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Canadian Rail 420 1991

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Canadian Rail 420 1991

Canadian Rail a
No. 420
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
1991

CANADIAN RAIL
EDITOR; Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: Douglas N, W. Smith
PRODUCTION-A. Stephen Walbridge
CARTOGRAPHER: William
A. Germaniuk
LAYOUT: Fred F. Angus
For your membership in the CRHA, which includes a
subscription to Canadian RaU. write 10:
CRHA, P.O. Box 148, SI. Constant. Que. J5A 2G2
Rales: in Canada: $29 (including GSl).
outside Canada: $25. in U.S. funds.
PRINTING: Procel Printing
,…——–TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE BEST ROUTE THROUGH THE AQCKIES………………………………………………… DOUGLAS N.W. SMITH 3
Canadian RalliS continually in need 01 news, stories. historical data. photos. maps and other material. Please send all contnbutions the
ooilor: Fred F. Angus, 3021 Trafalgar Ave. Montreal. P.O. H3Y lH3 No payment can be made lot contributions, buI the conlnbuler will
begiven credit formaterialsubmitled, MaterialWll1 be returned 10 lhecontributorit requested. Remember Knowledge is ollitUevalue unlesS
il is shared With others.
NATIONAL DIRECTORS
Frederick F. Angus Hugues W. Bonin J. Christopher Kyle
R.C. Ballard
Rober1 Carlson Winiam Le Surf
Jack A. Beany Charles
De Jean Bernard Mar1in
Walter J. Bedbrook Gerard Frechette Robert V.V. Nicholls
Alan C. Blackburn David W.
Johnson Andrew W. Panko
The CRHA has a fUmber 01 local diVIsions across the country. Many hold regular meetings
and issue newsleners. Further Inlormatlon may be obtained by wntmg to the divISion.
NEW BRUNSWlCK ONlSIQN
PO Bo.ll(;2
s.o-. Jc/n,… B E2I. 7
Sf LAWRENCE V.o.u.£Y DIVISION
PO 80>:. Z2. SIdon 8
Mon!rwII P C_ H;)8:lJ5
RIDEAU VAlleY DIVISION
PO ao…962
$mlhl Ftols Co! K7A SI 1<1NGST0tI OIVISION
PO 80. 103. SIur>on …..
I TOAONTO YOAI( OIVlSIQt.I
PO ao.~9. T~·A·
TO NIAGARA DlVlSlON
PO 80.59;3
Sl. c.ttw..–. Orw. L2R 6W&
WINDSOR-ESSE}: DIVISION
300 c..o.o. Road East
WIrdIoor. 0rII. NIII3 1-2
KEYSTONE DIVISION
1_ -1I0I0$ Bly
~ an. R3K 0M0I
ClLG-AWf & SOUTH WEST£AN DIVISIOf-l
i!IO 6100 4lh,. … NE
CeIgary. AtIetlII T2A. 5Z8
ROCKY MOUNT-JN DIVISiON
PO Bn< 102. Sl.8l1anC
E~.1 SELKtRK DIVISION
PO 110>;311
~BC VOE2S0
CJlOWSNEST KETTlE VALL … Y DIVISION
POBc>Q(lII
~8C V1C0tH9
NELSON ELECTRIC TAAMWY SOCIETY
123 v …. SltMi
~8C. V1L2V8
PRINCE QEOAGE-.NECHAI(O-FAASER OMSION
PO 80.<2_
PnrIIlI a-gt. B C V2N 2StI
P.f.CIFIC COAST [)(VISION
P.o. Ikll 1006. Staiion -.
v ,IIC V6C2Pl
Douglas N. W. Smith
Lawrence M. Unwin
Richard Viberg
A. Stephen Walbridge
J
ohn C. Weir
FRONT COl £R TIll C(ln(ltii(11I N()Tthl111
Rtu/1<1I hot! i>«()tIll pan ,( Calli/dIan Na­
liollol b.Y Iltl tilll~ liI( umUlw/l Thl 1ftssi,( I~rmmol;l f1tlil(llfd h. Iht
firm uf Pfi//I &-R()S$ allthoJI ()1lr 1..i(}()1JOO III
/ht IMlano( 1919 II hill C u(,I,/I(11 lIS Illlflll 1(1 Ih( lOp ,(rhl f!Y1.j(IWt, IJr~
Itgrd Cumulum Nurrhl!rl1 I(lfljk Rd//CQ
111m/Ifill Inl hUlidfr oJ /lIJ /ulI,llIJ(Jri hw/d·
11I.r: ThI, ./tll ,uJ Wk~11 in /9J9
C(lrw.IWff (l/tnMI ,,1N.,o -I1b.I)
As pan of Its aclMties, the CRHA operates
the Canadian Railway Museum at Delson I
51. Constant, Que. which Is about 14 miles
(23 Km.) from downtown MontJeal. II is
open Irom late May 10 early October (daily
until Labour Day). Members. and their im­
mediate lamilies, are admined free 01 charge.
GOAl. Of THE f JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 3
The Best Route Through the Rockies
By Douglas N. W. Smith
Except for the present war clouds, this would be a
gala day for British Columbia, but first operation of third
Canadian transcontinental railway is event
of long remembrance
in our history.
Telegram from B.C. Premier Sir Richard McBride to
Sir William Mackenzie on the operation of the first Canadian
Northern transcontinental train, August
27, 1915.
Seventy-five years ago, the Canadian Northern Railway
(CNo)
opened its transcontinental line between Quebec City and
Vancouverto regular traffic. The final section of the transcontinental
line
to be completed was tl1e portion between Edmonton and
Vancouver. In less than two
decades, CNo had gone from being
an obscure prairie short line railway with under a hundred miles of
line to a transcontinental system with 9,300 miles of trackage.
For the founders of the company, Sir William Mackenzie
and Sir Donald Mann, this achievement must have been viewed
with mixed feelings as the physical feat
of the completion of the
transcontinental line
in 1915 was paralleled by unprecedented
operating losses
for the CNo. Within three years, the CNo would
be taken over by the Dominion government and would be one of
the major constituent parts of the Canadian National Railways.
The CNo had its origins in Manitoba. William Mackenzie
and Donald
Mann had met while working on their respective
construction contracts on CPs transcontinental line. Eventually
they teamed
up to bid jointly on railway construction projects. The
economic recession which settled over North America in 1893
caused railway construction across Canada to fall precipitouslyl.
While looking for new projects, Mann learned that the charter for
the
Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal Company (LMR&C) was
up for sale.
The most likely purchasers, the Northern Pacific or the
Manitoba & Northwestern
Railway, were in no position to acquire
it due to their own financial difficulties.
Mann was able to persuade Mackenzie that the LMR&C
would
be a profitable venture
2
The LMR&C had been given land
grant of 6,400 acres per mile of line by the Dominion government.
The provincial government extended its guarantees on the payment
of interest and the principal. Unfortunately, the Dominion and
Provincial legislation had expired by
the time the partners acquired
the charter.
After securing an order in council on February 1, 1896
from the Dominion government re-establishing the land grant, and
legislation restoring the provincial guarantees,
Mackenzie and
Mall.l1 began grading the LMR&C line in the spring of 1896
3
By
December of that year, their construction train had rolled into
Dauphin, some 85 miles from Gladstone
4•
The LMR&C was
renamed the
Canadian Northern when it was amalgamated with the
moribund
Winnipeg and Great Northern Railway in 1898
5.
By this time, the North American economy was shaking
off the effects of the depression. Failure of the grain crops in
Europe fueled demand for prairie grain. An unprecedented number
of settlers began to move to Manitoba and the North West Territory
as most of the good farmland in eastern Canada and the United
States had been settled. The growth in population was so rapid that
the the
provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were carved out of
the North West Territory in 1905. These two factors stimulated
demands for additional railway lines to open the northerly regions
of the prairies to settlement, to break the CPRs monopoly in the
region.
The existance of a second transcontinental railway would
lead to freight rate reductions, and to an increase in rail line
capacity between Winnipeg and Lake Superior ports
6
Capitalizing on these desires of the western settlers, the
CNo found the provincial and Dominion governments eager to
sponsor the construction of additional lines. By the time the CNo
celebrated thetenth anniversay of the construction of the LMR&C
in 1905, its lines extended from Port Arthur on Lake Superior to
Edmonton
7
In view of the vast increase in traffic in the Canad ian west,
Grand Trunk Railway (GT) decided in 1902 that the time had
arrived
for it to extend its operations into the western provinces.
This plan was not welcomed by Mackenzie and Mann. They
decided
that if the GT built in western Canada, the CNo would have
to extend its Jines into eastern Canada to protect their interests.
The decision by Sir Wilfred Laurier in 1903 not to force the GT and
CNo to join forces resulted in the two companies buiLding into each
others territory. Both lines received direct financial support and/
or guarantees from the Dominion and Provincial governments
8.
As early as 1902, Mann was engaged in exploratory
discussions with the government of British Columbia concerning
provincial assistance to build rail lines. As the credit rating of the
province was vil1ually nil after running deficits for thirty years, no
assistance was available. The ejection of a new government
headed by Sir Richard McBride in 1903 was followed by a period
of major expansion in provincial revenues. Due to unprecedented
economic growth and increased federal-provincial transfer payments,
the provincial governments chronic deficits were replaced by a
surplus
of $2.4 million in 1907
9.
With funds in the treasury, the improvement of transportation
links
became a major consideration. In the first decade of the
century,
improved transportation meant new railways. In January
1909, McBride told the legislature that his government was willing
to make any fair and equitable arrangement to bring the CNo into
the
province
1o
The expansion of the railway network in the
province became the governments major platform in the provincial
el
ection in November 1909. Touching a popular nerve, McBride
was returned to office with a
sweeping majority. During the next
few
years, the Kettle Valley, CNP and Pacific Great Eastern
Railways would be constructed.
Page 4 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
On January 17, 1910, McBride, in his capacity as Minister
of Mines for tbe Province of Britisb Columbia, and Mackenzie
signed a contract for the construction of a line from Yellowhead
Pass to Vancouv
er via New Westminster, a line from Victoria to
Barkley Sound on
Vancouver Island, and tbe creation of a railway
car ferry service to link these two lines. Should the main line not
pass through
Kamloops, the CNP was to bui lei a branch line to the
city. Work was to
commence in July 1910 und be completed by
July
I, 1914
11

The selection of the completion date was not a random
event.
The completion of the line would co-incide with the first full
year of operation of the Panama Canal. It was widely expected that
the opening
of the canal would enable Vancouver to become a
major port for lumber and Alberta grain shipments moving to
European markets 12.
The preamble to the agreement succinctly summarizes the
expectations
of the Premier and the residents of the province:
… the Government of the Province of British
Columbia deems it in the public interest
to aid in the construction
of the lines of railway hereinafter mentioned [the CNP] for the
purpose
of securing to the people of British Columbia reasonable
passenger
and freight rates and to assist in the opening up
and the development of the Province .. ,1
The business community wholeheartedly supported these
views.
During the discussions conceming the terms of the CNP
agreement, Vancouver and Victoria business leaders made a
presentation to the cabinet.
Their main complaint was the high
rates charged by the
CPR on shipments across B.C. CPs rates
were approximately 50% higher than the rates charged for
carrying shipments similar distances on the prairies. One
representative of the Vancollver Board of Trade summarized the
situation neatly:
We can ship goods only as far as Calgary
where
we are met at these places by goods from Montreal
and Toronto.
We want the line moved eastward so that we
may ship goods to the various cities of the North West [the
popular name for the prairies of the time)4.
In a
speech to the Dominion Parliament on March 28,
1912, A.S. Goodeve, the Member for Kootenay discllssed the
factors leading the provincial
government to put this stipulation on
its aid to the CNP.
He stated, Probably the underlying reason
why the government
of British Columbia asked the Canadian
Northern
to enter into this agreement was purely of a local
nature.
We in British Columbia, in the past, have had
considerable difficulty with the Transcontinental railway [the
CPR] in regard
to our rates, they being fixed higher on freight
and passengers
and on express than in any other portion of
the Dominion. The ground taken for the fixing of these rates
has been that the additional cost
of operation over this
Mountain section must be met
by higher rates in British
Columbia.
That very question has been dealt with fully over and
over again in this House. Having
in mind the exactions that
have been taken out
of the province of British Columbia by
the CPR, the government of that province, when it undertook
to guarantee to such a large extent the bonds of this portion
of the road which really is part of the [CNo] Transcontinental
railway, tried
at the same time to remedy the existing
grievances. They
had not been satisfied in the past with the
ruling
of the Railway Commission[ers] with regard to rates as
applied
to British Columbia, and they felt that they had not
had fair treatment in the matter.
Therefore, they got together with the CNo
and they
entered into an agreement whereby the railway company
would submit itself
to this new tribunal, which was agreed
upon,
and set forth in the provincial legislation on the subject.
They agreed that
in so far as British Columbia is concerned
the local rates would be under the control
and jurisdictio~
exclusively of that province and they further agreed that even
though that tribunal made a rate which the rai/way company
might think was too low, they would not appeal
to the
jurisdiction
of the Railway Commissioners for Canada …
In its agreement with the CNo, the province agreed to
guarantee the payments of 4 per cent interest and principal upon
the securities issued by the
CNP up to a value of $35,000 per mile.
The provincial support was contingent upon the province retaining
control
over freight ratess, In theory, this prevented the CNo from
applying to the Dominion government for aid as only railways
chartered in the general interest of Canada by the federal
Parliament were eligible for assistance. Any line chartered in the
general interest
of Canada automatically came under the purview
of the Board of Railway Transport Commissioners who had the
authority to regulate freight rates.
During the
spring of the year, the necessary legislation to
incorporate the Canadian Northern Pacific
(CNP) and give force to
the
contract moved through the provincial legislature. The bills
received royal assent on March
10,19106
With the CNP incorporated, Mackenzie and Mann were as
good as their word; the first construction contracts for the CNP
were signed on June 23,1910. The partners recognized this line
would have to be well-engineered if it were to achieve profitability
while meeting provincial expectations that the CNP freight rates
would be less than those of CP. Blessed by one of the most
favourable routes through the Rocky and Selkirk Mountain ranges,
the
CNP was built with 0.5% grades, 80 pound rail and steel
bridges
17
• This would be no line with man killing temporary
alignments and featmes such as stretches of 2.2 and 4.5 per cent
grades which were a drawback to CPs transcontinental line
through the Rockies. It is one of the anomalies of history that the
route through the Yellow head .Pass adopted by the CNP had been
the first
route chosen for CP to cross the Rockies.
On February 5, 1913, the CNP reached an agreement with
the City
of Vancouver to locate its passenger and freight terminals
at Main Street on False Creek. In exchange for the privilege of
reclaiming the swamp lands at this location, the CNP agreed to an
onerous list of requirements whose total cost was more than $4
million. Within five years, the CNP undertook to construct a
passenger terminal worth at least $1 million, to build a freight yard
and sheds, to build an hotel at the station and
another in the
downtown area (the cost of these was not part of the $4 million),
to tunnel under the ridge
of land lying to the east of the False Creek
lands, and to electrify the line through the tunnel.
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 5
There was no official ceremony to mark Ihe driving of the last spike of the Canadian Northern Pacific. Newpapers of the day make no reference
to any high ranking officials of the Canadian Northern even being present at/his historic moment. However, some of the men who had toiled
to drive the line across the province witnessed the event which ocurred on
Janumy 23, 1915 at the remote outpost of Basque, B.C.
National Archives
of Canada photo C-46483.
As well, the CNP agreed to establish a Pacific steamship line
whose terminal would be
at Vancouver within eight years
l8.
This
agreement should have made
aU civic boosters proud, but four of
the sixteen Vancouver City councillors voted against the deaJl9. It
is an indication of the great economic expectations of the era that
the
CNP accepted such onerous conditions.
Even
at this early date, there were portents of impending
changes.
While negotiations for a Vancouver terminal site dragged
on during 1912, the CNo began to have trouble selling its securities
at less than ruinous prices. Perversely, the difficulties in the
money markets was partially caused by the large number
of bond
issues
coming out in London financial market to fund Canadian
railway projects.
To prop up the standing of their securities,
Mackenzie and Mann obtained a federal subsidy
of $12,000 per
milefortheCNPmainline between Yellowhead Pass and Vancouver
from Sir
Robert Borden in 1912. In order to respect the telms of
their agreement with British Columbia, the Dominion legislation
granted the subsidy without declaring
tJle CNP to be a work for the
general advantage
of Canada as this would have placed the line
under the regulation
of the Board of Railway Commissioners2o.
While Mackenzie was experiencing difficulty in placing
securities to finance the
CNP main line, McBride passed legislation
increasing the amount
of trackage to be built. Tn 1912, the
provincial legislature passed the Canadian Northern Pacific Railway
Extension Act approving a line from
Kamloops to Kelowna, a
branch from Vernon to Lumby, and the addition
of 150 miles to the
100 mile line north from Victoria
2l
. The following year, the
legislature authorized a provincial guarantee
of up to $35,000 for
an
11 mile line from the New Westminster Bridge to Vancouver,
a
15 mile line from the New Westminster Bridge to Steveston, and
an
18 mile line from Victoria to Union Bay22
irrespective
of the financial troubles, construction was
advancing on several fronts. By the end
of 1912, work trains were
running over 78 miles
of track from the New Westminster Bridge
to Hope
23
. Grading in the vicinity of Kamloops was sufficiently
advanced to penmit the laying
of rails. The CNP ordered 15,000
tons of rails from the Algoma Steel Corporation at Sault Ste Marie,
Ontario to be delivered by
CP24.
Page 6
The rails laid
through the Fraser River
valley came from a
different supplier. They
were purchased from
the
Dominion Steel
Corporation at Sydney,
Nova Scotia. The sh
ips
which carried the rails
to the west coast had
to sail around Sou th
America as the Panama
Canal had not been
completed.
In the area near
Kamloops, the CNP
had to construct a
temporary line from
the CP line
in Kamloops
to the site of its main
line some three miles
north
of the city.
Kamloops Junction
was
the closest the CNP
tJanscontinental line
came to the city. The
Kamloops City Council
authorized the CNP
to
build a temporary line
from the CPR ac
ross
Lorne Street
and along
Ninth Avenue. This line
was to remain in use only
until November I,
1913
after which it was to be
dismantled
25
.The
temporary line, which
included a trestle over
the Thompson River,
was
ready by the end of
February 1913. By this
time, CP was delivering
rails
to the CNP at the
rate
of eight carloads per
day26.
Once built, the
so-called temporary line
remained
in place. The
CNP transcontinental
trains operated over this
RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
During a pause in the cross-Canada trip put on by the CNo for
Parliamentarians and journalists, in October 1915, the senior officials
of the railway were photographed at Spences Bridge. From Left to
right are: Sir William Mackenzie, President
of the CNo, D.B. Hanna
Third Vice President,
and MH. McLeod General Manager.
National Archives
of Canada, photo PA-165109.
amount of press attention
and was billed
as the first
passenger train
to operate
on the CNP. TIle official
party trave
lled from
Vancouver to New
Westminster on a car
chartered
from the British
Columbia Electric
Railway (BCE). At New
Westminster, they then
boarded the spec
ial train
consi
sting of a 4-6-0, a
special
car and caboose.
At the end of track, the
official party viewed the
large trestle under
construction at Mile 105.
The next month, the track
was laid as far as the first
division point at Boston
Bar
29.
During the course
of
1913,212 milesoftrack
were laid. Work
on the
transconti
nental line had
reached the following
stage:
-rails laid
from Hope
to Cisco [the point where
the CNP crossed the
Fraser Canyon
on a bridge
slightly
to the north of
CPs bridge].
distance 62
miles;
-rails laid between the
steel bridges under
construction along the
Fraser River,
distance 9
miles;
-rails laid 123 miles
north
from Kamloops; and
-rails laid 6 miles west
from
the Alberta border
to the
newly-created
division pointofLucerne.
As well, track had been
branch line
to access the city21, The wooden trestle was replaced
by a steel bridge
in 1926.
laid 12 miles on the
Steveston branch between Steveston and Queensboro·
10
.
The requirements of the provincial government that the
CNP build several terminals
on tbe west coast created difficulties
for the company. Vancouver, New Westminster, Victoria and the
smaller points of Steveston
on Lulu Island and Port Mann al.1
expected to reap economic benefits as grain,lumber and merchandise On
May J 4, 1913, a special train carried the Lieutenant
Governor, the Premier and provinciallegisJators
to the end of steel,
then fifteen miles beyond Yale
2s
. The trip generated a large
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 7
This phOlograph was taken on August 25, 1915 during the first trip made from Toronto to the west coast over the CNo. Standing 011 the
platform
of the North Battlejord, Saskatchewan station were are a number of the officials of the CNo who participated in this historic trip.
The photographs shows from left to right: Walter Pratt, Superintendent
of Sleeping and Dining Cars, later also General Manager of
Canadian National Hotels; George Stephen. General Freight Agent; W.A. Tuxford, then Secretary, laler occupying various positiolls
including
Chief of the Pass Bureau and Travelling Passenger Agent at San Francisco. California; Sir William Mackenzie, President; w.e.
Muir, Superintendent of Express; D.J. Coyle, Accountant, Mackenzie and Mann Company; Graham A. Bell, Deputy Minisr.er of Department
of Railways and Canals; Chief Justice Falconbridge; A. Mitchell, Treasurer; D.B. Hanna, Third Vice-President; M.H. McLeod, Chief
Engineer, General Manager Western Lines; M.A. McLeod, SOI1 of M.H. McLeod; P.e. Andrews, Office Manager, Mackenzie alld Mann
Company;
C.W Rowley; T.J. Lowe, Fuel Agent; E. Langham, Purchasing Agent; Ralph Pratt, Architect and Engineer; J.R. Cameron,
General Superintendent;
C.E. Friend, Auditor; George Mitchell, SecretGl) (killed in action in World War I), Robert Creelman, General
Passenger Agent.
Canadian National photo 42240.
flowed between the interior and these coastal points. Needless to
say. each of the communities viewed the others with a great deal
of suspicion.
Port
Mann was a new town which was purely the creation
of the CNP. Situated three miles east of the New Westminster
Bridge,
it was destined to be the site of the CNPs major freight
yards on the
west coastll. The rails used on the CNP east of
Basques were landed at Port Mann. By locating their west coast
divisional
point outside of the settled areas, Mackenzie and Mann secured the large
amount of land necessary for the division point
yards and facilities at low prices. Additional blocks
of land
adjacent to the railway were acquired for townsite and industrial
development. Land sales to
CNP employees and manufacturing
plants would help finance the cost
of the facilities. The following
newspaper article provides a detailed account
of the state of the
railway facilities at Port
Mann at the close of 1913 as well as
illustrates the optimistic pitch used
to interest investors in town
plots
J2.
Page 8 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
EARL Y FUTURE VERY BRIGHT FOR PORT MANN
While the contractors who are building the CNP are
directing every effort
and concentrating their forces in order
to have the British Columbia portions of the new transcontinental
linked
up early next year, the Imperial Construction Company
of Toronto is pressing actively forward the work on the
roundhouse, repair shops and other buildings which will be
located
at Port Mann, the freight and ocean terminus on the
Fraser River.
A large force
of men is at work under the direction of
Mr W. H. Fairchild at the townsite and good progress is being
made on
the different structures. The buildings already
planned for the freight terminus will cover, it
is estimated, an
area
of more than 100 square acres. Money on the
improvements
is being expended, it is stated, at the rate of
$1,000 per day.
The foundations have been completed for the
roundhouse which will be the largest
of its kind in Canada,
containing stalls for
45 engines. Work is well advanced on
the boiler house and the engine repair shops and the other
buildings.
In this connection, it is interesting to note that,
according
to announcements made by officials of the CNP,
employment will be found for 500 men in the engine repair
shops exclusively without taking into consideration
the demand
for workers
in the car repairshops, the boiler house, roundhouse
and freight yards.
Huge Car Building Plant
A plant
is being established at Port Mann by the
Imperial Car Building Company of Pittsburg which will be able
to turn out fifteen cars a day. The firm has a contract with the
CNP
to supply during a five-year period at least 1, 000 freight
cars
a year, the majority of which will be for freight equipment.
Several lines have been installed
in readiness for the
establishment
of the yards in which there will be sixty miles
of track and grading has been done for several other lines.
The large boarding house for the men employed on
the terminal construction operations has been recently
completed. Accommodation is provided for 200 men and
the
building is replete with all modern conveniences.
A huge steel water tank
is to be erected at an early
date and preliminary work on the foundation
is already well
advanced.
The tank will have a capacity of 80,000 gallons,
and is expected
to be finished before the end of next month.
The wharf completed early this month is proving a
great boom in handling supplies received by water. The
structure extends out from the shore 1,000 feet and is 100
feet long [clarifying note: the wharf ran for 1,000 feet along
the shore and
was 100 feet wide). More than 250,000 feet of
lumber for
the roundhouse and other buildings was recently
landed
at the dock. In connection with the building operations,
large shipments of gravel
and cement and other materials
are constantly being received
and in order to facilitate
conveyance
to the scene of operations, a light railway has
been installed
from the dock to the yards. Through Service Next Summer
As reported previously
in The Province, Sir William
Mackenzie, president
of the CNP, stated a short time ago
that
by the end of the year the whole transcontinental system,
with the exception
of a 50 mile gap in British Columbia, would
be linked
up. The unfinished portions are chiefly at the height
of land on either side of the Yellowhead Pass and Tete Jeune
Cache,
and although the work is particularly heavy from an
engineering point
of view, preparations have been made to
rush the work with all possible despatch so that the entire
transcontinental will be completed before
the middle of next
year
and ready for operation of through traffic.
Sir Donald Mann, vice-president of the CNP,
supplemented the announcement
of his confrere by stating
at Edmonton
a short time ago that by June next the CNo
would be running trains between Toronto
and Edmonton and
by August overland expresses would be operated from
Montreal right through
to the Pacific coast.
The Oltawa-Toronto section of the CNo has been
completed and the connecting Sudbury-Port Arthur [line} is
to
be finished next month. ..
Port Manns Importance
An idea
of the coming importance of port Mann as a
freight and ocean terminal can be gathered when the fact is
taken into consideration that the CNo, when its
new
transcontinental line is completed, will be operating 10,500
miles
of track …
Population of 10,000
According
to a statement attributed to Mr Charles F.
Miller, general manager of the Seaport Agencies Limited,
Port Mann,
in a recent interview, Sir Donald Mann has
expressed the opinion that
in two years time, or in three at
the most, the population of Port Mann will be in excess of
10, 000 persons. The railway magnate remarked the number
of men to be employed by the CNP in its shops at Port Mann
would be
as large as the number given work in the shops at
Winnipeg or not less than 2,000.
At the present time the population of Port Mann is
approximately 400 persons,
the majority of whom are workmen
and officials employed by the company
on the construction of
the new terminal buildings and engaged in preliminary work
in connection with the establishment of the freight and
trackage facilities.
It is not expected that a very large increase in population
will take place until the new transcontinental line is completed
and
in operation and the new factories, several of which have
been planned, are in commission.
With the opening up
of the new road and the
development
of the industries and the shipping of the new
port on the Fraser River, an era of business expansion is
anticipated for Port Mann.
The Daily Province, Vancouver, November 29, 1913.
[The article was accompanied by photographs of the new boarding
house and large dining hall for railway employees as well as the
four stolY hotel at
Port Mann.]
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 9
Liverpool
Addition
PORT MANN
Liverpool
Addition
Few other townsiles in Canada have had so many advanl.3acs ai,
their birth as Port Mann has-few other cities in CanJda have ever
grown as PO<1 Mann should grow. Anyone of the re~ns we givr be­
low would make & cily gro~1I toaether they ale ce~in 10 moke Port
Mann one 01 the bia dties of B. C. Ina very feW yeAtS.
We could aive you a hundred reasol5 for expect inK a rapid and great
increase in Pori Mann, population and importance, .but we hJve space
for only fIVe.
I. Port Mann is the first spot on _ the PJcific where the Canadian
Northern Railway touclles deep wato:1. It is to be the frei~ht Jnd.ocean
terminus of the C. N. R. In freight yards. car shops, locomotive worKs,
grain elevators and wharves, the C. N. R. expect to employ somc1hous­
and! of men in Port Mann within live yem.
2. Port Mann lias the finest freshwater harbor on iJle PacifK:is Jble
to accommodate the lariest vessels trading to this coast. and is open
everx day of the ye~. In ,ddition to the C.N. R., Port Mann has toJay.-
connt and the B. C.l:. R. rew-dliosin CiMda hay. bcttdship~ir,~facilities,
Ald u.ipping f,cilities alone have made m..ny adly &reAl.
3. The C«nadian Northern have S(t uide ~me two mne:s of WAtei­
fronlAie property. 10 be ~ffi Practically fr~ to manufacturers who ,11
bUildworlcs. there. Sudl sites are not to ~ had elS(Where, and as a re-
5l1t, S(veraJ of !he mos1 import.AJlI concerns on too continent are S-id to
be nt1otiatinJ fof sites lor their we:s~m tx.lncn faCUlries in PO<1 Mann.
4.
Back of Port Mann ~ the linffi agricultural ~tion in British
C~lumbia-the fAlTlous Fnscr Valley. In the MX1 ten yem every sqWIe
loot of th~ wonderfully rich valley will be inlcn~ly cuitivJted-Port ,~bnn
must benefil enormously.
S. With the openina of the PanJfI1a CJnaJ the whole P.~ilic C04.St
will boom. Port Mann, as,one of tne most !avorJbl,. situJted seaports in
BrihshQ)lumbia, wiU share in the benefIts to the fujI.
LIVERPOOL ADDITION
You haye S(cn that Port bnn must become
a greJt city-now let us show you that LIVEK­
POOL ADDITION must be the ultimate busi­
ness centre of that great city.
Jusllook It
the mop above. Note th~t Port
,o,bnn has only one outlet by 11I1d-the govern­
ment bridge over the Fraser-and Liverpool lies
between the ofrKial townsite and that bridge.
Every man, woman &tid ,hild-every vehicle­
pas.sing out from any part of Port Mann MUST
pass through !jverpool. Now. it is whcre the
most people pUs that the bi&~est businKs
places AIe to be found. It is where the most
pcople rJSS thJt the highest proper:y vllucs
rule. In Port hbnn IhJt rl3cc will be LIVER­
POOL ADDITION,
The CanljiJn :orth~rn c..u shops. roun~­
house In.:l lexomolivc .I1>rks lrc beinc built on
the site sJjoinin& Livcrrool. The I:l0wth of
Port Mlnn must b~ \est of these shops. to\Jrd,
the bridge. In other words, the growth of Port
Mann must ~e on LIVERPOOL ADDITION,
To sum ur. this rroperty Jdjoins the C.I,R.
;hors-it
!rants thc !:lcat Pacific Hi~hw,y-it is
w
ilhin l ston,,, Ihrow of the might) Frl5N-il
jc:. unJlf Iwe) mi~~ {HIm Ihl nuin SIItI.:1 of Nl\
V,.:qminst:-f, J -.:rn\,jn~ (it) of 20,cm r(~rl<:.
DII )OU know an) (Jth·:r p(rl:lty in Cln:dJ ;)0
\.;11 ri.1cd Do you ::00. on,.-olhcr rr~r~
with Cln rln(~~::r;~( of its nJvJnfJr.C;. In
\hi.h YOll (.1n p~r 3 10: f~r ., kw hllnJrd ,101-
I.,rs nn CJ~> t(,Tm~?
In ~rit~ of !h~ ~):1cy SI~ln~l·!(~·. LIV<.rrlOI
lc·l.S lie sein~ frc-cly-rriics ~o ur conlil1u.lly.
Imrcndin~ d~OI:imoL \ill likely douhle
th~m ow:nicht. yj for rbn ,nJ pice ti n,,\ whik :h~;·.: .,:~.~ ~.;\ ri(k~J lots 1cfl.
COLONIAL INVESTMENT COMPANY
THE PORT MANN PEOPLE
-837 HASTINGS STREET WEST
VA~COUVER B. C, ,
Page 10 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
Not surprisingly, a full page advertisement for the Colonial
Inve
stment Company offering to sell plots to investors at Port
Mann appeared on the page facing the one with the article.
On January 8, 1914, Mackenzie issued the following
statement concerning Port Manns place in the west coast terminals:
Regarding Port Mann, I will say that I believe it will be
an important railway and shipping point
on our system. We
have commenced the construction of a roundhouse and
repair shops and this will be followed by other buildings that
may be necessary for our requirements.
We are also
establishing large yards,
as much of the assembling and
distribution
of freight trains will be done there. As you know
we already have docks there to take care of shipping
requirements.
We shall encourage manufacturing companies
to locate at Port Mann by selling or leasing sites on the most
favourable terms .
.. Vancouver will be our principal western
terminal, yet Port Mann should be an important port
of our
Pacific terminal
system.
Shortly afterthis announcement, financial stringencycurtailed
the construction
of terminal facilities at Port Mann. For example,
the 45 stall
roundhouse was scaled back to a more modest 15 stall
facility.
While the construction crews were working across the
province, Mackenzie faced a deepening financial problem in 1913
as European
money markets became tighter.
Early in
January 1914, Mann went to Victoria to see
McBride to persuade him to increase the interest rate which the
province would guarantee on the CNP bonds. Without this
increase, the
CNP bonds would remain very difficult to sell as
government securities were being issued bearing much
higher
rates of interest than the 4% rate guaranteed on the CNP bondsJ4.
McBride could not meet Manns request. Starting in
1911, the provincia I expenditures had begun once again to outstrip
revenues. In 1913, the provincial d
eficit amounted over $5 mi Ilion
35
.
Hamstrung by the large provincial deficits, McBride refused to
alter the intere
st rates. Instead, he increased the financial guarantees
by another $10,000 per mile.
Returning
from Victoria, Mann was questioned by reporters
about the
Vancouver terminals. Mann revealed that he had met the
GN President the previous month and arrangements were practically
complete for the
CNP to operate over the GN line between New
Westminster and Vancouver until the CNP built its own line.l
6
This step underlined the tenuous financial condition of the CNo.
The start of World War I exacerbated the problems of the
financing
of the entire CNo system which was heavily dependant
upon the sale
of bonds. Interest rates soared as governments placed
massive bond issues to finance
war activities. The cost of labour
and materials experienced rapid increases as the these resources
were absorbed by the war effort.
The situation threatened to cause the bankruptcy of the
CNo. Faced with this prospect, the Dominion government grudgingly
agreed to provided guarantees worth up to $45 million on
CNo
securities in 1914. In exchange, the government required that 33%
of the CNo stock be deposited with it and that all the CNo affiJiated
properties, such as the
CNP, be consolidated and brought under
federal regulation. Needless to say, Premier McBride dislik
ed this
stipulation which would place the
CNP rates under Dominion
regulation. However, his protests were for nought7.
The 1914 Dominion guarantee permitted the CNo to
complete its transcontinental line. The funds were used to complete
its lines between Port Arthur and Sudbury, Sudbury and Ottawa,
Toronto and Ottawa, and Edmonton and Vancouver.
Labour and material shortages added to the troubles of
Mackenzie and Mann. Mann blamed this factor for delaying the
completion of the CNP beyond the stipulated contract date of July
1
,1914. On January 7, 19J4, Mann stated that the CNP wanted
an
extension of time to complete the main line. It would not be
possible to meet the July I, 1914 date due to the difficulty in
obtaining steel for bridges and the engineering handicaps which
had to be
surmounted
38
He added, We expect to be operating a through
freight and local passenger service from coast
to coast
before the end
of 1914 and we believe that the line will be in
good shape for opening transcontinental passenger service
a few months later. We will have our line graded right through
British Columbia by next July. There
is now only a gap of 60
miles yet
to be graded in the province on the section of the
route from Albreda Summit
to Kamloops. We are more than
5 miles west
of Yellowhead Pass already with our steel. All
the grading has been completed on the Port Mann-Kamloops
portion
J9.
Five days later, after his interview with McBride, he
reversed
his earlier statement regarding the completion date for the
CNP main line and pledged that the line would be finished by July
1st.
This about face would allow McBride room to manoeuvre the
bill increasing the provincial
guarantees on the CNP main line
through the l
egislature.
Events proved both of
Manns statements regarding the
opening date for the transcontinental line to be overly optimistic.
At the end of the year 1914, gaps remained in the line both north
and
west of Kamloops.
On January 23, J 915, the final rails of the CNP were joined
at Basques, a point 59 miles west of Kamloops Junction, thereby
symbolically
completing Canadas third transcontinental railway.
Therival Grand Tll1nk Pacific (GTP), which had received substantial
financial aid from the
Dominion government, drove the final spike
in its Winnipeg-Prince Rupert line on April 5, 1914. The GTP had
inaugurated through
Winnipeg-Prince Rupert freight service in
August 1914 and a through passenger service a month later
40.
There were no official ceremonies to mark the driving of
the last spike in the CNP event in this remote area of the province.
The clashes of the armies in Europe garnered the headlines while
the
announcement of the joining of the CNP rails was buried in the
back pages
of British Columbias leading newspaper41. Ballasting
the line and completing the necessary station,
servicing and repair
facilities was expected to delay the
opening until late the following
s
ummer.
An excursion over the line for members of the legislature
was planned to help
mark the event. The collapse of the tunnel at
Mile
186 on February 4, J 915 restricted the February 12th outing
by Premier McBride and his supporters to the portion of the line
between New Westminster and
Cisc0
42
The CNP began regular service over the section of line
from Port Mann to
Hope on May 29, 1915. The tri-weekly mixed
train was scheduled to connect with the
GNs trains to permit
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 11
A map of the Canadian Northerns transcontinental system as it appeared soon after opening.
passengers from Fraser Valley points to travel through to and from
Vancouver with a minimal delay at Port Mann
4J
When the rails were joined at Basques, work on the
promised branch lines and terminal facilities was practically at a
standstill. All the money which Mackenzie was able to rai
se after
1913 was devoted to completing the main line. Construction
on
Vancouver Island was proceeding ata snails pace and theSteveston
line still remained unconnected to the rest
of the CNP. In the two
years since the
agreement with the City of Vancouver had been
signed, the only work undertaken at the False Creek site for the
Vancouver terminals was the dumping of approximately 1.5
millioncubicfeetoffil1
44.
For most oftbe 1914and 1915,theCNo
and GN discussed the creation of joint terminal facilities at False
Creek. The main freight terminals at Port Maill1 remained in a
rudimentary and uncompleted state.
Work had not begun on the
terminals at
New Westminster.
At his appearance before the Vancouver City Council on
August 28, 1915, Mackenzie stated that the unusual conditions in
the financial markets for the past two years had set the
progress on
the CNP back for two years. It simply hacl not been possible to
borrow money, even with the endorsement of the Dominion
governmenl.
For these reasons, the CNP would seek ex tensions of
the time specified in their agreements with the City of Vancouver
to complete their terminal developments. On a more positive note,
Sir William announced that within the past few weeks he had
raised $11 million in N
ew York. This funding would permit the
work
on terminal facilities to be vigorously pursued
45
.
During the summer of J915 work was put in hand to permit
the ma
in line to pass the inspection by tile Dominion and Provincial
engineers. In July, the BC Provincial Engineer.
F.e. Gamble,
inspected the line. He pronounced work fully
complete from the
New Westminster bridge to Mile 190, near Basques. Ballasting
work between Mile 190 and Mile 245, at Kamloops Junction, was
uncompleted. This was due to be finished by the end
of August.
From Mile 245 to the provincial border, the only work which
remained was to apply a second lift
of ballast on a 15 mile segment.
All
the bridge structures were completed except for three temporary
bridges north
of Mile 316. The CNP stated these temporary
structures would be r
eplaced after the line was officially opened.
Station buildings were being erected at Fort Langley, Matsqui,
Page 12 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
Sumas, Arnold, Rosedale and Laidlaw. At Port Mann, a 15 stall
roundhouse and a turntable were under construction while work
was underway on a 10 stall facility at Kamloops Junction and a 5
stall structures at Lu
cerne and Boston Bar
46
By the end of August the work was sufficiently advanced
to permit the
operation of a special train bearing Sir William
Mackenzie and guests. This was the first train to run over the CNo
transcontinental line from Toronto to the west coast. The train
departed
Edmonton at 0700 on August 27th and arrived at Port
Mann the next day. The locomotive between Lucerne and Kamloops
Junction was a
4-6-0, Number .1 III. Sister engine 1127 brought
the train through to the coast. The train was composed or the
private cars Atikokan,
Toronto, Albreda, Etomami and Number
19
47•
On October 3rd, A. R. Kerr, Engineer for the Board of
Railway Commissioners and Alexander Ferguson, Engineer for
Dominion Department for Railway and Canals inspected the CNP
line to determine whether it could be opened for public traffic.
Four days later, the
CNP called for tenders to erect temporary
freight and passeng
er buildings on its land at False Creek pending
the erection
of the permanent facilities. While the temporary
facilities were being
constructed, the CNP announced it would lise
the
GN station in Vancouver
48
One of the most famous trains to operate over the CNP was
a special tra
in put on by Mackenzie and Mann for the accommodation
of Pari iamentarians and newspaper correspondents from the nations
leading newspapers.
In order to emphasize the full size of the CNo
system, the main section of the train originated in Quebec City and
operated to
Capreol via Ottawa. A separate section from Toronto
joined the main train at Capreol. Having left the eastern cities on
Octo
ber 12th, the train was scheduled to take six days to reach the
c
oast. The invited guests were officially known as the Parliamentary
Party, but were dubbed the
Expeditionary Force. A special
train left Vanc
ouver on the 17th bearing the BC Minister of
Railways and Public Works and the Mayors of Vancouver, Victoria
and New
Westminster. This train meet the westbound special at
Yellowhead Pass.
Once the private car used by the BC delegation was
attached to the special, it totaled IS car
s. Much attention was
drawn to the fact that one engine was able to handle this large train
through to the
coast -a feat which would have been impossible on
the
CPR line due to its steep grades. The only event which marred
the trip was the late arrival in Vancouver. Originally scheduled to
arrive at 2300,
it did not reach Vancouver until 0130. The main
reason for the late arrival was a broken wheel
49
The reporter
covering the arrival found little more to co
mment on than the fact
that the s
on of the late Premier Norquay of Manitoba was the
e
ngineer who brought the special into Vancouver.
An un remarked footnote to this excursion was the special
prote
ction afforded the train while it crossed the western provinces.
Between Winnipeg and Vancouver, A.E. McDonald, Chief, Special
and Claims Agent, drove a
motor car to serve as a pilot section for
the special.
The car was modified with the tires being replaced by
flanged
wheels
50
Enroute, D. B. Hanna, Third Vice President of the CNo,
had announced that through freight service between Toronto and
the w
est coast and a tri-weekly Edmonton-Vancouver passenger s
ervice would commence on November Ist
51•
Even before the
Parliamentary Special had completed its return t
rip, these plans
were
in a state of disarray. The following account from the
Vanco
uver Province provides a complete description of the events.
CNR IN DEADLOCK WITH THE HILL ROAD
What looks like a deadlock appears
to have been
reached
in negotiations between the Canadian Northern
Pacific Railway and the Great Northern Railway with reference
to the running rights over each others line in the province and
terminal facilities for the former road at Vancouver.
As a
result the CNP has cancelled its arrangements for operating
a through service to the coast from Edmonton which it was
announced some time ago was
to come into effect on
November
1. Pending a settlement of the questions at issue
between the two companies, the CNP will be unable
to
operate into this city.
Shed Contract is
Off
That the points at issue between the CNP and GNR
have reached an acute stage is indicated by the action taken
by the latter road
to prevent the former from going ahead with
its plans for temporary freight facilities
on the portion of its
reclaimed property on False Creek.
The CNR can only reach
its tract from GN property.
In preparation for tracks and
freight sheds the CNP has been driving piles
on its reclaimed
holdings,
the operations being conducted from the neighbouring
land owned by the Hill road.
The CNP has been served with
a notice compelling it to stop further work from the GN
property.
The CNP had invited bids for the construction of the
sheds, and tenders were being received this
week. As a
result of the tie-up, the company has announced that it can
not proceed with the letting
of a contract.
Arrangements
in the Air
The arrangement for operating CNP trains into
Vancouver over the
GN lines from Port Kells, the junction for
the two roads, are said
to have been only tentatively agreed
upon. Plans for using each others line at other points had
been decided upon and approved, but no regular agreement
had been signed, it is declared. Under the terms
of the
proposed agreement covering the lines
in this province, the
GNR was
to use the CNP line to Hope to connect with its
Hope Mountain Railway through from Similikameen and the
Boundary districts, and the CNP was
to run trains from Port
Kells into Vancouver over the
GN.
Officials
of the CNP who came to the coast with the
parliamentary special declined
to make any announcements
as to when through service from Edmonton and the East
would be instituted, although a short time ago it had been
definitely stated that the first train would leave Edmonton
on
November 1. The date for inaugurating through traffic had
been postponed several times since the initial announcement
when October
1 was mentioned. Sir William Mackenzie,
president,
was silent on this subject when questioned. Mr
M.H. McLeod, general manager, said that there had been
some difficulty
in making arrangements with the GNR with
respect
to running rights into Vancouver over the companys
road and explained that the CNR had intended entering into
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 13
In October 1915 Mackel1Zie alld Malin operated a speciallrain from Quebec to Vancouver to show Parliamentarians and journalists their
new lransconLillentalline. This view was taken whilst
the train was travelling from Yellowhead Pass to Vancouver over lhe Canadian
Northe
rn Pacific. Canadian Naliollal photo 15070.
some temporary agreement pending the settlement of the
main agreement covering other questions.
While Sir William Mackenzie and other CNo officials
have been expressing themselves
as favouring the idea of a
combined union station on False Creek for the CNo, GNR
and Northern Pacific, no progress
is said to have been made
with negotiations having that object
in view …
The Daily Province, Vancouver October 22, 1915
On October 25th, A.H. MacNeill, the GN General Counsel
for B.C. had an intervi
ew with Premier McBride. MacNeill stated
that the negotiations between the
GN and CNP were not deadlocked,
but that the
two companies were simply arranging several important
trackage
agreements. The CNo was reviewing the evaluation
which the
GN had completed of its New Westminster line. This
evaluation was to serve as the basis for fixing compensation and
the schedules
of the CNp
52.
The CNP did not occupy a strong position ill these negotiations.
It was seeking to purchase the POlt Kells-Brownsville trackage
from the GN subsidiary, the Vancouver, Victoria & Eastern
(VV&E)5J.
This trackage would form a key part of the CNP
transcontinental line as it would provide access to the New
Westminster bridge and the division point at Port Mann. As well,
the
CNP sought running rights over the VV&E between New
Westminster and Vancouver and the use of its terminal in Vancouver.
For its part, the GN desired running rights over the CNP between
Hope and Sumas Landing in order to finish the VV&Es line from
Spokane,
Washington to Vancouver. By this time, the utility of the
VV&E to the GN was doubtful.
While the negotiations with the ON were underway, the
CNo opened the eastern section of its transcontinental line. Effective
November 1. 1915, tli-weekly passenger service was provided
between Toronto and Winnipeg
5s
. Connections were scheduled at
the latter point with the Winnipeg-Edmonton trains.
ravel
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. JJ » r o » z » o m z L » z < m JJ 11 m < JJ m JJ to to
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 15
This publicity photo of the interior of a 12 seclion 1 drawing room sleeping car reveals the sumptuous woodwork and surroundings accorded
the sleeping car traveller who travelled on the CNo. This car is
mosllikely one of 11 which the Canadian Car and Foundry delivered to
the CNo during 1915. The hat bags bear the Canadian Northern circular logo as well as the moUo Canadas Second Transcontinental
Railway. Strictly speaking, this was not true as the Grand Trunk Pacific and National Transcontinental were opened
10 traffic in 1915.
However, as the Grand Trunk Railway,
the parent of the GTP, protesred raking over the NTR and as a change of trains was necessmy in
Winnipeg, perhaps the CNo can be forgiven this statement.
National Archives
of Canada photo C-34292.
On November 8th, the GN unveiled the plans for its
Vancouver statio
n. The GN pointedly noted that these plans made
no provisions for the CNp
s6
• As the two carriers had been discussing
the possibilities
of erecting a single union station, this announcement
obviously was designed to place yet more pressure upon the CNP
to accept the GNs terms for access to its trackage.
On November 17th, it was alU10unced that the impasse was
broken.
CNo General Manager, M.H. McLeod stated on November
22nd thal the first passenger train would arrive from Edmonton on
November 24th and the first train would depart for Edmonton the
same day.
The special train on which McLeod had come to
Vancouver on
November 20th would form the consist of the first
eastbound
passenger train
s7
.
In addition to the tri-weekly service to Edmonton, the CNP
also instituted a tri-weekly local train between Vancouver and
Boston Bar.
The local made its first departure from Vancouver on
November 23rd.
The first eastbound passenger train to nm the length of the
CNP departed Vancouver at 0900 on November 24th. Reports in
the two Vancouver newspapers differ as to the size of the train; one
claims
it was four cars while the other states seven cars. There is
agreement that it included a baggage-express car, the sleeper
Belleville, and an obselvation-cafe-diner
cal.5s. The first eastbound
ticket was bought by a
Mr G.P Williams, a merchandise broker.
Thirty three passengers on the first
eastbound train were destined
to Edmonton and points further east. A
number of invited guests
from Vancouver and New
Westminster travelled 113 miles to
Stout where they transferred to the first westbound train. This train
arrived two hours late in
Vancouver
59
Following the inauguration of the transcontinental line,
the attention
of the officials turned to building up traffic over the
new line.
Their efforts received a major setback early in 1916. On
January 22th, the province was blanketed by a heavy snowstorm.
Trains on both the CP and
CNP lines were trapped in the huge
Page 16 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
The Canadian Norlhem mule Ihrough Ihe Rockies as shown in Ihe milways summer timelable for 1917.
drifts. The CNP had passenger trains snowed in near Blue River
and Boston Bar. While
CP reopened its line in several days, the
CNP line would remain closed for more than a month. By February
2nd, the train at Blue River had been freed, however, the one in
the
Fraser Canyon remained blockaded. As long as the line remained
closed, mixed trains operated between Vancouver and Hope
60
The following two newspaper articles discuss certain
events which
OCCUlTed during the blockade.
USE CABLE ROUTE TO CROSS CANYON
Deserting their special train, which has been stalled
east
of the blockade along the Fraser Canyon section of the
line since last Monday [February
7th}, Mr M.H. McLeod,
general manager,
and a party of officials accompanying him,
crossed the canyon yesterday on a cable
and came in to
Vancouver last night over the CPR.
On arrival here, Mr McLeod made the following
announcements: Preliminary plans for the proposed CNP
depot on False Creek will be ready for submission
to the City
Council
at an early date. The CNP expects to call for tenders
for the construction
of car ferry slips on the mainland and
Vancouver Island, and scows and tugs for the gulf service
within the next few days. Tired
of their enforced stay at the scene of the tie-up and
of the plain camp fare that is the portion of those who are in the
clearing outfits,
the general manager and his assistants crossed the
Fraser Canyon on a wire cable yesterday afternoon and caught the
westbound train
over the rival road [the CPR). A shortage of
tobacco and the other creature comforts that help to relieve the
tedium
of long waits is also whispered to have had something to do
with the determination
of the officials to come to the coast and
seek the luxury of a modern hotel …
Successions of slides following the heavy falls of
snow along the Fraser Canyon section of the CNP have
greatly accentuated the difficulties
of clearing the line, stated
the general manager. Snow plows
and the other mechanical
contrivances have been found ineffective
to cope with the
complicated troubles that are being encountered, he remarked,
and consequently the line will have to be laboriously dug out
by hand. The abnormal conditions and the unusually heavy
snowfall this season found the company unprepared,
he
observed, for dealing with the situation developed during the
past few weeks, but equipment would be provided for coping
with similar emergencies the future
The Daily Province, Vancouver February 12, 1916.
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 17
A Canadian NorthernJreight train has paused 01 the Langly, B.C. station. Number 1047 was built by Baldwin in 1901. It was retired by CN
ill 1925
Natiollal Archives
of Canada photo PA-I78465.
MORAL IS NEVER LEND YOUR SNOW PLOW
For a railway
to lend another railway -a rival one at
that -a snow plow when trouble is threatened over all lines is
a great concession -something regarded in transportation
circles as an almost unprecedented happening.
The Grand
Trunk Pacific {GTP] did this during the tie-up
of the Canadian
Northern Railway
in the Selkirks -and had cause to rue such
a radical departure. The tragedy
of the GTP snow plow is
now being related
in railway circles. Despite efforts made to
keep the occurrence secret, the facts have now leaked out.
The story runs this wise:
Mr Morris Donaldson, vice-president and general
manager
of the GTP, thought he would like a little change of
scenery on his way east after he had visited the coast a few
weeks ago
and so he decided to have his private car attached
to the outgoing CNo express. The train missed the fierce
snow storm that blocked both the CNP and CPR through the
Fraser Canyon, but ran into troubles near Blue River, close
to the Yellowhead Pass. After a few days of inaction -the line
was tied
up tight by slides -Mr Donaldson began to chafe with
impatience.
He had business worries of his own and so with
the idea
of hurrying the work along he got his own operating
department
in action and had a wing snow plow transferred
at a point where the two transcontinental systems run parallel
to the CNo. The GTP plough was fine for
a time and then it ran off
the track. It not only ran off the CNP track but it fell a hundred
feet
and landed on the GTP line, which happened to be
immediately below. The plough fell with its wheels
up. There
was a stove
in the plough, which set the woodwork afire. By
the time the crew climbed down from the CNP
to the GTP line
all that remained
of it were the wheels and the metal work.
Daily Province, Vancouver February
21, 1916.
Just as weary crews had cleared last of the snowdrifts from
the line near Boston Bar, a massive thaw set
in during the week of
February 17th. This caused several washouts along the line through
the Fra
ser Canyon. Repairs at Lytton delayed the opening of the
line until February 28th when freight service resumed. Passenger
service between Edmonton and Vancouver
recommenced on
March 1 st
61

In order to have sufficient equipment for operation over its
new main lines, the CNo placed
an order for 66 new passenger cars
in the summer of 19 14
62
Most of these cars were to be used on the
Toronto-Vancouver transcontinental service. Sufficient cars were
ordered to permit daily service.
The order was split between the
four major car builders
in the following manner:
Page 18 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
~ … –]–….
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. I I I I I ~ .. ! a·
••• _iDI …… ·.·.-.:..~·
55 CANORA
Official Number 138.800. Heglslered al Quebec Cily. No. 8/1918. 23 Sep 1918. A for~-and-att Sleam Screw Ferry. Lloyds Reglsler 100A for
15 years.
Built by Davie ShipiJUlldlnq
& Repal( Co Ltd .. Lauzon. Quebec Engines & BOilers by John Inglis & Co Ltd .. roronlo
GRT 2382.66. NRT 94031. IHP 2200 giving
12Y2 knols Launched 10 June 1918 To Vancouver Via Panama Canal 30 Sep 7 Dec 1918
Master: Captain Norman McKay. Canadian Certificate 01 Competency. #7810
55 CAN ORA
Numaro ofllcleI138.000. Immatricule a Quebec, N° 8/1918,23 sept 1918 Traversler a vapeur avec helices afflere et ~vant, Lloyds Register
100A pour 15 ans.
Construit par Davie Shipbuilding
& Repal( Co Ltd. l auzon (Quebec) Moteurs et chauduHes: John Inglis & Co Ltd., Toron10.
CRT 2382.66, NRT 940.
31. IHP 2200 (12~/,. noeuds) LancOle 10 IUIn 1918 A Vancouver via Ie canal de Panama du 30 sept. au 7 dlk 1918
Commandant· Ie ~apilaine Norman McKay, certlhcat de competence Canada N° 7810.

While Canadian Northern scarferrysteamer Canon/
spent her entire working life
on the west coast, she was
registered
;n Quebec. The name was deriled from the
first two lellers
of Mackenzie and Manns Canadian
Northe
rn Railway. The top view shows the vessel when
new
in 1918. while the bOllom ph % most likely shows
the ship at the Port Mann terminus some time aper
World War !I.
Bottol1/ picture, Canadian Natiol1al pharo
49257
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 19
National Steel Car of Hamilton Ontario, 15 Baggage-Express
Cars. *tional Steel Car, 5 First Class Coaches. Crossen Car
CompanT of Cobourg, Ontario, 7 Colonist Cars. Preston Car and
Coach Company of Preston, Ontario, 5 Mail Cars. Canadian
Car & Foundry Company of Turcot, Quebec and Amherst, Nova
Scotia, II, 12-section I drawing room sleepers. Canadian Car
& Foundry Company, 2 Compartment sleepers (for the Ottawa­
Toronto service). Canadian Car & Foundry Company, 7,30-seat
diners. Canadian Car & Foundry, 7, 17-section tourist sleepers.
Canadian Car & Foundry Company, 7,4-compartment I drawing
room-buffet-observation cars. (see table II on page 31).
In the spring
of 1916, it was announced that the frequency
of the transcontinental service would be increased from tri-weekly
to daily as
of June I st
63
. This announcement was subsequently
revoked; the reason being that Canadian Car & Foundry had not yet
delivered all the cars.
The final cars from the 1914 order were not
dclivcrcd until September 1916
64•
Even with the completion of tht:
order, the frequency
of the CNos transcontinental service remained
at tri
-weekly levels until the company was taken over by Canadian
National.
The CNP did upgrade its passenger services in the lower
Fraser Valley. As of June 11, 1916, the tri-weekly Vancouver­
Boston Bar service was replaced by a daily Vancouver-Hope
train
65
.
On March 9,1916, CNo Chief Engineer McLeod informed
the M
ayor of Vancouver that the CNP could not come to any
agreement with the GN concerning the construction of a union
station at
False Creek. As a result, the CNP built its station within
several hundred feet of the GNs facility66
A report on the state
of the CNP lines at the end of 1916 was
prepared by the
Chief Engineer ofthe B.C. Depaltment of Railways.
Extracts
of tl1is report are contained in Annex I following this
article.
Following the completion of the transcontinental line, the
attention
of the construction forces focused upon the neglected
branch lines and
the west coast terminals. In November 1915, rails
were shipped to
Vancouver Island for the Victoria-Patricia Bay
line
61
. A year later, track laying on this 18 mile branch was
completed. It lay dormant during the winter of 1917 as the ferry
slip at Patricia Bay remained uncompleted.
While the Patricia Bay slips were not completed until April
6, 1917, the
CNP did began to serve Victoria the previous fall. As
per its contract with the province, the CNP ordered the rail car felTY
Canora from the Davie Shipbuilding and Repair Company at
Lauzon, Quebec. As the ferry would not be delivered for several
years, the
CNP constructed three barges at Port Mann to use in
coastal service. The first barge was completed in July and the
second in November 1916. Two whaling vessels, the Germania
and the Sebestian, were secured from Victoria Whaling Company,
a firm owned by Sir William Mackenzie
68
On November IS, 1916, the Germani a towed Transfer
No I to the dock of the Victoria Whaling Company69. On its deck
were nine empty tank cars to be loaded with whale oil. It should
be noted that the
CNP made extensive use of the barges in serving
points
in the greater Vancouver area not reached by its rai Is.
Before
making this trip, the barge had already made nine trips
between Port Mann and loco on Burrard Inlet carrying rail cars
loaded with oil and gasoline.
Passenger service using a gas-electric car was inaugurated
between Victoria and Patricia Bay on April 30, 1917
7
°.
Simultaneously, barge service was inaugurated between the mainland
and Patricia Bay.
The Canora was put on the Patricia Bay-Port
Mann run in the spring of 1919. It was a bi-directonal vessel with
space for 40 freight cars.
The Dominion cabinet passed an order in council declaring
the
CNP to be for the general advantage of Canada effective March
1, 1917 thereby placing ilunder the jurisdiction of the Board of
Railway Commissioners11.
One of its first rulings affecting the CNP related to
interswitching privileges. The Board ordered the GN, CP and
British
Columbia Electric to interswitch carload traffic with the
.NP effective March I, 1917. Prior to this order, the CNP was
forced to transfer freight to shipp
ers located along these lines by
road as the
other carriers refused to switch the cars to warehouses
lying along their tracks
12.
An additional benefit arising from the Boards interswitching
order was it allowed the CN? to move carload traffic over CP and
BCE lines to access shippers on its isolated Steveston line13 The
branch from Queensboro to Steveston had lain dormant since
tracklaying was
completed in 1912 as the CNP and City of New
Westminster could not agree on the route the CNP would take
th.rough that city.
The demand for rails for use on the military railways along
the western front in
France lead to the cessation of most rail line
construction and the removal
of rails on some recently completed
lin
es in 1917. On December 19, 1916, it was announced that the
Honourable
F. Cochrane, the Dominion Minister of Railways and
Canals had decided that the
CNo and GTP duplicate lines beween
Edmonton and Yellowhead Pass had to be rationillized
14
. During
1917, the 190 miles
of parallel trackage between Imrie, Alberta
and Resplendent, B.C. were
consolidated, and 81 miles of CNP
track were lifted
15
One victim of the formation of the Canadian
National Railways
was the CNP division point at Lucerne, B.C.
The management of the new CNR decided to consolidate the CNP
division point
at Lucerne and the GTP facilities at Jasper. In
September 1922 the Board of Railway Commissioners turned
down a CN reque
st to consolidate the division point activities to
Lu
ceme. In its order, the Board directed CN to move the division
point to Ja
sper. The change was made November I, 1924. To tbis
day,
Lucerne remains a hamlet while the construction of a railway
hotel at Jasper has
brought international renown to that town.
The CN? pledges concerning the Okanagan Valley and
VancouverIsland lines were partially fulfilled by Canadian National.
A 116 mile
extension from Kamloops to Kelowna was built and
opened to traffic
in 1925
16
It was an amalgam of 90 miles new
construction and
26 miles of running rights over CP trackage. A
14 mile branch line
was constructed to Lumby at the same time.
The situation was different on Vancouver Island. The 250 mile
line north from Victoria through Port Alberni was never completed
17
The completion of the transcontinental line did not end the
financial problems
of the CNo. Indeed, the situation slipped from
bad to worse.
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1915, the CNo
Page 20 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
system lost $2.5 million after all interest and carrying charges were
taken into account. For the 1917
fiscal year, the loss had increased
to $3.2 million and
in 1918 the red ink totalled $11.7 miJiion
78.
The Dominion government took over nominal control of
the CNo system on November 16, 1917. Following the decision to
nationalize the company, Mackenzie and Mann resigned from the
Board
of Directors on September 6, 1918
79
. The govenunent
authorized the use of the title Canadian National Railways for
the new system formed
by the CNo and Canadian Government
Railways on December 20, 1918. Five years later, upon the
takeover
of the Grand Trunk by the government. the name Canadian
National Railways (CN) would become the official title for the
new system. Though Mackenzie and Mann have been gone from the
scene for many decades, the main line
of the CNP has more than
fulfilled their expectations.
The high construction standards
permitted CN to cope with the increasing traffic demands as
western producers found world-wide markets for lumber, potash
and grain. DUling the early 1980s, a program was undertaken to
double track portions
of the line to accommodate the rapid
increases in natural resource traffic flowing over the line. Most
recently clearances have been
increased to accommodate double
stacked container trains. Today and in the foreseeable future, the
Albreda, Clearwater, Ashcroft and Yale Subdivisions are
some of
the busiest and most profitable portions of the CN system.
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 21
AT YOUR SERVHCE
Compartment-Library­
Observation Cars
Several nell feRtures cnnnot fuil to meet with
approval. A pH·tented foltlinl; dresser, containing
all necessar), toilet articles, forms a very useful
table when closed. The library contains the latest
jlnd most popular literature, also convenient writ­
ing desks. Porte]s ,,;tn prepare very tasty light
refreshments and have charge ·of n Travellers
Shop i1h a stork of articles likely to be over­
looked
in packing.
Standard Sleeping
Cars
Upper and lower berths are noticeably roomier
than 1ls11al, antl each is equippetl with electric
lights and a pntent ,a]·dQbe. A nc,\ ventilato]
has been installed which cOlOplctely exhnusts the
vilin1-ed nit-cvery eight minutes. OI-cCln towels HI~
kept in glass covered cnses, and indiyiilunl drink­
illg cups in scaled packngcs arc c,,~lllsively used.
T olllrist Sleeping Cars
Each cal, electric .jighted throughout, is ilpholstered ill Pantesote leather, while the bed linen and
blanl,ets nrc of the best qllality. A large kitchen, fitted with range, cooking uten.its IInil lockers, en­
ables the t ravel Ie] to prepare any kind of meal, with the assistnce of the porler, who is a competent
cook, if desired.
Dining Cars
In order to ohtain the choicest vegetables II
chain of farms is maintained while staplC supplies
arc served in individual sanitary packages. Ever.v
article used comes nder the experienced eye of
an inspector so as to ensure its perfect freshness
and quality. Ill addition to the regular a la carte
menu, dub Ol€als may be had at moderate prices.
Passengers arc supplied with menu cards a-bout
thirty minutes before each meal and the stew·ard
will be pleased to give auy information desired.
Travel Comfo;rts
For ·the convenience ·of passengers ·travelling
with bnbies, dining cal stelaJC] will have milk anil
>bab.v food heated, and supply hot water free of
·ch-nrge. Mineral waters, plin nd fancy drinks,
icc-cream soda, sundaes and ices, cigal9 nnd cignl­
ettes nrc served in rhC dining (!ar. Conch passen­
gers can purchase brend, tinned
mCat-s, biscuits,
fruits, etc.,
from -the News Agent, and coffee, tea
and milk from the dining car at reasonwble
c
harges.
Some Canadian Northem advertising from 1917.
ENDNOTES
The formal style for listing sources has been modified to enable the
reader to identify more readily the sources used
by the author.
I The Baring Brothers and Company failure in 1890 set off a
depression
in Britain which spread to Europe in 1891. As most
railway construction
in Canada was underwritten by British and
European banks, funds became difficult
to attract. The financial
panic hil North America in 1893. For further details see H.A.
Fagan, American Economic Progress, l.B. Lippincott and
Company, 1935. Pages 468-470. During the ten year period
between 1882 and 1891, an average
of 704 miles of new line was added to the Canadian railway network each year. Betw
een 1892
and 1898, this declined to less than 319 miles per year. For further
details
see M.e. Urquhart, Editor, Historical Statistics of Canada,
MacMillan Company, 1971. Series S24-38.
2 For a full discussion of these events, see Regehr, TD., The
Canadian Northern Railway: Pioneer Road
of the Northern Prairies
1895-1918, MacMillan Company of Canada, Toronto, 1976.
Pages
39 to 51.
3 The Manitoba government guaranteed interest and principal
repayment at the rate
of $8,000 per mile of line. See Manitoba
Statutes, Victoria, 1896, Chap 10.
Page 22 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
4 Hanna, D. B. Trains of Recollection, MacMillan Company of
Canada, Toronto, 1924. Page 132.
5 An agreement to amalgamate the two companies was signed in
December 1898. It was approved by the Dominion Parliament in
1899.
6 The transformation of the prairies from an empty land to a
major grain producing region
was amazingly swift. Between 1891
and 1901, the population
of the North West Territory and Manitoba
increased from 251,473 to
439,641. By 1911, the population had
increased to
over 1.3 million.
Between 1891 and 1901, the
number of prairie farms increased
from 31,252 to 55,176.
By 1911, there were almost 200,000
farms.
The tons of grain and flour shipments handled by the railways
increased from 3,681
in 1894 to 6,482 in 1900.
Op. cit., Statistics
of Canada, Series A2-14, LJ-6 and S39-
52.
7 The CNo line was completed to Port Arthur in 1902 and
Edmonton
in 1905.
8 It is ironic that both the Grand Trunk and CNo were only able to
undertake their
expansion programs with the support of the
Dominion government.
This support took the form of either a
direct cash subsidy, a land grant
or a Dominion guarantee of the
interest and principal payments
on securities issued by the company.
Exemplifying the confidence
of the Laurier government in the
continued economic expansion
of the country, A. G. Blair, the
Minister
of Railways and Canals, stated in his speech to the Liberal
Association
in Vancouver on October 9, 1902 that there was room
for four transcontinental railways in Canada.
9 Smith, B.R.D., Sir Richard McBride: A Study in the
Conservative Party of British Columbia 1903-1916, Queens
University, unpublished MA Thesis, 1959. Pages 69 and 118 to
119.
10 The Daily Colonist, Victoria, January 26, 1909.
II Agreement between His Majesty the King and the Canadian
Northern Railway dated January 17, 1910.
12 Though the Panama Canal was supposed to open in 1913,
construction difficulties delayed the passage
of the first ship until
August 15, 1914.
The Vancouver-New Westminster area rapidly
became a major lumber exporting centre providing many carloads
for the CNP.
The movement of Alberta grain through Vancouver took many
years to develop. A trial
shipment from Vancouvers newly
completed grain elevator to Liverpool, England was
made via the
Panama Canal in 1916.
This shipment proved grain would not
spoil on a voyage
of this length. See Port Cities: Then and Now
by AUan Fisk in Portus, Fall 1988.
Little grain moved through
Vancouver as prairie grain shipments
moved
under special rates via the Great Lakes under the Crows
Nest Pass Agreement.
The Crows Nest Pass rates were applied to
export shipments via
Vancouver in 1925. An article in The
Daily Province on September 1, 1916 stated the cost to move a bushel
of grain from Alberta to Liverpool via Montreal was 28
cents versus
38 cents from Vancouver.
D Agreement between His Majesty the King and Canadian Northern
Railway
dated January 17, 1910.
14 The Daily Province, Vancouver, January 11, 1910.
15 See Section 17 of the Agreement between His Majesty the King
and the
Canadian Northern Railway dated January 17, 1910.
16 See B.C. Statutes 1910, Edward VII, Chap 3 which ratified the
agreement of January 17, 1910 and Edward VII; Chap 4 which
incorporated the Canadian Northern Pacific Railway.
17 Report of the Department of Railways of the Province of
British Columbia from 1911 to December 31st, 1916, William H.
Cullin, Printer to the Kings Most Excellent Majesty, Victoria,
1917.
18 The bill of the provincial legislature ratifying the agreement
between the City and the
CNP received royal assent on March I,
1913. See B.C. Statutes 1913, George V, Chap 76.
19 The Daily Province, Vancouver, February 6, 1913.
20 The legislation of the Dominion Parliament received royal
assent on April
1,1912. See Dominion Statutes, George V, 1912,
Chap 9.
21 The legislation received royal assent on February 27, 1912.
See British Columbia Statutes, George V, 1912, Chap 32.
22 The legislation received royal assent on February 21, 1913.
See British Columbia Statutes, George V, 1913, Chap 57.
23 Canadian Railway & Marine World (CR&MW), March 19 J3
24 The Daily Province, Vancouver December 3, 1912
25 The Inland Sentinel, Kamloops, December 20, 1912.
~6 The Inland Sentinel, Kamloops, February 21, 1913.
27 Canadian Northern Passenger Timetables for 1916 and 1917.
28 The Daily Province, Vancouver, May 14 and 15, 1913.
29 CR&MW, July 1913.
)0 CR&MW, February 1915 and the Daily Province, Vancouver,
December 15, 1913. The CR&MW mileage report actually stales
only
206 miles were completed, but in the detailed statement
accompanying the statistic the compiler neglected to include the
6 miles
of line reported elsewhere in the same issue as being
completed westwards from the Alberta border.
31 The Port Mann Yard was subsequently renamed Thornton Yard
in
honour of CNs second president, Sir Henry Thornton.
32 Land speculation along the route of a new railway was a common
occurrence in the four western provinces. While building its
transcontinental line across the prairies,
CP often located division
points on land it owned. During the construction
of the Grand
Trunk Pacific, each of the division points, such as Smithers and
Prince
George, were touted as the nex.t site where a major new city
would arise.
33 The Daily Province, Vancouver, January 8, 1914.
31 Op. cit., Canadian Northern Railway. Pages 353-354.
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 23
)5 Op. cit., Sir Richard McBride. Page 282.
)6 The Daily Province, Vancouver, January 12, 1914.
)7 The legislation received royal assent on June 12, 1914. See
Dominion Statutes,
George V, 1914, Chap 9. The legislation
fixed the total amount
of capital stock which the CNo could issue
at $100 million, thus the
CNo was required to deposit $33 million
worth
of shares with the Dominion government.
3S The July 1914 issue of CR&MW reported that bridge building
along the
CNP was being delayed by the lack of labour.
39 The Daily Province, Vancouver, January 7, 1914.
40 The first sod of the GTP was turned in Prince Rupert on April 7,
1908, more than two full years before work on the
CNP got
underway. G.W. Taylor, Builders
of British Columbia: An
Industrial
History, Morriss Publishing, Victoria, 1982.
41 The Daily Province, Vancouver, January 23, 1915.
42 The Daily Province, Vancouver, February 13, 1915.
43 The Daily Province, Vancouver, May 25, 1915.
44 CR&MW, July 15, 1915. Ultimately, five million cubic feet of
fill was required to provide a finn base for the facilities at the False
Creek site.
45 The Daily Province, Vancouver, August 28, 1915.
46 CR&MW, September 1915.
47 Inland Sentinel, Kamloops, August 27, 1915 and The Daily
Province, Vancouver, August 28, 1915. Locomotive
1111 and
sister engine
I) 27 were part of a group of 20 locomotives built by
the Montreal Locomotive Works for the
CNo in 1912. Sister
locomotive 1112 is on display
.,at the Associations Canadian
Railway Museum at St-Constant.
4R The Daily Province, Vancouver, October 7, J 915. At this time,
the GN station was located on Pender Street.
49 The Daily Province, Vancouver, October 13, 14, 18, and 19,
1915.
The newspaper account states the train had 19 cars, while a
photo
of the train at Kamloops Junction shows only 15 cars. In his
annual report to
CNo stockholders, Mackenzie stated the special
had
15 cars and carried 78 senators and M.P.s and 34 journalists.
50 The Sun, Vancouver, October 19, 1915.
51 The Daily Province, Vancouver, October 18,1915.
52 The Daily Province, Vancouver, October 26, 1915.
53 This trackage was built by the New Westminster Southern in
1890-91 as an extension of the GN line from Seattle, Washington.
It was rendered re
dundant when the VV &E completed a shorter
line with less arduous grades between the American border and
Brownsville
in 1909. Those portions of the New Westminster
Southern not sold
to the CNP in 1916 were abandoned.
54 The first indication of a declining interest in the VV&Es
Spokane-Vancouver can be traced to a decision by the GN to
accept running rights over the Kettle Valley Railway through the
Coquihalla Valley.
Once the line through the Coquihalla Valley was completed, the GN operated a single through train over the
Spokane-Vancouver line in 1916. It would never operate another
train through the Coquihalla and by 1920 had ceased to exercise its
trackage rights
over the CNP line to Hope. See McCullochs
Wonder by Barrie Sanford published by Whitecap Books in 1977
for further details.
55 Toronto Star, Toronto, November 2, 1915.
56 The Daily Province, November 8, 1915.
57 The Daily Province, Vancouver, November 17 and 22, 1915.
58 The Daily Province, Vancouver, November 24 and 25, 1915 and
The Sun, Vancouver, November 24, 1915.
59 The Daily Province, Vancouver, November 25, 1915.
60 The Daily Province, Vancouver, February 2, 1916.
61 The Daily Province, Vancouver, February 26 and 29, 1916.
62 CR&MW, August 1914.
63 CR&MW, March 1916.
64 CR&MW, July, August, September and October 1916.
65 CR&MW, July 1916.
66 CR&MW, April 1916.
67 The Daily Province, Vancouver, November 17, 1915.
68 The Germania was purchased by the Canadian Nortbern
Steamship Co. Limited. Subsequently, it was renamed Fraser
and later Canadian National No.4 while operated by Canadian
National.
See List of Shipping, Department of Marine and
Fisheries,
Kings Printer, 1930. The Sebastian was not purchaseci
and probably operated under a lease or charter.
See Lloyds
Register, 1917 to 1923, and Pacific Coast Ferry Service by J.R.
Rochester in the November 1922 issue of Canadian National
Magazine.
69 The Daily Colonist, Victoria, November 16, 1916.
70 The Daily Colonist, Victoria, May 1, 1916.
71 The Daily Province, Vancouver, February 28, 1917.
72 The Daily Province, Vancouver, February 28, 1917.
73 The Daily Province, Vancouver, February 28, 1917.
74 The Daily Colonist, Victoria, December 19, 1916.
75 CR&MW, August 1917.
76 The Daily Province, Vancouver, September 12, 1925 contains an
account of the laying of the final rail on the Kelowna line.
77 During the 1920s, CN would lay 95 miles of rails on the line to
Port Alberni.
For a brief history of the CNP lines on Vancouver
Island, see Rail Canada Decisions by Douglas N. W. Smith in
the May-June 1988 issue of Canadian Rail, pages 107-108.
78 Railway Statistics of the Dominion of Canada, Sessional
Paper No 20b, Kings Printer, Ottawa, 1916 to 1919.
79 Op. cit., Canadian Northern Railway. Page 45J.
Page 24 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
~~i—–6 – . ——+—,,.-~
. ,
, ,
,
. ,
Many of the senior officials of the newly formed Canadian Nationa/ Rai/ways came from the Canadian Northem. Thus many Canadian
Northern operating practices became part
of the national system. One of the most visible of the Canadian Northern traditions, one which
lasted until the end
of the steam age, was the use of cast meta/number plates on the froi71 of locomotives. About the only change necessary
to update the Canadian Northern number plate diagram was to replace the word Northern by Natiollal. This number plate was used
011 Consolidation type locomotive 2400.
National Archives
of Canada photo PA -178466.
ANNEX I
Extract from the Report of the Department of Railways of the
Province
of British Columbia from 1911 to December 31st, 1916
CANADIAN NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILWAY
The surveys for the location of the Canadian Northern
Pacific
Railway (CNP) commenced on May J st, 1909. The
construction of the main line commenced on July 10th, 1910.
The system of the company in British Columbia, when all
work provided for
is completed, will comprise the following: -498.6 miles from Westminster Bridge to Yellowhead Pass:
[which is now] completed.
-100 miles from Victoria towards Barclay Sound: subgrade
completed, no track laid.

II miles from Westminster Bridge to Vancouver: not yet
built, but for [the] present running rights over the
Great Northern
Railway between these two points have been obtained.

15 miles from Westminster Bridge to Steveston: incomplete.
-ISO miles from Barclay Sound North, an extension of the
Victoria-Barclay Sound line: about 45.5 miles
of which have
been graded to Alberni CanaL
-145 miles from Kamloops to Vernon, Lumby and Kelowna:
no construction work as yet, only right-of-way and terminal
properties purchased.
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 25
…..
~ ———-~—~——
Cal1adian Northern ordered a large l1umber of 2-8-0 locomotives to haul their heavy /reighttrains. Number 2407 was huilt by the Canada
Foundry Company ojrolOnto in 1912.
National Archives
of Canada photo PA-178467.
Terminals, as provided for in chapter 59, 1913, at Port
Mann, New Westminster, Vancouver, Victoria, Steveston, and
Patricia Bay, are in course
of development, with the exception of
those at New Westminster and Steveston.
The main line of the CNP enters the Province of British
Columbia through the Rocky Mountai.ns at YeIJowhead Pass, and,
paralleling the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway on the south side
thereof, follows the Fraser
River for a distance of about forty-two
miles thence turning south passes over Albreda Summit to the
North
Thompson River, which it follows to Kamloops, crossing
this river four times. From Kamloops, paralleling the Canadian
Pacific railway, generally on the opposite side
of the river, it
continues
down the Thompson River, crossing it seven times, and
the Fraser River, crossing
it at two points, to New Westminster
Bridge; then crossing over
it proceeds to Vancouver over the line
of the Great Northern Railway. The location has been selected with
judgment and skill for
the greater part through a rough and difficult country, and the line
now presents at its completion and in operation a single track
railway
of the first class, of the most substantial and solid
character, unequalled on the continent.
The work of construction
has been ably carried out, and while nothing has been slighted,
there has been due regard paid to economy. In fact,
it is doubtful
if any other transcontinental road has been built with such care and
less waste.
The track is laid with 80-lb. steel rails, 3,000 ties to the
mile, and with
tie-plates on all curves. The maximum curve is 8
degrees,
of which there are 136. All curves have easements or
spiral
s at both ends.
The total angles of curvature are to the right
16,440 degrees, to the le
ft 16,376 degrees. The maximum and
approximate grades over the sections between New
Westminster
Bridge and Yellow head Pass are given in the following table:
Page 26 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
From To Mi les Maximun Average Total Grade Grade Rise
New lIestminster Bridge Rosedale 53 0.35 0.014 40
Rosedale Yale 38 0.40 0.08 167
Yale Boston Bar 26 0.40 0.17 234
Boston Bar Lytton 28 0.37 0.08 112
Lytton Spences Bridge 24 0.30 0.14 175
Spences Bridge Ashcroft 26 0.35 0.185 255
Ashcroft Kamloops Junction 48 0.40 0.064 160
Kamloops Junction Chu Chua 50 0.40 0.048 125
Chu Chua Birch Island 31 0.40 0.093 152
Birch Island Stillwater Flats 30 0.40 0.0295 466
Stillwater Flats Blue River 39 0.40 0.170 346
Blue River Foot of Grade 13 0.40 0.165 111
Foot of Grade Albreda 17 0.70 0.500 446
Albreda Summit 1 0.00 0.00
Summit Temporary Grade 14 0.40 0.30* 224
Temporary Grade Cranberry Lake 0.67 1.00 1.00* 32
Cranberry Lake Foot of Grade 5 0.50 0.10* 5
Foot of Grade Resplendent 25.3 0.70 0.60 816
Resplendent Grantbrook 13 0.40 0.03* 16
Grantbrook Yellowhead 17 0.70 0.35 307
*
MarKed thus are adverse g rades
Note -Equation of levels at Albreda Summit:
West 2,800 -2861.39 East
In this table a number of small ups and downs in grade have
not been taken into account. It is also pointed out that in the forty­
eight miles from Ashcroft to Kamloops Junction the
maximum
grade is given at 0040 per cent, whereas there is for a short distance
a 0.50 percent grade, but as this is not a ruling grade it is not taken
into account. Also in the thirty-one miles, Chu
Chua to Birch
Island, there
is about 2,000 feet of I per cent grade, but as this will
eventually be reduced
it is not included in the table, as it is not
considered a ruling grade. Between Birch Island and
Blue River
there are two short pieces of 0.60 grade. Near Cranberry Lake,
there is a piece
of 1 per cent adverse temporary grade; this,
however, will not affect east-bound
traffic, and will eventually be
reduced. All grades have been compensated for curvature.
The general manager of the Western lines of this railway
has furnished the following information concerning the relation
of
grades to the efficiency of locomotives:
In the CNR classification of engines 1 per cent means
1,000 lb. of tractive effort (or pull). The engine hauling the Transcontinental Special is 35 per cent. It is, accordingly, capable
of a pull of 35,000 lb. The train itself of fifteen cars is 1,235 feet
in length and weights 1,200 tons, inclusive
of the engine, which
weights 165 tons loaded. From
Edmonton westbound a 35 per cent
engine would haul thirty-two loaded freight cars,
of an average
weight cars and contents
of fifty tons each, over the 5/10 of 1 per
cent
maximum grade between Edmonton and Albreda Summit, the
train running towards the Coast.
The same engine would be able
to pick up thirty-three other loaded cars of similar weight at
Albreda
Summit and carry the total load of sixty-five cars to the
Coast (426 miles). A 50 per cent engine of the CNR classification
would haul forty-eight loaded
cars to the Albreda Summit and
ninety to the Coast.
A 35 per cent engine starting our from the Pacific Coast
towards Edmonton will handle thirty-five loaded cars, or a total
of
1,750 tons, as far as Blue River (110 miles from the Westminster
Bridge). Between Blue
River and Lucerne, a distance of 383.3
miles, the maximum gradient
of the CNR in the Rocky Mountains
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 27
-7/10 of I per cent -occurs. In that division, a 35 per cent CNR
engine will handle twenty-four loaded cars, or 1,200 tons. From
Lucerne to Edmonton, the same locomotive will pull thirty-six
loaded cars,
or 1,800 tons. The hauling capacity of a 50 per cent
engine would, of course, be proportionately greater.
Now as to passenger traffic. Taking as basis a
tran
scontinental train of eight passenger cars, a 35 per cent CNR
engine may run through to the Coast, westbound, between Edmonton
and Vancouver, at a minimum speed
of forty miles an hour; and the
speed would drop to that rate o
nly on the section of line affected
by the
5/10 of 1 per cent, or the maximum grade. Eastbound, on
the division where the
7/10 of I per cent in the grade occurs or on
twenty-eight mil
es of the 383.3 miles between Blue River and
Lucerne, a 35
per cent locomotive will be able to haul the eight car
train at a speed of thirty miles an hour. Apart from that section of
that division, a speed may be obtained as great as desired up to fifry
miles an hour between Vancouver and Edmonton.
Broadly speaking, the addition of each 1/1 0 of I per cent
in the grade of a railway means that the efficiency of the locomotive
is reduced 2 lb. for each gross ton
of its load. The frictional
resistan
ce of equipment moving over a level track is approximately
5
1b. per gross ton. As the line rises 21b. for each 1/10 of I per cent
of grade for each ton of load are added to the 5 lb. To interpret: A
grade
of 4/1 0 of I per cent would mean a total resistance of 13 lb.
for each gross ton of the load, made up by the 5 lb. counter­
frictional resistance and the 8 l
b. for the 4/1 0 of I per cent grade.
The total for a 5/10 of 1 per cent grade would be 15 Ib; that for a
6/ I 0 grade 17 lb.; that for a 7/10 grade 19 lb.; and that for a I per
cent grade
25 lb. To ascertain the tonnage possible for a locomotive
to h
andle on any grade, the calculator would be quite within the
Division 1 From Port Kells
Division 2
Division 2A
Division 3
Division 4
Division 5
Division 6
Division 7
Division 8
Division 9
Division 10
Division 11
Division 12
bounds of reason to subtract 10 per cent from the total capacity of
the engine, and to divide the remainder by the frictional resistance
as given above. Curvature also adds to the resistance, but on this
line that is
compensated for by the reduction grades at curves. To
give an example of a 35 per cent engine:
Total tractive effort ………………………………… 35,000
Internal friction for loss
of steam
pressure, etc., less 10 per cent …………….. 3,500
Balance avail
able for haulage purposes ….. 31,500
Divide this by
13, the frictional resistance on a 4/10 per
cent grade per
gross ton, and the result will be 2,423 gross tons as
the total possible
gross load for that locomotive. Subtract the
weight
of the engine and tender from the load and the load will be
2,258 tons, which at
50 tons each for a freight car and contents give
forty-five cars.
The running rime between Vancouver and Lucerne, a
divisional point five miles west
of Yellowhead Pass, is twenty­
thr
ee hours, including stops.
The total expenditure to completion of the railway between
the points under reference, 498.96 miles, is $34,437,454.82.
Average cost [is] $69,018.05 per mile. To this total should be
added the sum
of $256,500, the purchase price paid for a portion,
nine m
iles [long], of the New Westminster Southern Railway
between
POlt Kells and Westminster Bridge.
By divisions the
cost per mile is as follows:
Length Cost
in Miles ($)
60.2 32,653
17.8 51,233
13.2 61,980
25.8 141,599
28.3 145,572
17.3 127,326
28.1 82,790
24.0 89,414
28.5 67,807
39.9 41,673
40.9 33,638
59.9 61,745
40.6 62,806
From Division 12 to Yellowhead Pass 74.4 68,139
Page 28 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
The steel superstructure of all bridges over the Fraser.
Thompson, and North Thompson Rivers are steel resting on
concrete substructures … [The following wooden bridges were
deemed to be temporary structures to be replaced once the line was
opened: a 2.049.5 foot long pile trestle at Mile 323.3 near Birch
Island. a 1.319 foot long pile trestle at Mile 332.3
near Vavenby
and a 1.509.5 foot long pile a
nd frame timber trestle at Mile 366.0
near Avola.]
Between Hope and
Kamloops. Mileage 91 and 258
from Vancouver. there are thirty-three tunnels
in rock of a total
length
of 18.991 feet; the shortest is 129 feet. and the longest,
through Battle
Bluff on Kamloops Lake, 2.837 feet. North .of
Kamloops to Yellowhead Pass there are five tunnels. two in earth
and three
in rock. with a total length of 2, 176 feet; the shortest of
these is 135 feet. while the longest is 1.216 feet. opposite Mounts
Robson and Resplendent.
The tunnels at Mileage 423.3 and 425 from Vancouver,
through fine mica sand,
though timbered throughout, have had to
be aba
ndoned for the present owing to the impossibility of
preventing the fine material sifting through. A line around the
outside was substituted
therefore. but they may be in the future
lined with concrete. Tunnels
41 and 42, through wet clay. collapsed
and a through cut has been substituted.
All the tunnel portals have been protected and the interiors
lined with timber wherever considered necessary for safety.
The equipment, including rolling stock of the line. is of the
most
modern design and is such as may be demanded and expected
of a railway of this class in operation. All the locomotives are coal
burning.
The divisional points are at Port Mann, Boston Bar.
Kamloops, Blue River and Lucerne, five miles west
of the summit
at the Provincial Boundary; and are fully provided with suitable
passenger stations. freight sheds. water tanks, water service. oil
tanks, ice houses, engine houses. blacksmith shops, repair shops;
in fact, everything required to equip a divisional point and operate
it efficiently. The yards have the necessary sidings and loading and
unloading tracks
… [See Table I for Jist of structures erected
between Port Mann and Yellowhead Pass.)
The CNP has entered into an agreement with the Vancouver,
Victoria & Eastern Railway and Navigation
Company (VV &E) for
running
rights over the latters tracks between Westminster Bridge
and Vancouver. with the privil
ege of using its railway station at the
latter
point until the new stations, side by side. of the two
companies are constructed on False Creek Flats east of Main
Street, Vancouve
r. [This agreement is) to be ratified by an act of
the Dominion government.
The CNP has purchased the line of the Westminster
Southem Railway between Port Kells and the end of the approach
to
the Bridge at New Westminster, a length of nine miles, for the
sum
of about $256,000. This was paid in Toronto. and is therefore
not included
in the statement of cost hereinbefore given.
The company has come to an arrangement with the VV&E
whereby the latter company is given running rights over its line
between
Sumas Junction and the Town of Hope. [This agreement
is) to be ratified by an act of the Dominion government. The
amount of freight transported is said to be satisfactory,
and, in fact, both
passenger and freight traffic may be considered
as very encouraging.
The extremely favourable uniform grades and alignments
through the mountains enjoyed by this railway presents an advantage
in
cost of maintenance and operation which no other continental
line can equa
l.
The passenger and freight traffic between Vancouver and
Hope carried by
accommodation has quite come up to, if not,
exceeded, expectations.
Since the adve
ntofthis railway, the agricultural development
of the North Thompson country has shown marked progress.
TERMINALS
PORT MANN -The terminal point is situated about two
miles above New Westminster Bridge on the south bank of the
Fraser River.
The yard will be about three miles long between the
limits. The
waterfront is 10.155 lineal feet.
The yard comprises 68.66 acres. There are numerous spurs
and through sidings as well as loading and unloading tracks. These
will be added to as the traffic demands.
The wharf is 102 x 1,000 feet; it is built entirely of timber.
About 2.100 feet below the lower
end of the wharf there is a ferry­
slip or dock,
completed and in service. from which car-barges are
towed to-and-fro between Vancouver and Port Mann, and in the
future between Port
Mann and Patricia Bay [the terminus of the
branch line then under construction to Victoria). Eventually the
passenger steam ferry provided for in Section 6
of the schedule to
Chapter 3. 1910. will l
eave on regular trips from this slip for
Patricia Bay.
There are three car-barges. two of 7 -car and one of
II-car capacity, which will be towed to and from Vancouver and
Patricia Bay
by tugboats.
Buildings erected at this terminal are passenger station –
first class -and platform. scales in house. ice house, water tank.
water
service, storehouse, 15 stall engine house, coal bunkers.
blacksmith shop, boiler house, machine shops, repair shop.
car
shops, boarding house, bunkhouse and other buildings which are
of more or less importance.
The yard is being rapidly filled in by train and dredge. and
will be raised above
danger of overflow at summer high water. It
is evidently the intention to make this place a permanent yard.
The estimated expenditure at this time considered
necessary
to develop this terminal is $1,237,540.
NEW WESTMINSTER -Beyond purchasing property for
railway purposes nothing has been done.
The total cost estimated
as required to
complete this terminal is $2,017.575.
STEVENSON -No development of this proposed terminal
has taken place.
The estimated total expenditure to carry Ollt the
contemplated works is
$472,500.
VANCOUVER -The company acquired a certain portion
of the False creek flats, east of Main Street. Vancouver. for railway
purposes from the City
of Vancouver. with the conditions as set
forth in an agreement dated February 5th, 1913,
entered into
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 29
In 1954, CNs premier train on the transcolUinental run was the Continel11al Limited. In this view taken at Geike, Alberta, a point less
than ten miles from the Alberta-B.C. border, a meet between the eastbollnd and westbound Continental Limited is occurring. The
passengers riding the open air observation car were able
to get a close look at Mountainlype 6057. Less than a year later, the Continental
Limited slipped to second place status as
the Super Continental become the premier train on the run.
Paterson-George Col/eetion
between the City of Vancouver and the CNP and the Canadian
Northern Railway Company, wherein, for the area of land to be
conveyed, the company agreed to erect thereon a commodious
railway station, construct a
sewer to drain the surrounding property,
and a seawall, or quay, on the outside of Main Street, in False
Creek.
There are also other particulars attached to this agreemenl,
such as a hotel to be built
in the city, and the city was to expropriate,
and the
company to pay for, certain lots north ancl south on the east
side
of the present Main Street Bridge and fronting on that street.
There are other conditions which it is not necessary to mention
here.
The property situated on the flat acquired by the company
from the city is flanked on the O0l1h, south, and east sides by the
property and tracks of the Great N0l1hern Railway Company [The
owners of the VV &E]. The station of the latter company is also on
the flat close to the north boundary of the property of the CNP.
The proposed total expenditure in the development of this
terminal is $4,544,400.
VICTORIA -Nothing has yet been done towards the
development of the portion of the Songhees Reserve proposed to
be allotted to the
CNP, 41 1/4 acres, which includes land above as
well as
below high water, but, as the Government has leased for a
term
of two years or so, for ship-building purposes, a portion of this
allotment, it is assumed that the railway company, as soon as the
bridge
over Selkirk Water is completed, will probably locate their
station on the reserve north
of Point Ellice Bridge. This would
meet the requirements for some little time to come.
The estimated expenditure that is necessary to develop this
terminal
is $853,125.
PATRICIA BA Y -The terminal works at Patricia Bay are
not very
extensive, consisting only of the Gulf ferry slip, or dock,
and track for switch
ing facilities. The total cost estimated to
complete this terminal is $83,685.
The estimated final cost of the development of these six
terminals,
$9,208,885, must be treated entirely in a tentative sense.
It is impossible at this early date to more than very approximately
approach the cost. As time passes the requirements may vary and
the prices
of work may range higher or lower than that obtaining
at the present time.
Hi
les
from New ….
es
t-
mins
ter
Brid
ge
49
4.
0
4
85.3
47
8.
2
4
70.2
464.6
462.0
458
.4
45
0.4
44
3.0
43
2.
4
424.
2
418.7
409.3
40
1.4
393.2 383.
3
375.1
3
69.7
35
8.5
TABLE I
B
UI
LDINGS
ERECT
ED
BETWEEN
PORT
MANN
AND
Y
ELLOWHEAD
PASS
MAY
25,
191
6
St
at
io
n
s
H
C
S S S
T
S
P
a
T
~
S
P
R T

0 0
t
P
t
h
t
l
n
0
a
t
u
0
u
c
u m a e a
i

a
d
0
t

m u
r
t
s
b
t
C
t r
t
t
l
e
n
p
n n
i
e
i i i i
d
i
f
s
r
d
h
d
t
0
n
0

0 0 0
h H
P
0
h
a
n
a
n
l
n
C
n
r
e
0
i
u
0
b
t
l
m
l
u
T P
s
u
l
i

t
S
a
e
e
s
e
0
s

e
n
s
e
n
s
r
k
Lucerne
1 1 1 1
60,000
1
5
Sta
ll
l
s
teel
Grant
Br
ook
1
Ra
inbow
1
R
esp
le
nd
ent 1 41,600 1
s
te
el
Mo
unt
Rob
so
n
Mile
32
1
Mor
ey
1
Jac
km
an
1
41,
6C
0
steel
Swi
ft
Cr
ee
k
1
Canoe River
1
Albreda
1
41,600
1
s
teel
Clemina
1
Letnpri
ere
1
Pyramid
1 1
Thunder
1
Blue
R
ive
r
1 1
40,000
1
5 s
tall
l
wood
Uol fend
e:
n
1
He
ss; ter
1
Ayala
1 40,000
wood
Hi
les
Stati
on
S
H
C
S S S
from
e
0 0
t
P
t
New
c
u
m
a
e

West·
t
s
b t
c
t
mi
ns
te
r i
e
i
i i
i
,Bridge
0
n
0
a
0
n
a
n
l
n
t i 0 n
345
.9
MCMurphy
1
I
336.1
1
r
vi
ne
1
I
3
30.
Va
ve
nb
y
1
32
1.4
Birch
Island
1
309.1
Black:pool
1
3
0
0.
4
Boulder
1
297.
6
Mo
unt
01
ie
292.0
ehu
Ch
au
2
84.9
eM
i
noo
k
Cove
1
279.·1
B
arr
iere
1
27
4
.6
lou;
s
Cr
eek:
1
266.4
Mc
lure
1
254
.3
Heff
e
rl
y Cre
ek.
1
258.1
H
efte
d
y
1
250.6
St
Pa
ul
1
243
.5
Kamloops
1
1
J
une!
i
on
242.5
Hy
tt
on
1
235
.5
Tranqui
lle
1
222
.7
·
Co
pper
Creek
1
217.8
Savanna
1
210.
8
J
alhachin
1
202.4
McAbee
1
T
S
P
a
T
~
h
t
l
n
0

i
a a
d
0
t
r t
t
l
e
d
i
f
S
r
0 0
h
H
C
n
r
e
0
l
m
l
u
T

t
s
a
s
• •
n
s
r
k 40, 000 wood 40,
000
wood 4
0,00
0
wo
od
1 ,
40,000 wood 40,000 wood 40,000 wood
S
P
R
t
u
0
a
m
u
n
p
n
d h d P
0
h
i
u
0
P
s
u
e e s
s

1 1
10
st
all
1
T u r n t a b l e l
-u OJ
<0
CD W o :::IJ » r o » z » o m Z L » z < m :::IJ .,., m < :::IJ m :::IJ <.0 <.0
Mi
Les
station
S
H C
S S S
T
S
P

T
U
S
P
R
T
from
e
0 0
t
P
t
h
t
1
n
0

t
U
0
u
New
e
u
m
.
e

i
.

d
0
t a
m
u
r
Ue
st-
t
s
b
t e t r t t
1
e
n
p
n n
minster
i
e
i i i i
d
i
f S r
d
h
d
t
Bridge
0
n
0
a
0 0 0
h
H
P
0
h
a
n
a
n
1
n
C
n
r
e
0
i
u
0
b
t
1
m
1
u
T
P
s
u
1
i
a t
s
a
e e
s
e
0
s e
e
n
s e
n
s
r
k
194.7
Ashcroft
1 1
41,600
1
steeL
184.4
Basque
1
174.3
Spence1s
Bridge
1
168.5
Martel
1 1
41,600 steel
160.2
S-ll
1
152.3
Co
sset
t
1
145.5
L
yt
ton
1 1
40,000 wood
145
.0
Mile
98.5
1
Uelche1s
Spur
133.3
Falls
Creek
1
40,000 wood
124.0
Boothroyd
1
117.8
Boston
Bar
1 1
40,0
00
5
stall
I
wood
110.5
HeLL
Gate
1 1
105.1
Chapnan
l
s
1
40,000 wood
91.0
Yale
1
86.1
Sq
ueah
1
n.5
Hope
1 1 1
40,000 wood
70.0
St
elmo
1
68.2
laidlaw
1
63.8
Cheam
view
1
40,000 wood
52.7
Ro
sed
ale
1 1 1
46.2
Chi
II iwack
, ,
40,000 wood
, I
Mil
es
S
tati
on
S
H
C
S S S
T
S
P
a
T
U
S
from
e
0 0
t
P
t
h
t
I
n
0
a t
New
e
u
m
a
e
a
i
a a
d
0
t a
Uest-
t
s
b
t e t r t t
I
e
n min
ste
r
i
e
i i i i
d
i
f
S
r
d
Bridge
0
n
0
a
0 0 0
h
H
P
n
a
n
I
n C n
r
e
0
i
t
I
m
I
u
T
P i
a t
s
a
e
0
s e
e
n
S
n
S
r
k
41.4
Arnod
,
34.9
Suma
s
,
1
30.5
Hatsqui
,
25.5
Mount
lehman
,
,
40,000 wood
20.0
Glen
Valley
1
1
4.7
langle
y
1 1
,
3.
,
Port
Hann
1
,
6
0,000
,
st
eel
Notes:
*
Turntable
866
long
**
No
shelter,.
platform
only
375
long
TABLE II
P R u
0
m
u
p
n
h
d
0
h
u
0
s
u
e s
e
15
st
all
T u r n t
a b I e I
L » z c » JJ –< . m OJ JJ C » JJ -< (0
(0 o » z » o » z
PASSENGERTRAINCARS ORDERED
BY
CANADIAN NORTHERN
IN
SUMMER OF
1914.

I
JJ » r
Builder
and
Plant
location
Nat
i
ona L
Steel
Car
of
Ham
; 1 ton
Ontario National
Steel
Car
Crossen
Car
Company
of
Cobo
urg,
Ontario Preston
Car
a
nd
Coach
COfTl:Iany
of
Preston,
Ontari
0
Canad
ian
Car
&
Foundry
COITpCIny
of
Turcot,
Quebec and
Amierst,
Nova
Scotia Canadi an
Ca
r
&
Foundry Conpany
Canadian
Car
&
Foundry
Corrp
any
Canadian
Car
& Foundry
Canad; an
Car
&
Foundry
C~ny
NuoCer of
Cars 5 11
Configuration
of
EquiFXllent
Baggage-Ex
press
Cars
First
Class
Coaches
Co~oni
s
t Cars
Hail
Cars
12
sectio
n 1 drawing ro
om
sleeper
s
C()II9artment
slee
pers
(for
the
Ottawa-To
ronto
s
ervice)
30
seat
diners
17
section
tourist
sleepers
4 corrpartment-1 drawing
room-buffet-ob
se
r
vatio
n
cars
0 ~
<.0
(1) W
Page 32
This photo demonstrates the
advantages
ofCN s relatively
grade-
free line across British
Columbia. Two SD40 units
provide sufficient power to
move a loaded grain train
consisting
of some 100 cars.
This vi
ew was taken near
Basques
where thefinal spike
of the Canadian Northern
Pacific line was driven
in
1915. Thearid,almosldesell
like region is a vivid conlraSI
10 Ihe lush foresls around
B
OSlon Bar, some 60 miles
do
wn Ihe line.
Douglas
N.W. Smith.
RAIL CANADIEN
..
JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
This classic view slims up
railroading in o
ur Weslem­
mosl
prOlince. The GP7 1706
le
ads ajreighllrainlhrough a
genlle curve benealh the
limeless peaks
oflhe Canadian
.. ..i.:i!Co:~,v:I.c, Rockies. This pholo shows olle
of the liveries used by
CN on
ils e
arly diesels. General
MOlors delivered the unil 10
CN in 1953.
Canadian Nalional pholo
52724.
JANUARY -FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 33
The Super Continental had been reslored in June 1985 as a Winnipeg-Edmonloll-Vancouver service. In {his May 1986 view. The Super
is approaching
the division point at Boslon Bar. Trailing FP9Au 6307 is aformer CP baggage car, three ex-CN coaches, an ex-CP Skyline
ca
r, an ex-CP sleeper alld two ex-CN sleepers. Douglas N. W. Smith.
Page 34 RAIL CANADIEN JANVIER -FEVRIER 1991
The huilders of the Canadian Northern Pacificfaced a tremendous challenge finding room to build the right of way through the narrow gorge
of the lower Fraser River. This view shows the Super Continental, Train 4, some ten miles north of Hope, B.C. in May 1986.
Douglas
N.W Smith.
fmmediate/y north o
fLyl/on, B.C., the CN line runs along the stupendous gorge of the Thompson River In order to prepellt rock and snow
slid
es from blocking the lille, CN has built a number of sheds fa protect their trackage. In this May 1986 view, an empty CN coal train is
proceeding westward to pick up yet another load of coal. Douglas N. W. Smith.
JANUARY· FEBRUARY 1991 CANADIAN RAIL Page 35
.6 eel
GP9 410.; I~(IJ.~ u frlighl tralll /IOSI II .umioll 0/ )tl/ow/rlud. H.C. nils is Ihe jirll SIUliOIl III British Columbia K h(/I gO;8 Iwslward
Till 4101:1 was 01/ of 22 GP9 s Gtnrru/ Mutors de/llufd ta eN dur;l//: 1958. Canadian Nm;1JI1fl1 plJow X44J84.
A801 £. , eN MS.,rumic-/ull/lnRlh dOnI! cor./(Irmer/y from Iht MlfulI~u Rootl. NI (I IW!iSfIIHlr Irmll ,,ssing MOIl/ii RulmHl in
British Co/ml1h/u.
CtmuJlU1/ No/ilmal photo X·50602.
BACK COl ER: ,,, Aw·ilI955. eN tn(1lj~lIrat,.d th,. Su/~r ComillCIlIUr (IS its ptmru mil oil/hI Momr,.al·TorofJ{o-1t/flCOUlU nm. Til,.
;nllur:ura/ lum.lld(,ll/lIt dt/lItrr 0/ Sifl1U! 150 IItlt. Mrtumlilllt!/1ClSUlIgtr mrs Mk/,Il III Qltjillt! ill a nth g,,.,.n, bluet (IntI gold paim
scl/I/III! III Ihn 1950 J IfK uf Iltr Sll~r COll/il/emuf. uri mill is (ad h> UIIII ()5OH. nllt! (J/lht! Jlt!tu( FP9A II)(QmQfil(S …. h,ch pllllt!d
mosl /Iht! 1Il11/(IIIS (HlsStngt!f trallls. Tilt! Ilml …. ·hich still hallil IA IrOIll.1 IfI /990. (11 rt!!JIIIII Cunarluill NO/lm/(ll pilaf() X-l21BZ.

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