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Canadian Rail 416 1990

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Canadian Rail 416 1990

Canadian Rail a
No. 416
MAY· JUNE 1990
CANADIAN RAIL
ISSN 0008·4375
PUBLISHED BI-MONTHl Y BY THE CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: Douglas N. W. Smith
PROOUCTION A. Stephen Walbridge
CARTOGRAPHER: William A. Germaniuk
LAYOUT-Fred F. Angus
For YOlif membership in Ihe CAHA, which includes a
subscription to Canadian Rail, write 10:
CAHA, P.O. Box 148, 51. Constant, Que. J5A 2G2
Aates: in Canada: $28.
outside Canada: $24. in U.S. lunds.
PRINTING: Procel Printing
r——–TABLE OF CONTENTS
JAMES GOOD AND THE TORONTO LOCOMOTIVE WORKS
ERA ENOS WITH LAST TRAIN TO MEDICINE HAT
NEWS1E ON THE TRAIN
WINDING ITS WAY INTO OUR HEARTS
CRHA COMMUNICATIONS
THE BUSINESS CAR
FRITZ LEHMANN
PETER MEHRER
DOUG SMITH
75
9.
98
102
104
105
Canadian Rail Is continually in need of news, stories, historical data. photos. maps and other material. Please send all contributions 10
the editor: Fred F. Angus. 302; Trafalgar Ave. Monlreal. P,Q. H3Y 1 H3. No payment can be made lor contributions, but the
contributer
win be given credit for material submitted. Material will be returned to the contributer il requested, Remember Knowledge
Is of tittle value unless it is shared with others.
NATIONAL DIRECTORS
Frederick F. Angus Hugucs W. Borin J. Chrislopher Kyle
A.C. Ba!lard Robert Carlson William La Surf
Jack A. Beatty Charles De Jean Bernard Martin
Walter J. Bedbrook Gerard Frechelle Robert V.V. Nicholls
Alan C. Blackburn Oavid W. Johnson Andrew W. Panko
T
he CRHA has a number of local divisions across the country. Many hold rsoutar
meetings
and issue newsletters. Further information may be obtained by writing to the
division. KEYSTONE DIVISION
NEW BRUNSWICK DMSION 1. ~ Bav
POBox lie:.! ~ Man. RJK QM.I
Sa ST LAWRENCE VALLEV O!YISION
po B ~PO K3B3J!I
RIDEAU VALLEY ONiSlON
PO Bo:c 962
Srruth·. Falla. 0nL >(7 5A.5
KINGSTON OIVISION
P.O 110:< ,ro. SUllocnA
~ On! K7M 5P9
TORONTO VORK OIVlSlON
P.O Box !io(IoIl, TI/ITIMIII A­
TOtOr1IO. c.w.. MlSW lPJ
NIAGRA DIVISION
P.O 8rn5l3
Sl.~. ~ l2R 6W8
WINDSOR-ESSEX DIVISK)N
300 c.t.na Road East
_ On. N9G 11.2
I5Q ·!l1DO (1 II … N£
c.lQat)o. AIbe!1a T2A 5Z8
ROCKY MOUNT AlN DIVISION
PO. 8o~ 02. SWIon C
~,AbI SELKIRK OIVlSION
P.O. IQx 3V
Reve!s1d CAOWSNEST KETTLE VA.LLEY DIVISION
PO. Be>: 400
Crlnbrock. S.C V
1C.H9
NELSON ELECTRIC TRAMWAY SOCIETY
123 v ….. StrNI
NeIIooI1,B.c. V1L2VB
PRINCE GEORGE RAIlWAY MUSEUM
PO 1IolI2 Pmc:ot a-v.. B.C. vm 2M
PACIFIC COAST DIVISION
POlio:< 1000, SIaticn -A
V~ , Be VM:ZPl
Douglas NW. Smith
Lawrence M. Unwin
Richard Vjbe~g
A. Stephen Walbticlge
John C. Weir
FRO~T COVER: ThtjirSf locomo-
111f huiff ill Crmmla was lllf
-r(JIOl//(JH. bl/ilt by j(lllllJ GOQd for
Ihl DllfllriO Sill/COl GIld HI/rOil ill
1853. This photo shows it shortly
b~forl! if was .1crapptd in iS81. F~w.
if ally. other photos art kllow/I (Jf
J(lmes Good /()(:om()til·t.f.
As part ot its activities, the CRHA
operates the Canadian Railway Museum
al Delson I St. Constan
t, Que. which is
about
14 miles (23 Km.) from downtown
Montrea
l. It is open daily Irom late May to
early Oc1ober. Members. and their
Immedia1e famities, are admluecl free of
charge.
00A1. OF THE ASSQC1AT1QN THE CCl.LECTlOH. PRESERV.T10N AND DISSEMINATION Of ITeI.1S RB..AT1NG TO 1l£ HISTORV OF RAILWAYS IN CANAOA
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 75
James Good and the Toronto Locomotive Works
By Fritz Lehmann
Department
of History
University
of British Columbia
Vancouver, B.C.
James Good (1814? -1889) is in one sense the best­
known man among the Canadian steam locomotive manufacturers,
and yet we really know little about him.l Because his Toronto
beat the Kinmond brothers earliest product, by five months, to the
distinction
of being the first locomotive built in Canada, Good
achieved a hazy fame while
the Kinmonds and other rivals remain
in obscurity. He is the only locomotive builder, thus far, honoured
by inclusion in the Dictionary
of Canadian Biography; and it is
clearly the primacy
of his Toronto that earns him this recogni­
tion.
2
The Toronto newspapers recalled the accomplishment as the
most significant act
in his long life. A full thirty-six years after that
pioneer Canadian-made locomotive was dragged through the streets
to the rails of the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Union Railroad
Company, Good died. JAMES GOOD
OF FOUNDRY FAME,
was the heading of the Toronto Worlds obituary, followed by,
Death
of a Well-known Citizen~ the Builder of the First Canadian
Locomotive.
3
His family thought he was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1814
and was thus in his seventy-fifth year at his death on September 11,
1889. But he also gave his age on the Toronto
Tax Assessment
Rolls in 1868 as
51 and in 1876 as 58, which would indicate birth
years
of 1817 or 1818. We have no infOlmation at present about his
training
or practical experience in Ireland. Presumably Good
learned his trade as an iron founder there, for he came to Toronto
in 1832, aged 18 (or less?). The first railway in Ireland, the Dublin
and Kingstown, opened only in December 1834, so Good had no
opportunity to learn about railway engineering before leaving
home.
The quality of foundry practice, on the other hand, may
have been good. In 1848 the great engineer, Isambard Kingdom
Brunei,
somewhat surprisingly ordered the cast ironwork for his
massive bridge over the Wye (at Chepstow
on the Wales-England
border) from a Dublin foundry, an indication that the work there
met the
most demanding standards of the day.4 This was, of course,
some years after Good had emigrated.
In later years James Good advertised his Toronto foundry
as ESTABLISHED 1832.5 This seems to be stretching the truth
a bit, however, unless we take this to mean that he began the
practice
of the foundry trade in Toronto in that year. The city tax assessment rolls very clearly show that he took over Amos Nor­
tons Union Furnace in 1840. That is, this foundry, on the east side
ofYonge Street just north of Queen Street, is listed on the 1839 rolls
in the name of Norton. An advertisement dated Feb. 17, 1840
announced that JAS.
GOOD & CO. had purchased the Norton
Foundry (and made PLOUGHS). This
ad was still appearing when
another ad briefly appeared
in a second newspaper, dated July 2,
1840, stating that
Nortons Foundry was taken over by Medcalf &
Co.–Mr. Jas. Good on the Premises while I.H. Medcalf re­
mained at his own business premises on Richmond Street.
6
But by
the end
of the year, the 1840 assessment rolls show the foundry as
the property
of Good & Co. The Company was probably his
father-in-law; in 1839 Good married Eleanor Bull, eldest surviv­
ing daughter
of Bartholomew (Bartley) Bull (1791-1878) ofDav­
enport. Bull owned real estate and seems to have been in a position
to finance his new son-in-law in this business venture; in fact, as
late as 1863 Good was reported to be doing business
in Bulls
name.
7
They were still, or again, partners. Both men were Irish­
born Methodists, so they had common ethnic and reJigious ties to
reinforce the family ones. James Good was credited
by one of his
obituary writers as being largely responsible for the planting
of
the New Connection Methodist Church in Canada, and was said
to have remained active in church affairs throughout his adult life,
until deafness afflicted him in his declining years.
The foundry was assessed at 50 pounds on the city tax rolls
for 1840, 1841 and 1842, despite a terrible fire on December 20,
1841 :
… in the foundry of Messrs. Good & Co., Yonge street,
Toronto, the whole
of which, with several frame houses adjoining,
and property
of considerable value, were consumed by the devour­
ing element.
8
Good not only lost his foundry, which was not insured, but his
family lo
st their home–they were living in a frame house next door
to the foundry, owned by
Thomas Elliot (who was insured). The
papers complained (rightly!) of fire starting in foundries. Good
seems to have done well, nevertheless, in
these early years. His
rebuilt and expanded foundry after the fire was assessed at 150
pounds for 1843 (while the widow Stewart next door was contin­
ued at the same assessment, 28 pounds). In 1842 he was
in
Page 76 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
partnership with James Rogers Armstrong (1787-1873), perhaps
to bring additional capital for the
rebuilding and expansion.
Armstrong
is not listed as a partner of the 1843 tax rolls, and his
own Toronto City Foundry, J.R. Armstrong & Co., also on
Yonge
Street, first appears on the assessment rolls for 1846.
Armstrong, like Bull seems to
have brought capital rather
than technical skills into the partnership with Good. He was an
older man, a Methodist Canadian-born
of Irish descent, who had a
long career as a dry goods
merchant before his entry into the
foundry business.
9
Presumably he shared with Good and Bull a
perception
of growing opportunities for foundry products in the
Toronto area.
His Toronto City Foundry seems to have specialized
in stoves and hollow ware, consumer goods, although we note that
in 1852 it imported grates from N
ew York, and also competed with
Good directly in one product line, a producers good–potash
kettles, which
it seems to have manufactured.
lo
From two foundries in the 1820s, the city grew to support
at least eight
in 1841. In that year a City of Toronto Poll Book was
published by enthusiasts for responsible government. This listed
voters by occupational categories and
(no secret ballot then!) their
votes in the recent election
of two city members to the colonial
assembly.
1. Good is listed among the eight Iron Founders. He
voted for the anonymous
pamphleteers candidates, putting him­
self
of the side of Colonial Responsible Govell1ment, and Civil and
Religious Liberty–as they saw it.
The Iron Founders were in­
cluded among the
Mechanics, 396 of whom voted, as distin­
guished from
Merchants (l15), Professional Men (51), General
Miscellaneous (177 –retired, non-resident property owners, of­
fice holders), and Miscellaneous (208–tavern keepers, team­
sters, labourers and others deemed by the pamphlet writer to be
under corporation influence).
Goods future partner 1. Rogers
Armstrong
is listed among the Dry Good Merchants (he, too, voted
on the side
of the angels) but his father-in-laws name does not
appear.
The category of Mechanics seems to be made up of
skilled tradesmen who ran their own businesses; the citys social
s
tructure was much simpler then, with the popUlation so much
sma
ller and the economy in an early stage of developmenl.
A few yea
rs later Good employed a man who was poten­
tially far
more important to his development than his one-time
partner and later
rival Armstrong. This was William Hamilton
(1810-1880), a highly trained British iron founder and engineer,
with a spectacular background in the English railway industry.
II In
the 1830s Hamilton worked in the pioneering Liverpool and Man­
chester
Railways shops, and then as a pattern maker for James
Nas
myth in his foundry at Patricroft; both major centres of techno­
logical innovation. He than went on in 1840 to Swindon, as a
pattern
maker for Daniel Gooch, the famous locomotive superin­
tendent and designer of the Great Western Railway. When he arrived
in Toronto with his family in 1850, he first worked for
James Good–and what a wealth
of technical information and
experience could he bring to
his Canadian employer! 12 Perhaps the
two men did not
get along, however, for Hamilton soon left to work
briefly in
Armstrongs foundry before striking out on his own. His
very succ
essful St. Lawrence Foundry was advertising for business
by February 1852–offering much the same line of products as
James
Good manufactured and sold at that timeY
Although so
me manufacturers were beginning to special­
ize, like Armstrong with his Bang-Up Cooking Stove,
most Cana­
dian foundries in the era before the American Civil War were gen­
eralists like Hamilton and Good. Without electric or internal
combustion motors, the only supplements
to muscle power were
water and steam power; and the foundries provided the wheels,
pulleys, shafts, boilers, engines, and machinery. Each installation
was usually
made to order, although by 1865-6 we notice Hamil­
tons St. Lawrence Foundry making and selling an identical 20
horse power engine to five different customers.
14
This is still a far
cry from mass production.
A strategy
of offering a very wide range of products,
including many products
of varieties to the customers order, paid
off handsomely for James Good in the l840s and early 1850s. The
anonymous credit reporter for R.G. Dun and Co. estimated his
worth
at $5000 to $6000 in August 1848, and at $50,000 with a
fine property in March 1852.15 This indicates rather spectacular
growth, even though these are only estimates.
In
May of 1852 Good placed ads to publicize the full range
of his Business.
16
One listed Mill Castings, Steam Engines,
Boilers, &c. and three different kinds of THRESHING MA­
CHINES … made under his own supervision of the best materials.
A second began with
Steam Engines and Boilers also, but went
on to list:
Steam Boats, Saw Mills, Flour Mills, Tanneries
AND EVERY OTHER MACHINERY
To which the power of Steam is Applied.
A third told the public that Good imported the best quality of
Stones, direct from France, and had experienced workers to
manufacture
BURR MILL STONES; he also offered DUTCH
BOLTING CLOTH. The fourth ad offered POT-ASH KETTLES
cast with the mouth upwards so that the best metal settles at the
boLtom and thus the kettles will last about twice as long as those
cast in the ordinary way
… no danger of sand-holes or cracks.
These advertisements speak of extensive additions to his Establish­
ment,
of his engaging excellent hands and show that he was not
backward about increasing his investment (undoubtedly putting
his profits into capital).
He had also acquired production rights for
the patented threshers, and perhaps other machines; and he
seems
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 77
p ,,,1… .,·., .. 1, … ,
, ~ • , : ; .. ,…. …… I·· .. ,.. …. I, . •• . —
The Toronto with her two contemporaries ,Lady Elgin and Josephine , shortly before these pioneers were scrapped in 1881.
to have gone to some trouble to import burr-stones and bolting
cloth
to supply to the customers for his mill machinery.
The foundry was thus largely manufactUling producers
goods for the growing economy
of Toronto and vicinity. Yet
despite the growth, there clearly were problems
as well. The same
credit reporter noted what I would interpret
as a cash-flow prob­
lem: in February 1849 he stated that Good had been sued, but may
be considered good [for credit); and
in August 1851 that Good
does large and profitable business, but
is not prompt in paying.
[He) is sued and then pays.
17 An extensive business like Goods
depended heavily on credit. He obtained tons ofraw material each
year largely on credit and sold the finished products to customers.
The customers might pay cash, especially for the smaller items, but
they might buy on credit. This was especially true of the bigger
items, including the biggest
of all–his locomotives. The railway age had finally reached Toronto
by 1852. In
that year the Grand TlUnk Railway was incorporated
to build from
Montreal
to Toronto–this was completed in October 1856. The
Great Western was advertising
in the Toronto newspapers, inviting
foundrymen to tender for the supply
of castings. Torontos own
railway–although like the others it was British financed and
managed, this one had its operating headquarters
in Toronto–was
the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Union Railroad Company, char­
tered
in 1848 and opened for traffic during 1853-54. Its first
locomotive was imported
in the fall of 1852, built by the Portland
Company
of Portland, Maine, a major supplier of engines to the
Grand Trunk and other Canadian railways.
The Ontario, Simcoe and Huron was willing to try an
unknown source, however. The Globe reported to its readers that
the contractors found it necessary
to import the Lady Elgin as she
Page 78 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
I -Jl/.Oi(;I·Ii.-rl. • .uvGlltL fLOl1Ol-tlJ.
, ~II t: 3u-ntw .. boo: lera…. I. inr …… cU
, lJ.. In.nd …… It … Flbl .. atnoo-y, t~, t~,
1 .,~ pu,..h .. .,d an hay._ DO In ctn1ttJ~ l!:~
~ vrtHrno-w-fT-rwtatnt-bPDlftl II :srttJ1l t-·c~n<.!lj. H
1 .,1) h … Cf}I~II, on ~ Q C1OlV1, 01
)U,ll.IIr4 .• nd .,II.I …… ~ t:Stanlf Girn.
r, 4 ~
I: lu.,.1 rcoocJl&bl. ~,…..
H:oI. GOOO .,. r.~
1.,,,,nto, r,~ 17, )I<.tII. (.uJ
.. -=–. –….. _–_._——-.. –
A very early James Good advertisement as it appeared in
the
TorOl1to Examiner in February 1840.
was required at once in construction. Noting that they had paid
over a thousand dollars to the Provincial Customs (on a
$9000
machine), the paper added:
. we understand that the cant racials for rhe road have made
every exellion to employ Canadian mechanics to execute the work
and that a machine is actually in the course
of construction for
Ihem by Mr. James Good of this City .. /8
Good added a new facility to his firm for this excursion into the new
world
of railway supply, which he called The Toronto Locomotive
Works. His original foundry had extended back from a narrow
shop front on Yonge Street to a larger work area behind
it, as wide
as three
of the lots with street frontage. Now he added a new,
considerably larger premises immediately east
of the old foundry,
filling the area between the street-front lots on Yonge and Victoria,
and extending south to front on Queen Street.
19
The manufacture of locomotives required far more ma­
chine operations than did the products Good had been making
before.
So in trying this new line, he had to do more than just pre­
pare for working with iron and brass in larger and heavier quanti­
ties than previously. Locomotives moved him away from mass
production, unknown then to be sure but approached by
some
foundry products such as stoves or axes. In trying his hand at
locomotive building, James Good seems to have taken a great risk,
bOITowing heavily yet still short of the capital required. In the
spring
of 1852 the credit reporter described him very positive:
Owns a fine property and
is perfectly safe. A year later, this had
changed:
Has recently commenced the manufacture of Locomotives
. Owns
Real Estate [but it is} largely encumbered. [Good] is a
driving business man but doubt
if he has capital sufficient to carry
on his present business … 20
Like most of his Canadian contemporaries in the locomotive
business, Good seems not
to have anticipated the problems he
would encounter collecting the purchase price for
his engines from
the railway
companies.
In any event, as his first locomotive was nearing
comple­
tion, Good obviously decided to plunge into the business on a big
scale. On
March IS, 1853 he placed an ad in The Globe calling on
SATURDAY.
——-
.MAY !9. 1552
!Jill eJ5~Og:,G3~:n Eg~t~ Bellm.
.ft.c, I1:c… .
41 (; – T o-n 0 ~ TO.
. . .
. 1!ttUCr~ tuC1Clnu. -.
TI/!~IOQaI4-~~Y~~
~ .. ~~ c;: f;;: u:.,:.~~ ~
cAU.a….v..I!:!IRIId.~ftW11II:QttRlr:.~…….
u. …… puw-.. ~ …… ,,;MOo.
IJ <.:&U _ ... ,....,_
JA~t3 GOOD.
TOIOI, ltsm. Ilia In. W·LJI
Stcam~e. and BniIs!3.
. -..
!tum ~1:1a;r Um,.Vlm l:!m1~ctrliJ,
A~D:Yr:JIT urnD, Jucnnrn.
T·~~~dfj_u~.
T
J
.~–_·bItt
I~I¢~ •• ~ _, ….
………,. lor _~ IIC>~ .. onl .~
• -I ~ …… ~ £1J Mtu.IItA,. 10 &IiiI.U tIoiMn
~.,tn4. ~. r: .. ~ U::8 tit 1;Ic;::D4 I maar,
Y -t .. _ .. u… r-_.
J~E3 COOD.
T __ r.,.-…. . ·~w
Draa :lIlL io;ns: orTC:! ~1ilg CL~Tn.
T
r. _ …. .-.001!, … _. ~ eta
.IL1l1 ~LI. n{):1/~. UtI O1;lI:H wl.n!!!
«:1.IrIJ. ts.r.IIIt:Ill.iOr I~~. ~ a:. …..
q,., of -… t!InU th>3 ,aco., …, ~lT or,.
~~c~!.a~~.tu.u..!.4
-…. ___ Cd:cn ~ ll>M 1>1 U>I
doa ……… CatJe. &DIll …u QaI:a … ~ •
pnu ….. , ~. :.. CIO ClI ••
JA:4~ COOD,
T~ ~ .IlJ1. m ~w
POl·lSH KETTLES.
T
ur .• r. ar.rrrJI .ro tI>o _II __
were c …. LU» .1,. Lhe ~…., atr.ft III (%a
~. Lhtrt1r7 UJfttC lM» W(M~ ,.:z … t.o.r.
l1 …. … !a uw 14.:~1 … ~tIf-e ta no l.arp.f rA ~
(rl ~ … ADd l!o!4 t>y
J. .l£!J CooD.
A later, more ambitious, series of four James
Good ads from the Globe
of May 29, 1852.
Turners! Finishers!! Blacksmiths!!!
The ad ran until July 16th,
informing those tradesmen that Good wanted
TWO HUNDRED
MEN at the Toronto Locomotive Works, and would pay the
Highest Wages. If he actually employed this number, he would
surely have been one
of the largest employers in Toronto (a decade
later only three manufacturers were employing more than 200),
and he would have been using a larger work force than any
of the
other Canadian locomotive builders
of the 1850s. On April 6,
1853, The Christian Guardian carried his ad for 200 men a
nd
reported he had 100 then at work. His forty-five workers in 1867
put him right
in the middle of the nine foundries then operating,
employing a total
of 418 men: from 3 at the smallest to 100 at the
largest.
21
MAY -JUNE:: 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 79
Goods first locomotive, a 25 ton 4-
4-0 with outside cylinders 16 diam. x 22
stroke and 66 diam. drive wheels, was
completed on Saturday, April 16, 1853
22
The following Monday it began an arduous
five-day trip on temporary rails from the
Queen Street manufactory to the railway
line at Front Street, to the
amusement of
throngs of idle citizens; Goods work never
did have a rail connection. This
engine went
into service as the Ontario,
Simcoe and
Hurons number 2, named Toronto. By the
end
of 1856 she had been rebuilt with 54
drivers; and she had gained weight to 29 3/4
tons by the end
of the decade, presumably by
the acquisition
of a new and heavier boiler.
The Toronto was not only the first locomo­
tive built in Canada, but the first built in any
British colony–the colonial ties causing rail­
ways in Canada, India and other dependen­
cies to purchase their railway locomotives
and ironwork in Blitain rather than attempt­
ing to develop local suppliers from scratch.
In spite of being a pioneer effort, Goods
Toronto lasted in service until 1881, an ex­
cellent life span for an engine
of that period.
At the time the Toronto left his
shops, Good was already at
work on other
engines.
The British Colonist of April 27,
1853 reported that he had a second locomo­
tive, the
Simcoe, under way for the North­
ern Railroad (then the
OS&Hs nickname)
and an
order for tluee locomotives for the
Brantford and Buffalo (i.e., the Buffalo,
Brantford & Goderich Ry.)
two of which he
is now working at, to be completed next after
the
Simcoe. The paper went on to say:
It affords us pleasure to note these
A head-Oil view of the Toronto under full steam. This drawing was made in
1932
by John Loye, the founder of the CRHA.
instances
of energy in manufacturing, in
preference to imporrations
of machinelY from abroad.
The Ontario, Simcoe & Huron was unusual among the early
Canadian railways in that
it imported fewer locomotives than it
purchased in Canada. During 1853-1855 it was James
Goods
major customer, buying nine locomotives from him. In the same
years it also imported seven locomotives, all from the New Jersey
Locomotive and Machine Co.
of Paterson, N.J. Unfortunately for
Good, perhaps, the
OS&H defaulted on its government bonds on
January
1,1856 and was in financial and managerial turmoil for the next few years. In a government report occasioned by the default
and dated July 1856, Good was shown as holding 50 shares
(nominal value 5
pounds each) in the railway. It could be the case
that he had been compelled to take railway paper in partial payment
for his locomotives, and lost on its greatly decreased value. This
could explain his
own worsening financial situation at this time.
But this is only speculative; what we do know is that the
OS&H was
not
in a position to purchase more locomotives from him in 1856
and the years immediately following.
Page 80 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
Great Western Railway No. 82, Scotia built in the GWR shops in Hamilton in 1861.
James Goods 0-6-0s likely resembled this locomotive.
Who designed the locomotives that Good built? It seems
unlikely that Good did himself, and Hamilton, the most experi­
enced locomotive man
in Toronto, was engaged in his own new
business.
Goods foreman, Mr. Agnew, seems to have followed
American models: the Ch.ristian Guardian
of April 6, 1853, said the
Toronto is chiefly after
Rodgers [sic) style of engine, but mod­
elled by the foremen to his own fancy.
The Toronto and its sister
the Simcoe were typical North American 4-4-0s
of the period
with bar frames, outside and inclined cylinders, crosshead feed
pumps, and a cinder-catching
smoke stack. The smoke stack of the
Toronto figured
in a suit for damages caused by fires set on June
24, 1853, and July 4, 1854; a property owner argued that a
particular engine, the Toronto, was used and that the wire
bonnet
of it was coarser, the meshes larger, than on other engines,
hence releasing larger sparks. Alfred Brunei, then Superintendent
of the railway, proved the Josephine, not the Toronto, ran on
the days
in question; the Toronto at the time undergoing altera­
tions.
The original trial resulted in a verdict for 170 pounds
damages against the railway, but an appeal threw this out
as against
the law and the evidence
a.nd ruled for a new trial.
23
The case may
indicate the date
of Torontos rebuilding with 54drive wheels; later photographs
of her show other, superficial changes, such as
the addition
of a sand dome.
The three 4-4-0s for the Buffalo, Brantford & Goderich
(later Buffalo & Lake Huron) which followed seem to have been
American-type locomotives also. But the next order from
OS&H
was for two very English locomotives, 0-6-05 with inside cylin­
ders, delivered
in March and June of 1854. Two more such 0-6-0s
with the same dimensions were delivered the following year,
in
July and November 1855. These engines, like most other 0-6-0s
tried as road engines
in North America in the mid-nineteenth
century, were not successful and the railway soon converted them
to truck engines.24
The first two were little altered except for the
addition
of a four-wheel leading truck, thus becoming the first
4-6-0s to operate on a Canadian Railway. The second two were
more extensively changed, from 0-6-0s with 54 drivers to 4-4-0s
with 66 drivers. All four kept their inside cylinders, 18
diameter
x 20 stroke. This excursion into English locomotive design by the
OS&H seems the more peculiar in that the railway ordered no
locomotives from British builders–unusual among the early Cana­
dian railways, whose management and control were usually British
and often steered orders to
home suppliers.
OPPOSITE PAGE: MR GOODS LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE TORONTO A scale drawing of the Toronto as originally built.
This drawing first appeared in the Canadian Journal in October
1853. The significance of this locomotive was appreciated at the
time by the publishers
of the magazine (among whom was Sandford Fleming) so they arranged for this drawing, by George A.
Stewart, to
be published.
MAY -JUfIE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 81
Page 82 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
Despite his enlargements to workshops and staff, Good
was still building
in rather cramped (and probably inconvenient)
surroundings. Two newspaper references
in 1853 seem to indicate
that he could only work on two or three locomotives at a time.
The
British Colonist of April 22, 1853, reported:
He has also orders from the Brantford and Buffalo Railway
company,for the construction
of three locomotives, two of which
he
ill now working aI, 10 be completed nexl after the Simcoe.
The same paper noticed the completion of the Simcoe on June
28, 1853, and added: We perceive that Mr. Good has two more
Engines on the stocks in his manufactory.
The exact limits set by his physical plant may be difficult
to ascertain now, but they existed.
More serious, however, was the
lack
of adequate capital in the business which they in part reflected.
We have already noted that
in the spring of 1853 the credit reporter
doubted whether Good had sufficient capital. His next half-yearly
report in August 1853 estimated
Goods volume of business at
$200,000 for the year, and rightly remarked that
he was doing an
immense business
25 The 1854 reports are just a little cautious.
The Spring report reads in full:
Does an excellent business. Think will meet his engage­
ments, but would limit his credit.
In the fall, the credit agency noted that Good has made money this
year and
is perfectly good. But the next report, in May 1855, was
pessimistic:
{Hel has got into a more extensive business than he knows
how
to manage. There are any number of executions now lying in
the Sheriff s hands against him, and still from the quantity of work
which he has now almost ready
to leave his shops, and for which
he will receive the cash at once when delivered, we think he will be
able
to wipe offvelY Sl70rtly evelything now standing against him,
but are afraid unless he reduces his establishment, he will nol be
able
to stand long.
In September, while acknowledging that Good has got along
better than we thought
he would the credit reporter urged great
caution in dealing with him, warning that he has been sued several
times
of late for sums owing.
Ironically, Good was beset by financial problems
in the
midst
of what must have been his all-time record volume of sales.
He had successfully increased his plant to permit the manufacture
of railway locomotives, much larger and more complicated than
any previous product
he had manufactured. In 1853 he had made
four
of them, and in 1854 he doubled his output to eight locomo­
tives–but apparently was worse
off than before! The explanation
has to lie in the shaky finances
of his railway customers, rendering them unable to pay him on time and
in full, while his own notes
were coming due in the hands
of his creditors. Such large products,
of course, represented a far more substantial outlay by him for
material and parts. It was the standard practice
of the time for a
manufacturer like Good to obtain material on credit by
giving
personal notes due in three or six months or some similar time span;
people making stoves or window sashes could expect to make the
material into product
s, sell them, and have the cash to redeem the
notes
in that period of time. It didnt always work even for makers
of ordinary consumer goods, and locomotives were a very different
proposition–as all the Canadian builders discovered at some point.
After completing his early 4-4-0s for the Northern and the
Buffalo, Brantford & Goderich, and his first two
ill conceived 0-6-
Os, Good built five 4-4-0s for two different customers. The Grand
Trunk took two, built to their standard designs and delivered in
September 1854.
The Cobourg & Peterborough Ry. took tlu-ee;
delivery dates are not known for the first two, but the third, named
Alma after the Crimean War battle, left Goods workshop on
November 16, 1854–his twelfth locomotive.
26 The Cobourg &
Peterborough purchases are a bit strange–the first two engines had
inside cylinders, 16×20, and 60 drivers. The Alma, however,
had 16×20 outside cylinders and 53 drivers.
The engines weighed
24,23, and 23.5 tons respectively. The railway, which seems to
have been badly built and badly managed, was very unhappy with
Goods locomotives–complaining that they were let out of his
workshops
in an unfinished stateY More than a centlllY later, it is
hard to know how seriously to take this. It may be that Good and
his men rushed these engines to completion and did a poor
job on
them; or the complaints might be due to the C&P management
trying to divert attention of angry investors from the roads woeful
financial performance.
The next five locomotives produced by Good, all for the
OS&H during 1855, included three fairly standard 4-4-0s and two
more
of the English-style 0-6-0s. These last were rapidly con­
verted to 4-4-05 as we have seen. Finally the works produced four
more 4-4-0s, all for the Grand Trunk and delivered to that road in
each year from 1856 to 1859.
It is just possible that these too had
been made by Good
in 1855 but not paid for by the Grand Trunk
until later. (The Grand Trunk was incredibly hard on its Canadian
suppliers
in the 1850s and early 1860s.)
Harassed by creditors, Good sold out his business
in 1856,
according to the April 1856 credit report, to an American fi.rm
from Ohio, but apparently [he] has secured nearly all his Cana­
dian creditors by a mortgage on the property.
28 Perhaps the
American firm did not last long, or had changed its mind about
buying the business. For the firm, now called the Toronto Engine
Works, was run by Maso
n, Cook & Blakeney, local businessmen,
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 83
fbninrr I1r.rhino, (It! Tonp,tcinr, (,nd
OroOVit1~ :r;rn.hir;.~ fer C:,)Cl,
1
,)011!·)~3(l!r:, r.r,., In rc:·o·1 M.!~r. Tnr:1 Hpr.blr.
Jj P~T bl errl r. 1lr.tlir.:!·. ~il:~rr. .l [,:
nl from Br. r.lJl!~1 iYIf,/) Ittll!fj Y, n .. tlltotl .tr~ct,
·0ronto.
mHT n h lie! ~TII~ll.
Toronto, !qlrmlir.r n. Iq,!l/t ~vl:1 tr
.4.1 nt~
T0I10fJ TO ENOINE -IJ Or! 8,
1
~1~ tnr!(lr~l:l
( r.ou PClucJ to rlrlli~1 ~;{;-!!t
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r-~le rro~ IJ~ lr1fj~ .11 rlr, 1~((4 c.r I~!crn Ilr.,..
~:rll to b r):r.
I
. IIt:t .. II kln!J of c,,HlrR. ,~!I~~r (.1
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l~t~r~~I!~I .
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rerl:! t.nd r:Ir oc:~n rer Iny 1f1:rs·
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1(111 t b~r<:T Hc~~.,ir.i tl~rllt:n(, an1 110 nl:1 11111
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, (l!rtJ.
-DA1ilr.! .. C, GtI!?!I.
l01·tI
Two interesting advertisements which appeared side-by-side in the Globe on September 24,1856. On the left we see an adfor the
Toronto Engine Works when it was run by Mason, Cook
& Blakeney, after Mr. Good sold out. On the right is an adfor Daniel C.
Gunn in Hamilton, another early locomotive builder (note that he mentions the Kinmond entelprise,).
who advertised their proprietorship in notices dated Sept. 16, 1856.
The following year, the Toronto Engine Works changed hands
again–this time
to Brunei & Co., whose initial public advertise­
ment is dated Oct. 19, 1857
29
The Toronto tax rolls and land
registry records show that
Good continued to own the foundry site,
however, and these firms were
his tenants. Although this can only
be speCUlation, it may be that the business depression beginning
in
1857 (and which proved disastrous to the fond hopes of Canadian
railway promoters and manageme
nt for soaring traffic revenues
and abundant capital) may have caused the new firms to fail, and
thus forced
Goods return to the proprietorship.
The Mason, Cook & Blakeney firm does not seem to have
had any previous connection with foundries, machine shops, or the
m
echanical side of railways. But Brunei & Co. is a different case.
Alfred BruneI (1818-1887) was an English-born engineer who
came to Canada in 1844. Engaged in various public works, he and
Sandford Fleming both became assistant engineers on the Ontario,
Simcoe & Huron while it was under construction. The two
remained friends, but Fleming had the political skills and oppor­
tunism in addition to his engineering skills to go on to a great public
career–and late in life, loan his old colleague Brunei
money to help
him to
wards his goal of retiring to his native England.
30
Brunei
stayed with the railway and was
its Superintendent from 1853 to
1856; he rather unfairly shared the blame for its
fiscal difficulties
and
was replaced. This pushed him towards his poorly-timed entry
into the business world, a stint as a Toronto alderman,
and a retreat
by
1862 into government service
31
BruneIs field was civil
engineeling, but with his wide experience in public works and
Page 84 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
railways, the technical side of operating a
foundry and
machine shop would have
been easy.
The more crucial business and
financial skills might have been another
story.
Good returned to the ownership
of
his old works in the winter of 1859-60.
The credit agency had been very critical of
him when he left business (He pretends
not to be ably to pay anybody but that is all
nonsense
… -April 1856) and was very
far from welcoming his return:
Qut of businessfor 4 years. AboUl
commencing again. Has the reputation
of
being one of the hardest cases 10 get money
out
of Was supposed 10 be completely
used up, and nothing could be recovered
from him, he has considerable property,
machinelY &c.
in his name … so ar­
ranged, thai it cant be reached for
former liabilities
… [he is] not desirable
ffor credit, presumably]
J2
J~

~ .
,
, ,I:
1
I-
~I
~
~ n
1 :/
b—–.,.-f—-j h~=-t-+
1
I
-.,/(;..:1.
…. ;!
.t:l
.,
…:.~ .:..
I C H r,,1
0 N
l:)
These judgements seem rather harsh to­
wards Good,
who had been caught in a
squeeze between his own creditors and his
major customers. Legally (if not morally!)
he presumably passed his liabilities as well
as his assets
to the successor firms. The
credit agency, which existed for the bene­
fit
of firms who supplied goods and mate­
rials on credit to men like Good, would
naturally take a dim view
of his escape.
Not surprisingly, the agency
has only four
further notices
of Good, in 1860, 1862,
1863, and 1872, before a final notice dated
June 8, 1875, short and succinct: Burned
out.
Map showing location of Goods foundry. From Goads Atlas of Toronto, 1880.
Good never again built a locomo­
tive.
But he continued to do some railway
work occasionally–in the early 1880s there
is a reference to his
contract to supply the Northern and North Western Railways
castings for twelve months]} A further clue to the direction of his
work
can be found in two Canadian patents.
34
In April 1874 Good
received a patent for a new design of casting for street culverts and
waste
water drains. This was followed in January 1878 with a
patent for Improvements in Coal Stoves that seems to have
aimed
at improving the efficiency of stoves then in use. The first
of these hints at contracts with the city engineering department, the second poi.nts
to direct sales to consumers. The
second also confi.rms that his second major fire did not put him out
of business for long.
DISASTROUS FIRE. A
FOUNDRY WITH TWENTY
STORES AND DWELLDJGS DESTROYED. ESTIMATED LOSS
$150,000 ran the headings
in TheMail ofJune 9. 1875. Once again
a fire which apparently statted
in Goods foundry (he suggested
that
it may have started in the varnish shop of the adjacent carriage
factory) wrought havoc in the neighbourhood–and once again he
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL
A locomotive boiler from Goods FoundlY being hauled through the streets of Toronto behind a
large team
of horses in 1855. From a drawing in the Daily Colonist.
Nos.
0, S & 10,
qUEEiI ST.
EAST,
ESTABLISHED 1832.
TORONTO,
ONTLr.IO,
JA~r:S COQD, PRfOpr~r~TOL:,
:UA:CF.CTl.RER 01
~ ~f! if.: .fA P/::C. jW ~: ;0-., 7 ~~ f.(;~ (r
kP ~·d ~~~.;€ ©M ~~ rI~li ~ M ~.;z~ ~ ~ I) .
.:ll EV ERr Dr.sCRIITIO: OF
mUST AND SA Vi-MILL Mtmm~iW,
Stoves J Hollow-Ware J Tin J Oopper ullc1 Shec~ Iron Vi ure I
ALSO, lL:I:lACTCRER OF
POTASJ!3t ::s::.ETTLES.
An advertisement for Goods Foundry from the Toronto city directory of
1867. This was after James Good had resumed ownership.
Page 85
Page 86 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
was not insured.
35
Foundries were a
frequent cause
of fires in the nine­
teenth century and
Goods lack of in­
surance protection may not be solely
due to some imprudence
of his part-­
the premiums may have been prohibi­
tive, or perhaps no company would
assume his risk. In both
of his fires we
notice that his buildings were frame,
not brick
or stone, and accounts of the
1875 fire speak
of a rickety frame
structure
… k.nown as Goods foun­
dry.36 This might indicate some dis­
investment over the
1860s and 1870s;
Good may not have been making suf­
ficient profits
to keep up his plant. His
first estimate of his loss, including his
whole plant, stock on hand, and his
lifetime accumulation
of patterns, was
$80,000.
The Monetary Times a few
days later evaluated his loss at $30,000.
A model, built by Fred Angus il7 1984, showil7g the Torol7/O as it may have looked new.
Nevertheless, Good resumed foundry work. But the C.E.
Goad
companys 1880 Atlas of Toronto shows the premises as a
stove foundry, Good as a stove manufacturer, and the firm occupy­
ing only the Queen street site. Like
so many of his generation, he
worked right up to
his death–his died of what sounds like a heart
attack
on a Thursday morning, just as he was going to work.
Although
75, Good had four unmarried daughters and a wife still
to provide for and perhaps felt he could not afford the lUXury of
retirement (there were also two married daughters and a son; five
others had died young). More likely, though. he lived for his work
and
couldnt think of stopping. He had a brief career in public life
serving
on Toronto City Council in the years 1854 and 1855, but
otherwise lived very modestly, and usually velY close to his
business.
In 1840 he lived right next door, in the 1860s he lived one block away at the corner
of Queen and Bond, at the time of his death
he was about two-thirds
of a mile away at 73 Granville 5t. Even
his New Connection Methodist Church was within easy walking
distance on Temperance Avenue. The scattered information we
have on his life suggests that he always lived very frugally.
The Credit Agencys references to him indicates that he
was hard on his creditors (But no worse than his debtors
were to
him).
More seriously, a very significant court case in 1870 shows
him in very bad light indeed. In Larkin v. Good, Thomas Larkin
sued Good for fraud committed against his fathers estate.
The
senior Larkin had been a long-time (16 years) employee in Goods
foundry who died in 1856. In 1846 Good had financed Michael
Larkins purchase
of a building lot for $500, by a loan, to be repaid
by withholding
part of Larkins wages until the principal and
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 87
f •
32
Type 7oronto 4 4-0
f
.
The Toronto was remembered in 1983 when it appeared on a Canadian 32-cent postage stamp first issued
011 October 3 of that year. This view is based on the 1881 photograph (see page 77) and thus shows the
locomotive as it appeared
at the end of its career.
interest had been recovered in eight annual instalments. The
younger Larkin enlisted in the army and left Canada. Good gained
possession
of the Larkin property in 1859, claiming $800 were
owing to him, and presenting a wages ledger to prove that the
principal was unpaid because Larkin had been paid his full wages.
Thomas
Larkins return to Canada led to this 1870 case in which
Goods ledgers of mens wages were examined. They showed that
Larkins wages were docked for the debt. They also demonstrated
that
two or three hundred men were employed in 1854, but by
January 1856 only sixteen, with no entl;es from that month to 1860.
The ChanceUor,
1. Godfrey Sprague, castigated Good for that
which upon the evidence before me appears to have amounted to
a legal fraud in trying to falsify his records, and found for Larkin.
37
It certainly looks like an unscrupulous grab for cash by a desperate,
nearly bankrupt, businessman: perhaps Good rationalized the
action to himself on
some such grounds as I need the money more
than he does
as he collected some rents from what should have been Thomas Larkins tenants. Without absolving Good, we might
note that the risks and hazards
of his business in that time and place
drove him to such lengths
in order to survive.
Good was certainly a survivor.
For dogged determination
it would be hard to find an equal to Good, twice burned out but
never defeated. His survival
in business for 49 years surely argues
that he was an able businessman as well as a competent me­
chanic –a mechanic who turned his talents to the production
of an
immense variety
of iron goods over a long working life. We
remember him for his locomotive Toronto, a bit ironic since his
venture into locomotives almost finished him. 1 like
to think of it
as one of the masterpieces of skill and effort which Good and his
workers were capable
of making, but they only rarely found an
occasion
to permit such creativity. In that sense, Good and his men
were the lucky ones among the Toronto founders and machinists
of
their time–they got the chance to show what they could do.
Page 88 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
THE TORONTO LOCOMOTIVE WORKS: TENTATIVE PRODUCTION LIST
LOCOMOTIVE DATE BLT SOURCES
1 Ont. Sim. & Hur. 2 Toronto Apr 1853 K,E,p
2 Onto Sim. & Hur. 6 Simcoe Jul 1853 K, E, p2
3 Buffalo & Branlford 7 Buffalo
?
1853 E
4 Buffalo & Brantford 8 Huron Oct 1853 K, E,p3
5 Ont. Sim. & Hur. 9 Hercules Mar 1854 K,E
6 Buffalo & Brantford 9 Weiland ? 1854 E
7
Ont. Sim.
& Hur. 10 Samson Jun 1854 K,E
8 Grand Trunk Ry. 34 Sep 1854 K,E
9 Grand Trunk Ry. 138 Sep 1854 K,E
10 Cobuorg & Peterboro Cobourg ? ? K2
11 Cobourg & Peterboro Peterborough ? ? K2
12 Cobourg & Peterboro Alma Nov 1854 K2, E, p4
13 Ont. Sim. & Hur. 11 Mar 1855 K,E
14 Onto Sim. & Hur. 12 May 1855 K,E
15 Ont. Sim. & Hur. 13 George Beatty Jul1855 K,E
16 Ont. Sim. & Hur. 16 J.C. Morrison Aug 1855 K,E
17 Onto Sim. & Hur. 17 Cumberland Nov 1855 K,E
18 Grand Trunk Ry. 141 Nov 1856 K,E
19 Grand Trunk Ry. 143 Jan 1857 K,E
20 Grand Trunk Ry. 142 Mar 1858 K,E
59(!) Grand Trunk Ry. 186 Nov 1859 K,E
SOURCES: K = Keefer report on Canadian Railways for 1860; K2 = same for 1858; E = Edsons G.T. roster, Railroad History no. 147
p
= Tor.British Colonist 22 Apr. 1853; p2 = same, 28 June 1853; p3 = same, 30 Sept. 1853; p4 = Tor. Globe 17 Nov. 1854.
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 89
LOCOMOTIVE SPECIFICATIONS AND DISPOSITIONS
ALL LOCOMOTlVES ARE 4-4-0 UNLESS NOTED OTHERWISE
ENGINE
CYLINDERS DRIV. ENG.
Wt. REMARKS
t.
diam X str diam. tons (disposition)
..
1. OS&H 2 16X22(out) 66 25 By 1856, 54 driv.; by 1860,29.75 tons eng. wI. Scrapped 1881.
2. OS&H6 16X22(out) 66 32.25 By 1860,54 driv.; eng. wt is as of 31.XII.1860. Scrapped c.1878.
3. BB&G 7 ? 7 Destroyed May 1854.
4. BB&G 15.5X22(out) 66 23 Not known (7).
S. OS&H 9 18X20(in) 54 33.25 BIt. as 0-6-0; reblt. by 31Xn.1856 as 4-6-0. Scrapped 1881.
6. BB&G 9 ? ? 7 Retired 1859
7. OS&H
10 18X20(in) 54 33.5 BIt. as 0-6-0; reblt. by 31.Xn.1856 as 4-6-0. Scrapped 1881.
8. GTR 34 16X22(out) 66 26 Dropped from roster
by 1873.
9. GTR138 16X20(out) 60 26 Dropped from roster
by 1871.
10. C&P C 16X20(in) 60 24 (18) Different specs. given
in Keefers 1858 report (first figures here) and
1860 report (figures in brackets). Disp. unknown.
11.
C&PP 16X20(in) 60 23 (18) Different specs. given in Keefers 1858 report (first figures here) and
1860 report (figures
in brackets). Disp. unknown.
.1
12. C&PA 16X20(out) 53 (54) 23.5 (18) Different specs. given in Keefers 1858 report (first figures here) and
1860 report (figures
in brackets). 1860 shows 16.5X20 cyls. Midland
shows 16X22. To Midland Ry. of Canada, 8 Alma; acquired 1868.
Dropped from roster
by 1875.
13. OS&H 11 16X20(out). 60 29.75 Scrapped 1881.
14. OS&H
12 17X20(in) 66 31.5 Later (1860) listed with 60 driv. Scrapped 1881.
15. OS&H
13 18X20(in) 66 29.25 BIt as 0-6-0 with 54 driv. reblt. by 31.XlI.1856 as 4-4-0. Scrapped
1881.
l,
16. OS&H 16 17X20(in) 66 30.75 Scrapped 1881.
r
17. OS&H 17 18X20(in) 66 29.75 BIt. as 0-6-0 with 54 driv. reblt. by 31.Xn.1856 as 4-4-0. Scrapped
1881.
18. GTR
141 16X20(out) 60 26 Dropped from roster by 1874.
19. GTR
143 16X20(out) 60 26 Dropped from roster by 1872.
20. GTR 142 17X20(in) 66 27 Dropped from roster by 1871.
21. GTR 1
86 16X20(out) 60 26 Reblt. to standard gauge Oct. 1873; dropped from roster by 1874.
Page 90 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
SOURCES for specifications: mostly from Report of Samuel Keefer. Esq., Inspector of Railways, for the year 1858 and for the year 1860;
hence dimensions are as
of 1860 except as noted. As-built dimensions of the Toronto from Canadian Journal, II (1853), p. 76; 1856 data
from Return
… the financial affairs of the ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railway co …. , Sessional Papers, provincial parliament of Canada,
3rd Session, 5th Parliament, 1857, vol. 15, appendix 6, unpaginated.
SOURCE for dispositions: W.O. Edson with R.F. Corley, Locomotives of the Grand Trunk Railway, Railroad History 147, Autumn 1982,
pp.42-183.
APPENDIX
MR. GOODS LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE TORONTO
We have much pleasure in presenting our readers
with a drawing
of the first Locomotive Engineconstructed
in Canada, and, indeed, we believe, in any British
colony.
The Toronto is certainly no beauty, nor is she
distinguished
by any peculiarity in her constructionbut
she affords a very striking illustration
of our progress in
the mechanical arts, and of the growing wants of the
country. The Toronto was built at the Toronto
Locomotive Works, which was established by Mr. Good
in Oct. 1852. The order for the Toronto was received
in February, 1853, for the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron
Railroad: the Engine was completed on the sixteenth
of
April, and put on the track the 26th of the same month.
Her dimensions are as follow: Cylinder, 16 inches
diameter; stroke, 22 in.; Driving wheel, 5
ft. 6 in.
diameter; length
of internal fire-box, 4 ft. 6 in.; width of
dO,3 ft. 5 in.; height of do,S ft. 0 in; weight of engine,
25 tons; number
of tubes, 150; diameter of tubes, 2
inches.
(The Canadian Journal, Vol. 2,
No.3, October, 1853)
Editors note: The drawing mentioned above is printed
on page 81.
No.194 December 1967
A major disadvantage in a locomotive builder not having a rail connection
is vividly shown in this artists conception of the Toronto being hauled
along the street
on temporary rails. Although this happened in 1853, the
locomotive
is depicted as it appeared twenty years later.
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 91
FOOTNOTES
I. Mr. Victor Russell of the Toronto City Archives gave invaluable help and advice on this subject, for which I am deeply grateful.
2. George Graham Mainer, James Good
in H. Pilon et al. eds. Dictionary of Canadian Biography Vol. XI, pp. 357-358. For biographical
details see sources cited by Mainer, and also Toronto City Archives, Assessment Rolls, St.
Davids Ward for 1839-1843, St. James Ward
for 1868 and 1876; and Public Archives
of Canada, pamphlets collection, microfiche no. 1-1813, The City of Toronto Poll Book (1841).
3. The Toronto World, September 13, 1889 (p. 1). The Daily Mail, Toronto, September 13, 1889 (p. 6) said Mr. Good held the grand
distinction
of having built the first railway locomotive ever constructed in the Dominion; this obituary was reprinted verbatim in The Irish
Canadian, Toronto, September 19, 1889 (p. 1). The Globe, Toronto, September
12, 1889 (p. 8) also mentions that he built the first
locomotive
of Canadian manufacture.
4. P.S.A. Berridge, The Girder Bridge: after Brunei and others (London, 1969), pp. 53-54.
5. e.g., City of Toronto Directory for 1867-8, p. 329 and unpaginated advertisement.
6. The Examiner, Toronto, February 19, 1840 for JAS. GOOD & CO.. This ad ran continuously through July (at least). For MEDCALF
& CO. see the Toronto Patriot, July 2, 1840 (p. 3). Medcalf is not listed in the 1841 Poll Book. The 1850~ 1 City Directory lists a Francis
H. Medcalf, mechanist (sic), Queen, near Yonge Street; probably the same man as the F.H. Medcalf listed in the 1867-8 City Directory as
the proprietor
of the Don Foundry and Machine Shop, Don Bridge, established in 1847 (p. 329).
7. R.G. Dun & Co. credit ledger, in the Baker Library, Harvard University. Here, and elsewhere in quoting from this source, I take the liberty
of writing out contractions and abbreviations, and adding punctuation, if it seems necessary for clarity. The entry for November 20, 1863 says
of Good: Doing business in the name of B. Bull –the genuineness of whose signatures SllOUld be ascertained. Canada, vol. 27, p. 91. Bull
is noticed in the 1893 edition of J. Ross Robertsons Landmarks of Toronto, pp. 26-28. Goods marriage noted, Christian Guardian,
October
9, 1839.
8 The British Colonist,Toronto, December 22, 1841 (quotation, p. 3). The Examiner, Toronto, December22, 1841 (p. 3). Toronto
Patriot, December
21,1841 (p. 3).
9. J.K. Johnson, James Rogers Armstrong, Dictionary of Canadian Biography vol. X, p. 16. Armstrongs partnership with Good, active
or sleeping, may have lasted longer than suggested above.
Upper Canada Queens Bench Reports, vol. 3, pp. 67-68 repo11s a case Good,
ArmH~bil~ & Beatty v. Harper, tried in Hilary Term, 9 Vic. (= 1846).
10. E.g., Almstrongs ads in The Globe, February 10, 1852 (p. 4) and October 2, 1852 (p. 3).
11. Geo. Mainer, William Hamilton, Dictionary of Canadian Biography vol. X, pp. 330-331.
12. Historians of technology
in the nineteenth century have stressed man-to-man transmission of skills ,on the job. David Landes, The
Unbound Prometheus (Cambridge, 1969),
p. 150; note his reference to emigrating British technicians who became entrepreneurs (p. 148)
–which would fit not only Hamilton, and perhaps Good, but many of the other Canadian locomotive builders. See also Nathan Rosenberg,
Page 92 RAIL CANADIEN IVIAI -JUIN 1990
Economic Development and the Transfer of Technology; Some Historical Perspectives, Technology and Culture 11:4, October, 1970,
pp. 550-575, especially pp. 553, 555.
13. The ad, dated February 1, 1852, first appears in The British Colonist, Toronto, February 3, 1852 (p. 3), offering steam engines, mills,
machines, stoves, sugar kettles, and castings
of every description.
14. The Globe, February 12, 1866 (p. 1).
15. R.G. Dun & Co. credit ledgers, Canada, Vol. 36, p. 54.
16. See The Globe, Toronto, May 29,1852 (p. 3). These ads ran all summer and fall.
17. R.G. Dun
& Co. credit ledgers, loc. cit.
18. The Globe, October 7,1852 (p. 3).
19. See the Boulton Atlas of 1858 for Toronto Engine Works on Queen Street behind the foundry property fronting on Yonge. Goads
Atlas
of Toronto for 1880 shows J. GOOD, STOVE MANUFACTY and STOVE FOUNDRY at8-14 Queen Street, with the former
foundry site, now vacant, stretching back from a narrow frontage at 183 1/2 Yonge. The 1880 Atlas also shows J.
R. Armstrongs Stove
Foundry directly across Queen Street from Good, extending right through to Richmond Street, with a finger reaching to his original store
fronting at
161 Yonge Street.
20. R.G. Dun
& Co. credit ledgers, loc. cit.
21. City
of Toronto Directory for 1867-8, pp. 327-330.
22. Return
… the financial affairs of the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railway Co …. , Sessional Papers, Provincial Parliament of Canada,
3rd Session, 5th Parliament, 1857, vol. 15, appendix 6, unpaginated. (The ma
jor shareholders were the County of Simcoe with 10,000 and
the City of Toronto with 9,500. Alfred Brunei, later proprietor of Goods works, held 65, and John Gartshore of Dundas, probably Canadas
leading machinist at the time, held
100. Cornelius Vanderbilt of New York held 400 shares).
23. Report
of Cases Decided in the Court of Queens Bench Upper Canada, 11 U.C.R. 604. The Christian Guardian reported that Goods
first locomotive was tested on July 6, 1853 on a run from Toronto to Bradford, achieving the highly satisfactory record of 42 miles in 1 hour
and 4 minutes. Quoted in Wm. Perkins Bull, Spadunk or from Paganism to Davenport United (toronto, n.d.), p. 200.
24.
F. Lehmann, The 0-6-0 Story, Railroad Magazine 94:3, July 1973, pp. 22-26; and especially John H. White Jr. A history of the
American Locomotive: Its Development: 1830-1880 (New York, 1979), pp.
66,167,174.
25. This and the following quotations are from R.G. Dun & Co. credit ledgers, loco cit.
MAY-JUfIE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 93
26. The Globe, Toronto, November J7, 1854 (p. 2).
27. (Ontario Archives). Report
of the Directors of the Cobourg & Peterboro Railway Company to the Stockholders (Cobourg, 1856), pp.
7-8.
… extensive repairs upon the Engines, which were permitted to leave the shop of the makers in a very unfinished and improper state.
The heavy grade upon the line is apt to strain a locomotive, and, where not thoroughly built and braced, they are frequently brought to the
shop.
28.
RG. Dun & Co. credit ledgers, loco cit.
29. Mason, Cook
& Blakeney ad dated September 16 appeared in The Globe through December 1856. Brunei & Co. ad dated October 19,
1857 appeared in The Globe through October 1858. City of Toronto, St. James Ward, Tax Assessment rolls 1852-1861.
30. Public Archives
of Canada, MG-29 B-1, Sir Sandford Fleming papers, vol. 6, folder 41: Brunei to Fleming, April 4, 1877; September 14,
1877; and January 4, 1878.
31. J.E. Hodgetts,
Alfred Brunei, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. XI, p. 120. J.G. Wilson & J. Fiske, eds., Alfred Brunei,
Appletons Cyclopaedia
of American Biography (New York, 1888), vol I, p. 419B. The Daily Globe, Toronto, January 5, 1859 records
his election
as Alderman for St. Georges Ward, with 161 votes.
32. R.G. Dun
& Co. credit ledgers, Canada vol. 36, p. 54 entry for December 20, 1859.
33. Public Archives
of Canada, RG30, vol. 197, Minutes of Executive Committee, Northern and North Western Ry., 1881-1882, entry for
April 28, 1882.
34.
The Canadian Patent Office Record, vol. n, no 1 (April 1874), #3360 of April 27, 1874, p. 9; vol. VI, no. 3 (March 1878), #8365 of
January 26, 1878.
35.
The Mail, Toronto, June 9,1875 (p. 4) and June 10, 1875 (p. I); The Globe, Toronto, June 9 (p. 1) and June 10 (pp. I and 2); The
Monetary
Times, Toronto, vol. 8, pp. 1394-5 (June 11, 1875). The glow from the fire was seen reflected in the night sky as far as Niagara
and Whitby.
36.
The Globe, June 9, 1875 (p. 1).
37. Grants Chancery Reports, vol. 17 (1871), pp. 585-591. One of Larkins witnesses, Peter Oulster, testified: I worked sixteen years with
Larkin
in Goods shop. When I was working there I would apply on Saturday night for my wages. Mr. Good would say, why do you not leave
part
of your wages as Larkin does, in order to pay for his land, like a good, hardworking, honest man? I replied Larkin was able to do so, having
cows and borders from which
he received money, while I had nothing but my days earnings to support my family on: this passed more than
once.
Page 94 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
Era Ends With Last Train To Medicine Hat
By Peter Mehrer of the Medicine Hat News
In January, 1990 the last Canadian passed through Medicine Hat
Alberta on the CP Rail main transcontinental line. For the first time
in almost 107 years the only trains passing through Medicine
Hat
are freights.
Medicine
Hat,like many other communities in the southern prairies,
was born with the arrival
of the CPR. Here, from the records of the
Medicine
Hat News, is a brief look at what the railroad has meant
to that city.
Autumn, 1882. When the weather halted
construction for the
season, the tracks had reached Maple Creek.
But surveyors had
already picked the route for next year, including the crucial river
crossing site. So by spring many businessmen and land speculators
planning to profit from the railways coming, had already moved
to the site
of present-day Medicine Hat.
Spring, 1883. As soon as weather permitted, construction resumed
and the rail line was built with ease and speed across the level
prairies.
By May 29 the line was at Dunmore. On June 10 1883 the
first construction train pulled up to the river crossing site.
When the
first freight train arrived a few days later, the first mail shipment
was unloaded at Mr.
Tweeds store, the designated post office. The
first freight shipment was a carload
of lumber ordered by Mr.
Finlay. A temporary timber bridge, replaced by a steel structure the
following year, carried the work crews across the river to continue
the line. By August
11 the tracks had reached Calgary.
November 7, 1885. As Donald
Smith drove home the Last Spike
at Craigellachie, to complete officially the coast-to-coast line,
Medicine Hat was established as a divisional point for all track
between
Swift Cun·ent and Calgary. Nine locomotives, four freight
four
passenger and one spare, were stationed here.
May 13, 1886. Sandy Morrison arrived in Medicine Hat with two
train loads
of cattle. Included were 700 heifers and 34 bulls, all
prime breeding stock to start many of the area ranches. June
28,1886. The first passenger train to travel coast to coast left
Montreal. On the eve of its departure the News carried the following
editorial comment:
When the CPR is fully opened for traffic there
should be some demonstration by the inhabitants aU along the line.
Whatever advantages the running
of daily trains may have for the
cities
of the east, it is certain that the small centres, particularly in
the west, will reap great advantage.
We owe our very existence
here, as we
ll as our glorious outlook to the future, to this grandest
achievement
of modern times. When the historic train arrived in
Medicine Hat
on July 2, 1886, the News remarked: The unity of
the Dominion, so ardently desired by every true Canadian, is now
secured by the strong
embrace of the iron bands.
May 21, 1887. John Niblock was appointed superintendent
of the
Medicine Hat division. He would
playa key role in the development
of the community.
August 13, 1887.
In the past week, nine tea trains had passed
through Medicine Hat, carrying more than 110 cars
of tea from the
port
of Vancouver to markets in Ontario.
February
9,1888. Plans were announced to establish gardens at all
CPR stations in the Prairie division. Superintendent Niblock was
determined to
make the Medicine Hat gardens the best on the line.
He had many adventures in his detelmination
to grow apples in the
gardens. He also started a sma
ll zoo where he displayed Nancy the
grizzly bear to help raise funds for the hospital. Nancy was later
joined by a bear cub, an antelope and various game birds.
January 5, 1889.
Three passenger trains a week linked Medicine
Hat
with Lethbridge
over the line then run by the North West Coal
and Navigation Company.
March 3, 1892. During a railway strike, Superintendent Niblock
took the controls
of the engines himself to keep traffic moving on
the line. the strike, which lasted three weeks, did
not upset Niblocks
schedule too much; he still found time to get married that month.
During the first decade of this centU/y, CP undertook a program of major improvements to upgrade its transcontinental line and related
facilities. The two views
of the Medicine Hat stations on the facing pages are indicative of these changes effected during the Edwardian era.
The division point
of Medicine Hat received a new station in 1906. The upperpholograph, which was taken on a warm summers day in 1915,
shows the new station in its prime. The lower photo, taken by 1. W. Heckman on July 5,1900, shows the building which had served as a station
since the 1880
s. Off in the distance is the CPR bridge over the South Saskatchewan River.
Once the new structure was completed, the former station was used for a number
of years to house a station restaurant.
Comparing the photograph, one
is struck by the changes. The main line has been substantially improved as dirt ballast has given way to
crushed stone. The arrivals and departures board has grown
to an impressive length as the number of passenger trains has increased. The
kerosene lamps on the walls of the old station have been replaced by more powe/iul and numerous electric fixtures.
Photo Credit:
CP Rail Co/porate Archives.
MAY-JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 95
Page 96 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
October 5, 1893. Twelve freight trains a day were scheduled
through Medicine Hat.
May 12, 1898.
The CPR had just taken over the Lethbridge line
from the North
West Coal and Navigation Company. The first
through train on the line left Medicine Hat with Superintendent
Niblocks private
car attached. The new line was placed under the
Medicine
Hat division.
February 2, 1899.
The first of many serious wrecks occurred in the
vicinity
of Medicine Hat. A freight train from Calgary was stopped,
waiting to be switched into a siding
in the main yard. Another train
coming down the hill was unable to stop and struck the rear cars,
which were still on the bridge.
The engine and tender derailed and
broke through the river ice, killing the engineer and fireman.
Superintendent Niblock and two others,
in the caboose of the
stopped train, saw the impending collision and scrambled along the
bridge
to safety just seconds before the impact.
February 23, 1899. When the bridge was being repaired after the
accident, the section nearest the south shore was swung open.
The
swinging section had been designed to allow large river boats to
pass the bridge.
But it had not been used in ten years, and many
curious Hatters turned
out to see it work.
June 28, 1900. Freight locomotives along the main line were being
equipped with electric headlights, a big improvement for night
travel.
1903 -1906. A new roundhouse building was started, with several
additions over the years.
11 replaced the original roundhouse which
had been
in the centre of the rail Switching yard. The last parts of
this roundhouse were removed in 1987 to make way for the new
Kingsway route.
July 12, 1906. The new railway station was officially opened. It
was a brick and stone building located on the east side
of the tracks.
An extension was added in 1911.
The original station was a two­
story building on the west side
of the tracks, right at the foot of third
street. It was converted to a restaurant for a few years after the new
building opened.
July 9, 1908. Perhaps the
most famous wreck took place just east
of town.
It became known as the ghost train affair. Years after the
accident stories began to circulate that two trainmen, while taking
a yard engine across Ross Creek
just below Scholten Hill, had seen
another train coming at them. Instead
of an impact, the other train
vanished at the last second.
But on the fatal day, as the yard engine
was rounding the same bend, the train coming toward it was real,
the passenger train from Lethbridge. In the collision, four rail
employees
and seven passengers were killed.
May 5, 1911. So many pedestrians were being injured on the train
bridge that a bylaw was passed, to prosecute anyone found walking
on the bridge. On one occasion the bylaw was used against an
intoxicated cowboy who managed to ride his horse safely across
the bridge. On another occasion a runaway horse, pulling a sleigh,
trotted across the bridge without any injury to horse or sleigh. October 5, 1911. Medicine Hat got some very bad news from the
CPR.
For years Calgary and Medicine Hat had been strong rivals
to become the major railway centre for southern Alberta.
The CPR
had been planning to build major repair shops somewhere
in the
area, and both cities did their best to
get the facility. With
Superintendent Niblock working for Medicine Hat, it was believed
that we had the inside track. But when the announcement was
made, Medicine Hat had lost the repair shops and the dream of
becoming a major population centre.
June
2,1913. A Made in Canada train stopped in Medicine Hat
during a cross-country tour, promoting Canadas manufacturing
industries.
October 15, 1914. Just a few miles west
of Redcliff, a sod-turning
ceremony took place to mark the beginning
of a new rail line. For
years the Canadian Northem Railway had planned to build a north­
south line from Medicine Hat to Edmonton. An extension into the
USA was even considered. Although some short stretches were
actually built, the scheme eventually collapsed.
November 30, 1916. City merchants used the railroad to provide
more customers for the city. Special shoppers excursions were
planned from Swift Current, Lethbridge and Lomond to bring
people to town for a day
of shopping and return them home the
same evening.
The first tour, originating in Lethbridge, was such a
success that another tour was planned next day from Retlaw.
June
1, 1918. The annual meeting of the Brotherhood of Locomotive
Engineers, held in Cleveland Ohio, paid tribute to a former Hatter.
Pte. Peter Robertson had just been awarded the V ictoria Cross. He
died in the Great War, attacking a machine gun position to save the
lives
of his fellow soldiers. Before the war, this native Hatter had
been an engineer.
He was known as Singing Pete since he was
always singing while he worked.
June 11, 1935. A Depression Protest train passed through
Medicine Hat. Starting in Vancouver, unemployed
men rode the
freight trains, heading to Ottawa and a protest rally over the
governments economic policies. More joined as the train headed
east. At Medicine Hat a
raUy was held in the ball park, then, with
every box
car covered with men, the train continued. The protest
came to a dramatic end at Regina.
September 9, 1936. More than 5000 Hatters turned
out to tour a
new streamlined locomotive. Engine number3001 was alightweight,
streamlined design capable
of speeds up to 130 miles per hour.
Once the cross-country tour was complete, the engine, dubbed
The Chinook, was scheduled for the Calgary -Edmonton rUIl.
May 26, 1939. The biggest attraction the railroad station ever
witnessed was the visit
of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. A
crowd, estimated at 20,000, sUlTounded the station
or lined the
tracks leading
in and out of the city to catch a glimpse of the Royal
visitors.
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 97
October 20, 1953. The first regular diesel
service was announced for the main CPR line.
Some diesels were already running on the
Crowsnest line, but all main line traffic was
pulled by steam locomotives. Plans were also
announced to introduce scenic dome cars for
the prairie lines in the
new year.
December 14 1954. With the official opening
of the First Street railway underpass, traffic
movement in
the downtown area was much
improved.
FOt· years, motorists had complained
about being forced to wait at the crossing
while
engines shunted back and forth.
December 17, 1956. Over the years, many
Hatfamilies were CPR families, each generation
taking its turn working the rails. One such
example were the Wilsons, father Thomas,
sons Roy, Henry, John, Charles, Arthur,
William, Herbert, Fred and grandson Stanley.
The l!Ginfor Lethbridge about to leave Medicine Halon April 30,1967. NOle that the
Dayliner is haul
ed by a locomotive. This is because of an unseasonably heavy snow
fall two days before. Pholo by Fred Angus.
When they celebrated one members retirement 34 years ago, the
ten
men had recorded a combined 330 man-years of service with
the CPR.
May 14, 1958.
The last steam engine in regular service passed
through Medicine Hat. It was engine number 2372, a 4-6-2 built by
the Canadian Locomotive Company
in 1940, and it was operated
by engineer
Herb Wilson.
April 8, 1959. Aldelman Earl Smith wanted Council to obtain one
of the last steam locomotives to set up as an historic display in a CilY
park. The project never materialized, but in 1985 two diesel
engines
were placed on display. One of the engines was used in the
movie
The Silver Streak.
July 18, 1959. A special reception greeted all trains which stopped
at the station during Stampede week. Square dancers and Indians
entertained the travellers while
they were served a full pancake
breakfast.
October 12, 1962. Anoth
er traffic bottleneck was ended with the
official opening
of the Allowance Avenue overpass. There werenow
no l
evel crossings of the main rail line inside the city limits.
January 10, 1966.
The government had just arulOunced cancellation
of the transcontinental train The Dominion. Mayor Veinerproposed
that cities from Winnipeg
to Calgary combine their resources to
provide the service as a private operation.
March 23, 1967.
The Confederation Centennial train arrived in the
ci
ty on a cross-country tour. During the four days it was here, as
many as
2000 people at a time were lined up to tour the exhibit.
There were six sections in the display, covering
Canadas history
from Prehistoric times
to the present. July 18, 1970.
The most tense incident at the station was likely the
unexpected visit by
Governor-General Roland Michener. An
anonymous caller claimed that a
bomb had been placed on the
train. When the train arrived in Medicine Hat, city police,
RCMP
and CPR security personnel whisked the distinguished passenger
to safety and conducted a thorough search. No bomb was found.
During the search Michener, a fitness buff, spent the time
jogging
around Rotary Park with a
couple of Hatters.
June
1, 1971. The Canadian Transport Commission approved
discontinuance
of Dayliner service for Lethbridge. The run from
Medicine Hat
to Lethbridge and on to Calgary was the first
southern Alberta casualty
in the move to cut back on unprofitable
passenger lines.
October 30, 1978.
CPR passenger service came to an end, as the
first
VIA passenger train passed through the prairies. The
establishment of the new crown corporation was designed ostensibly
to rejuvenate rail passenger service in Canada. But one critic,
quoted in a News story that day, warned:
VIA is a step in the right
direction, but unless it receives public support it could become a
thinly disguised agency for phasing out Canadas passenger trains.
The official insignia of the City of Medicine Hat is divided into four
sections, representing the four major economic strengths
of the
city. A factory, an oil
denick, sheaves of grain and a steam
locomotive represent the forces which have helped shape the
character
of our city during its development. Now one of these
forces
is gone. Only time will tell how devastating the loss will be
to our fu ture.
Source: Medicine
Hat News.
January
II, 1990.
Page 98 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
Newsie On The Train
By Doug Smith
(of West Lorne, Ontario)
When Vernon was ten years old, his dad died. That left his
mom, Zillah, with the
twins, Ruby and Pearl, two years old, and the
other six children to raise on her own. In 1928 there was no family
allowance. The welfare inspector did come around to determine
whether the family was eligible for assistance, but upon noticing
that they owned a piano, said they would have to sell it, use the
money from that to live on, and when that ran out, they would
become eligible for relief. Zillah said no; they could live without
relief but not without music, so all the older
kids went out and got
jobs right away. This was hard for the young mother to bear,
especially when doting old Aunt Mariah
came to stay with them.
But it was good for the kids who went out and got
jobs because it
made them self-sufficient and independent, not tomention successful
in later life.
Vernon sold newspapers on the street corners
of Ottawa. In
those days people used their voices in public. Newsboys would
call
out the name of the newspaper, recite the headline of the day,
and make it interesting.
Also, in those days there was competition
to make life exciting; there were usually two or three newspapers
in each City, with newsstands facing each other on street corners.
One day Vemon heard that the Canadian Pacific Railway
was hiring boys to work selling newspapers, sandwiches, and
Cokes on the trains leaving Union Station every day. He asked his
mother
if he could apply for the job. She was too tired to answer,
so,
lacking the nickel street-car fare, he walked the two miles
downtown to Confederation Square, where the station was, across
from the Chateau Laurier Hotel and kitty-corner from the East
Block Prime Ministers office on Parliament Hill.
The train station was a living, hissing, bustling anthill
where steam engine ants came and went at all hours
of the day and
night, pulling their trains in from all directions: from the north,
coming in from the Quebec side, crossing the mighty Ottawa River,
high up in the air on the Interprovincial bridge; from Montreal in
the east; and from Toronto
in the south.
When Vernon pulled on the shiny brass handle of the heavy
hardwood and glass door, it hardly moved. Squeezing his skinny
body into the high-ceilinged lobby, he looked down the wide
marble steps
that led to the waiting area. He heard the hollow,
echoing boom
of the dispatchers voice as he announced the arrival
of a passenger train. Vernon walked through the waiting area.
There were sculptmed oak benches to sit on, with brass lamps
to
read newspapers by, and high up in the vaulted ceiling hung huge
brass chandeliers. Vernon found the office area.
The office doors
had that glass you
cant see through and looks rough but feels
smoo
th on your fingers. The door to the Personnel Office was hard
to push open too … there was a high wooden counter inside. A
white-haired man said,
Can I help you, son?
He had on a white shirt with black stripes and silver garters on his
arms. On his head perched a green peak, which protected his eyes
from the bare light bulb dangling from the ceiling on a twisted wire.
V
emon explained his business. The clerk described the duties and
available r
uns for newsies, as he called them. Because of
Vernons youth, he and the old clerk decided that a short run would
be better than a long
one to, say, Montreal or Toronto. Thus it was
decided that the boy should be employed as a news
ie on the C.P.R.
Maniwaki line up the Gatineau River valley
by way of Wakefield,
Kirks Ferry, Low, Venosta, Kazabazu
a, and other exotic stations.
The newsie should begin immediately by familiarizing himse
lf
with the stock room, loading platform, baggage car, and all the
people who worked there.
The stock room was located behind the station restaurant
and it blossomed with escaped aromas
of fresh coffee, hot bread
and desserts. Out on the loading platform Vemon saw
his first up­
close
sight of a living, breathing, mumbling, hissing steam
locomotive. The boy was so overwhelmed by the black shiny beast
that he was absolutely afraid
to walk past it to go to the baggage car.
A man
in a black suit with yellow piping and three little gold bars
on the cuff said,
Where are you going boy? Vernon managed to
mutter,
The baggage car. Right behind the tender, son. He
walked timidly by the locomotives coal tender and came to the
burgundy-coloured baggage car. Some men in blue shirts were
loading canvas mail bags, newspapers, suitcases and brown paper
parcels into the car.
There was another boy there. He was about
eleven or twelve.
He had on a white jacket and a wooden basket
over his ann.
You a newsie? he asked Vernon.
Come on up here and
Ill show you what to do. Vernon climbed onto the baggage cart
and jumped into the doorway
of the big car.
Whats your name? Mines Robert … you take a basket
like this and put newspapers in it, Cokes
… youll sell more if
theyre cold, sandwiches in waxed paper, oranges, and toffee. The
conductor might let you rent pillows ifhes in a good rr ,d, but you
have to pick them up at the end
of the line. Here, wal. box of
toffee? Just take one and dont tell anybody … theyll never miss
just one bo
x. My dad says, What they dont know dont hurt them.
Vernon took a box of toffee from the carton, but when
Robert turned away he threw it back.
When the train pulls out, you take your basket, put on a
white coat, and go up and down the passenger trains (he
didnt call
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 99
A CPR train, hauled by locomotive 2393, crossing the Interprovincial Bridge at Ol/alVa on April 17, 1949.
Toohey Collection 49-203. CRHA Archives,
them coaches or cars) and call out things like, Nooospapers,
saaandwhiches, cooooca cola, Extra! Extra! Reeed all about it. Get
your nooospapers. Your basket costs you three dollars and your
white coat costs a dollar, but you dont have to pay for them all at
once …
just pay a bit at the end of your trip.
Just then a loud bell began to ring and Robert shouted
excitedly,
Youd better get off, were leaving for Montreal!
Vernon
jumped down to the platform. As he walked by the
engine a
jet of steam shot out from the black monster and scared
him
so badly he jumped backwards and crashed into the body of a
big man in blue coveralls and matching cap.
The red-faced man
laughed loudly and gently
caught Vernon by the shoulders with his
oily gloves.
When Vernon got home he told his two brothers about his
new
job, but they werent very interested. His mother said he could
work
one school day and all weekend, but he would have to keep
his street-corner newspaper job as well. One of his brothers would
have to
cover for him there.
On Friday afternoon after school, Vernon
said goodbye to
his
mother and walked to the station. He went to the old persorLllel
clerk with a letter
of permission to work, from his mother, and was
hired on.
Vernon retraced his steps of his first visit to the stock room,
loading platform and baggage car.
The big engine was hissing and
making stra
nge internal noises. The baggage-handlers were loading
trunks, mail, and suitcases,but the
conductor was talking to the
engineer and looking at his pocket watch. Passengers were
che
cking in with a uniformed man at the gate and walking towards
the coaches behind the baggage car.
Vernon climbed into the baggage car and sat on a stool.
The big bell started ringing and he heard a deep voice yell,
Boooard! The engine hissed louder and louder, the train lurched,
there was a
squeal of steel as the huge wheels spun on the tracks.
The train creaked out of the station into the dark tunnel under
Rideau Street, past the locks of the Rideau Canal, out onto the
Interprovincial Bridge, high above the glistening
Ottawa River.
There was no one in the car except Vernon, and the noises
of the train scared him. After a long, long time, the back door of the
car opened and the conductor came in, counting tickets.
You the newsie? he asked. My names Blackie … fill up
your basket there and start your rounds. Dont ask me too many
questions cause Ive got a lot on my mind … lots of passengers
today … and save me some sandwiches too. He sat down at the
desk and
scratched something on paper with his pencil.
Vernon was a little scared to face the public but he had
some
experience selling papers on the street and making change, so
he put on a white jacket, filled up his basket, and opened the door
to seek his fortune. When he stepped on the platform between cars,
he nearly fell. He could hardly push the door open to get into the
coach.
Somehow, in the lurching, noise, and flying cinders he
manag
ed to push open the door and get himself and his heavy
basket inside.
Newspapers, coca-cola, sandwiches … get your newspapers,
coca-cola … ,
down the aisle he went, selling his wares. A lumbetjack
with red and black checkered shirt and thick black beard bought
four sandwiches and three cokes. This lightened Vernons load
considerably, but when the man tipped him a quarter, he was
pleasantly surprised. He went off calling out his newsie song a
little louder, a little more cheery. Then a business man
bought a
newspaper and an orange.
He tipped the boy a dime. Next, an
indian
man with long hair and moccasins bought two cokes and a
Page 100 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
box of toffee and tipped a nickel, and so on, until, before long
Vernons basket was empty. He raced back to the baggage
car and
refilled his basket. By the time the train had wound its way along
the curvy tracks that parallel1ed the Oatineau river and arrived at its
destination, Vernon was one tired little boy; but he had enough
money to pay for his white
coat and half the wooden basket, and
two dollars
to take home to his mother,
That night he slept in a cot in the Maniwaki roundhouse that
was used by firemen.
The next morning he repeated his tasks on the
return trip to Ottawa, and earned a little more money, although, not
as much as on the up-trip.
On his arrival
in Ottawa, Vernon was exhausted, so he left
his basket and coat in the stockroom and contentedly took the
street-car home. His mother hugged him when he came through
the door, and
he was proud to contribute two dollars to the family
funds.
The next morning was Sunday. Vernon normally was
allowed to sleep-in this day, and go to Sunday School with his
brothers and sisters at ten oclock. But today he had to go to work
at his new job, although that didnt displease him.
He caught a street-car to the train station, and as he was
walking
in the stock room, he saw Robert go out the door to the
loading platform, with his white coat and wooden basket. Vernon
looked around for his own kit, but
couldnt find it. He went to the
Personnel Office, but the
door was locked. He went to the station
restaurant and asked the
cook if he had seen the basket and coat, but
the cook
just snarled at him. Dismayed, Vernon went out to the
loading platform. Sure enough, there was the big black steam
engine hissing and pulsing, like a horse stamping its feet. Vernon
asked the baggage handlers
if they had seen his belongings, but
they were not even the same workers he had seen before. A ray
of
hope pierced the gloom of the train area when Blackie came
strolling down the platform, pocket watch
in hand. Have you seen
my basket and white coat? asked the boy.
No, but youd better
find them quick, the train leaves
in ten minutes. Vernons heart
sank. He ran back to the restaurant, found the hostess, and asked
if he could borrow a
bus-boys jacket and a tray. She reluctantly
agreed, and off he went to the waiting train.
Boooard! called black ie, and the train jerked forward.
Vernon nervously tried
to load cokes, newspapers, and oranges
onto the tray but it was impossible .
.. they just rolled off. When
blackie came in Vernon told him about the missing articles. The
old conductor suggested using a mail sack. So Vernon loaded up
a sack and went off
to peddle his wares. People didnt seem to want
to buy things that morning … whether it was because it was the
sabbath
or because they couldnt see his wares, or because Vernons
newsie pitch
wasnt loud and cheerful… who knows?
By the time the trip was over and Vernon had counted his
money, he had only cleared a dollar twenty-five profit, and he still owed money on the missing basket. That night he laid down on the
roundhouse
cot feeling as low as a railroad sleeper.
The next morning he boarded the old baggage car for the
return trip and he had to use the mail sack again … and again, sales
were low; but
he did manage to bring home one dollar for the
family.
For the rest of the week he sold newspapers on the street
corner, hoping
to save enough money to pay for the missing basket
and to buy a new kit, but his mother needed grocery money. By
Friday there
wasnt enough spare change left and his hopes were in
vain. After school he said goodbye to his mother and walked to
Union Station. He went to the Personnel Office and explained to
the clerk what had happened.
The old clerk said he was sorry, but
there was nothing he could do, and that
hed better be on that
Maniwaki train at five oclock.
Vernons feet felt so heavy, he could hardly walk, let alone
climb into the baggage car that day. He didnt notice the scary
steam locomotive this time, and he didnt notice the baggage
handlers heaving their parcels into the car.
He sat on the little
wooden stool trying to hold back the tears. Passengers walked by
the open door
of the car. Vernon felt so lonely … how could he be
a real newsie without a basket and a white coat?
The baggage handlers unloaded their big-wheeled cart into
the
car and went away. All he could hear was the hissing of the
steam. Finally the bell rang, but there was no fun, no excitement
in the sound. Vernon heard Blackie call
Boooard! The train
chugged slowly out
of the station into the black tunnel. Everything
was dark. Vernon was alone.
If only his dad …
Time passed slowly; the train rocked and creaked out of the
tunnel onto the bridge. Way down on the water little tugboats
pushed logs in booms and rafts to unknown destinations.
What
would become of them?
Vernon
didnt even want to be a newsie this trip, but he was
afraid to tell that to Blackie.
The train crossed the bridge and
picked up speed. Soon Blackie would come through the door and
tell Vernon to start his rounds
… what was he going to do?
The door opened. Blackie came in, connting tickets, as
usual. Vernons heart thumped in his throat like the pistons of the
locomotive.
Oot your basket loaded? asked the conductor.
No. I havent got a basket, whispered the newsie.
Have a look in the closet.
Vernon opened the closet, which doubled as a locker for
the train staff. There on the shelf was a new wooden basket with
a white
jacket folded up in it, and on top of the white jacket sat a red
cap with a shiny black brim. In yellow letters on the crown was
written one word: NEWSIE.
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL
MY UNCLE VERNON
My Uncle Vernon was a newsie on the train
Back in 1928 when trains were run on steam;
He rode the Maniwaki line through sunshine, rain and snow
He loved to hear the engineer when he made his whistle blow.
Chorus:
And he sang Extra, Extra, read all about it,
He sang Extra, Extra, read all about it,
On the Maniwaki line.
My Uncle Vernon had a newsie song to sing
Selling Cokes and newspapers, he felt just like a king
Through forest green, beside the lakes and over waters blue
That rolling train was pulled along by one big four-six-two.
And when that light Pacific came rolling round the bend,
We loved to see her shining wheels and coaches on the end
That lonesome whistle blowing sent chills along your spine,
Page 101
And when she passed, we loved to hear that mighty engine whine.
I never heard
my uncle take the Lords name in vain
He always stayed right on his rails like any well-run train.
And one day when a robber stole my uncle Vernons kit,
He bought himself another one and didnt whine a bit.
Copyright by Doug Smith, West Lome, Ontario, 1989.
Page 102 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
Windillg Its Way Into Our Hearts
A Brief History Of The Street Car In Toronto
Written by the Toronto Transit Commission to commemorate the opening of the Harbourfront LRT line
For those of us who grew up in Toronto, the street car was one of
the props in our lives as children. For some of us, the world began
to unfold by street car. For others, acquaintance with the street car
came ttuough stories heard from parents and grandparents. Today,
the street
car continues to capture our imagination as part of the
transportation infrastructure
of our city, sharing its role with buses
and the subway system. However, for two-thirds
of a century the
street railway provided nearly the only form
of public transportation
for Torontonian
s.
1849: Horse-drawn omnibus (from the Latin for all) supplements
limited stagecoach service
as local public transportation.
1861: Toronto Street Railway Company (TSR) launches new line
of horse-drawn cars on tracks. This was Canadas first street car
line.
1861 -1891: Daily street railway ridership climbs from 2,000 to
55,000.
1891:
TSRs franchise expires and the City Council orders the
TSR to hand over the railway without first agreeing on a price. The
TSR retaliates by locking out City representatives and pulling the
cars from the streets. Arbitration cools tempers and
TSR sells to the
City for $1.4 million. However, the city got cold feet after just a few
months and granted a 30-year franchise and private ownership
of
the system to the Toronto Railway Company (TRC) which promised
to electrify the system within three years.
1892: First electric car appears on Church Street.
1894:
Last horse car runs on August31 (on McCau 1 Street). Even
though the conversion was not fully complete, the remaining horse
cars were discontinued that day to comply with the wording
of the
contract which requi.red electric-only operation from September I.
1910: Idea
of a subway is ridiculed by the press and defeated in
a municipal vote.
1912: Toronto Civic Railways (TCR), a municipal undertaking
of a few street car lines, commences operation serving new areas,
beyond the city li.mits
of 1891, that the TRC refuses to serve.
1915: Open-sided cars banned for safety reasons.
1914 -1917: Ridership swells but City officials say it
is the TRCs
responsibility to build more tracks. The TRC disagrees and the
issue
goes to court; the TRC wins. The City decides never again to
grant
a franchise
to a private group for public transportation.
1920: Torontonia
ns vote in favour of municipally-run street
railways.
1921:
The Toronto Transportation Commission (TIC) is formed
and takes over the system on September
1. The old era of risk­
taking is ended and a different era begins. Serious and methodical
David Harvey,
an official from the Civic Railways, is appointed
Assista
nt Manager of the TIC and emphasizes the value of a good public image. Street cars are painted bright red so they will no
longer
slink along apologetically or unnoticed. In the next two
years, 575 new street cars replace many
of the old wooden cars.
1922:
TIC experiments with trolley buses, but it will be another
25 years before they are used on regular routes.
1923:
TICs $30 million expansion program culminates in the
extension
of tracks and unification of nine separate networks with
a single fare and transfer
s. TRCs outdated maintenance facilities
are replaced
by new TIC quarters at Bathurst and Davenport, to be
known, eventually,
as the D.W. Harvey shops.
1924: Harvey appointed General Manager
of the TIC.
1929 -1936: Stock market crash, and subsequent depression,
leads
to unemployment and a 20 per cent drop in ridership. The
TIC weathers the depression, improves service and takes advantage
of make-work programs; also cuts money-losing street car lines
and replaces them with cheaper bus service.
1938: Presidents Conference Commission cars (PCC) go into
regular service on St. Clair Avenue. Within two decades,
744
PCCs serve the TIC -the largest fleet in the world.
1939 -1945: During World
War II, the streetcar was a vital means
of public transport. Annual ridership grew, reaching 303 million as
automobile production dropped and tires and gasoline were rationed.
Women were emp
loyed as operators, guides and in equipment
maintenance.
1946:
TICs proposal for an underground street car system is
suppor
ted in a public referendum; it is subsequently upgraded to a
conventional subway system.
1949: Digging starts
on the 4.6 mile (7.4 Km.) Yonge Street
subway line from Union Station to Eglinton.
1950
s: A new era began for the TIC dominated by the subway
as the new backbone
of the public transportation network. The
opening of the subway and the aging of the street car fleet almost
spelled the end
of trams in Toronto.
1951: Last run
of the old wooden cars from TRC days.
1952:
TIC decides to defer abandonment plans, modernizes fleet
and starts purchasing second-hand
PCCs from the United States.
1972: Citizens protest dropping street car service so the
TIC
decides to retain street cars indefinitely. The TIC retained some
surface routes, rebuilt some cars and introduced others. Today its
street car network continues to be one
of the largest and most active
in North America despite the continued growth
of our subway
lines.
1979:
TIC introduces the Canadian Light Rail Vehicle (CLRV),
one
of the first street cars built in North America since the early
1950s; its body configuration looks like a PCC, but
it includes
innovations for added comfort and efficiency.
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 103
A two-car train of the TOlOnto Railway Co. photographed at King and Roncesvalles in 1894. This was before the days offenders and
vestibules. Car 390 was built
in the TRC shops in 1893, while trailer 241 was originally open horse car 212, built by Jones in 1888.
National Archives
of Canada PA-54556.
1987: Work begins on the new HarboUlfront LRT starting with
the tunnel under Bay Street, south
of Union Station.
1988:
The Articulated Light Rail Vehicle (ALRV) appears; based
on the
CLRV design, it bends in the middle, is longer and carries
more people at a lower operational cost per passenger.
1989: Rebuilding
of eightPCCs completed, with a goal of 15 by
the end
of 1990 and 21 in total. The rebuilt street cars are economical
and nostalgically appealing.
1990:
The Harbourfront Light Rail Transit (LRT) line officially
opens. Commitment
of funds by provincial govemment makes
possible future expansion
of TIC services. The TIC continues to
uphold
Torontos long tradition of excellence in public transit as it
faces new challenges and looks forward to a decade
of more
expansion following renewed emphasis on the importance
of
public transportation in Toronto. TIC examines and implements
public transit that
is fully accessible to disabled people; this will
require low-floor street cars, and research and purchase
of this new
technology
is now a priority.
ON THE STREET CARS
A pretty girl, a crowded car
Please take my seat, and there you are.
A crowded car, a woman plain,
She stands, and there you are again.
(From a book of jokes printed in 1912)
Page 104 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
CRHA Communications
THE NEW FORMAT CANADIAN RAIL
This is the first issue of Canadian Rail to be produced by that
new technology
of the late twentieth century -computerized desk­
top publishing. When
our publication, then known as the CRHA
News Report, made its first appearance,
in 1949, it was produced
on a mimeograph machine, and the total circulation was much less
than 100 copies. Although the first issue, October 1949, consisted
of only four pages, the items were of considerable interest including
the announcement
of a Montreal Tramways excursion to Lachine,
new diesels for the Napierville Junction, the visit
of the Train of
Tomorrow to Canada, CNs new 9000s in service out of Montreal
and many additional items.
The four-page publication soon grew
as the 1950s began. As
the decade progressed the printing process was improved. In 1957
the first photo cover
made its appearance, and the magazine began
to be printed by the offset process. At the beginning
of 1961 the
magazine took on a new smaller format and photographs began to
be used on the inside pages as well as on the cover. In July 1962 the
name
of the CRHA News Report was changed to Canadian Rail.
Throughout the
1960s and 1970s Canadian Rail continued to
grow as it reported on historical events, both those of long ago and
of more contemporary nature. In 1983 another radical change was
made.
The original large-size page format was restored, and
publication frequency reduced to six times a year instead
of
monthly. Since the new format was more than twice as large as the
old, the total text per year was increased. This format and frequency
has continued until the present time. In June 1989, Canadian Rail
appeared with a full-colour cover for the first time. While this is
technically feasible,
the charges involved prevent us from using
colour illustrations except in very special circumstances.
In this
case the extra money was donated by three
of the members, at no
cost to the membership revenues.
The recent loss of our third-class postal permit has resulted in
great financial problems for Canadian Rail. The cost of mailing a
copy
of the magazine has more than tripled and now stands at $1.17
in Canada, and higher outside the country. In order to avoid an
intolerably large increase in membership dues, we have been
seeking ways
to cut costs. It appears as if there will be great savings
by doing the lype-setting and layout in house instead of paying
professionals
to do it. Recent donations from the members have
allowed the purchase
of a computer together with the required
software to ena
ble Canadian Rail to be produced by desktop
publishing.
For the last several months your editor has been learning the
mysteries
of WordPerfect, PageMaker and the various ins and outs
of the new technology. This has been done
by trial and error (with
much
of the latter) in between various other activities such as the
recent Montreal Street
Car book.
We all hope that the members will forgive the delays as we
convert to the new system. Our aim
is to continue to improve the
quality
of our publication and make the new Canadian Rail better
than the old.
Fred
F. Angus, Editor
June
13 1990
MONTREAL STREET CAR BOOK
The long-awaited book on Montreal street cars is available now.
This magnificent work contains one hundred and sixty-five
illustrations,
many from the collection of Richard M. Binns,
reproduced
by extra-fine screen halftones for maximum clarity. Its
eighty pages cover, by decade, the period from the start
of the street
cars in Montreal, in 1861, until the l
ast tram was retired from
service ninety-eight years later. Anyone with even a mild interest
in either street cars
or Montreal history should have this book. It
costs only $13.75 postpaid
by mail or $12.75 at the Canadian
Railway Museum. Supplies are limited so order
your copy today.
! ! !! CORRECTIONS !!!!
In our last issue, under the heading of 100 years ago, we left the
impression that the first CPR Lakeshore
commuter train went into
service
in May, 1890. In fact this service had run during the
summer of 1889, as can be seen from contemporary timetables (see
Canadian Rail No. 372, January-FeblUary 1983
). For several years
the service ran only
in the summer season, since it was only
summer residents of the Lakeshore that commuted in those days.
The announcements shown referred to the start of service for the
1890 season.
Mr.
Ray Corley has pointed out a number of errors in the
locomotive roster
of the Asbestos & Danville Railway that appeared
in the January-February issue. A corrected roster will be printed
in
the near future.
CANADIAN RAILWAY MUSEUM
The Canadian Railway Museum is open for the season. There is
always much requiring to be done, whether restoring equipment,
helping with the operation, painting, cleaning
and other jobs.
Simply protecting the
locomotives and cars from the adverse
effects
of the weather is a major undertaking. We must depend on
volunteers for much of the work, and we rely on our members.
Remember, it
is your museum, so please help as much as you can.
MAY -JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 105
The Business Car
CP TO TAKE CONTROL OF D & H
Canadian Pacifics $25 million (U.S.) bid for the Delaware and
Hudson Railway
company, the oldest operating railway company
in North America, has
been approved by a bankruptcy court in
Wilmington Delaware. The purchase will give CP Rail 2735
kilometres
of U.S. track that serves an area with a population as
large as
Canadas.
The only hurdle left for CP to clear is a formal hearing before the
Interstate
Commerce Commission which will review the
railways
business plans. CP is planning to file an application next month and
expects a ruJing within
90 days. Although the ICC is an independant
commission, observers say the massive political and business
support for
CPs bid would weigh in its favour,
In addition,
CP has already reached an agreement with the
United Transport Union, one
of nine bargaining units that represents
D&Hs approximately 700 employees, and does notforesee problems
with the rest.
With D&H we can go from
Canadas west coast straight to the
U.S. northeast says
CP spokesman John Cox. It brings the Pacific
Rim right
to New York City.
CPs bid, launched at the beginning of this year, was approved
last weekend by the Wilmington bankruptcy court, on the
recommendation
of D&Hs trustee in bank.ruptcy.
CP had originally bid about $35 million, but lowered its offer to
$25 million after failing to reach an agreement with Consolidated
Rail Corporation (Conrail) concerning tracks it leases to D&H. In
addition, Pennsylvania
is giving CP a $5.5 million grant, and New
York is giving it $3 million to upgrade tracks in their states.
CP said it could not estimate how much it will spend in the first
year
of operation, but Mr. Cox said it will need to upgrade older
D&H locomotives and replace leased locomotives with its own
units.
D&H was placed under Chapter
11 bankruptcy in June 1988 by
its parent
company, Guilford Transportation Industries of North
Billerica Mass.
Since then, Delaware Otsego Corporation, of
Cooperstown New York, has been running D&H.
The railway, founded originally as a canal company in 1823,
owns 49 locomotives, 3453 cars and eight cabooses. It runs
between Buffalo and Northumberland Pa., with another north­
south line between Albany N.Y. and Delson near Montreal.
The
railway crosses into Canada at Rouses Point, the Canadian section
of the line being called the Napierville Junction Railway. Delson,
which is
D&Hs junction in Canada, was named using the first
tluee letters
of Delaware and the last three of Hudson.
D&Hs revenue last year was less than $100 million, but CP
Rail executive Vice-President R.J. Ritchie feels that CP can make
it profitable again.
We believe D&H can ultimately be restored to profitability and provide a competitive balance
in the rail marketplace
he said.
D&H will be CPs second U.S. railway (not counting such CP­
built lines such as the International
of Maine). It already owns Soo
Line Corporation which operates the Soo Line railway and the
former
Milwaukee Road railway which IlIl1S between Chicago and
Minneapolis.
In buying D&H,
CP beat out a highly leveraged $45 million
offer by Wertheim Schroeder & Co. Inc.
of New York. The bid
included $2.5 million from Canadian National Railways for the
NapierviJle Junction line.
Source: Globe and Mail June
12 1990.
CN TO SPEND $110 MILLION ON UPGRADING
Canadian National Railway Company will spend about $ 110
million
over the next three years to improve its equipment and
railway, the government-owned corporation announced.
The railway plans to spend $37 million to remanufacture and
upgrade 45 locomotives at Point SI. Charles shops
in Montreal.
Some preliminary work will begin in the faJl, but the bulk of the
work will be done in 1991. It will also
spend $750,000 to improve
computer and radio services at its Montreal headquarters.
The biggest chunk
of the money, $50 miJJion, will be spent
expanding the GO Transitcommuter train system between Burl ington
and OakviJJe, near Toronto.
CN operates the system under contract
to the Ontario government.
The railway will buy 160 fully enclosed automobile transporters
for $17 million. Almost $1.3 million will be spent increasing
overhead clearances between Moncton and Toronto to enable
CN
to use doubles tack container cars. The railway will also spend $2.6
million on an improved freight car maintenance, administration
and billing-computer systems.
Source: Montreal Gazette June 13 1990.
PORT SURVIVAL LINKED TO RAILWAYS
The survival of Canadian ports is directly linked to the health of
Canadas railways and the current outlook is not good, says John
Grice, chairman
of the Halifax-Dartmouth Port Development
Commission.
Canadian railways are having trouble competing against their
U.S. counterparts because
of federal deregulation policies, high
fuel taxes and depreciation rules, Mr. Grice told the House
of
Commons Committee.
Page 106 RAIL CANADIEN MAl -JUIN 1990
The cost of railroad operations in Canada is about 25 to 28 per
cent higher than in the
u.s. and the major portion of this is directly
attributable to federal government policies Mr. Grice said.
With lower costs and deregulation rules, U.S. railways have
started to attract cargoes from Ontario and Quebec that used to
move by Canadian National Railways to Halifax and
CP Rail to
Saint John.
There could be a dramatic shift in the near future if Ottawa
doesnt do something Mr. Grice said. If the competitive situation
at Canadian ports
isnt addressed, its going to have a negative
impact
on us soon.
Federal and provincial taxes mean that railways pay 55 per cent
more for fuel than U.S. companies and have to write
off their
equipment over
15 years, twice as long as U.S. railways. Deregulation
has allowed U.S. railways to strike deals with Canadian shippers so
that goods move
by rail in Canada only to the nearest border point
where the U.S. railway takes over and collects most
of the freight
payment.
The successful bid by CP Rail, a unit of Canadian Pacific Ltd.
of Montreal, for the Delaware and Hudson Railway Co. will allow
it to move cargo to New York from Central Canada instead
of
shipping it tluough east coast ports. Mr. Grice said he is sure that
his comments about Halifax apply
to other major ports such as
Montreal and Vancouver.
Members
of Parliament expressed surprise at the amount of
attention that a brief from a harbour commission paid to the
problems facing Canadian railways, but Mr. Grice said that the
emphasis simply recognizes reality.
Ours is a rail-oriented port
and thats why we are so preoccupied by the health
of the railway
industry.
By Alex Binkley
Source: Globe and Mail June 13
1990.
GERMAN REUNIFICATION ON TRACK
Following the tearing down of the Berlin Wall, and the elimination
of the barriers between East and West Germany, steps are being
taken to reunite the two countries. At a seminar, held
in West Berlin
on June
18 1990, officials from east and west discussed the
problems
of reuniting the two railway systems which have, like the
countly, been split for more than forty years.
The Rail Triangle
Program calls for new, high speed, trains, both passenger and
freight, between
Pans, Berlin and Vienna. It was acknowledged
that the rail infrastructure
is crucial to both industrial revival and
world peace.
Split in two soon after World War II, the German rail systems
have developed on their own, and have been modified in different
ways. Combining the two will be a major undertaking which will
result
in Europes largest rail system. As the barriers come down
new rail links will appear linking east and west, and the rail
map of
Europe will change for the better.
Based
on an article in The New Federalist, June 29 1990.
LAST TRAIN TO TORONTO
No, it is not in Canada. Not yet. The Toronto in question is in
Australia, in New South Wales to be exact, and these events show
that the problems facing passenger trains in Canada also exist on
the other side
of the world. The line between Fassifern and Toronto,
near Newcastle N.S.W., was very short, only 4 Km. in length, but
the significance
of the lines closure was quite pronounced. Our
sister publication, The Rail way Digest, published by the Australian
Railway Historical Society, reported as follows.
Train services between Fassifern
and Toronto were given a
noisy farewell
in the early hours of Sunday March 11 as the last
train to depart Toronto pulled
out of the station at 00:20. A packed
four-car train loaded with approximately
200 well-wishers fare welled
service on the line.
Two days earlier, on Friday March 9, Newcastle
area guards staged a four-hour stop work
to protest against the
closure.
The trains have been replaced by buses operated under contract
by the Toronto bus service. At this stage the buses operate between
Fassifern and Toronto stopping
at seven locations. However,
further timetable changes to
be introduced July I will see buses
operating all the way to Newcastle serving railway stations along
the way.
In justifying the withdrawal of services on the Toronto line,
CityRail claimed that the train service was grossly uneconomic.
Although the future
of the line and infrastructure is unclear at this
stage, the Northem Line Manager,
Mr. John Zantiotis, said that
allegations that the rail line between Fassifern and Toronto would
be lifted was absolute rubbish.
As
The Railway Digest points out, the changes in the Newcastle
area are likely to
be a dry run for a similar exercise in the Sydney
area.
The whole problem seems to be that State Rail, which
operates the railway system in
New South Wales, appears to be
downgrading passenger service in an attempt to save money. A few
month ago the Railway Digest pointed
out that New South Wales
was about
to join the Third World in that all their overnight trains
between major cities have lost their sleeping cars. At least Australia
still has an overnight train between its two largest cities! Since
January
15 1990 Canada does not.
Canada and Australia have much more
in common than having
a place named Toronto. Both countries cover a vast area, yet have
a small population except
in certain relatively small areas. Both
seem
to have governments which are luke-warm at best to the idea
of the passenger train as a modem viable means of transpol1ation.
Many
of their problems sound very familiar to us. Their Toronto
has lost its passenger trains. Our Toronto still has many trains, both
local and long-distance, although the long-distance trains have
been drastically diminished. Australia has, however, recently put
into service new high-speed
XPT trains which promise fast,
comf0I1able intercity trips, at least
on day runs. Canada introduced
the somewhat similar LRC almost a decade ago, and
is presently
upgrading many
of its conventional passenger cars. Both countries
need a better attitude among officialdom towards passenger trains.
MAY-JUNE 1990 CANADIAN RAIL Page 107
NEW STREET CAR LINE OPENED

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—.—_ ………. –__ .. …. ,w
On Friday. June 22 1990 at 11:00 A.M. the Toronlo TnlSlsit
Commission officially opened ils new harbourfrolll slreet car line.
This i~ the first IlCW slr~el car line 10 be opened in Toronto for sixt)
years, and on( of the Icry few LO run on ils own private right-of.
way. A colourful parade complete with jugglers, clowns and a
b
rnss band marked Ihe occasion.
Built at a cost of $59.3 million. Iht new LRT line stretches more
than two kilometres, with SlOpS 31 Union SI • .IIion. Queens Quay.
Ferry Docks, York, Simcoe and Rees Streets and Spadina Avenue.
Queens Quay -ferry Docks slalion is duc 10 open in the lale
~llmmer, and TIC passcngClS will use a v:.mpornry. ;Ibove.ground
SlOp in the meantime. Six hundred metres of line run through 3-
tunnel beginning at the Union Station loop, making this ~tC1ion the
longest underground streel car line in ToronlO, The IUtUlCl was the
starting poinl for constmctiOn of the line on October S, 1987.
[)urin& construction, \ orkCI encountered waterlogged earth b«ause
oflhe high wlltertable in Ihe area. To keep il from con,wmlly caving
in, the excavaton; had 10 use a mushy benlOnile clay mixture or
whal is called slurry. From above they dug IWO p:lrallel Irenches
60 e
m. wid.:-. These wen filled wilh slurry which was displaced by
conerele as comlmclion proceded, thus allowing the slurry to be
reused.
Several interesting diuoveries were made inel tldinga whale vertebra.
It could have come from a whale pn:-dating the icc age, or from
Pipers Zoo, II museum which existed ncar lile wmerfront in the
1880s. Since Ihis area was once Ihe waterfront (whlth is how Front Street
gOI its name) the bone could havc been thrown ocrboarrl
from
a ship. Pans of an old dock were also discovered. shQwing
how the harbour h~ been filled in (wer the: years, Almost a century
and
a half agoa fttrc-alion area bad bl:cn phmn,:d for the waterfn)Ot,
but lhe construction of railway lines look precedence, Now, 140
years later, Toronto ha. its waterfront recreation area.
Guests at the opening ceremony included the Toronto Regiment
Band of the Royal Canadian Anillary, Ihe same regimental band
thai
played atth .. opening of Ihe firs! Sll1:Cl car line in TOfOnto in
1861.
Stree
t cars on Ihe new line mn ever) Iht1:I minutes Mond:lY
through Fri
day rush hours. ellery five minuli:S during off-pe:tk
daylight hOllrs and ellery eig
ln minutes in Iiii. evenings. Service
will begin 31 6:08 A.M. Monday tlirough Saturday, and at 9:00
A.M. on Suntlay. The line will run until 1:00 A,f-.1. sellen days a
week.
The line can accommoda[l 5{X)() pils~engcrs per hOUT in each
direction. The streel cars run abolle ground :llong a track b…d rni.sed
six inches above the TOad. This gIves the tram~ II dedicated righl-of­
way separated from automobile Imffic. Thl~ allows a round trip to
tx: completed in fifteen minUies. A provision htls been made for
future extensions of Ihe line up Spadin:!. wlnle easl and wesl
extens
ions are being sludied 100.
A qU:lner century ago il seemed as if Toronto! trams were
doomed, Now new lines are being built as Iht authorilies realize Ihe
efficient,
pollution-free senlcc thai i~ l)rO~ldCd by streei cars.
BACK
COVER: Open horse cor 174 of the Tor01l1O Sireet Rail,ay rllnnillg 011 YOllge Slrecl at lilt compr ofQu€I!1l (l1}()1I1 18H8. AI
the extreme right a wtical .~ign readJ ~5tQves Fl/lIl(lces Rallges t~C,~, TIIi,~ i.f probably James GO(xis factory, for he W{/.f .11111 ill bt~~ilU!$.f
,/If1I the pJroto as takell. Compore l11is ,·ip<, .... illilhe Ollt (1/ the SOllle place OIl page 90, Clir f74 as buill by Ihr TSR ill 1885 (11/(1,
(lS trailer 99, slInitd well infO Iht! efecirk eo,
Natiollal A,.chiref of Call ada. PA·J66917.
Canadian Rail
Box I BOlte Postal 148, SI. Constant, Que.
Canada J5A 2G2
Postmaster if undelivered within
10 days return 10 sender, postage guaranteed.
MAIL~POSTE
0:.._-_-__
–.. –
lattlfllllil PostMtlTt
PERMIS148
Sf CONSTANT, QI..E.. J5A 2G2

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