-// _ /~ Jr ,/ c.t[~
//.~ ..7 ~
• ,. –,: ~,,-.-… -.. -.. –.. ~..–&,-,,,I/fru,,,,p,,,
A Grand Trunk pass for Lilies West of St. Clair Tunnel for J 893,
showing a fine engraving
of the tunnel portal. However the
inscription shown over the
portal is incorrect.
Historical Representative of the CSCE; Pat Ross, Manager of CN s
Southe
rn Ontario District. They were joined by throngs of well­
wishers who gathered outside the VIA station
to witness the first
public viewing of a new local landmark.
What
stJikes one first about this rather unusual Jllonument is the
seven-and-a-half foot high arch anchored in concrete footings
almost 20 feet
apart -and were not talking about a golden arch
with
lights -this one is made up of six 1100-pound tunnel segments
that were l
eft over from the
construction
100 years ago. BENEATH THE RIVER
to be
published By Boston Mills Press
in 1991.
THEYEAROFTHETUNNEL
Basking in the shadow of the half
circle
is the pedestal which houses
the
historical plaque. Thededication
reads
in part: The St. Clair Tunnel
Shield Driven
In Compressed Air
And
Lined With Cast-Iron
Segments -Construction 1888-
1891 .
INAUGURATION OF THE
MONUMENT AND PLAQUE
On August 30, 1990, the St. Clair
Tunnel, and the engineer who
designed
it, were paid special ttibute
in Sarnia by the unveiling of a
plaque and monument in their
honour.
The bronze plaque, presented
to
Canadian National Railways by
the Canadian Society for Civil
Engineering,
recognized the efforts
and perseverance of Joseph
Hobson, Chi
ef Engineer, the man
credited with designing the
me
thods of construction and
ingenuity of completing the
s
eemingly impossible task of
building the worlds first
subaqueous railway tunne
l.
The official unveiling party were
Mayor Mike Bradley of Sarnia;
Mayor Mary Brooks of Port Huron;
Martin Jones, Vice-President of
the CSCE; Jan Feberwee P. Eng.,
DONT FORGET THESE DATES
July 10, 1991
6 oclock P.M. -Downtown Port Huron.
International Day Parade
Theme: Tunnel Through Time.
September 19, 1991
12 oclock noon. -Sarnia/port Huron Stations
Centennial Celebration.
Recreating the events
of 100 years ago today,
and the first official train through the St. Clair
River Railway Tunnel.
For Further Information write:
Year of the Tunnel
817 Danbury Cresco
Sarnia, Ontario
N7S 4L7
Canada 2624 Conner Street
OR Port Huron, MI
48060
U.S.A.
The official ceremony was
coordinated
by aPort Huron/Sarnia
group of
railway enthusiasts and
historians who have banded
together
to form the St. Clair River
Tunnel Centennial Committee.
They
have deemed August 30th,
the day in 1890 when the tunnel
shields met
under the river, as a
kick-off for the
Year of the
Tunnel.
A group s
pokesperson says that
the special events will continue
for more than a year and will
culminate w
ith the grand finale on
September 19, 1991, which will
mark the 100th anniversary of the
official opening. Organizers are
planning a re-creation of the events
of the day, including a special
passenger train through the tunnel.
Page 128 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
The Restoration of CPR 7077
By Ken Carroll
A view of 7077, just out of the shop, 011 exhihition at the Canadian Il11ernatiollai Trade Fair in Toronto ill 1948.
Calladian Pacific photo.
In 1984, CP Rail donated its retired 1000 horse-power diesel­
electric
switcher No. 7077 to the Canadian Railway Museum.
When
outshopped by Montreal Locomotive Works (MLW) on
May 30, 1948, this 5-2 switcher, carrying MLW builders number
75752, was the first of the twenty members of its CPR sub-class
(OS-IOh) to be completed, thus it earned the
distinction of having
been the first production diesel locomotive to be built in Canada.
Actually, it had been partly equipped by the
Ako Schenectady
works before completion by MLW. Upon delivery, it wasimmediately
shipped to the
Canadian International Trade Fair, held at Toronto,
and was shown there from May 31 to June 12,1948.
The unit carried CP Rails I 968-era action red livery when it
arrived at
Oelson. When the decision was made, in June 1988, to
carry out a cosmetic restoration it was decided that the livery to be
applied should be Canadian Pacific
s 1960s-era grey and maroon
scheme, with the familiarscript signature, as it was not practicable
to restore it to
as-built condition since minor changes had been
made to its physical appearance.
Due to the absence of paint drawings, the crew, headed by Odilon
Perrault, had to rely upon photographs, positioning the various
graphic elements in relation to the physical features on the
locomotive.
Then the work began under Odilon s di recti on, beginning
with the removal
of all loose paint and the sanding of the remainder
to
prepare the surface for the new scheme. Because of other
volunteer work needed on weekends, No. 7077 was mainly a week
day project. Odilon and the writer were augmented by a few young
Museum volunteers who worked occasionally on Saturdays. In
addition to us,
we had a little help from an unusual source:
community service workers who had volunteered to donate time
in lieu of fines for minor offenses, such as unpaid traffic tickets.
It
was a colourful group, but I doubt that the community workers
gained
many work skills
The accompanying photographs show the step=-by-step progress
of the restoration. Appropriately, Odilon Perrault –a most dedicated
volunteer –appears in many of them. After working throughout
the
summer and fall of J 988, it was only during the ensuing winter
that Odilon had time to cut the stencils for the road numerals and
Canadian Pacific script lettering. The over all paint scheme was
tuscan red, with a grey band on each side of the hood, carrying the
corporate lettering in tuscan red.
So great was Odilon s concentration
that,
in applying the word Pacific to one side, in May 1989, we
realized that the paint which he had stencilled in was yellow
instead of tuscan red Fortunately, it was a simple matter to correct
as we had not yet removed the stencils.
The restoration, which has been much admired, was the result of
about four hundred hours of work, in addition to the cost of the
materials. Hopefully, it will inspire additional volunteers from
among the membership to enable further much-needed cosmetic
work on the many other deserving exhibits.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL
7077 at it appeared when it arrived at the Museum, photo was taken in April 1985.
All photos of restoration were taken by the author.
RIGHT: Theframeand trucks
are complete, and the cab is
primed; end
of July, 1988.
Page 129
Painting the cab; August 16, 1988.
Page 130 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
The left side of the locomotive; August 16, 1988. Slarting to stencillhe lettering, end of May, 1989.
The stencils
in place for the numbers on the cab side, August 18,1988.
Script lettering taking shape. June 12, 1989. Ddillon Perrault painting the script lettering. June 13, 1989.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 131
Rail Callada DecisiollS
By Douglas N.W. Smith
In those long ago years before the First World War, the arrival of a photographer was a maller of lIote. III this view of the Grand Falls,
New Brunswick station, photographer Joseph
W. Heckman found the stafffrom thefreight shed and who are possibly the children oflhe agenl
ready
10 pose. Heckman Ira veiled the line on the hand car in front of the station. the special seat affixed to the front of the handcar was
his rather precarious perch while two worthies provided the muscle power to
move the car between pharo sites.
Source: CP Rail, photo No.
4532. Collection: Douglas N. W. Smith
Due to illness and a heavy workload at the office, it has not
been possible for me to
keep up to date with the decisions of the
National
Transportation Agency. To clear up the backlog. many
of the Agencys orders are reported in an abbreviated format.
NEW BRUNSWICK
CP TO EDMUNDSTON NO MORE
On January 9. 1991, the Agency gave CP permission to
abandon substantial portions
of the line running from McAdam to
Edmundston.
In 1987. floods washed oul bridges at Woodstock
and Aroostook effectively
splitting this route into three segments.
Permission was granted to abandon the 51.5 miles from
McAdam to Woodstock as well as one mile of track at Aroostook.
both
of these sections were part of the Shogomoc Subdivision.
Continuing northwards.
CP was also granted authority to abandon
20.4
miles
of Edmundston Subdivision from Aroostook to a point
Page 132 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
near Grand Falls and a half mile of trackage in the City of
Edmundston. In 1989. traffic handled over these three sections of
trackage amounted to 92 carloads and the financial losses totalled
more than $750.000.
Since 1936, the
CP trackage in Edmundston has been
isolated from the rest
of the CP system. In that year CP abandoned
its trackage between SI Cyr and Edmundston and commenced t.o
exercise trackage rights over the parallel CN line between these
points.
Hearings have r
ecently been held by the Agency to consider
CPs application to abandon the section oftheShogomoc Subdivision
from Mileage 54.2, a point north
of Woodstock, to Mileage 88.5
near Aroostook. This line is currently served by the CP branch line
running from Fredericton.
QUEBEC
CN TO EXIT FROM GASPE
Making a living on for those hardy residents along the
Gaspe coast has always been a difficult business. Similarly,
making ends meet has been a frustrating business for those
operating the rail line through this region.
The Baie des Chaleurs Railway received a chart from the
Quebec legislature in 1882 to build a line from Matapedia to New
Carlisle or Paspebiac with the right to extend the line to Gaspe.
After a scandal which toppled a
Quebec government, the line was
acquired
by the Atlantic and Lake Superior Company (A&LS) in
1894. At this time the Baie des Chaleurs had managed to lay its
trackage from
Matapedia
as far as Caplan. a total of
80 miles.
In 190 I, the Quebec legislature granted a charter to the
Atlantic,
Quebec and Western Railway (AQ&W) to build a rail
line from a point near Causapscal to Gaspe.
From its connection
with the
QO at Paspebiac, the AQ&W slowly pushed its line
eastward.
The line was officially completed to Gapse in 1912.
Overall,
it took 40 years to complete the 202 mile line of railway
from Matapedia to Gaspe.
While retaining their separate names, the
AQ&W and QO
were shared common ownership and management. The financial
history
of these lines shows they yielded little profit to their
owners. In 1929, CN acquired the two lines.
At this time. the
equipment for the two railways comprised 9 locomotives, I
passenger car and 4 work cars. Matters had reached such an
impasse that
CN had to provide the passenger equipment used by
the two lines for the daily except Sunday
passenger train between
Matapedia and Gaspe.
The development of paper mills at Chandler and New
Richmond and copper mines in the interior created traffic for the
rail line. However, in the latter
part of the I 980s, the mine traffic
was diverted to highway transport. This resulted in
CN seeking to
abandon the 56 miles of the Chandler Subdivision from Ste
Adelaide to Gaspe. The Agency found no economic rationale to
order continued operation of the line. The line handled only 245
carloads and posted a loss
of $284,504 in 1988. Consequently, the
Agency ruled that CN may abandon its operations one year from
the February 5, 1991 date.
The years moratorium is to allow VIA
to
decide whether to purchase this line which is currently used by
its Montreal-Gaspe train. the Chaleur.
The A&LS proved
to be an equally ill-fated
venture. The company held
a chaIter which granted it
permission to build a line
from Gaspe to
Sault Ste
Marie, Ontario. A rag­
tag group
of disconnected
short lines was assembled
by the
companys main
promoter. one C. N.
Armstrong. He lacked the
financial means necessary
to accomplish much good.
One of the few bits of
construction undertaken by
the A&LS was the
extension of the former
Baie des Chaleurs Railway
20 miles eastward from
Caplan to Paspebiac. After
spending the better part
of
a decade in receivership,
the A&SL was sold to the
Quebec Oriental
Railway
(QO) in 1910. While this is a less Ihan crisp view, il is the o
nly piCl/.lre of a Quebec Oriental locomotive which your co­
edilor has been able
10 locale. This picII.lre shows locomolive 16 on the Ireslle al Black Capes, a poinl
slightly east of New Richmond. The 4-6-0 was built hy the Monlreal Locomotive Works and was one of the
engines acquired
by CN when il took over Ihe railway. Assigned CN number 1200 for cOlporate purposes,
the
number was never applied 10 the engine as it was retired shortly after CN took over the line in 1929.
Source: Collection
of Douglas N. W. Smith.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 133
Pulling away from Ihe Breckenridge, Quebec station., CP locomotive 489 throws a wisp of smoke over the consist of mixed tmin 543
comprising three hox cars, a mail-express car, a combination, and coac
h. The 80.2 mile Ottawa-Waltham journey will require more Ihan
three hours. Less
Ihan two years after this October 2, 1957 scene, the mixed would have made its last run.
Source: Palerson-George Collection
PUSH PULL AND JERK NO MORE
The Ottawa ValJey has lost another railway line. On
February 27, 1991, the Agency authorized CP to discontinue
operations over the Waltham Subdivision from Mile I
in Hull to
Mile 34, near Quyon, and the 4.7 mile long Hilton Mines Spur.
Built by
the Pontiac Pacific Junction Railway (PPJ), the
line was chartered to build from a connection with the Quebec,
Montreal, Ottawa and Occidental Railway near Hull, Quebec to
Pembroke, Ontario along the north bank
of the Ottawa River. On
January 13, 1886,
the PPJ inaugurated service from its with
Canadian Pacific in Aylmer to Shawville, a distance
of 37 miles.
Two years later, when finances ran out, the line adopted Waltham,
Quebec as its terminus. After
CP sold its Hull-Aylmer line to the
Hull Electric Railway, the PPJ undertook the construction its own
line between these two points.
CP acquired the line in 1902.
The Hilton Mines Spur has an unusual history. In 1888, the
owners
of the Bristol Iron Mine had the spur constructed. While
the mine ceased operations
in 1891, the trackage remained intact
until 1916. The rails were sent to Europe as part
of the war effort.
With the reopening
of the mine in the early 1950s, the line was
relaid on its old alignment. While the mine
has been closed for a
number
of years, CP has continued to run trains over the spur as it
has been using the tailings for high quality ballast.
ONTARIO
NATIONAL TRANSCONTINENTAL
DIMINISHED
During the 1890s, rapid settlement in the prairies which
lead to a tremendo
us expansion in western agricultural output. As
the production greatly exceeded domestic requirements, the excess
was sold to foreign markets, most notably
in Great Britain and
continental Europe. Glowing predictions as to the bountiful
harvests which were
to be expected as additional western land was
placed under the plough lead
to demands for additional rail lines.
At this time,
CP controlled the only Canadian rail link from the
prairies to
the summer ports at the head of the Great Lakes and to
ocean ports on the Atlant
ic. Westerners expected the new railway
would provide needed additional r
ail line capacity to reach eastern
ports as well as exert competitive pressures on
CP which would
lead to a reduction
in its rates.
Two corporations vied for government support to provide
additional outlets for the west.
The Canadian Northern Railway
(CNo) was the
wests own railway. While it was rapidly stretching
its tentacles over the prairies, the CNo had only built its first line
in 1897. Its competit
or was the princely Grand Trunk Railway
(GTR) whose trackage was confined to southern Ontario and
Quebec.
The corporation was one of the oldest railways in the
country whose foundation in 1852 predated
the formation of the
Dominion. Neither company was willing to surrender its ambitions
orto join with the other. Consequently, they both sought government
approval to build their transcontinental lines in 1902.
Page 134 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
Oddly enough both were successful. The Prime Minister,
Sir Wilfrid Laurier, favoured the GTR.
In exchange for his
support,
he required the eastern portion of the line to be built from
Winnipeg through
to Quebec City. This gained the support of
Quebec politicians who wanted to see the northern regions of the
province opened
to agricultural settlement in order to stem the tide
of French Canadians moving out of the province
to find farm lands.
Subsequently, the eastern terminus
was pushed further east to
Moncton in order to placate Maritime interests. The government
agreed
to build the eastern portion from Winnipeg to Moncton and,
upon its completion,
to lease it to the Grand Trunk. This portion of
the project was called the National Transcontinental Railway
(NTR).
The CNo was supported
by a number of powelful western
Cabinet Ministers. In a move which seems
to typify Canadian
decision making, both projects received government blessing and
financial considerations.
The stated purpose
of the NTR was to carry western grain
traffic
to ocean shipping. Copious quantities of money were
poured into building a grade free line along the most direct
alignment between Winnipeg
and Moncton via Quebec City.
When the
bil.ls were finally in, the NTR had cost several
times more than had been estimated. The GTR refused
to carry out
the terms
of its lease. Through service over the NTR between
Winnipeg
and Quebec City was inaugurated in 1915 under the
auspices of
the Canad ian Government Rai Iways. Wh i Ie theoreticians
and politicians had postulated that the rail line would be able to
move grain cheaper than the existing rail-ship route through the
Great Lakes, their calculations were proven
to be faulty. Grain
shippers continued to use the cheaper water route through the
Great Lakes. The NTR was left with a well-engineered line
through the northern woods with
few shippers.
The CNo found itself
in financial difficulties due to the
outbreak of the World War I which brought on an unprecedented
wave of inflation and the closure of
the European money markets
to its securities. The GTR, which built the Grand Trunk Pacific
between Winnipeg and Prince Rupert, found the subsidiary
to be
unprofitable. Faced with the imminent financial collapse of its
major railways, the government accepted the conclusions of
Drayton-Ackworth Commission
to amalgamate ali these properties
into one system under the title Canadian National Railways.
Following the formation of the CNR, the investment
in the
NTR
was partially redeemed when CN completed the cut-off
between Longlac and Nakina
in 1923. While the CNo had
completed a rail line from Toronto to Winnipeg, its route was very
circuitous. The cut-off linked the Toronto-Longlac portion
of the
CNo line
to the Winnipeg-Nakina portion of the NTR thereby
providing CNwith the shortest line between Toronto
and Winnipeg.
Following the completion of the Nakina cut-off, the portion
of
the NTR lying between Nakina and Quebec City ceased to be
used
as by transcontinental traffic. As a secondmy main line, its
primary traffic source was the natural resources along
the line.
In the early 1980s, CN began to route westbound freight
traffic over
the Algoma Central from Hearst to Oba where it joined
the CN transcontinental line.
As no local freight traffic was being
generated on
the 12l.17 mile Nakina-Calstock section, CN applied
to abandon this trackage. In 1986, authority was given for this step
which made
the first break in the NTR Winnipeg-Quebec City line.
On September 17, 1990, the Agency completed its review
of the 1987 decision by the Canadian Transport Commission
requiring the retention of the trackage between La Sarre, Quebec
and Cochrane, Ontario. As
no freight has been handled over the
line since 1981, the Agency found the
it to be uneconomic and
authorized abandonment twelve months from the date of the order.
The reason for the one year hiatus
is to give VIA Rail the
opportunity
to acquire this trackage. VIAs tri-weekly service
between Montreal and Cochrane currently uses this trackage.
The result
of this most recent decision would be to leave
CN with the section of track between Cochrane and Calstock,
Ontario isolated from
the rest of the CN system. On February 21,
1991, the Agency announced its approval
of the conveyance
agreement between
CN and the Ontario Northland Transportation
Commission whereby the ONTC will acquire
this trackage.
While
CN is seiling the line, it is interested in retaining the
paper traffic moving off the line
from the paper mills at Smooth
Rock and Kapuskasing. Under the terms of the conveyance
agreement, CN agrees
to assist ONTC in the continuation and
promotion of rail use by
an incentive pricing arrangement which
will encourage the continued use
of CN as the principal connecting
railway
for traffic.
VIA
TO CONTINUE TRAIN SERVICE
Months of speculation came to an end when the Agency
decided
on February 5, 199 I that CN could abandon its operations
over the portion
of the Smiths Falls Subdivision from a point near
Richmond
to a point near Smiths Falls, Ontario, a distance of 21.1
miles. While freight traffic over the line is negligible, it forms a
key link
in the route of VIAs Ottawa-Toronto passenger service.
This trackage
was built by the Canadian Northern Ontario
Railway
in 1913. It formed part of the Canadian Northerns main
line between Toronto
and Montreal. With the exception of the
Montreal-Deux Montagnes commuter line, this
is the last major
portion of the fonner Canadian Northern Montreal-Toronto line
which remains
in active use.
The line has been unecono
mic since 1987. In 1988, only
7 carloads were handled
and the operating loss was $39,038. I n
1984,
VIA upgraded this trackage as part of a program to reduce
journey times between Ottawa and Toronto. Approximately $38
million was spent
on CNs Smiths Falls Subdivision and the CPs
Brockville Subdivision
to raise train speeds from 35 to 95 M.P.H.
VIA has announced that it has concluded an agreement
with
CN to have this line transferred to it. This will be the first
piece of inter-city trackage owned
by the rail passenger corporation.
CN
ORDERED TO STAY IN BRUCE PENINSULA
On February 4, 1991, the Agency released its decision
concerning the remaining
CN lines in the Bruce Peninsula of
Ontario. Under consideration were the Stratford-Owen Sound and
Listowel-Wingham
Jines. The total trackage involved amounts to
137.2 miles.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 135
In 1880, the Grand
Trunk
(GT) leased the
Port Dover and Lake
Huron and,
in 1881, the
Stratford and Huron
Railway. These line
s,
which were jointly
operated, had just
completed a line from
Port Dover on Lake
Huron
to Listowel (in
1877). Financial
difficulties Ilampered
the
continuation of
construction to Wiarton
on
Georgian Bay.
Under the auspices of
the
GT, these two small
lines were amalgamated
with yet another small
railway to form the
Grand Trunk, Georgian
Bay and
Lake Erie
Railway.
Employing the
charter of the Stratford
and Huron, the
GT
financed the extension
to Wial10n which was
reached in 1882. At
the prompting of the
citizens of Owen Sound,
CN Pacific 5057 stands al the Lindsay srarion wilh a Ihree car lrain. While Ihe fireman uses Ihe opportunity
/0 replenish the waler supply in Ihe lender, mail, baggage, express and passengers have been discharged
and loaded. After a scheduled ten minute slalion stop, the lrain will start on the final leg
of its Toron/o to
Peterborough trip. Source: Paterson-George Colleclion.
in 1894 the GT built to
that community from Parkhead, 12 miles south of Wiarton. This
line
was built under the charter of the Grand Trunk, Georgian Bay
and Lake Erie Railway.
In
1989, CN trains handled 230 carloads over this trackage
generating a
loss of $567,368. The Agency, however, rejected
CNs abandonment application
as a number of firms stated that
they would
be requiring rail service by 1992. The forecasted level
of shipments
would be sufficient to make this trackage economic.
CEMENT BINDS RAILS
On October
17, 1990, the Agency ordered CN to continue
to operate its Marmora Subdivision from a point near Trenton to
Picton, Ontario. This twenty five mile section of track was
originally built by the Prince Edward Country Railway. It opened
to traffic on October 27, 1879.
The Agency determined that the line had posted operating
profits
in three out of four years between 1986 and 1989. The main
shipper
is the Lake Ontario plant Cement near Picton. The firm
indicated a continuing need for rail service.
LAST RAILS
TO LINDSAY TO GO?
Central Ontario may lose yet another section of
rai I
trackage. On October 18, 1990, the Agency ruled that CN could abandon the
38.9 miles of the Uxbridge Subdivision from a point
slightly north
of Stouffville to Lindsay. Also included in the
decision is over 7 miles of trackage in the Lindsay area remaining
from the network of
CN rail lines which at one time fanned out to
the four points of the compass from this community.
The portion of the line
from Stouffv ille to Uxbridge was
built by one of the few narrow gauge railways constructed in
Ontario. In 1871, service started over this portion of the line when
the Toronto and Nipissing Railway (T&N) started service between
Toronto
to Coboconk. In 1881, the T&N was sold to the Midland
Railway. The Midland purchased the line
in order to give it an
outlet to Toronto. After broadening the T&N to standard gauge,
the Midland began serv
ice between Toronto and Lindsay via
Lomeville
in December 1881.
This routing was quite circuitous. The Midland moved
rapidly
to open a more direct route. In 1882, under the charter of
the Toronto and Ottawa Railway, the Midland built a nine mile line
from Blackwater Junction,
on the formerT&N, to Manilla Junction,
Where a connection
was made with the Midlands recently acquired
Whitby, Port Perry and Lindsay Railway (WPP&L). The WPP&L
had completed the trackage from Manilla Junction and Lindsay in
1877. In this malUler, the present day CN line was completed.
On January
25, 1991, upon an application by the Lindsay
Rail Retention Committee, the Agency varied the date of its
abandolUnent order to April I, 1991.
Page 136 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET-AOUT 1991
CN 4-6-0 brings a short way freight into Collingwood. Built by the Montreal Locomotive Works in 1913 for the Canadian Northell1 Railway,
the
1397 and its sister locomotives ran up millions of miles handling the branch lines of the Canadian National -then North America s largest
railway.
Source. Paterson-George Collection
EARLY ONTARIO RAIL LINE SPARED
Trains will continue to operate over the first steam railway
built
in Ontario. In its September 20, 1990 decision, the Agency
refused to permit CN to abandon the Meaford Subdivision between
Barrie and Collingwood, a distance
of 30.3 miles.
This was the northern most portion
of the Ontario, Simcoe
and Huron Union Railroad Company. The first portion of this line was completed between Toronto and
Amora in 1853. The portion
under review was completed
in late 1854.
While the line has generally lost
money during the past
four years, the Agency noted that Collingwoods two major
industries depend upon rail service to remain competitive. As
well, several companies indicated they
would be increasing their
level
of rail shipments.
OPPOSITE PAGE: One of the earliest known photos of a Canadian railway subject is this view of the bustling terminal yard at the fronlier
communily
oj Collingwood. It was taken in 1856. If the tracks appeal to be wider than usual, believe your eyes. The Ontario, Simcoe and
Huron Union Railroad Company was built to the provincial broad gauge. The arrival of the railway spurred the development of the
community
011 the shores of Georgian Bay. Beyond the roundhouse and freight office can be seen the stumps of the trees cui down 10 clear
the land
for development.
Source: National Archives
of Canada, photo PA-/38976.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 137
Page 138 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991

-: ..
Heading a manifest freight. Canadian built GP-? s 5732 and 5733 head east 0111 of Windsor inlhis June 1952 view. The Chesapeake & Ohio,
one
of the predecessors of today s owner CSX, purchased the diesel fleel assigned 10 ils Canadian lines from General MOlOrs Diesel Division
plal1l in London, Ontario ill order to avoid paying duties on U.S. buill power.
Source: Palersol1-George Col/eClion
RAIL LINE RESTORATION IN ST THOMAS
In 1982, CN received permission to abandon its trackage
from a point south
of St Thomas to Port Stanley. Ontario. In earlier
times, this line
had formed a portion of the London & Port Stanley
Railway (L&PS),
an interurban line linking the communities in its
corporate title. CN so
ld this trackage to the Port Stanley Terminal
Rail (PSTR) which reactivat
ed the line as a tourist railway.
St Thomas is bisected by three rail lines which form a letter
·H. The former London & Port Stanley
splits the community on
a north-south axis. Two lines cut across the community on an east­
west axis:
the Casco Subdivision of the former Canada Southern
Railway,
now owned jointly by CN and CP. and the Payne/Cayuga
Subdivision. Both of these lines
form pans of two parallel routes
from Windsor
to the Niagara Frontier.
In 1989, CN lifted the 0.7 miles of former L&PS track
through StThomas be
tween the Casco and Payne/CayugaSubdivisions
including
the diamond crossings. In September 1989, CN notified
the Agency that it would abandon the 1.36 miles of the former
L&PS trackage from a connection with
the Casco Subdivision to
the PSTR. The PSTR opposed the move as it would effectively
isolate the PSTR from
any rail connection and end plans to develop freight traffic
at PortStanley. The PSTR countered CN s abandonment
plans with a request
to have the previously abandoned ex-L&PS
trackage across
SI Thomas relaid. The reason for this requesl
stems
from on-going studies to route trains using the Casco
Subdivision onto
the CN line. This would permil the abandonmenl
the Casco Subdivision through SI Thomas.
In its November 27. 1990 decision, the Agency ruled thaI
CN i~ to maintain its connection with the PSTR. The PTSR will
pay the costs of relaying Ihe trackage between the Casco and
Payne/Cayuga Subdivisions. CN, howeve
r. is to bear the costs of
reinstalling
the diamond crossing over the Casco Subdivision as it
had not obeyed an Agency directive prohibiting its removal.
DWINDLING CSX
TRACKAGE
CSX Corporation has successfully petitioned the Agency
for permission to abandon yet another pOltion of its former main
line between Windsor
and St Thomas. On December 21, 1990, the
Agency ruled that the 6.6 mile section of the Canadian Subdivision
No 1 between Harrow and ArneI was uneconomic and could be
abandoned. The trackage handled 106 carloads in 1989 and
generated a loss of $18,223.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 139
Following the sale of the Canada Southern to CN and CP,
CN accorded trackage rights to
CSX between Windsor and St
Thomas. CSX has already abandoned the West Lorne-St Thomas
portion of the line. The effect of this decision will be split the
remaining trackage between Windsor and West Lorne into
disconnected segments.
In another deci
sion dated December 19, 1990, the Agency
approved an agreement of purchase and sale whereby Mileage 2 to
Mileage 8
of the Canadian Subdivision No I from Temcuseh Road
in Windsor to Oldcastle and trackage from Mileage 37.35 to 38.16
in Leamington arc to be sold to Canadian National. Under the
terms
of the agreement, CSX retains trackage rights over the
trackage
in order to serve the remaining portions of the Canadian
Subdivision No I.
Dinosaur Junction. Since its creation, the line has faced legal
challenges at to whether it came under provincial or federal
jurisdiction. [n a precedent setting decision, the
Supreme Coun of
Canada ruled on December 20, 1990 that the CWR cou Id not be
characterized under the Constitution as a federal work or
undertaking. Should the court have placed it under federal
jurisdiction, the provincially-chartered
CWR would have had to
observe the succession duties for all unionized
employees formerly
employed by CN on this line. As freedom from the rigidities of the
collective agreements is
one of the factors in allowing short lines
such as the CWR to make a profit, a decision which would have
placed the line und
er federal jurisdiction could have jeopardized
the future
of the CWR and the establishment of new short lines.
With this issue resolved, it is most likely that additional CN and CP
trackage will be sold to new short line ventures.
This historic photo shows the arrival of the first locomotive at PenticlOn on October 26, 1912. The KVR purchased the 2-6-0 from the Chicago
/ron Works, a second hand locomotive dealer,
ill July 1912. The locomotive and related railway equipment were brought to Pel1fiCiOn by
barge over Lake Okanagan. This permifled the KVR
to open a third front for construction purposes.
Source. National Archives
of CanadaIPA-177904
ALBERTA
SHORT LINE TO EXPAND
In a decision which will more than double its trackage, the
Central
Western Railway (CWR) received the permission of the
Agency to acquire two
CP lines. CP and the CWR had signed a
conditional
agreement of sale on June 19, 1990 covering the
portion
of the Lacombe Subdivison from Coronation to Stettler
and the Coronation
Subdivision from Coronation to Compeer, a
total distance
of 132.9 miles.
The CWR began operations in 1986 over the former CN
Stettler Subdivision from a point near Carmose to a point near
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FAMED KETTLE VALLEY RAILWAY DISAPPEARS
The Kettle Valley Railway (KVR) formed part of CPs
second main line across southern British Columbia and provided
a direct rail link from the Okanagan Valley and
mineral rich
Kootenay regions to the west
coast. It has attracted a large
following based upon the beautiful countryside it traversed and the
blood stirring battle between Jim Hill and Sir William Van Horne
to build through this area.
Page 140 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
On December 12, 1941, CP opened a new combined station-divisional office building at Penticton. After the war, an extension was built
on
the eastern end bringing the structure up to the size shown in this photograph taken on August 30, 1952.
Source: Paterson-George Co
llection
During the 1890s. CP and the Great Northern Railway. an
Ameri
can based corporation headed by former Canadian James
Hill, had battled to a draw over building rail lines into the silver
mines
of the Kootenays. [The story of competing rail lines is told
in the May-June 1989 issue
of Canadian Rail.] Spurred on by
Hill, CP created a 578 mile long railway from Medicine Hat,
Alberta to Midway, BC between 1896 and 1900 through the
purchase
of existing lines and the construction of new lines.
To complete this new line to Vancouver would have
required overcoming the formidable mountain ranges west of
Midway. As Hill had ceased his incursions into southern BC, CP
was content to leave Midway the terminus of its southern line.
Matters were upset in 1906 when Hill announced his intention to
complete a line from Spokane, Washington to Vancouver across
southern
Be. For the Canadian portions of the line, Hill used the
charter
of the Vancouver. Victoria & Eastern Railway (VV &E).
While Hill had track crews out lay
ing rails, CP delayed
undertaking the highly expensive task of
completing their line to
the coast. The necessary stimulus was provided by
BC Premier
Richard McBride who felt the development of BC depended upon
the
construction of railways to access the natural resources of the provinces and to foster trade between the interior and the coast.
He
feared that the VV &E would divert the commerce of the interior
to Spokane.
In the provincial election campaign of 1909, McBride
sought voter SUppOll for his plans to grant provincial subsidies to
assist
in the construction of the following projects: the Edmonton­
Vancouver and Vancouver Island lines of the Canadian Northern,
the North Vancouver-Prince
George line of the Pacific Great
Eastern, and the Midw
ay-Hope main line and Merritt branch line
of the KVR. Returned by a large margin, these plans were rapidly
transformed into new ra
ilway construction.
The KVR, while nominally a private company, was in
reality backed by the CPR. Its incubus was the Kettle ValJey River
Railway which operated a branch line railway betw
een Grand
Forks,
BC and Republic, Washington. In 19l1. it was officially
reconstituted as the KVR with
powers to build from Midway to
Hope and construct a branch line into Merritt. CP had built a
r
ailway line into from Spences Bridge, on the transcontinental
line, through Merritt to the Nicola coal mines in 1907 under the
charter
of the Nicola, Kamloops & Similkameen Coal & Railway
Company.
JULY -AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 141
In 1910, the KVR began construction from Merritt and
Midway to head
off the VV&E which was building towards the
only feasible pass through the Coquihalla Mountains to Hope.
Fortune smiled
upon the KVR when James Hill retired from his
position as Chairman
of the Great Northerns Board of Directors
in 1912. His successor did not view the VV &E to be as important
a project as Hill had. Construction on the VV
&E slowed to a crawl.
In 1914. the
VV&E and KVR signed trackage sharing agreements
whereby the
KVR would use VV&E trackage between Princeton
and Brookmere and the VV
&E would be granted trackage rights
overt he K VR line through the Coquihalla Pass I ine from Brookmere
to Hope.
The dates for the opening of major segments of the
Midway-Hope and Brookmere-Merritt lines
of the KVR are as
follows:
DISTANCE DATE
Upon the completion of the Midway-Merritt trackage. the
KVR inaugurated scheduled passenger service on May 31,1915.
When the line through Coquihalla Pass to Hope was completed, the
Brookmere-Merritt section was downgraded to a branch line.
The VV &E threat proved to be chimerical. Reflecting the
change of heart at the Great Northern headquarters towards the
viability
of the through Spokane-Vancouver line, it only ran one
train
over the KVR line through the Coquihalla Pass. The
Vancouver-Hope and Spokane-Brookmere sections were operated
as
branch lines. The first section was abandoned in 1924. By the
start
of World War II, most of the VV &E trackage had been
dismantled.
BELOW: Olle oj the major sources oj traffic in the
SECTION OF LINE IN MILES OWNER COMPLETED
Pel1licton region around the lower end oj Lake
Okanagan was from the vast Jlllit groves on the
Midway to Penticton 135.0 Mi. KVR October, 1914
hillsides. This highly perishable traffic was hcmdled
in special express cars as well as in express refrigerator
Penticton to Princeton 68.8 KVR April, 1915 cars on passenger trains. Cal 4149 is typical oJthe
Princeton to Coalmont 11.5 VV&E November, 1911
special cars assigned to this service. The ventilators
on the
roof were designed to Jorce ail through the
Coalmont to Brookmere 26.5 VV&E October, 1914
cal. The loss offruittraffic in the early 1970s was
one oftheJactors leading
to the abandonment oflhe
Brookmere to Merritt 29.4 KVR September, 1914 Kellie Valley Railway.
Brookmere to Hope 54.5 KVR July, 1916
Source. National Archives of Canada. photo
PA-177903.
-.—-~ .. —~
Page 142 RAIL CANADIEN JUILLET -AOUT 1991
The extension the KVR built from Penticton to Okanagan
Falls was not a typical branch line. The
line, which opened in
March 1923, featured a car barge operation across Skaha Lake.
After CP absorbed the
KVR on January I, 1930, one of its first
projects was
to replace the barge operation on Skaha Lake with a
new rai I line which was completed in August 1931. In 1945, CP
purcha
sed the VV &E line between Princeton and Brookmere from
the Great Northern.
In November 1959, the Coquihalla line was hit
by a
devastating number of slides and washouts.
As the line over the
pass had been very difficult
to keep open and in view of declining
traffic, CP rerouted a
ll traffic over the alternate route via Spences
Bridge.
In July 196 I, permission was granted to officially abandon
the Coquihalla line.
In 1973, CP ceased to handle revenue freight traffic
between Penticton and Beaverdell, a poil1l42 miles from Midway.
Five years later, the Canadian Transport Commission approved
the abandonment of most
of the Princeton-Midway line.
On June 21, 1990, the Agency authorized CP to abandon
the 177.8 mile long Princeton Subdivis
ion between Penticton and
Spences Bridge
as well as the 12.3 mile Okanagan Falls Spur from
Penticton
to Okanagan Falls. While the line posted a small
operating profit of $109,484
in 1987, the totaL losses in 1986 and
1988 amounted
to $1.8 million. The remaining freight traffic,
which consisted primarily of lumber products, is now handled
by
highway to a reload centre on the transcontinental line.
SHORT TURNS
-On February 7, 1991, the Agency rejected CNs request
to
abandon theStRaymond Subdivision between Hedley and Jacksons,
Quebec, a distance of
33.9 miles. Even though the line generated
a
loss of $350,000 in 1988, profits of$I.5 million in 1987 and 1989
kept the line in the black. As the Agency determined that the line
was necessa
ry to service the needs of the Canadian military and its
continued operation would impose no hardship upon CN, it
ordered the line retained. It had reached similar conclusions when
it considered a similar application from CN in 1988. This history
of this I ine
was covered in the March-April 1989 issue of Canadian
Rail.
-CP received authority
to abandon the portion of the Saint Gabriel
Subdivision between Joliette
and Saint Felix de Valois, a distance
of
10.1 miles, on January 25, 1991. This line was built by the
Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa
and Occidental Railway in 1882. Up to
1983, this line extended an additional 14 miles to Saint Gabriel.
The Agency has determined that
in 1989, the line handled ]20
carloads and generated a loss of $120,624. The abandonment date
was fixed eleven months after the date of
the order in order to allow
a shipper of natural gas time
to arrange for alternate transport
facilitie
s.
-The Quebec Central lost more trackage when the Agency
approved
on November 30, 1989 an application to abandon the line
from Beebe J unct ion, on the Quebec-Vermont border, to Lennox vi lie
as well as the 2.4 spur from Beebe Junction to Rock Island. The
trackage
was built by the Massawippi Valley Railway. The main
line, which extended from Newport, Vermont
to Lennoxville, was
opened
to traffic in 1870.
-CP received permission
to abandon the 3.2 mile Base Borden
Spur
on November 7, 1990. This line was bui It to serve the
military base lying north of Toronto during World War
I.
-The Agency has ordered CN to continue operate the Burford Spur
between Brantford and North Burford, Ontario. The Agen
cy
determined that the line had generated a profit in 1989 and
indications were it would continue
to be economic. The history of
this line
was reviewed in the January-February 1988 issue of
Canadian Rail.
-Based upon
an application by CN and the BASF Corporation, the
Agency has extended
the date for the abandonment of the CNs
Renfrew Subdivision between Arnprior and Nepean until December
31,
1991. A history of this line is contained in the March-April
issue of Canadian Rail.
-The Agency has given
CN permission to abandon the portion of
the Preeceville Subdivision from Preeceville
to Kelvington,
Saskatchewan, a distance of
40.1 miles. In 1988, it handled 96
carloads generating a loss of $176,451. The line
was built under
the charter
of the Canadian Northern Railway in 1921.
-CP has recei
ved permission the abandon its line between Robson
West
and Midway. The Agency had denied a similar application
on June 20, 1988 on the basis of interventions by area shippers who
stated they would be expanding their use of this line. The
Burlington Northern, however has captured most of the traffic
in
this area through low freight rates. The decision requires CP to
retain the 2 mile Carson Spur and approximately one mile of
trackage in Grand Forks to serve a major siJipper. Rail connections
to this isolated section will be maintained over the Burlington
Northern. A history
of this line appeared in the November­
December 1988 issue of Canadian Rail.
-Due
to the discontinuance of the VIA Rail passenger service
between Halifax
and Yarmouth effective January 15, 1990, the
National Transportation Agency (the Agency) amended the date
for
tiJe abandonment of the Dominion Atlantic Railway line
between Cold brook
and Yarmouth from July 13, 1990 to January
16, 1990.
JULY· AUGUST 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 143
The Business Car
UOMBAIWIER SECURES MAJOR CONTRACTS
Bombardier Inc. of Montreal watched the good times return 011
April 23.
as onlen and options for up to $900 million for rnilway
passengerequipl11cnl rolled in from the United Stales and Europe.
TIle
company s:lid lhal i. has obtained a S400 million order for 140
Superlin
er Ii cun; from Amlmk. The order also includes an op.ion
for an additional 39 cars. which would bring tbe
IOlallolllrolct prke
to 5485 million. nil. Superliner II cars arc based on models built
by Pullman. froUl which Bombardier purchased all the working
drawings. Amtl1lk already has 282
Supcrlin~rs buill by PullmM
bc …. een 1979 and 1981. The new cars will be delivered bclw(C1l
luly 1993 and January 1996. The pans will be built III La Pocaliere.
Que. and a<;scmblc TI1C company alO :mnounced that the French National Railroadl>
(SNCF) has awarded fI contract for 45 two-level TGV high … peed
1min sets.
consi~ling of eight (:ars t:ach. 10 A consonium fomlcd by
the Fren
ch-Brilish group GEC Aisthom, Dc DiCLrich of FranCc and
ANF-Industrie,
Bombardiers FrclKh subsidiary, lOc lanercompany S
share orlhe order is estimated ~t $190 million and could reach $420
million with Ihc eltercise of fHl option for 1m additional 55 lrain
S(!ts. 111C first i.o;: scheduled for delivery in lne spring of ]995.
Source: Globe and MaiL April 23, 1991.
AIR CANAI)A AND CI TO STuny HlGH·SIEEU TRAIN
AirCanada is reponed to be thinking about gelling into the milway
passenger business
…. ith CP Rail. The two transponation companies
report
ed on May 7 that lhey will spend S500.000 ovcr the nexi year
to
detennine whether Ihere is a market for a high-~pccd passenger
train in the Q
uebe<: City to Windsor corridor. Air Canada is not. of
course. in the rail tnl.ll~ponation busines~. but it has a sophisticated
reservation system. knowledge of the characteristics
of the markel
place and
connections for olher directions. One thoughl is Ih3t
Toronto and M
omreal could be used as intcmlodal hubs into which
p.1.SSCngcrs would pour on planes and train.s to be tmnsponed to
thcirdc~tinatiOO by whatever mode oftr3nsponalion i~ appropriate.
There
are approximately eight million people in thc corridor area.
b
ut Ihis is II small number compared to the populations th:1I support
high
·speed mil projects in other Countries.
The proposed Air Canada -CP study does not represtnt a third
competitor to the Bombardier lind Asea Brown Boveri groups that
are studying high-speed mil
in the corridor. on the contrary. Air
Crumda
h~ been cooperJIing with bolh ABB and Bombardier. The
proposed study should detemlinc what k.ind of high-speed train
system is n.:quired f
or 1he region. if one is required at all.
Source: Globe :md Mail. May 8. 1991.
N~W MONTREAL FORUM N£XTTO WINDSOR STATION
Months of speculation ended recently with the announcement that
the new Montreal Forum, home to the Canadiens hock.ev team. will
be built on CP I Mamthon land just west of Montreais Windsor
station. Also a
p.1n of the development is Mn office tower that
would
be built betwccn the ne …. forum and the station. A pedestrian
walkway would eonneel wilh a new tconinal for
wc~t·island
commuter tnlins !IS ell as Metro and bus stations. The original
grey stone stati
on building. built between 1888 and I ~ 13, would
rem:!in
intact. however the plans call for the demolition of the
accounting building (built
in 1953-54) and the fonner express
building (kno
….. n as the Mud Hut. built in 1906 and enlarged in
the I 920·s). The laller buildmg is the eaue of some debate ~ir}Ce
it has been declan:d to be pan of the station (unlike the occounling
building) lind hence
comeS under the newly·proclaimed Heritage
Railway St:uions act.
1l1e matter is still being discussed and final
plans have not yet been released.
HERITAGE STATtON VANDALIZED
OIC fonner CP Rail stnt ion lit Beoconsfield Que. recem Iy refurbished
as
a Montreal-area conUllUler $talion. was sct on fire by vandal~ on
Ma
rch 28 lind seriollsly damaged. Fortunately. firefighters
C)l.linguishcd the bla7.c before the station could be destroycd. bUI
the estim3les of damage range upward from S50.000. The structure.
built about 1898.
is onc of the few original woodcn stations
remainiug
on the wt:l>t-il>land commuter line.
ANOTHER HEIUTA(a·~ STATION nONE
Canadian National l>tlJtion at Petitcodiac New Brunswick has
recently been demolished. This slation had
not been used for
passenger
service sincc the l(JclIl truin belween Halifax and Saim
John wa.-. discontinued in January 1990. Petitcodiac station was a
very interesting l
ooking building. appearing likc a station fronl one
side.
bUl resembling a house when viewed from lne other side. [1
as quite a large building. with St:cond-noor living space for the
agent. and it daled bock well over a
celllury to Ihe da)s of the
Europc:m
LAST LONG DISTANCE TRAIN TO GRAND CENTR,L
HAS CANADI.~N CONNECTION
A new Amtmk schedule came into effC{;t on April 6. and with it all
Amtrak
lT3in~ coming into New York City use Pennsylvanin
station.
The 10I)g.plalU~ line down the west side of Manhattan
bland. allows access to Penn~ylv .. nia station from the lincs nonh
of New York City that IICn:: fonnerly served by Grand Central.
C
onunuter and local trains will conlinue to usc Orand Centrul as
before. Interestingly. the la~1 ~hcduled Amtrak tmin to use Grand
Central W(lS train 64. the Maple Leaf. from Toronto. This recalls
lhe fact that the last long distance trdin
10 use Montreals Windsor
station wa.~ Amtraks Adirond3ck bound for N(, York City.
PARIS METRO TO AROUSH FIRST CLASS
What may well be the only mpid.lransil system in Ihe world ~till
offering twO classes is scheduled to stop doing so by the end of this
year.
Since it opened in 1900, each train in the Paris Metro system
has carrioo
lit cast one car for first-cla~s passengers who pay a
premium fare. Lasl year
120.000.000 passengers rode th .. system,
of which only 21.000 went first
clll~s: hence the discontinuance of
the service.
ROYAL CANtD1 A N SriLl L Tli E WORKS (UTl~R/ II Y)
While the schedule of Blyth and Company. 10 introducea luxurious
cross-can3da tmin running
on CP~ transcontillentallinc. is delayed.
lhe plans
for the train are still proceeding. 1be rolling stock is
being completely n:built by Rad
er Railcar Inc. of DenverCo]or.ido.
3nd
it is expecled Ihal the train will go into ~rvice in either the
spring
or aUlumn of 1992. The major markel for ~uch a tmin is from
prosperous tourists from
other countries. and lilt: lrain will be
billed
as a land cnli~e. offering services akin 10 those provided on
cruise shi
ps.
BACK COVER: 011 Jllly /4. 1951. CPR train /lwnber 8. fUlI/lni by locollloriw.s 54~ olld 2863. were {JlwlOgmplwd at RC·j/swkC. British
Colllmbia. Nlllnbu 5468 is 11011 prtsened UI thl C(madillfl H(li/way Muselll/!. afld may some day /C/!/fI/ /0 Re·elsIOJ.:( ill tht: ClI.~/Ody of Ihe
CRlIAs Sdkir/.. DiIisiol1.
CRI/A Arthilt .. s. Toohty Collectiol/. pho/O 51·SIl.
Canadian Rail
120, rue St-Pierre, St. Constant, Quebec
Canada J5A 2G9
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