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Canadian Rail 418 1990

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Canadian Rail 418 1990

Canadian Rail ~
No. 418
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
Douglas N. W. Smith
PRODUCTION: A. Stephen Walbridge
CARTOGRAPHER: William A. Germaniuk
LAYOUT: Fred F. Angus
For your membership in the CRHA, which Includes a
10 Canadian Rail, wnle to:
CAHA. P.O. Box 148, 51. Constant. Que. J5A 2G2
Rates: in Canada: $28.
outside Canada: $24. in U.S. lunds.
PAINTING: Procel Printing
RAIL CANADA DECISIONS ……………………………………………………………………… DOUGLAS N.W. SMITH 162
CRHA COMMUNiCATIONS ………………………………………………………………………. . 177
Canadian Rallis continually In need 01 news, slares. hiSlarical data, photos. maps and other matena!, Please send all contributions to
the editor. Fred F. Angus, 3021 TrafaJg31 Ave. Montreal, p.e H3Y tH3. No payment can be made tar contributlOfls, but the
contnbuter WIll be given credillor material SUbmitted. Material win be returned to the oontributor if requested. Remember Knowledge
Is 01 MIt1e vallJ8 unless II Is shared with others.
Frederick F. Angus Hugues W. Bonin J. Christopher Kyle
R.C. Ballard Robert Canson William Le Surt
A. Beatty Charles De Jean Bernard Martin
Walter J. Bedbrook Gerard Frechette Robert
V.V. Nicholls
C. Blackburn David W. Johnson Andrew W. Panko
CRHA has a number 01 local divisions across the country Many hold regular
meetings and Issue newslelters. Further
irnormaliOn may be obtained by Wf1ting to the
P.O 80>< 1801 WIroIIpIQ. Marl R3I( QM.t
ST LAWJIENCE vAU.£V OMSION 60 6100 oil!> Ave N E.
P.O 80>:22. sc.Ion T Calgary. AI*1a rn!5Z1
hIonu_P,o. H383J5 fIOCI(f~AlNDlVISION
P.O bll62
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PO BoxIOOl5.~·
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Douglas NW. Smith
lawrence M. Unwin
Aichard Viberg
A. Stephen Walbridge
John C. Weir
FRO.7 COlER DUr/llllth .. lOulllng doys of
st~m WI I~ O()o1l11lioll At/antiC RalllOU). 011
unidtllii/ird p/wIOlfraphrr POI<5 .. J IQ r«ord Ihi.!;
lI1ur <>I IhllIa/t/tVI·y ur/llQUfh flV,,,S at AllnapQ­
Tn/in 95 if Nil/Itd byCP
Pur/fic 1617 IOhl(h YIS I)lult al CPs Angus
Shopf 11/ 1912. Tram 99 IS 1l(JII .. /J h} PacifiC
2665. a 19/-1 Rrudll(
II,, of Angllf. 0 AIXsf
16. /956. ItllIm IIIfIIlr lI.jillOl run lIIl Ihf$(fnllrU
,md VIS rrplattd II) II … trmwmiral. bill IlIIre>·
mlJlrtrc, Rail Duul Cur PIiNu/rum CIiOOe/lflll
ci!k Ctlf{IQnllr Af(h,~.
As pari 01 its actrvrtles, the CRHA operales
the Canadian Railvay Museum at Delsoo I
St Conslilflt, Que, which Is about 14 miles
(23 Km
.) from downtown Montreal. It rs
open daily from late May to early October,
and their immediate tamilies. 31e
admrned Iree 01 charge.
Development of the Hudson Class Locomotive
2860 : Royalty on the Howe Sound Route
Celebrating a Half Century
of Good Living
1940 -1990
By Howard E. McGarry
June, 1990 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the building of
former CPR Royal Hudson 2860, which has become one of the
most beloved, and certainly the most photographed,
of all Canadian
locomotives as
it runs on its daily trips between North Vancouver
and Squamish, along British
Columbias scenic Howe Sound.
During the late 1920s, North American railroads were faced
with increased competition for passenger traffic.
The so-called
Roaring Twenties was a period when great masses
of the urban
population were finding a new tllJill in greater mobility. Main and
branch line traffic was
booming as travel by rail was the popular
accepted method
of land transportation. Railroads provided service
to lake and beach resorts, and weekend picnics
to popular camping
spots made up trains
of standard day coaches, even utilizing tomist
class to provide the working classes with an outlet for excess
energy following long arduous hours
of menial labour.
As main line traffic increased between major population centres,
and overnight travel became
common practice, there was a need to
provide sleeping accommodation for passengers. Early makes
sleeping cars were spartan, but as demand increased, better creature
comforts were
in order, with more comfortable seating, heating
and cooling equipment, air conditioners and various designs and
improvements in sleeping cars, from upper and lower berths to
bedrooms. Dinner in the diner became a truly enjoyable experience,
with white linen, sterling silver service, maitre de and white­
jacketed waiters, able and willing to please the most discriminating
traveller. These improvements to
car interiors would naturally add
weight which required greater carrying capacity, both structurally
and in suspensions and
J1l11ning gear. All these changes dictated
new designs using steel-reinforced, and later all-steel, construction.
Six-wheel trucks, along with anti-sway devices, improved riding
qualities, with greater stability on curves. Frame end construction
provided greater tOlmage-pulling capacity for couplers, along with
the near elimination
of slack run-in, with spring loaded coupler
Prior to 1920, the Canadian Pacific Railway had less than 100
steel passenger cars, while by 1930
it had over 700 with more being built.
Over a twelve year period passenger train tonnages increased
from 375 tons to more than 500. During the
1920s, the company
or improved station buildings, built new improved hotels,
leased and operated the Kettle Valley Railway through the southern
of British Columbia, and continued a process of gradually
improving the comforts, in some cases
to a luxurious level, of the
travelling public.
In the years from 1902 to 1915 head-end
power relied on the
0 class locomotive with 4-6-0 wheel arrangement,
and during that period this type was the backbone
of CPR motive
power, with
over 500 units of the 0-10 type being acquired by the
company. These work horses served for a wide variety of duties,
passenger, freight and way freight, yard switcher and work trains
across the system; this continued well into the
1950s. There were
some Jight Pacifies, 4-6-2s in the G-1 and G-2 class, with
driver sizes ranging from 69 to 75 with tractive effort at 30 to
33,000 Ibs. The CPR Vaughn class 0-10 was the first large scale
of motive power to use the Walschaerts valve gear, the
highly efficient design
of linkage providing long life, greater
accessibility and
lower maintenance compared to older style inside
or slide valve motion. Operating at 200 Ibs. boiler pressure,
with superheaters giving a total heating surface
of 2800 to 2900
square feet, they carried 156,000 Ibs. driver weight
on 63-inch
This was adequate power for trains
of older wooden coaches,
but heavier power was needed as tonnage increased. In the U.S.
northeast, the Pennsylvanias K-4 Pacifies, and
similar power on
the Baltimore
& Ohio and the Reading, were equipped with
80-inch drivers, operated at 205 Ibs. pressure and were designed
for high stepping intercity and commuter traffic.
The K-4 was, for
a time, superseded by the Duplex drive 4-4-4-4 in 1942 to 1946, but
these eventually were retired because
of high maintenance costs.
A superior effort was necessary
to find a machine capable of
competing for traffic through states having great concentrations of
industry and commerce with related services staffed by personnel
living near the work place.
The builders plate of Royal Hudson 2860.
Photo by
HE. McGarry.
By comparison, in Canada, population density was not as high.
Industry was
developing in a narrow band along the shoreline of
Lake Ontario between Hamilton and Montreal, but across the
Dominion there were vast expanses with little or no settlement.
during the early 1930s, the CPR had to economize at
every level to turn a small margin, satisfy the shareholders
1932 and 1943 the company paid no dividend on the common
stock) and plow money back into capital equipment.
in 1919, the mechanical department began the design
G-3 class 4-6-2 Heavy Pacifics, increasing boiler pressure to
275 Ibs. from the
earlier models having 200 Ibs. Tractive effort
went up to 45,000 lbs. from the earlier 33,000 Ibs. and total weight
on the 75-inch drivers was 199,000 Ibs. These engines were
intended for main line intercity and transcontinental service.
design improvements had been made through vaJ;ous sub-classes,
such as the first North American built locomotives to use nickel
in the construction of boilers. Other features included feedwater
heaters and automatic stokers.
Theseengines had good rail adhesion,
and under most
operating conditions could handle trains of mode rate
tonnage on
passenger schedules from the end of World War I to the
of the steam era. However, under.advers,e conditions, although
performing well within their design qualifications, they could not
produce an adequate supply
of steam for long periods at sustained
high speed. Clearly there was need for yet heavier power to handle
demand, and the purpose here is to detail how the
changes brought
about by the introduction of the 4-6-4 wheel
arrangement produced a locomotive dramatically capableoffulfilling
that need.
The addition of the second trailing axle (4-wheeltrailing
truck) made provision for the additional weight to be accommodated
when tube and firebox capacity was increased.
Boiler pressure, cylinder size, wheel diameter and tractive
effort remained the
same as in one series of G-3, but the steam
generating capacity
of the 4-6-4 was greatly enhanced by the increase
in healing surface. Tractive effort, essential when starting
a heavy train
or pulling at lower speeds on moderate grades,
jumped to 57,000 Jbs. by using the trailing truck booster output of
12,000 Ibs. Boosters had first been applied to CPs only two
Northerns, built at Angus Shops
in J 928. These were 3100 and
101 (preserved in museums) and, although there were other
problems with these two, the use of trailing truck boosters
proved a useful appliance for starting heavy loads.
Economics during the depression years from 1929 onward had
dictated a policy
of taking delivery of new units with provision for
later installation
of appliances, e.g. boosters. When orders were
placed for class
H-I-a (2800 -2809), they came with Commonwealth
trucks ready for boosters, and
in the mid 1930s boosters were
installed at Angus Shops on H-I -b 2811
and2813. These two filled
in as stand-by power for the two
Northems on the fast overnight
schedule between Toronto and Montreal as well as the Montreal to
Quebec City service. When delivered from the production line of
the Montreal Locomotive Works, H-I-c 2838 through 2842 and
H-I -d
2850 through 2854 had boosters.
In North American railroading, the
two most popular passenger
steam locomotive classes
of later years undoubtedly were the
Hudsons and the Northerns. As most readers well know, the 4-6-4
wheel arrangement was initiated by the
New York Central on the
high density water level route
in the valley of the Hudson River, the
race track for trains running between
New York and Chicago. The
4-8-4 Northern classification began with the Northern Pacific with
their first Baldwin-built A-2, and this type
of locomotive was used
many railroads with various drive wheel diameters as a dual
service machine, a reliable
powerhouse in medium and heavy
in use well after the introduction of the diesel-electric
When the Canadian National Railways was formed
between 1918 and 1923, it consisted
of several financially-troubled
smaller rail lines that were taken over by the Government of
Canada and amalgamated into one huge transcontinental system.
Because these lines were made up
of varying sizes of rail, CN
found it necessary to impose weight restrictions and consider light
axle loadings when placing orders for a standard aJl-purpose
CN acquired approximately 200 4-8-4s (CN and
GTW combined) designated U-2-a with 237,300 Ibs on drivers
per drive axle) while the CPR H-I -e (e.g. 2860) had weight
on drivers of 194,000 Ibs or about 64,670 per drive axle. Canadian
Pacific had built most
of its own right-of-way with adequate sized
rail for that era, and axle loadings could be heavier. On
sections of the lakeshore route between Toronto and Montreal, CN
and CP lines ran parallel and, while a U-2-a with 73-inch drivers
move ahead of a CP H-l at the start, it was usuaUy the H-l
with 75-inchdrivers that pulled away from the competition, engineers
often giving a derisive two shorts on the whistle as they coaxed
their machine into performing as designed; highballing at 90
Canadian Pacific T-/-a 5914 and H-/-e 2864 eastbound at Clan william B.C. in the early 1950s.
Photo from Paull / Bordertowll collection. Courtesy British Columbia Archives HP-99491.
One less drive axle and, its corresponding counterbalancing,
meant less dynamic augment (drivers pounding rail head) and
overall maintenance reduction.
The NYC Hudsons on 79-inch
drivers were designed
for use on relatively flat terrain in comparison
CPR across its whole system. The north shore of Lake
Superior and mountain divisions in British Columbia had miles
curved and reverse curvature which was instrumental in the CPR
decision to accumulate a total of 65 Hudsons. The last five of the
H-I-es, produced in 1940, were equipped specially for service
between Revelstoke and Vancouver on the Dominion, at that
time the
companys premier cross-country passenger train. They
were built as oil burners (bunker C fuel), had trailing truck boosters
installed at the factory on Commonwealth trucks. and had tenders
riding on six-wheel Bucke
ye trucks which had extreme flexibility
and excellent roadibility on miles
of curved roadbed. All sixty-five
H-Is gave excellent reliable service, engine crews found them
good riding and easy steaming, and the maintenance department,
dispatchers and operators alike spoke highly
of their good handling
qualities and dependability.
In 1930,
number 2808 became the first Hudson to head the
Dominion without engine change from the Lakehead at Fort
William (now
Thunder Bay) to Calgary, a distance of approximately 1250 miles. This strategy developed into a practice
of making less
engine changes on through trains, with quick service checks,
replenislling water and fuel at division points. a crew change and
then highballing out
of town, helping to shorten schedule times
between major centres. In summary then, the 4-6-0 was replaced
by the 4-6-2,
and ultimately by this superior breed of 4-6-4
designed by the CPR mechanical department, under command
Hemy B. Bowen, in October 1928.
of several design improvements, use was made of
metal alloys in vital components. Where previously main frames
had been fabricated
of steel plate sections with cross-member
bracing and gussets. a one-piece
Commonwealth casting, with
main cylinders, brake cylinders and air reservoirs integral. allowed
the finished product to continue
performing throughout their
of service over a wider variety of roadbed conditions on a
water level route in relatively moderate terrain. Boiler and firebox
assembly utilized nickel steel alloys forconsiderabJe weight reduction
and added strength. Type
E superheaters gave an excellent high
of superheated steam by adding approximately 1325 square
feet to that
of the type A used in the 4-6-2. As shown in the
photos, a multiple throttle unit was mounted directly
over the
superheater header, all in close proximity to where the steam is
needed, in the valve
chambers and main
cylinders. Where
the G-3 Pacific had
3460 square feet
total of heating
surface (tubes,
flues, firebox), the
H-I had 3790
square feel.
Between the rear
tube sheet and the
of the brick
arch a depression
in the boiler shell
provided a longer
area for
combustion of
unburned coal
being lifted off the
fire by the draft.
This had an added
advantage in
allowing particles
of ash and cinder
to accumulate there
of in the
111 1975, during the American Freedom Traill lour, Royal Hudson 2860 travelled to
Wilh a full train of 800 fans for a ceremonial meet with SP 4449 at the King Street
station. After 2860 had been turned on the Wye for the return trip, Doyle McCormack
When King
George VI and Queen
iza beth v isi ted
Canada in 1939,
considerable time,
effort and expense
was expended in
transportation, in
conjunction with the
CNR. H-l-d 2850
was dressed ina
stai nIess-steel jacket,
royal blue and silver
paint and a royal
crown emblem was
attached on each side
near the front
of the
running boards.
Royal couple
favourably on the
beau ty and
performance of the
engine, and
subsequently Royal
assent was given to
Bowens idea to
flues, easily
paid a visit to the cab to see what the competition had to offer.
Photo by
HE. McGarry.
designate the semi­
streamlined Hudsons,
removed when
renewing the brick arch. Improved draft VIas the result of baffles
placed between the grates and ashpan.
The positions of the arch
tubes and brick arch were designed
to keep the heat concentrated
in the centre of the firebox, thereby giving less temperature
at the sides. Thus there was less distortion that would
otherwise cause staybolt leakage and related performance and
maintenance problems.
H-l-b class 2810 through 2819 were delivered with roller
bearings on axles
of the leading trucks and Commonwealth 6-
tender trucks. Beginning with H-l-c 2820, outer steel
of the boiler was modified in com~ination with a semi­
streamlined front end stack housing
to match. A profile view along
the top
of the boiler casing revealed the absence of the conventional
steam dome, replaced by a dry pipe inside, so reducing the moisture
content of steam entering the superheater and improving the
of superheated steam production to the multiple throttle
housing. Reverse gear was now actuated by an air powered assist,
operated by the engineer
by moving a short-stroke lever forward or
backward as desired for full or partial settings of the valve gear. BK
or HT automatic stokers brought coal to the firebox door on H-l
2800 through 2859.
2820 through 2864, as ROYAL HUDSONS by attaching Royal
crown emblems similar to those used on 2850. This title remained
to the end
of the steam era.
These engines proved time and again their worthiness, and the
company policy
of maintaining the fleet in excellent mechanical
condition kept them in
number one position until replaced by the
diesel-electric. When the time
came for them to be struck off the
roster, as everyone knows, only a
scant few steam locomotives
escaped the torch. Forty-one
of the streamlined Hudsons (2820 to
2864) were scrapped, but four were preserved.
The original Royal
Hudson, 2850, is preserved
at the Canadian Railway Museum at
Delson, Quebec, 2839 is currently in Florida, while 2858 resides at
the National Museum
of Science and Technology in Ottawa. What
follows is the story
of the rescue of 2860 from the scrap line where
it lay rusting
in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
About 1967 the former Vancouver Railway Museum prodded
the then mayor
of Vancouver, Bill Rathie, into negotiating with CP
Rail to purchase 2860 for exhibit or possible excursion service.
Canadian Pacific refurbished the rusting hulk and brought
it to
Vancouver. Purchase price, while not revealed, was set at scrap
value; however problems arose from dissention and inability
raise funds. Ownership reverted to
CP because it had not received
payment. As a result, the engine sat
in the
Drake Street yards in the
Vancouver rain for 6 years while Joe
Hussey, businessman and salvage
dealer, seriously considered bidding
on the engine with hopes
of restoring
to running condition. Eventually
Joe acquired ownership for
somewhere between $7,500 and
$10,000 and, in 1973, the British
Columbia government purchased the
engine for $25,000.
In June 1974,
Royal Hudson Steam Train,
consisting of refurbished CPR
coaches, began the very successful
summer excursion service on the
British Columbia Railway along the
Howe Sound scenic route between
North Vancouver and Squamish.
2860 has ventured more than once
during recent years on to mainline
rails. It visited
Seattles King Street
AI Broadfoot, highly capable Chief Mechanical Officer at B.C. Rails steam maintenancefacility
in North ,lancoLlver, with over 20 years
of super dedication to keeping 2860 and 3716 running,
is called Llponfrequently to advise or supervise repair
and overhaul of various steam locomotives,
such as
CN 6060 and White Pass & Yukon 73. Photo by H.E. McGarry.
station, over Burlington Northern
trackage, to meet Doyle
McCormacks 4449 with tl1e American
Freedom Train in 1976.In 1978 it crossed Canada as far as Quebec
City, returning
by way of Windsor, Detroit, Chicago, North Dakota,
Winnipeg and the
CP main line to Vancouver. In March 1977 the
special train travelled
to Los Angeles on a promotional tour to
B.e. tourism, and in 1979 it made a circular tour through
the British Columbia interior, going as far
south as Spokane
Washington and Sandpoint Idaho before returning to home base.
Many years
of similar service can still be obtained as T.L.e.
(Tender Loving Care) continues on both 2860 and 3716. For
several years, Robert E.
Swansons Railway Appliance Research
Ltd. had contracted repair and maintenance, using the antiquated
shop facilities still remaining at CP
Rails Drake Street Yard.
EXPO 86 brought a complete facelifting to the False
area which included the roundhouse.
The rail cOimection to
the main line through the Dunsmuir tunnel under
Vancouver has been severed. The tunnel bore was heightened to
allow an
upper and lower track for B.e. Transits Sky train to gain
access to the waterfront, the original purpose as used by the CPR.
This necessitated the building
of new shop facilities adjacent to the
BC Rail passenger station in NOlth Vancouver, and it is this
property that
2860 and 3716 now call home for their summer
operation. Maintenance and repair of both engines is now done
under the supervision
of the highly capable Al Broadfoot, and his
well qualified staff
do all major overhaul and assembly, except for
lathe and machine shop work, which
is contracted out to Burrard Shipyard nearby.
Ownership of the engines is now in the hands of
BC Rail, and the passenger department advertises package tours by
boat one way
in conjunction with daily trips on the Howe Sound
route. As outlined previously, the Hudsons would run on track
other than high speed tangent track, however it most certainly
would cause H.B.
Bowen to mutter and turn over in his grave if he
could see his pride and
joy negotiating the miles of reverse Cl11ves
on the Howe Sound route. However, the engine has been coping
with it for years now
in an admirable pelformance each day, and in
the process attracts steam enthusiasts, young and not so young,
from far and wide.
They stand with a misty stare and reminisce of
years gone by when the distant whistle, mournful or beautiful,
could be heard as the night train hurried on its way to distant points.
The engine has probably made Kodak and Fuji brass very happy,
as camera fiends have taken photographs from every conceivable
in a myriad of weather and light conditions, using still,
movie, 35 mm. and video to preserve the memory
orone of steams
very best; sadly made obsolete in the march of progress and
replaced by the more efficient type
of motive power, the diesel
Labour intensive, requiring constant attention
to replenish coal
or fuel oil supply as
weIJ as water, and highly skilled mechanical
knowledge to keep
it running at peak performance, the steam
locomotive was
doomed as labour costs began to rise after World
War II. Economies started on a recovery process that improved the
of living for working class people throughollt the world,
Canadian Pacific R-3-d 5786 and H-1-e 2860 westbound, leaving Reve1stoke B.C. in the early 1950s.
Photo from PaulllBordertown collectiol1. Courtesy
of British Columbia Archives HP-99490.
and costs for men and materials rose dramatically. Today the price
of most road diesel units is easily four or five times what was paid
for a large modern steam locomotive fifty years ago.
In the steam
if double or triple heading were required to move heavy trains,
each engine had to have a crew on board. This was not really a
problem from a cost standpoint when labour rates were at rock
bottom, but it rose to be a serious consideration when those rates
started to climb. In many cases, outdated freight rates put the
in a price squeeze and the diesel electric saved the day
with the ability to M.U. several
power units staffed by only one
engine crew.
Todays labour costs would not have allowed the
of this enormous labour force. Now a 12,000 to
13,000 ton unit train can march up a 2.2% grade with ten or eleven
power units producing 30.000 to 33,
000 horsepower. Meanwhile
the engine crew sits relaxed while the on-board computer does the
worrying, matching power
to the grade, and wheel slip control does
the rest. A great majority
of todays production diesel locomotives run
on 40-inch and 42-inch wheels and are,
of course, designed to pull
freight while factory-installed gear ratios take the
wide variety of driving wheel diameters. almost all of them custom
ordered to the whims of mechanical department chiefs of each
railroad. Freight and unit trains now interchange between railroads
power sharing and equipment pools. In many cases there is
similarity between the different railroads motive power, so train
watching now is often a matter
of viewing a different coloured
paint job, some rather drab, and some showing exceptional talent
in choosing a really good paint
job to enhance each unit. This is
very different from the days of steam.
Today, after fifty years, Royal Hudson 2860 is still in active
service, and
we hope it will remain so for many years to come. It
is an interesting question to wonder what changes in motive power
will take place in the next half century and we sincerely wish that
2860 will still be around
to see them.
Inside 2860 The mechanical features that make a steam locomotive work
During the glory years of steam railroading, a roundhouse with
back shop, a fully
equipped machine shop, maintained a stock of
replacement parts. That, together with low labour costs, made it
relatively inexpensive to
keep a main line steam locomotive in top
running condition. With
todays higher labour costs, capital cost of
buildings and associated facilities and, in many cases, custom
machining of replacement parts, the annual expense can be
astronomical, amounting to several hundred thousand dollars. A steam locomotive dismantled for major repairs gives an opportunity
to re
cord, with photos, some of the vital elements that are part of
that great mechanical creation. This machine, preserved and
maintained as in its hey-day, helps bring back fond memories of a
ck barking at the sky overhead, as well as a well tuned chime
screaming at road crossings.
ewith, are presented a few of the vital components, partially
dismantled, exposing inner detail not normally seen by the average
eam enthusiast.
H 1
H 1 E
BEARINGS lO~xH 12×14 10~x14~ 7xl-Sx14
~sw __________________ __
B 1 0lASS
SUB cuss I!I.a 81b 8104
~,. 275 275 271
2.2 • )0 n .30 22 • 30
DR! nNG ia!l< 1.l 75 75 75
TRAClfVE ,,ORT I:Bs. !100 15390 45390
rIREBOX IflDlIl. I!I3IDX ·7/8 88-7/8 88-7/11
IRlllOX lXNCTB. IRlIm: 1)1. 116
GIlA ,HZ; so-:-n: 00.8 SO.8
RUl!Brn AND 001SIDI DIAJaIER OP ARCli1iiiirn }-112 3-1/2 112
~ 2-:
62 2-11L 58 2.11!
RU!l!lJl AlID OOTSID! OIAI!!R or FLOES 171 3-1/2 11 l/2
!n~F-Dr.sWlC B1:lWE!:I roBE SBlI!TS -iil;-1-7/B
18 1-7/8
IUlll AND nOE HZAlING SURFACE ao:rT. )5()9 3509 1L6~
288 288
, …
oUlCII 1UB.K HEAll1«l SURPAC] SO. PT. 38 38 38
rIll! RIATIND SUlUAC SO.PT. 1A« 3835 1?Q]
S1mPACR SO:…-: ~/n 16LO l CIlYBnnm -I)G ••
.0 ….

nllll!r OR oRlnas t:M. ,o00 19,o00 lQ!OOO
LOAGlID III aRT or mJ lM~ 160000 )60000 355000
I.In11l nIGHT or 1Ml TN> LRI. 129000 329GGO 324000
LGAlJlID nIGIIT or TEND •• .83. 298000 29350
~J ruJ:L QlJAOl -COAL. III IOlIS 2] 21 21
.. TlR .<.PAC1, IllPP:RU OAl LORS 20 120
The vila I dimensions and specifications of 2860. From a CPR diagram book of 1945.
II!!! OO(lnSR
Rlb m.
2 … —-;?<
-22 • lO
., y
!51oo llOo
12000 12000
88-?/1I 88-7/8
. .l~
,:,/0 …. ,/0,
62 2.11- ?l

I?! 1-112
.8 _?/a-,. -?/,..
1<1)0 I.,
~ … –
38 38
I <111
11<>000 1000
1bQooo 166000
290000 2Q1.a
,300 1lOOO
!ioo 100
120 20
-131 l/16
…. ,I>,
.. 2. L
1?1 }-1/2
18 1-7/8

All photographs in these sections were taken by Howard E. McGarry.
I. Firebox and Boiler
Arch or siphon tubes. and rear tube sheet.
tubes as seen when removed/rom boiler.
Thefronl lube sheet clearly shows superheater header above, withflues and tubes removedfor de-scaling of boiler
shell. Flues are straight,
18 fl. 3 in. by 3 1/2 in. diameter, with ends flared to hold againsl sheet. The superheater
elements. wilh 90 degree bend
alone end,fil vertically inlo the header.
LEFT: The safety valve removed from
the top of
the boiler, allowing a view Ihrough the manhole 10
the tubes visible below.
II. Mechanical Features
M U LTl P LE VAL VE THROTTLE. Steam locomot; ve design eng ineers had several types of throllie conlrol to choose from, but a very
high percentage lIsed the mUltiple valve throule with its many sUlperior operating and mail1lenance advantages.
It is contained in
the upper manifold section of the superheater header, thus having fewer steam joints. and is accessable by a removable cover on
of the smokebox directly behind the stack. The circular small sleel valves within the unit give a close regulation. without w{lIping.
to the main cylinders. When the throttle
isfirst opened, a camshaft lobe easily unseats the small pilot valve to admit steam from the
top chamber
of the header to the bottom chamber, allowing pressure to equalize both above and below the sUI/ace of the throltle
valves, so permilling easy movement
of the throttle lever. Opening (he thrOllle lever further rotates the camshaft, opening the first
main valve. allowing a small amount
of steam to pass to the cenlre chamber and onto the main cylinders. Cam lobes are arranged
so that further opening
of the throttle rotates the cam. opening the second and third valves in sequence lIntil all are open in full
throttle position.
The main cylinder and piston with the cylinder head removed. The turbo generator, which produces electricity needed for the
lights etc. on the locomotive, sits atop the boiler.
Walschaerts valve gear: Valve gear is vital
to control the fOlward or backward direction of locomotive travel, and also to provide cut­
off as track speed increases. The piston valve chamber is the upper portion of the main cylinder assembly. When a locomotive is starting
aful! train,fullforward position of the lever (Johnson bar) on the quadrant in the cab gives the largest volume and late cut-off coming
from the dry pipe to the main cylinders.
As momentum is gained, the lever is notched back in stages toward center, causing progressively
earlier cu
t-off, by shortening the stroke of the valve piston. Full superheater pressure gets to the main cylinder piston, but ill reduced
e, thereby economizing on use of steam and fuel. This results in the most efficient power stroke and smooth operation of the valve
Page 158
. : ,

ABOVE AND LEFT: Removing main drivers on steam
locomotive. When driving wheels and axles require major
ir, each axle assembly is removed from the engine frame
by use
of a hydraulic dollie which runs on rails in the drop pit
right angles to the track above. Engine weight is supported
on the pony and trailing trucks, while each axle is positioned
separately over the drop pit, removed one at a time and raised
by hoists to the shop
floor .
LEFT Horn jaws with shoe, wedge and binder.
The hornjawsforone main driving axle withthe shoe temporarily
held in place toward /ront; also the tapered wedge at the rear
and locked
in by the binder at the base. The crown brass
in the bearing box on the main drive axle is held in
position by the above components. The main driving axle, with
crown brass enclos
ed in bearing box,fits into the horn jaws.
shoe at/ront and tapered wedge at rear, and is locked
in at the
base by the binder.
A fine view in the cab of 2860, showing the engineers controls.
Seventy five Years Ago
of Sir William Van Horne
September 11, 1915
At 2:30 P.M. on Saturday, September II, 1915 occurred the
of Sir William Van Horne at the age of seventy-two. He had
been in excellent health until about two years before his death, but
November 17, 1913 had been taken ill. After being laid up some
time, he made a good recovery and made some trips to Cuba,
besides spending considerable time at his country estate at St. house at a small
crossroads settlement then caJled Chelsea in the
wooded country between Frankfort and Mokena,
in Will County
Illinois, the son
of Cornelius Coven hoven Van Horne and Mary
Miner Richards. When William was very young, the family moved
to Joliet, and in 1852 the
elder Van Horne became that citys
mayor, holding that position until his untimely death from cholera
in 1854. Living with his widowed mother,
William attended school until 1857 when
he entered the service
of the Illinois Central
Railroad as a cub telegraph operator.
received $40 per month, a munificentsalary
for a boy whose training had been bounded
the rail fences of an Illinois farm.
Advancement came fast; in 1858 he entered
the service
of the Michigan Central R.R.,
and in 1862 he became a ticket agent and
telegraph operator
on the Chicago and Alton,
soon becoming a dispatcher. This was dw-ing
the height
of the American Civil War, and
it is at this time that Van Horne acquired the
of military moves that would
make him the Railway General in the
of the CPR and would also give
him the amazing ability to move troops in
record time to the North West rebellion
Andrews New Brunswick. Through the
summer of 1915 his condition grew worse,
and during the night
of August 22 he was
taken hurriedly to the Royal Victoria Hospital
in Montreal where an emergency operation
for an abdominal abscess was performed at
2:30 in the morning of August 23. At first he
appeared to be improving, but about two
weeks after the operation his condition
deteriorated and five days later he passed
On September 14, his funeral took
at his house on Sherbrooke Street in
Montreal. The occasion was a remarkable
national tribute as representatives of the
Governor-General, the Dominion and
Provincial governments and many directors
and officers
of the Canadian Pacific Railway
were present, not to mention numerous
representatives of many businesses with
Sir William was connected. His funeral
procession went from his house to Windsor
station amid throngs
of onlookers. The funeral
In 1872 he was appointed General
Manager of the St. Louis, Kansas City and
Northern Railroad, and, in 1874, occupied
same position with the Southern Minnesota Railroad, later
becoming President
of that line. In 1878 he returned to the Chicago
& Alton as General
Superintendent while retaining the Presidency
of the Southern Minnesota! On January 1, 1880 Van Horne was
appointed General
Superintendent of the Chicago, Milwaukee &
St. Paul Railroad and took up residence
in Milwaukee. It was at this
time that the project
of building the Canadian Pacific Railway
began to
move forward again after numerous delays, and the CPR
Company was incorporated on February 16, 1881. By late 1881 it
was realized that work was not proceeding fast enough and, it is
said by the suggestion
of James 1. Hill (one of the original CPR
Syndicate and later the Empire Builder of the Great Northern),
Van Horne was appointed General
Manager of Canadian Pacific.
On January 1, 1882
he took up his new duties at Winnipeg
train, drawn by locomotive 2213 suitably
draped in crepe, departed at 11 :00 A.M. for Joliet Illinois near
where Sir William had been born seventy-two years before and
where he would be buried. The last car in the train was the official
car Saskatchewan which had been used by Van Horne since it
was built in 1883.
The day of the funeral the CPR general offices
in Montreal were closed for two hours, and flags flew at half-mast
on company buildings over the entire system from London England
Hong Kong. Sir Williams last trip ended at Joliet at 10:00 A.M.
the next day and the train was met by a delegation
of the oldest
of Will County, some of whom had known Van Horne as
a boy.
He was buried in the family plot beside his father and
Railway enthusiasts in Canada will need no introduction to
William Cornelius Van Horne who was without a doubt Canadas
greatest railroader. He was born on FebrualY 3, 1843 in a little log Manitoba.
The story of the builcting
of the CPR has been told so
often that there is
no need to
tell it again here. Suffice it
to say that for more than
four years Van
Home did
the most with the very least
and the transcontinental line
was completed five years
of schedule. When
Last Spike was driven
November 7, 1885 Van
Horne, asked to make a
speech, said simply fourteen
All I can say is the
work has been well done
every way. On May 14, On May 9, 1910 Sir
William retired as CPR
Chairman on the grounds,
as he
put it, that the post was
only a nominal one, not at
all useful and hardly
ornamental. At that time he
You see, I am gelling
old, and I do not
wish even
to keep up the appearance
attending to business. I am
getting out
of everything that
make the least demand
on my time or freedom. I
of course remain on the
of the CPR as long as
the shareholders see fit to
while construction
was still under way, Van
Horne became Vice
President of CPR and on
August 7, 1888, following
THE LAST JOURNEY. The funeral train of Sir William Van Horne at
MOlllreais Windsor Statioll. The train is headed
by locomotive 2213, while
Homes old official car Saskatchewan brings up the rear.
elect me, for naturally the
CPR has a large place in my
affections. But in such a
concern as the
CPR there
the retirement
of George Stephen, he became the companys
second President. On May 24, 1894 he became Sir William, being
created, by Queen Victoria, a Knight
Commander of the Most
Order of St. Michael and St. George in recognition
of his great services to the Dominion and to the Empire in providing
the great all-British highway
to the Orient by way of Canada.
On June 12, 1899
Si.r William resigned the Presidency of the
CPR and was succeeded by Thomas Shaughnessy, formerly of
Milwaukee. The latter had known Van Horne since 1880, and had
been hired by him, for the CPR,
in 1882 soon after Van Horne had
come to Canada. Shaughnessy remained President until he retired
in 1918. However Van Horne continued as CPR Chairman of the
Board until 191
O. He retired from the Presidency with the reputation
not only of having accomplished the most difficult feat of railway
engineering ever recorded, but of being the most successful
railwayman the North American continent had produced and the
of the greatest transportation company in the world.
Sir William Van Horne was not destined to be in retirement for
long. Following the Spanish-American
War in 1898, Cuba had
been freed from centuries
of Spanish rule, and Van Horne realized
great benefit that a new railway would give to the island. In
1900 he organized the Cuba Company and became its first President.
During the next few years, despite problems
of every kind, both
physical and political, the Cuba railway was completed, more than
1000 miles including branches, which was about 45%
of all the
mileage on the island of Cuba at that time. Later, he built
200-mile railway in the Republic of Guatemala, extending from
the capital city to the Port Barrios on the Atlantic coast. can be but
one active head.
Sir Thomas Shaughnessy is that head, and has been for a long time,
and I need not tell you what a
competent head the company has in
him, nor how abundantly he is able to manage
its affairs without the
of anybody. It is my heartfelt wish that he will stick to it for
years to come. Sir William lived for only five years after his
retirement. His time was divided between his house on Montreals
Sherbrooke Street (unfortunately demolished by developers
1973) and his estate in New Brunswick. He had amassed one of the
greatest collections
of art treasures in Canada with a value estimated
at $2,000,000
in 1915. He also had one of the most complete
of original models of ancient war vessels, not to
mention his fossils and other objects. In addition, Sir William was
an accomplished artist hims
elf and many of his paintings are to be
seen in
311 galleries today.
By 1915 the world was changing greatly from the days when the
CPR was being built. The outbreak of World War I the year before
had brought the world suddenly and violently into the twentieth
century uncertainty that exists to this day. However
the heroic
pioneer days were not entirely forgotten then
or since, although the
people who were there gradually disappeared from the scene.
stories about Van Home, and of the building of the CPR will be told
for as long as railway historians and enthusiasts exist. It was truly
the end
of an era when Sir William Van Horne died seventy-five
years ago. F.A. September, 1990.
Much of the information in the foregoing was taken from an article
which appeared
in Canadian Railway and Marine World number
212, October, 1915.
Rail Canada Decisions
By Douglas N.W. Smith
Recent decisions by the National Transportation Agency (NTA)
have severed, in three different places, a
CP route which spanned
the three prairie provinces. Lying south
of the Winnipeg -Calgary
transcontinental line, this route passed through Souris Manitoba,
Weyburn Saskatchewan and Lethbridge Alberta. Completion
this line took more than 35 years, many more years than were
required to build the main line across the prairies.
of the line began from Winnipeg in the 1880s.
The line reached Reston, near the Manitoba / Saskatchewan border,
in 1892.
After a pause of a dozen years, the line was extended from
Reston to Regina via Stoughton
in 1904. The section from Stoughton
to Weyburn opened in 1908 and from Weyburn to Altawan,
the Saskatchewan / Alberta border, in 1914. In order to finish this
trans-prairie line, all that was needed was
to close the gap between
Altawan and Stirling, a community on the
CP line from Lethbridge
to the U.S. border. In 1915,
CP completed the line from Stirling to
RIGHT: Souris served as a hub for CP passenger traills running
through southwestell1 Manitoba. Twice daily, Winnipeg-Stoughton­
Regina andBrandon-M elita-Estevan trains exchanged passengers,
mail and express
at this point. Travellers could seek refreshment
at the station restaurant during the thirty minute station stop. In
this view, train
55 from Winnipeg and train 137 from Brandon
in their daily-except-Sunday rituals. The large /lumber of
head end cars reflects the important role the railways played in
commerce in the days before PUlDlator and Federal Express. On
16, 1952, both trains were hauled by 4-6-2s; train 55 by
1286 and train 137 by 2548. The 1286 was one of the last steam
locomotives buill in Canada,
and was only foul years old whenlhe
photo was taken. After retirement, it was so
ld to Americans, and
is now pulling passenger trains on the Alleghany Central out of
Cumberland Maryland. Photofrom Palterson-George Collection.
Compeer I Major
Stirling ~—-________ ~ Orion
, – ~
Moose Jaw
NOTE Not all Rail Lines or Stations shown
du Bonnet,.O
[ Molson
Weyburn ._.0.._ ……. >-
, ——–
c (l. N A ~! ~ kilometres 010 50
__ —- _ -~. M;—;—;
-miles 0 10 30
Kenmay, Manitoba is 8.2 miles west of Brandon. At this point is thejul1ction between the Broadview andEstevan Subdivisions. In this ulldated
e, CP locomotive 2912 is shown heading train 137. Built by the Canadian Locomotive Company in 1937, these 4-4-4 type locomotives
were designedfor use on branch line and local passenger trains. The wheel arrangement is not one
whichfoundfavour on many other North
American railways.
A truly diversified set of head end cars trail the 2912, including a wooden truss-rod equipped baggage car, a steel
express box car and two different steel baggage-express cars. Photo: Patterson-George Collection.
Manyberries. The remaining 38-mile gap between Manyberries
and Altawan, however, would not be closed for a
nother eight years.
Construction was deferred as steel and labour were in short supply
during World
War I, while the years immediately after the war were
spent restoring
CPs physical plant.
Built to open the region
to agricultural settlement, through
service was never a feature
of the line. While passenger service was
available over the entire line for more
than thirty years, any
passengers desiring to travel between Winnipeg and Calgary over
this line would have had to have been exceptionally determined
The through journey would have required a minimum of
four days given the lack of connections and minimal frequency on
certain portions
of the route. Daily except Sunday passenger trains
were provided between Winnipeg and Weyburn (passengers made
a connection at Stoughton), between Weyburn and Shaunavon,
and between Lethbridge and Calgary. Due to the small population
between Shaunavon and Stirling, a twice-weekly mixed train was operated between Lethbridge and Manyberries, while a tri-weekly
mixed ran between Manyberries and Shaunavon.
In two recent decisions, the NTA permitted CP to abandon 103
of this route. The sections of the line abandoned are as
November 23, 1989.
Altawan Subdivision. 56.4 miles. From a
point 3 miles west
of Consul, Saskatchewan to Manyberries,
23,1989. Kisbey Subdivision. 17.3 miles. From Griffin
to Weybulll, Saskatchewan.
April 10, 1990. Stirling Subdivision. 6.0 miles. From Manyberries
to Orion, Alberta.
April 10, 1990. Kisbey Subdivision. 22.8 mile
s. From Stoughton
to Arcol
a, Saskatchewan.
All the trackage was to be abandoned 30 days from the date
the NT A decision.
The first of the four railway lines which were eventually buill
between the two
major cities of Quebec was the Quebec &
Richmond Railroad (Q&R). Chartered in 1850. the
Q&R was
projected to be built from Had low. a point
on the south shore of the
St. Lawrence river opposite
Quebec City, to Richmond where a
connection wou
ld be made with the St. Lawrence & Atlanlic
Railroad. The St.
Lawrence & Atlantic was the Canadian portion of
a rail line destined to link Longueil, opposite Montreal, with
Portland, Maine.
Efforts to raise funds in Britain to build the
Q&R were fruitless
until the firm
of Jackson, Peto. Brassey and Betts (JPB&B) made an
offer to build the line. This firm was one of the largest financial
and railway
constructing finns in the world. It would later secure
the contracts to build the Montreal-Toronto line of the Grand
Before entering into a contract with the Q&R promoters, lPB&B
required them to secure financial guarantees from the government
of the Province of Canada. The legislature acceded to a Q&R
petition to have it declared to be a portion of the Main Trunk Line.
As originally conceived, the Main Trunk Line consisted
of the line
extending from the American border, through Monlreal
and Toronto,
to Sarnia. For rail lines of more than 75 miles in length, the province
guaranteed to pay the interest charges on up to one-half of the cost
of the railway.
Peace had returned to Europe when this view of train 683 was taken on August 7,1945. Having departed Quebec City at 12:00 nOOI1,
train 683 was photographed approaching Bridge station which was located near the site of the current St. Foy station. Few speed
records were set on the Danville Subdivision, as train 683 was not scheduled to arrive at Richmond until 1555. The engineer should have
no Irouble keeping his light weight train offour wooden cars on time. At Richmond, passengers desirinR to travel to poillls west would
10 traill 17 en route from Portland 10 Montreal. Those passengers going 10 points south would transfer to train 24 en route from
Monlreal to Sherbrooke. Buill by the Mol1lreal Locomotive Works in 1914, engine 5548 began life as Canadian Governmem Railways
449. Locomotive 5550, a sister
10 Ihe 5548, is part of Ihe collection of the Canadian Railway Museum al Delson, Quebec.
Photo. Pallerson-George Collection.
With the financial guarantee in hand, a contract was entered into
by the two parties on July 29, 1852. Almost one year later, on July
21, 1853, the
Q&R shareholders approved a plan to amalgamate
the Q&R with the Grand
Trunk Railway (GT). On December 18,
1854 the merger was consummated.
Though the first sod turning ceremonies had occurred in August
it was not until 1853 that major construction activity began.
On August 6, 1853 the
Quebec Mercury reported that the first
locomotive for the
Q&R had been running since last Thursday and
was engaged inmovinggravel. This was probably asmall contractors
locomotive, as no roster
of the Q&R shows any locomotive being
acquired by the company prior to 1854.
On August
30,1853, it was announced that the Q&R line would
be extended along the shore line
of the St. Lawrence from Hadlow
to Pointe Levis due to the extraordinary growth of the place.
On May 20, 1854, the two ferries, built to transport freight and
passengers across the St. Lawrence
at Quebec, were launched at the
Cantins shipyard
in Montreal. By August 1854, work on the
extension from Hadlow
to Pointe Levis was underway. Progress
had been delayed due
to the difficulty in acquiring land for the
The contract called for the Q&R to be completed in November
1854. However, on October 24, 1854, the
Quebec Mercury
reported that the Chaudiere
bridge was not yet finished, the
of the line was not completed and the station house at
Pointe Levis had not yet been roofed in.
The 1,100 foot long tubular bridge across the Chaudiere river
near the present-day community
of Charny was the most impressive
of engineering on the Q&R. The iron for the bridge was
in England. The Quebec Mercury noted that the
contractor had been delayed due to the loss
of several vessels which
had been carrying bridge iron.
On November 14, 1854, an inspection train ran from Longueil
to Pointe Levis. Four days later, a special trip was run from Point
Levis (named Quebec South by the
GT in deference to feelings in
the provincial capital about not being directly served by rail) to the
Chaudiere bridge.
The report of the days activities, and of the
facilities existing along the line, is reported
in Appendix 1.
The line was opened to the public on November 27th. Initially,
two passengertrainsoperated each way, providing day and overnight
service. An account
of the first trip to operate from South Quebec
is reproduced
in Appendix II.
While schemes
to bridge the St. Lawrence at Quebec were
discussed from the time the railway was built, more than six
decades would elapse before the awkward and unpredictable
crossing was eliminated.
On December 23,1854, the Earl of Elgin,
who was serving as the
Governor General of the Province of
Canada, took the train from South Quebec to Portland. In order to
reach the station from the vice-regal residence in Quebec City, he and
his party travelled by canoe. The GT ferry boats were not
running as their paddle wheels could possibly be
damaged by ice
flows in the river. A month later, passengers were crossing the
frozen river
in horse-drawn carriages. Transfer time for passengers
and mail from South Quebec to the capital city was reported
to be
one hour from the time of the arrival of the train.
The route became the preferred way for immigrants from
Europe to reach their final destinations. During the nineteenth
century, many ocean-going vessels did not proceed further up the
Lawrence than Quebec City. The poorly-marked channel and
treacherous shoals posed a hazard
to ocean-going vessels which,
due to their deep draft, lay low
in the water. Prior to the opening of
the Q&R, most immigrants transferred to paddlewheelers which
had a shallow draft
in order to complete their journey up the 51.
Lawrence from Quebec City to Montreal.
The GT rapidly gained a major scheme of this business. By
1857, it was reported to be handling one-third
of the immigrants
coming to Canada from the United Kingdom. In 1858, the GT
expanded the wharf accommodation at South Quebec permitting
steamships to land their passengers directly at the rail way terminus.
Prior to this, all passengers landed at Quebec and had to cross the
river on the ferry boats. A newspaper reporter investigated the
immigration facilities at South Quebec
in 1893. His account of
these is reproduced in Appendix III.
December 1855, the GT opened a line from Charny to St.
Thomas (now called Montmagny). Five years later, it was extended
to Riviere du Loup. Following the completion of the Intercolonial
Railway in 1876, the
fonner Q&R became a key link in the rail
network linking the Maritimes
to Montreal. However, in 1898, the
Dominion government secured the lease of the Drummond County
Railway which shortened the rail distance between Quebec and
Montreal by
15 miles, and eliminated some heavy grades on the
former Sl. Lawrence & Atlantic west
of Richmond. Thereafter the
Q&R was operated as a branch line. The line became part
of the Canadian National in 1923.
of July 1985, freight service between Richmond and
Victoriaville operated five days per week while that beyond
Victoria ville to Plessisville was provided on an
as required basis.
At this time, freight service between Plessisville and the Chaudiere,
point where the Danville Subdivision joined the Drummondville
Subdivision, was discontinued.
The reduced level of service reflected the large reductions in
asbestos shipments from the mineat Asbestos, Quebec. CN attributed
the decline to the competition from trucks and a shift to intermodal
In 1987, total freight volume had declined to 427 carloads,
generating an estimated loss
of $841 ,000. On February 8, 1989, the
National Transportation Agency permitted CN
to abandon the line
six months from the date
of the order.
This view shows the terminal complex at South Quebec prior to the /880s. Tied up at the wh{JJ! is an early steamship discharging
its cargo
of immigrants and tourists. As eighteen passenger cars are visible in this view, it appears that the Grand Trunk expects to
move a large number
of travellers. To the right of the passenger station are hotels which accommodated travellers transferring
between ships and trains. Photo: Quebec National Archives GH 1071-5.
[Quebec Mercury, Tuesday, November 21,
Progress is a law which, sinc.e the birth of Time. has been a prime
ordinance of Nature.
In human affairs its operation has never
ceased. and
the Civilization of one century has in general indicated
an advance beyond its predecessor. Taking a glance at history, this
progress does
not perhaps invariably manifest itself, and retrogression
may even at times appear, -such darkening shadows have however
been caused merely
by clouds which, when once passed away,
have been succeeded
by brightness more brilliant than before. As
civilization then is the manifestation of Progress, so Commerce is
to be the great worker
of civilization, any means therefore
that tend to create
the former must also collaterally promote the
latter. Now within the last quarter of a century, commerce has found no
so certain a regenerator
as the Rail Road, this mode of transport
having given
to trade in general the greatest impetus that it ever
received. The Iron Horse works wonders –
it revolutionizes as it
flies, destroying old errors and old habits. and giving in exchange
new ideas and systems.
It dispenses on all sides plenty and profit.
it draws trade and business from every quarter, creates and re­
creates more and more. lives
on it perpetually, and is always
insatiate. Its capacity of swallow [sic]
is only equal to its power of
But we of
this ancient metropolis have until the present date been
to view at a distance the metamorphoses wrought by this
of !Jon, its pasture ground having ever been 011 other fields
on ours; now, however, the fiery steed has made its way to our
own doors, and
its loud and startling snort may, even as we write.
be heard right close. Yes, -the Richmond Rail Road is on the eve
of going into active operating, –
will in fact do so on and from
Monday, the 27th of November instant; this of course has been the
of our thoughts throughout.
An epoch, ever to be marked with an
alba lapide in the calendar
of our history, is about to transpire, a new era now dawns upon us.
We are no longer to be isolated
one half of the year from the rest of
the world, to the immense prejudice of our greatest interest, but are
now to be attached as to
another link to the massy [sic] iron chain
which stretches throughout the length
of the continent. That this
line between Quebec and
Richmond has been constructed in the
superior manner which even a limited inspection by a non­
professional eye
at once discerns, and that the undertaking has not
fallen through before a succession
of difficulties and disasters of no
ordinary nature, can only be attributable to the happy circumstances
that the work was
in good trust, in the hands indeed of such eminent
Contractors as Messrs.
Jackson, Peto, Brassey and Betts.
But we must at once proceed to give a brief sketch of a highly
interesting visit which,
under invitation, we made on Saturday last
to the
Tubular Bridge over the Chaudiere river.
The invitees, to the number of about one hundred and fifty
gentlemen, met according to
appointment at the Queens wharf at
ten oclock on Saturday, morning, where the Railway Companys
new and powerful Ferry steamer was in waiting to convey them to
the South Quebec terminus on the opposite side
of the river. A
of an hours grace having expired, the boat started from her
mooring, leaving behind an honourable gentleman
of the Assembly,
who was no doubt with
equal reluctance on both sides, afforded a
proof of the necessity of punctuality. Ten minutes movement of the
machinery, and the
engineers bell announced our arrival at the
of Tibbits cove, which, like that on the city side, is solidly
constructed, and by a floating slip admits
of the most faei Ie
embarking or landing of passengers and freight. Here a half hour
was profitably spent in
examining the buildings of the company,
and the cars and locomotive by which we were to be
borne over the
new road.
The Station is of neat design, built of brick, is about two
hundred feet in length and well divided.
There is a double track
er its shelter capable of holding four passenger cars on each
side, and allowing a spacious platform to each train.
The span of the
is an immense arch of novel construction to our eyes, the
arches being
composed of seven or eight layers of planks held
together with iron bolts and standing at the extremities on iron
The Station House and other buildings adjacent, at the terminus,
are constructed by Mr.
John Aughton, who is also engaged in the
of a handsome Hotel close by.
The Cars are made similar to those of the American railroads as
regards size and model.
They are adapted to hold sixty persons
arranged in couples, with a passage through the centre
of each car,
for the conductor to gather the tickets and allowing free
communication throughout the train at all times when in motion. In
Britain this kind
of carriage is, we understand, still unknown, and a
gentleman lately arrived from Edinburgh, who was in the train on
Saturday, and who had travelled over nearly all the Jines in the
mother country, expressed to us the great astonishment as well as
gratification he felt
in finding that the people of this continent were
half a century ahead of their contemporaries across the Atlantic.
Those on the Lachine railway at Montreal are constructed on the
antiquated English principle, by which great
space is lost, and the
passengers are locked up, in fact stowed like cattle more than
any tiling else, without room or
leave to stir when once under
In the United States cars, the seats are made with swinging
backs to
admit of sitting vis-a-vis when desired. The cushions are
of stuffed velvet, the ceiling and sides are omamental with handsome
tapestry, there are water filters, lamps, stoves for cold weather,
blinds to exclude the
midsummer sun, hat and umbrella frames,
&c, &c. Unlike any American cars however that we have met with,
of the Grand Trunk Company before us (for which we may
en passant credit Messrs. McLean and Wright of Montreal, the
manufacturers) do not dazzle the
eye with a surfeit of fantastic
gilding and paint, they are made throughout of seasoned hard
wood, oak, walnut and mahogany, whose smoothly polished
surface, not only on the doors but throughout from end to end of
each carriage, gives an air of solidity and elegance to the whole
structure. One is fitted up as a kind of State Car for distinguished
travellers, it contains sofas, tables, mirrors, curtains, and other
Five minutes ride, and the train came to a stand at Hadlow, where
the Engine Shed
became the next subject of inspection to those
unacquainted with the history
of the Iron Horse, which here might
be now seen in all its component parts, as they land from the vessel
after the voyage from Birkenhead; some half put up with wheels
under them, some without, one complete and ready for its place on
the line, and a dozen others alongside all in different stages
progress towards completion. In this building is the turning platform
from which as many as ten locomotives are, or will be, run up to
their different stalls
if we might use such a telm, every night, the
smoke from each individual funnel rising into ten separate conductors
which meet in the roof at the centre of the building. Each engine
may here be examined throughout by the workmen, taken to
pieces, and cleaned or repaired. An
immense doorway with a
railway track across the floor, leads the visitor
into the fitting
department, on the way to which we pass the water tank -an
immense vat, heated day and night throughout the winter season to
prevent its freezing -from which the boilers are filled before
starting and which is sufficiently elevated to
cause the water to rush
in its
descent through the boiler tubes to aid in theircieaning, which
is frequently required.
The Fitting Department is an immense
machine shop where the most massive or delicately minute parts of
the engines can be made or repaired, and applied to the place they
are intended for.
The turning lath[e)s and other implements were all
in motion as we entered, being worked by wheels and belts from the
ceiling, connected with a stationary engine in
another department.
While no date is available for this photograph, it shows the original station at Richmond in either the 1850s or 1860s. The portion
of the structure on the left hand side of the picture was occupied by a refreshment room. Here the traveller, in the course of an all­
day trip between Quebecs two largest cities, would be able
to have a quick meal behveen trains. The structure at the extreme right
of the photograph is an enclosed water tank. National Archives of Canada photo PA-165572.
The great power of the machinery, as in one place it bores into a
of metal with the same speed and smoothness that a carpenter
would work an
auger through a pine deal, and in another turns a
rough bar into any desired form,
is seemingly under complete
of its manipulators.
After riding past several
extensive cuttings through capes of solid
rock, the next stoppage
is to view the first tubular bridge on the line,
which crosses the mouth of the Etchemin; a stones throw from its
confluence with the St. Lawrence. The span of this bridge is greater
than that
of the Chaudiere, being 155 feet. [This presumably refers
to the length
of the individual span, not to the total length of the
The piers are rough hewn granite, and have every appearance
of durability that one could look for. To enjoy a fair view of the
structure the party went a short distance up the bank
of the river, the
Honourable member for Haldimand bravely in advance of the rest,
perching himself
on top of a long ladder that pointed aloft from the
beach below. The iron tube, to whose upper surface the rails are
secured, is one of a dozen similar, on a smaller scale, laid across the
rivers lying
in the route. All these tubes are on the plan of the well
known Britannia Bridge across the Menai Straits in Wales.
A few minutes more and, before the party were aware
of its
proximity, the Chaudiere River was beneath us, its dark waters visible from the cars on both sides, without the least object
of any
kind intervening to remind the passenger by what
agency he was
at such an elevation above its bed! The Falls, though
only a quarter of a mile distant, are lost in view, the site of the bridge
being above them. The spray meets the eye, at limes, as it rises over
the crest of the hill. A halt at the further end of the bridge, the special
of the trip, and all disembarked to view its proportions, a
treat that will not be afforded to the mass
of travellers over the
surface, for there is no
curve in the line to bring it into view. The
bridge consists of an iron lube 9 feet square, and 1 100 feet in length,
on II piers 92 feet apart from each other. The height of the
tube from the river is
60 feet. The piers are, to the elevation of 8 feel
above high water mark, constructed of large blocks of rough
extending on the upper side so as to form a solid and sharp
cut-water, capable of resisting any pressure of ice at the highest
spring floods. The upper portion of the piers are of fire brick of the
best description.
The total width of the tube on its upper surface is
16 feet including a light iron gallery on each side for
Viewed from a short distance, the entire structure looks slight and
aye light as gossamer, and anything but the enduring and
substantial way over which hundreds
of tons weight of passengers
and goods will daily pass, at 40 miles an hour, without causing a
deflection of more than an inch-between the piers. To meet the
demands of our climate, allowance
is made for contraction of the
in winter, and its expansion in summer, the bridge being no
where fixed to the masonry and having a space of two or three feet
at each end where it unites with the banks. The countless
myriads of rivets
used in the construction of the work are inserted
at the junction of the plates while red hot, and then by about fifteen
or twenty smart blows given
by two men on the smaller end
without, while the heacl within is held steady by a lad armed with
a sledge hammer, the joint
is secured, the subsequent cooling of the
metal drawing the parts closer together than any power could weld
them. At such points
as the weight of the tube is not materially
important, its strength
is increased by the plates being doubled and
uebled, while in the very centre of the spans but one set of plates
is used. We had the pleasure of descending in to the interior and
inspecting the plates, ribs, and girders holding the structure together.
The passage admits a man six foot high with his hat
on. Candles
were carried down
to show us the way, there being no apertures
whatever for the admission
of light.
Numerous triumphal arches, with flags and rows of trees, decorated
the road at all points, and the inhabitants of Point Levi, Hadlow,
New Liverpool, and Chaudiere, together with the workmen whose
labors have
now terminated, mustered in goodly array to welcome
the first passenger train from this city that has visited their district,
and greeted
its approach by loud acclamations and firing of guns
and cannons.
The inspection of the bridges
at an end, the train advanced a few
perches further to the Chaudiere station where the company were
to enter and partake of a most tempting feast spread by Mr.
Lamb of the Music Hall caterer to the Legislature when in session.
Ample justice being done to the substantials no time was lost in
proposing and responding to the Toasts appropriate to the occasion,
but which, together with the remarks
of the speakers -Hon. W.B.
Robinson, Sir Cusac[kl
P. Roney, Hon. John Ross, Colonel
R.A. Lieut. Col. the Hon. E.P.Tache, Hon. W. Cayley,
Hon. F. Hincks, Mr. Turcotte M.P., Mr. Cauchon, M.P., -we are
denied the pleasure of inserting from want of adequate spac
For the attention which we received from the distinguished
of the Railroad Company, Sir Cusac[k] Roney, on the
in question, we return our thanks and an expression of our
best wishes
for the success of the GRAND TRUNK RAil.. WA Y.
We were also indebted for infOlmation to the resident engineer of
the company,
1. Fosdick, Esq. agent in charge, Mr. 1. Hanson, and
Mr. H.B. Palmer, all of whom will nodoubtsoon, become favourably
to the travelling community.
The companys Ferry steamer runs between the Queens Wharf
and South Quebec every half hour, startiJlg from the city side at 8 ,
9 ,
and so forth. The section from Toronto
to Sarnia is under contract to well
known Canadian contractors Messrs. Gzowski, Galt, Rolton
McPherson. All the other portions of the line, including the Victoria
to the English contractors Messrs. Peto, Brassey, Betts &
There has been already expended
on the
Victoria Bridge about. ……………………………………
Toronto and Montreal section ……………………….. 1,131,063
Quebec and Trois Pistoles section ……………………. 165,350
Quebec and Richmond Section, about… ……………… 50,000
St Lawrence and Atlantic section ……………………… 916,000
Toronto and Sarnia section ………………………………. 576,758
The amount of money actually expended by the Company,
including the capital paid
in on the Quebec and Richmond, and the
SI. Lawrence and Atlantic lines, now consolidated into it is
We are informed by Sir Cusack Roney that the line from Montreal
to Brockville, will be opened for traffic in September 1855, and
from Toronto
to Stratford, 90 miles, October 1, 1855, from Toronto
to Whitby, 35 miles, and from Quebec, to St. Thomas, 40 miles, in
the course of the same month, making 290 miles to be opened next
autumn, or
682 miles in all.
The capital
of the Grand Trunk Company is £9,500,000 sterling.
[Quebec Mercury, Thursday, November 30, 1854.]
The Quebec and Richmond branch of the Grand Railroad is
now opened to the public, and is in every respect, un fait accompli,
as briefly announced in our last. Quebec is now placed in direct and
speedy communication during the whole course
of the year with
here sister cities both
in Canada and in the neighboring States.
The first public train ever run on the line left South Quebec
on Monday morning at nine oclock, and proceeded with
passengers and mails en route
to Richmond, there to meet the
trains running north
and south between Portland and Montreal. We
had been favored with an invitation to accompany Sir Cusac[k]
Roney and the officers of the company on this initiatolY trip, and
right gladly availed ourselves of the same.
In spite of occasional
thick snow storms,
we dashed along in glorious style through
cutting, clearing, bush
and forest till we reached Richmond. There
we arrived at one oclock, having made the
run in four hOllrs,
including stoppages at theChaudiere, Kellys, Black River, Methots,
Becancour, Somerset, Stanfold, Nicolet, Harveys, and Danville
stations, ten
in number, at which mail bags are exchanged every
. .
One of the oddest railway car ferries ever 10 see service was the John S. Thom. The collapse of the first Quebec bridge in 1907 made
it palently clear that a l1umber of years would elapse before a railway bridge would be completed across the St. Lawrence at Quebec. The
Grand Trunk decided that
il could not wait 10 secure a cOllnection with the National Transcontinental Railway and to share in the rapid
in traffic experienced at the port of Quebec during the early 1900s. Consequently, the GT arranged with the Quebec and Levisferry
Company (Q&LFC) to provide a carferry service beMeen Levis and Quebec City. The Great Lakes package freighter Henry R. James,
which had been built
in 1890, was acquired from the Rutlal1d Railroad. As the water level ill the St. Lawrence changes significantly due
to the tides ill the river. a hydraulic lift was employed to raise the railway cars to whclI! level. The vessel was renamed to hOl1our the
of the Q&LFC. The exact dates of its operatioll are not known, but it was in service in 1910 and probably remained in use until
the completion
of llie Quebec bridge in 1917 In this view, which clearly shows the lifl, the tracks on the John S. Thom are occupied
by box cars from the Grand Trunk, Intercolonial, Grand Trunk PaCific, Quebec Central and New York New Haven
& Hartford, as well
all unidentified flat car. National Archives of Canada photo PA-166763.
day trip, the mail conductors accompanying the cars. Though the
track is not ballasted for about ten miles, the drive was most
agreeable tluoughout. Among the party were Mr. Reekie, agent of
the contractors, Mr. Martin, superintendent of the line, and Mr.
McKenzie, superintendent of the motive power on the Quebec and
Richmond district, nephew to the celebrated civil engineer of that
name in Britain: to all these gentlemen we are indebted for
formation. We were permitted on request to accompany the
Engineers on the locomotive itself, during a part of the journey, a
position that we would
by no means recommend to the timid
excursionist, who could not but participate in the thrills
of horror
we every now and then experienced at the deplorable recklessness
of our still unenlightened country people as they walked along the
in many places, and, notwithstanding the timely warning
notes of bell and whistle obstinately held their ground till they were
all but reached by the bounding train. However such carelessness
may merit punishment, God forbid that the people should persevere
in this practice till warned by the sad lessons elsewhere too often
of wherever the iron track is laid I Besides being enlightened as
to the
power and peculiarities of an English engine. we witnessed
satisfactori Iy from this proximate point of observation the readiness
with which all its movements can be controlled. Having,
previously determined to extend our stroll southward from Richmond,
the diversion gave us an opportunity of a most charming moonlight
drive (down the very banks of the St. Francis,) on the return the
same evening, upon a locomotive of American construction, one of
great power, which, to our eye, had many advantages over the
Birkenhead engine that
conveyed the first Quebec train westward.
It possessed the improvements of its English companion, and had
of native origin, we presume, the chief of which is its being
built on eight wheels, the
fOllr front ones forming an independent
carriage from those
in rear, so as to permit of the locomotives
working with greater freedom, and causing it to
jar less than if too
solidly connected front and rear, especially in running round a
Space is not given us to extend as we would into the details
of feeding and working the Iron Horse.
At Sherbrooke the Grand
Trunk company have a more extensive
of buildings than at South Quebec. In approaching that station
the very extensive
Brompton Mills, owned by Mr. Clarke, fonn a
prominent object
of attention to the stranger. Large quantities of
lumber are exported thence to the south.
The Ponland route is exceedingly well built, and the cars glide
most smoothly over its heavy and secure rails.
The Company, unlike that of the Great Western line in Upper
Canada, have taken into their employ many Canadians as well as
The conductor with whom the first passengers went
out, Mr. Vallee, being a
Franco-Canadian, and as we are informed
an intelligent a
nd active officer. The uniform of the conductors
merit a passing notice; it is
but right that the party authorized to
question and attend to the passengers should wear some distinguishing
They are clad in a neat blue surtout, with gilt buttons, and
G.T.R. in small letters on the collar indicates the company in
whose service they
act. They wear also a blue cloth forage-cap with
gold band. In the winter, though it
may be permitted to dispense
with this
light dress, we do not admire the adoption of a complete
mufty, as
if aroused from his slumbers on a night train, any man
asked to show his
ticket would feel justified in demanding the
of the gent should he wear the garb of an ordinary
of the minor comforts of American cars, we decidedly
prefer them to those
of England, or even the more snug and cozy
of la Belle France, where the want of a stove is only in part
compensated for by the feet warmers.
At Richmond the excursionists were met by a number of familiar
faces from Montreal, who had started from the opposite end
of the
route at about the same hour as ourselves
of Stadacona, and the
half-way meeting formed an appropriate place and occasion to
satiate the the [sic] appetites
of all the voyageurs, a matter of no
minor consideration to either caterer or guests, after the keen
though agreeable weather experienced in the morning. A most
grateful collation was generously provided, including every lUxury
of meats and wines. Sir Cusac[k], and Lady Roney, Mr. Martin, Mr.
Mrs. OBrien and others were at the head of the table:
appropriate toasts were honored, a
nd it is needless to add that
ample justice was done by all concerned, when the shrill whistle
warned us that the hour of departure had come.
Quite a number of passengers made their entry and exit as the
train halted at the various country posts on the way, a
satisfactory indication of the extensive business the line is certain
do when its details of its management and working, and the hours
of starting, &c., become generally known to the many small
communities throughout the district which it traverses. We understand
that as
many as one hundred and fifty through passengers came
down by one of the first evening trains.
(Quebec Chronicle, April 29, 1893.]
The GTR employees at Point Levis had a pretty heavy COllUact
to wrestle with on Thursday last. Besides having to attend to
ninety-eight loaded local cars arriving at the station, over four
passengers from the S. S. Lake Huron had to be looked
after and forwarded to their destination. This work could have been
attended to without much inconvenience on the
part of its well
organized and veteran staff, but then there was thrown in over one
thousand pieces of baggage which had to go through the disinfecting
process. To
meet this latter call upon its resources, the Company
under the supervision of Mr. Smallhorn, its agent at South Quebec,
had had the necessary fumigating apparatus placed in position on
the southeast side of the large wharf parallel with the St. Lawrence
and which is known as the Steamship wharf. The east end of the
dock in question has been fenced off so that communication with
it is
not obtainable by those who have no connection with the work.
The east end of the freight shed on the wharf has been divided into
rooms, the most easterly one of which is to receive the
passengers baggage landed from the steamers or ferry boats. In
room the immigrants unpack their box or trunk, where the
contents are at once conveyed to the disinfection cars on the south
ide of the building. These cars are fitted up with the necessary
shelves to hold a
ll manner of clothing. When they are filled, the
doors are closed and steam from a boiler placed
on the wharf is
forced into them. The boiler is capable
of running the temperature
up to 230 degrees. When necessary, the cars are so arranged that a
jet of steam from the locomotives can be used and the temperature
raised to
260 degrees. After the articles have undergone the
necessary fumigation, they are removed and placed in the second
room to be repacked. All this work can be done without in any way
interfering with other business on the wharf. Although the apparatus
was first
brought into service on Thursday last, and that under
many disadvantages, it speaks well for its capacity when it is shown
that the four hundred passengers received from the steamship on
that day were ferried across the river, their
baggage disinfected,
emselves put on board the cars and on their way to their new
homes the same evening. And it may be added that while the
fumigating was going on
the passengers suffered neither hardship
or inconvenience, for Mr. SmaJihorn very thoughtfully had well
heated and comfortable colonists cars brought down to the
in which the women and children were placed until the work on the
baggage was completed and
many of the little ones were enjoying
the tranquil sleep
of childhood when the train left the station for its
Besides providing for the disinfection
of baggage, the GT
company have also made other improvements around its station
during the past winter.
The immigrant ticket office has been greatly
enlarged and will afford
much more accommodation for parties
exchanging their steamship for railway tickets.
The large dining
hall on the wharf, the exterior
of which by no means presents a
handsome appearance, has been completely gutted, the windows
enlarged, and the whole interior refitted and painted so that
it is now
a large well-lighted and comfortable room. What
it lacks in outward
is amply made up for in its interior fittings. In this
building can
be obtained everything the immigrant may require for
his railway journey at city prices.
ONTARIO: On November 29, 1989, the NTA amended the
abandonment date for the
CP Carleton Place Su bd iv ision. Originally
set for December 29, 1989,
the date was set back to JanualY 15,
1990 to cover the last weeks
of operation of the Montreal-Sudbury
of the Canadian. A history of this line was reviewed in the
March-April 1989 issue
of Canadian Rail.
MANITOBA: On April 10, 1990, the NTA authorized
CP to
abandon the 22.1 miles
of the Lac du Bonnet Subdivision between
Molson and Lac du Bonnet
30 days from the date of its order. This
line was opened in June, 1901 to access timber stands.
SASKATCHEWAN: On April 4,1990, CN received permission
to abandon the 45.6 miles
of the Butte Subdivision between Moose
Jaw Junction (near Moose Jaw) and Mawer. The abandorunent is
to take effect 30 days from the date of the order. This line was built
by the Grand Trunk Pacific Branch Lines Company, a subsidiary
of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, as part of a line from Melville
to Riverhurst via Regina.
The portion from Moose Jaw Junction to
Mawer was opened in September, 1913.
SASKATCHEW AN / ALBERTA: CP has received permission
to abandon a portion of
the Kerrobert Subdivision spanning the
Saskatchewan / Albelta border. The rail line from Kerrobert,
Saskatchewan to Lacombe, Alberta was severed by the NT A
of April 10, 1990 which permitted abandonment of the
20.2 miles between Major, Saskatchewan and Compeer, Alberta.
The order was effective 30 days from its issuance. The abandoned
of the line was built by CP in 1914.
BC Rail and a consortium of forest product companies have
concluded an agreement which will see the 196 miles
of line
between Fort St. James and Sloan, British Columbia upgraded.
project will cost BC Rail about $25 million. This expenditure will
be recovered by freight rates over the 20-year contract period.
is projected to be between 11,000 and 13,000 carloads
per a
rll1um. This represents a 5% increase over the total traffic
handled on
BC Rail in 1989. Work started this spring and will be
completed late in 1991.
of a line northwards from Fort SI. James towards
the Yukon border began in 1970. As planned, the line was to
terminate at
Dease Lake, some 412 miles from Fort St. James.
On August 15, 1990 the Heritage Railway Stations Protection
Act was proclaimed as law almost two years after being passed by
The legislation was put forward, as a private members
bill, by Gordon Taylor, a fOJmerConservative member
of Parliament
from Alberta. After being passed by the House
of Commons, and
a so
mewhat stormy passage through the Senate, the bill received
Royal Assent and has now become law.
It is one of the few private
members bills to become law in recent years.
Under this act, no railway company may remove, destroy, alter
or in any way dispose of a heritage station under its control.
Environment Canada, which administers the act, said that railways
wishing to sell, alter or demolish a designated station
mList first get
cabinet approval or be subject to fines of between $50,000 and $1
The act does not apply to former stations which are no
longer owned by the railways.
Initially, twelve stations have been designated as heritage
structures under this act.
They are: CP Windsor station in Montreal
Quebec, Union Station
in Toronto Ontario, CN slation in Aurora
Ontario, CN station in Brantford Ontario, CN station in St.
Thomas Ontario, CP station in Winnipeg Manitoba, CN station in
Winnipeg Manitoba, Station in Dauphin Manitoba, Station in
Manitoba, CP station in Red Deer Alberta, CP station in
Lake Louise Alberta, CN station in Smithers British Columbia.
spokesman for Environment Canada said that this is only the
beginning and that the goverrunent hopes to evaluate
about 500
stations over the next five years to determine which will be
classified as heritage
stlUctures under the act. Many of the stations
are still in use by
VIA Rail. At first Canadian Pacific and Canadian
National Railways resisted the bill, but now they are cooperating.
Heritage Canada, the group dedicated to the preservation
of Canadas
architectural heritage, said that the act is a big step forward because
it provides protection to heritage railway stations.
Adapted from articles ill the Gazette and the Globe and Mail.
Asbestos alld Danville Locomotive Roster
The recent article on the Asbestos and Danville Railway (Canadian Rail number 414, January-February 1990) has brought forward some
interesting comments from our members. Messrs. Ray F. Corley, Colin J. Churcher and Robert R. Lowry have pointed out a number of errors
and omissions
in the roster published with that article. We have included these corrections and, since they were quite numerous, have decided
to reprint the entire roster as corrected. Since we now produce Canadian Rail by computer, we have taken advantage
of the new facilities and
modified the layout
of the roster to a more easily read tabular format. Mr. Corley has noted that, in September 1947, the following twenty
locomotives were
in service on the A & D: 16,20, second 25, 26 to 39 inclusive, 40, 41, 42.
Two other points, not in the roster, should also be mentioned. Locomotive 14, shown at the bottom of page 7, is almost certainly not an
Asbestos & Danville engine,
since there is no record of the A & D ever having had a 4-6-0. Can anyone help to identify it? Secondly, it has
been pointed out that
CN no longer has a connection with the A & D, as the connecting line was abandoned recently.
We thank those who have written, and say that any further comments about the A & D will be welcomed, for there are many unanswered
questions. Information on the
early nanow-gauge locomotives in particular is difficult to find, and the relationship between the builders
number and road number of these engines is still somewhat conjectural.
0-4-0T 24 7 X 12 Aug 1897 Porter 1785 NEW
2 0-4-0T ? ? ? Porter? ? ?
3 0-4-0T ? 8 X 14 Aug 1908 Porter 4196 NEW
4 0-4-0T ? 10 X 14 Aug 1909 Porter 4385 NEW
5 0-4-0T ? 8 X 14 Aug 1910 Porter 465 I NEW
6 0-4-0T ? 10 X 14 Sep 1911 Porter 4948 NEW
4-4-0 60 16 X 26 Aug 1868 Neilson 1405 lui 1897
0-4-0T SO 16 X 26 1908 M.L.W. 45583 NEW
7 0-6-0T 28 13 X 16 May 1914 c.L.c. 1239 NEW
8 0-6-0T 28 13 X 16 Apr 1916 c.L.C. 1319 NEW
9 0-4-0 ? IS X 22 Oct 1911 Porter 4977 1917
10 0-4-0 ? IS X
22 Oct 1911 Porter 4982 1917
11 (1 ) 0-6-0T 44 18 X 24 May 1917 c.L.C. 1403 NEW
11 (2) 0-4-0T SO 16 X 26 1908 M.L.W. 45583 NEW
12(1) 0-6-0T 44 18 X 24 May 1917 c.L.c. 1444 NEW
12(2) 0-4-0 ? 1922 Can-Car ? 1926
Bartholomew, disposition unknown.
Second hand, could be
Could be No.2,
disposed of c. 1917.
of c. 1917.
ofc. 1917.
of c. 1917.
BIt. as GTR 261, renum
61 Oct 1873,
standard gauge Nov 1874.
Built as 0-4-0 tender engine
renumbered 11 c. 1920.
Numbers not used for standard
Sold 1930.
Sold 1930.
H. Kerbaugh of Philadelphia,
sold after 1928.
Ex H. Kerbaugh
of Philadelphia,
sold after 1928.
18 c. 1920.
Ex 2, scrapped 1937.
17 c. 1920.
Gas mechanical, rebuilt by
A&D 1926,
scrapped c. 1940.
13 0-6-0T 4: 15 X 22
14 0-6-0T 42 IS X 22
15 0-6-0 40 17 X 24
16 0-6-0 40 17 X 24
17 0-6-0T 44 18 X 24
18 0-6-0T 44 18 X 24
19 0-6-0 44 19 X 26
20 0-6-0 44
19 X 26
21 0-6-0 44 19 X 26
22 0-6-0 44
19 X 26
23 0-6-0
44 19 X 26
24 0-6-0
44 19 X 26
25(1) 0-6-0
44 19 X 26
25(2) 0-8-0 46 23
X 28
26 0-6-0
SO 21 X 28
27 0-6-0
SO 21 X 28
28 0-6-0 56 20
X 26
29 0-6-0
44 21 X 28
30 0-6-0 44
21 X 28
31 0-6-0 44 21 X 28
32 0-8-0 44 22
X 28
33 0-6-0
44 21 X 26
34 0-6-0 44 22 X 26
35 0-6-0
44 22 X 26
36 0-6-0 44
21 X 26
37 0-6-0
44 21 X 28
38 0-6-0
44 21 X 26
39 0-6-0
44 22 X 28
Jul 1914
Jul 1914
May 1917
May 1917
Oct 1901
May 1900
Oct 1900
Dec 1926
Dec 1906
Feb 1906
Mar 1907
Nov 1923
Apr 1924
Apr 1924
Jun 1920
May 1927
May 1925
Apr 1926
Jun 1924
Nov 1923
Nov 1923
Aug 1926
e.L.C. 1248 1920 Ex Baldry, Yerburgh & Hutchison 26. ~,
e.L.e. 1249 1920 Ex Baldry, Yerburgh & Hutchison 27.
M.L.W. 54481 1919 Ex Dominion Dredging Company
M.L.W. 54482 1919 Ex Dominion Dredging Company 2.
e.L.C. 1444 NEW Ex first No. 12.
e.L.e. 1403 NEW Ex first No. ] I.
Schenec 5521 Sep 1923 Ex NYC 324, renumbered first 25.
ALCO(C) 27148 Oct 1923 Ex NYC 365.
Schenec 5588 Jul 1923 Ex NYC 338, with boiler ex 322,
builder number 5519.
ALCO(S) 25008 Dec 1923
Ex NYC 384.
Schenec 5525 Jul 1923 Ex NYC 328.
Schenec 5527 Dec 1922 Ex NYC 331.
Schenec 552
I Sep 1923 Ex 19.
ALCO(R) 67172 1947 Orig. Birmngham Southern 52, then
& South Shore No. ?, sold
to Canadian Johns-Manville.
ALCO(RI) 41035 Jun 1937
Ex NYC 6757, nee 452.
30]80 Jun 1937 Ex NYC 6754, nee 191.
ALCO(S) 42330 Sep 1942
Ex Gen Equip, ex GTW 7154,
ex GT 1698 with boiler off GT 1693,
builder number 42069.
ALCO(B) 65332 1944
Ex Detroit Terminal 22.
ALCO(S) 65478 1944 Ex Detroit Terminal 24.
ALCO(S) 65479 1945 Ex Detroit Terminal
ALCO(B) 61953 1946 Ex Delray
COJUlecting Railroad,
ex Solvay Process Co. 62.
Lima 7212 1946 Ex Michigan Lime
& Chemical Co. 12.
Baldwin 58420 1946 Ex Fairport Painesville
& E. 7.
Baldwin 59093 1946 Ex Fairport Painesville & E. 8.
ALCO(R) 65535 Apr 1947 Ex Pittsburgh & Ohio Valley. *,
ALCO(B) 65333 Apr 1947 Ex Det.roit Telminal23. **
ALCO(B) 65280 1947 Ex Mopac 9801, ex Union Terminal of
St. Joseph 3, nee Swift Co. 3.
Baldwin 59370 1947 Ex Mopac 9802, ex Union Terminal of
St. Joseph 4.
R. TOUlTet reports that No. 13 was later No. 101 of the United States Army Transportstion Corps.
** Original owners of 36 and 37 based on serial numbers. Engines rumoured to have been bought by A&D from Union Terminal.
40 B-B EI ? 1928 Diffco 737 ? Dump motor.
41 B-B EI ? Dec 1929 G.E. 11060 NEW 70-ton 660 HP, scrapped Feb 1952.
42 B-B EI ? Dec 1929 G.E. 11061 NEW 70-ton 660 HP, sold to Hudson Bay
Mining & Smelting Co. Feb 1952.
43-45 Numbers not used.
46 S-4 ? Nov 1949 M.L.W. 76495 NEW Sold to Canadian Johns-Manville
Longue-Pointe Que. Jul 1981, as 46,
then to Potash Corp.
(Sussex) N.B. in 1982, as 92-010.
47 S-4
? Nov 1950 M.L.W. 77587 NEW Sold to Quebec North Shore Paper
Baie Comeau Que. Mar 1983, as 47,
then to Potash Corp.
Penobsquis N.B.
May 1983, as 92-018 (renum 92-019).
48 S-4
? Aug 1953 M.L.W. 77294 NEW Retired, disposition unknown.
49 S-4 ? Aug 1956 M.L.W. 81258 NEW Sold to Provincial Diesel as M/84,
then to Abitibi-Price Alma Que.
Aug 1984, as 49.
50 S-13 ? Aug 1962 M.L.W. 83214 NEW Sold to Provincial Diesel, then to
Abitibi-Price Jonquiere
Que. Feb 1985, as 50.
51 S-4 ? May 1953 ALCO(S) 80463 May 1973 Ex BN 918, nee Northern Pacific 718,
from G.R. Silcott, scrapped 1979.
52 S-6 ? May 1955 ALCO(S) 80926 Jul 1976 Ex SP 1203, nee 1036.
? ? ?
Indus ? ? Brownhoist crane.
54 S-6
? Sep 1956 ALCO(S) 81812 Jan 1977 Ex SP 1238, nee 1071.
55 S-6 ? Jun 1955
ALCO(S) 81294 Jan 1977 Ex SP 1211, nee 1044.
56 S-6
? Dec 1955 ALCO(S) 81425 Dec 1978 Ex SP 1274, nee 4638.
57 S-6 ? Nov 1955
ALCO(S) 81423 May 1979 Ex SP 1272, nee 4636.
58 S-6 ? Dec 1955
ALCO(S) 81432 lun 1979 Ex SP 1281, nee 4645,
cannibalized for parts 1988.
59 S-6 ?
Dec 1956 ALCO(S) 82287 lun 1980 Ex SP 1252, nee 1085.
60 S-6 ? Aug 1956
ALCO(S) 81734 Apr 1980 Ex SP 1230, nee 1063,
cannibalized for parts 1988.
61 S-6 ? Dec 1956 ALCO(S) 82291 lun 1980 Ex SP 1256, nee 1089, bought for
parts only, never used by A&D.
M.L.W. = Montreal Locomotive Works.
ALCO(B) = American Locomotive Company, Brooks plant.
c.L.c. = Canadian Locomotive Company (Kingston).
ALCO(R) = American Locomotive Company, Richmond plant.
= Schenectady Locomotive Works.
ALCO(RI) = American Locomotive Company, Rhode Island
ALCO(C) = American Locomotive Company, Cooke plant. plant.
ALCO(S) = American Locomotive Company, Schnectady plant.
Can-Car = Canadian Car and Foundry Co.
= General Electric.
CRHA Communications
The winners of the Annual Awards for 1.989 have been chosen by
the distinguished panel
of judges, and it is a privilege for the
Association to
honour those who have contributed so much to the
recording and preservation
of Canadas railway history.
LIFETIME ACHlEvEMENT A WARD: A sense of vision and a
of great perseverance are the two factors that make Dr.
Robert V.V. Nicholls the recipient of the CRHA Lifetime
AchievemenlAward. Dr. Nicholls was concerned about the collecting
and preserving
of archival material long before archival holdings
in Canada were considered as important as they are today. As a
CRHA has in many ways set a standard for the gathering of
significant archival materials to support the study of Canadian
railway history, development and technology. It
is significant too,
that in the very early years
of the CRHA Dr. Nicholls saw a need
for a forum to share the documentation
of railway history through
The Bulletin which in its own right grew to become
todays significant means of sharing Canadian railway history -the
publication Canadian Rail.
Dr. Nicholls has also made a significant contribution to the railway
museum movement in Canada as he was an integral palt of a group
of people who worked toward the development of the Canadian
Railway Museum. He was the messenger for that group as he
quietly negotiated with the
chief executive officers of Canadas
two largest railways with a carefully chosen list of the significant
of railway motive power and rolling stock that now forms
the core
of the Canadian Railway Museum. Dr. Nicholls has been
recognized widely for his outstanding and significant contribution
to the field
of Canadian railway history. It is appropriate that his
peers in the Association now have an opportunity to recognize his
For Dr. Nicholls this is truly a lifetime achievement
award as he has had
significanlinvolvement throughoutthe CRHAs
lifetime (58 years) and for most of his own adult lifetime.
Other nominations for the Lifetime Achievement Award were Mr.
Anthony Clegg, who was also very involved in the development
the CRHA and is a well known railway historian and author; and
Mr. Nicholas Morant, renowned Canadian Pacific Railway
photographer. In the words of one of the judges -anyone of them
could have been selected as a worthy winner.
presentation in all three of the articles nominated for the Article
Award in a
CRHA publication was excellent from an historical
perspective; they were well researched and credibly presented. The
winner for this award is Mr. David Llewelyn Davies for
His article was outstanding for a nwnber of reasons. It is extremely
well written
and has a definite developmental or unfolding story
dimension to it. The article is also well documented. The field visits
and assessments and the
marU1er in which they are described lend
great deal of interest to the article. Probably much of what was
told to the author by Mr. Gibson about
how the embankment was
built could not be found readily in
engineering journals. Mr.
Davies use of old post office records and engineering records
helped round out this masterful piece
of detective work. It also describes the
construction and engineering aspects of early 20th
century railway building.
[A sequel or update to this article, also
by Mr. Davies, will
appear in the next Canadian Rail. Ed.].
Other nominated articles were The Centennial of the International
of Maine by Fred Angus, and Help for your Scanner by Lome
Article Award in a periodical or magazine goes to Ken Goslett for
The GE E-I66 Electric: CNs Long-Lasting Boxcabs published
in the
December I 989 issue of Railroad Model Craftsman. His
article displays an incredible depth of knowledge of these
locomotives. As well, an interesting story line was combined with
good writing style and
excellent analysis of the issues. The drawings
and photographs add to the excellent quality
of the article.
excellent articles nominated in this category were
written by
Tom Grumley and published in Branchline, Margaret
in Heritage Magazine, and R. Matthew Fishers news
in the Globe and Mail.
BOOK A WARD: By town Railway Society has been publishing a
tracks ide
guide for a number of years, and its Canadian Trackside
Guide 1989 has been selected to receive the Book A ward for
Other nominations in the book category were Ena Schneid
Ribbons of Steel. The story of the Northern Alberta Railways, a
documented history that fills a void in Canadian railway history,
a railway which was one of our countrys largest; also The End of
the Line. The Newfoundland Railway in Pictures by Clayton D.
Cook – a book diligently and painstakingly researched.
PRESERVA nON A WARD: Heritage Park in Calgary has been
chosen to receive the Preservation Award for its restoration of
Canadian Pacific Passenger Car 141, built in 1907. The Port
Stanley Terminal Railway was again second choice. There is clear
evidence of a systematic plan in the development of Heritage
Parks project, beginning with the rationale behind choosing this
car for restoration, choosing the time period the restored car would
represent, carefully researching and documenting the purpose
the car, the technology of the bui lders art and the railway operational
context. All this is re-created in the restoration process.
restoration appears to have been carefully documented as well, so
that scholars and preservationists of the future will know how the
car was restored.
Another nomination was for Clayton D. Cook who, by his efforts,
has preserved the
Trinity Loop on the former Bonivista Branch of
the Newfoundland Railway.
Presentation of the Award certificates will be made to the winners
as soon as
arrangements can be made.
The Awards Committee is truly thankful to the panel of judges who
have responded to the difficult task of selecting the winners of the
awards, as not
ed by their comments in the above documentation.
One notes that the 1989 material is ofhigh quality and of considerable
interest, and
another states that the quality of the submissions has
increased each year.
Anyone of them could have been selected as
a worthy winner.
The recent disturbances involving
the Mohawks
of the Kahnawake
Indian reservation, and the blockades
of roads and bridges in the area,
have had
an effect on the railroad
situation, and on the Canadian
Railway Museum. In our last issue
we reported about the new
trains between Montreal and St.
Isadore Que. travelling
over CN
tracks. Although the Mercier road
bridge has now reopened, it has been
announced that the special trains will
continue to run until
October 15.
Freight traffic has also been rerouted
to avoid use
of the CP Rail bridge
which has its south end in the
Although the Canadian Railway
Museum has been affected by these
events, mainly through a reduced
of visitors, the involvement became
more direct late in August when the Canadian
Army requested permission to base some of
their equipment at the Museum site. This
permission was, of course, given and on August
30. at about noon, the Army arrived with
armoured personnel carriers and 20 other trucks
and jeeps, together with about 200 men. This
visit has already been
of considerable benefit
to the Museum, for some members
of the Royal
Canadian Engineers. based at Gagetown N.B.,
have repainted one
of our bridges in a truly
professional manner.
Ken Carroll
of St. Constant was on hand the day
the Army arrived, and he took these interesting
photographs show
ing the troops and vehicles
arriving and setting up camp
at the Museum.

In June 1990. a speciallmin crossed CllIladll on the eN line, from
Vancouver 10 Halifax. e:lolling tnc virtues of Pepsi Cola. The tIllin
consisted of VIA [ocommi … e 6400 and cars [5451.750127,615.
TWEEDS MUIR PARK. David Moms Wa$ on hand on lune 2410
phologl3ph the spcCinJ Lnlin as illert MonCIon N.B. and c)Q~l>Cd the
marshc..~ on the: New UrunswicK • Nova Scotia border ncar the end
of ilS transcominenlaj trip. A highlight of the day was the meet
1M spcc~J and !he Ocean 3 Aulae New Bruns-wid ..
Now if only Coke would sponsor a Imin on CP lines!
1 formtr member has presented us wilh rus ….. ell-preserved copies
of CanadjWl Rail. commencing with Number 149 -November
J 963, through Number 288 -January 976: wilh two exceptions.
Nos. 217 and 258 (both of whIch we have Xeroxed from our file
copy). Numbcr253 w
as not primed (due 10 lin error In numbering).
bul Number 256A mtide up for the mis.sing i~$ue.
Co~idcnn!! thaI back issues of the old fonnal (6 X g) currently
~II for $1.50 we offer this sct. 115 described. fOT ~ale 10 the highesl
bidder. Offers should
be addressed to BACK ISSUES. P.O. Box
148. SI. Constant. Que .• C3.0ada. 15A 2G2. We propose to elosc the
bids October31. Proceec6 will be for the benefit of,he As~ialion.
Several of our members have a~ked for 0 li~1 of available back
i>S~ … ·hith ore for S-!lle. Sieve Walbridge. Custodian of Back
bsues.. pIOJl(n>CS compile an inventory of all on h3nd and publish
n list dlmng
the winter. So. iJ1le~ted member;.. please be pnlienl.
BACK COliER: In 1990. R(})a/lludson 2860 Fifry ~(Jrs .,·olm,lI. alld s/lfl Capable olmall, mOfe high·stepping ,iln
Photo bJ umce C(lmp 01 Port Coqlfil/am B.C.

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