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Canadian Rail 413 1989

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Canadian Rail 413 1989

Canadian Rail t%
No. 413
NOVEMBER-DECEMBER
1989
[82
CANADIAN ~IL
————————-I$SN 0008·4875 —–
PUBLISHED al·MONTHlY BY THE CANAOIAN RAILROAO HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus For your membership in the CRHA which includes a
CO-EDITOR: Douglas N. W.
Smith subscription to Canadian Rail write to;
PRODUCTION: M. Peter
Murphy [AHA, P.O. SOK 148, 51. Constant Quebec J5A 2G2
CA
RTOGRAPHER: William A. Germaniuk Rates: in CanJda $27. •
LAYOUT: Fred F. Angus outside Canada: ..
……… $23. in U.S. FUNDS. T
YPESETTING: Belvedere Photo-Graphique Inc.
PRINTING: Procel Printing
r——————-~TABlEOFCONTENTS——————_,
EMBANKMENT …………•………….
END OF GRANO TRUNK OPERATION IN NEW ENGLAND
CENTENNIAL OF CP SHORT LINE ………… .
TH E VIA CUTBACKS
DAVID LLEWELYN DAVIES 183
DOUGLAS N. W. SMITH 197
FRED F. ANG US 200
………….. 204
THE VIA RAil CUTBACKS -SOME COMMENTS . …….. FRED F. ANGUS 207
FROM THE COLLECTION (QRLP CARS 401 AND 105) ..
RAIL CANADA DECISIONS …………………. .
RESULTS
OF THE SURVEY OF CRHA MEMBERS.
CRHA COMMUNICATIONS
…………. . . . . . …
FRED F. ANGUS 209
DOUGLAS N. W. SMITH 212
DOUGLAS N. W. SMITH 215
2
18
Canadian RaIl 1$ contInually in need 01 news. stories. h,stot,cal data. photos. maps and other reQfodUClible matenal. Please send all
conlnbuflons to the editor: Fred F. Angus. 3021 Trafalgar Ave. Montreal. P.Q. H3Y 1 H3. No payment can be made lorcontllbutlons. but
the contributor will be gl … ef1 cledit for mlltemll submItted. Material Will be relUrned 10 the contrlbutot If requested. Remember. NKnowledge is
01 hnle value unless It is shared with othels
Frederick F. Angus
R.C. Ballard
Jack
A. Beatty
Walter
J. 8edbrook
Alan C. Blackburn
Charles De Jean
Gerard Frechette
• NATIONAL DIRECTORS·
William Hrynkow
David
W. Johnson
J. Christopher Kyle
Bernard Martin
Robert V.V. Nicholls
Andrew
W. Panko
Douglas N
.W. Smith
The CRHA has a number of local cr.,sions across .he country. Many hold regular
meengs and Issue newsleners. FUrlher ;nlOnTllt,on may be obtaIned by wntlngO the
d,
… ,s,on.
• NEW BRUNSWlCIt: DIVISION P.O
80_ t 162
SI.nt John.
N .. w8 …. nsw>c~ E2L 4G1
• 51 LAWRENCE VlLEV OIV1StON
P.O. 600 22 Sltl,,)n S
Montflilit. au.. H3B 3JS
• RlDEU
VAllEY OMStON
po. eo. 962
$moill.
F.n~. OnlanO 1(1 55
• KINGSTON DIVISION
P.O. Bo. 103. 5tation • .r.
N
KinglllOn. Ontario K1M 6P9

TORONTO a. YORK OIV1S1ON
PO. 80. 5849. hmn.t A,
Toronto. Onlari • NIAGARA DIV1SION
PO. 110). 593
5t C.U,n. On~rio L2R 6W8
• WlNDSOR·ESSEX OMStON
JOOC.b …. ROid Elfl.
W.ndIOf. OnIMoo N9G IA2 •
KEVSTONE DIVISION
04 Rtynolds B.y
Wmn,~. Mlniloba R3K ()M4
• CALG … RV & SOI.lTH Wf51ERN DIVISION
SO -6100. 4tl1 …….. NE.
ClvlY. ~1>ef1a TtA. SZB
• ROCI(V MOUNT.r.IN DIVISION
PO Bo~ 6102. Sial, C.
Edmonton. ~l>ertl T5B ~NO
• SEUORI( DIVISION
PO 80_ 39
Revel$loke, B.C. VOE 2S0
• CROWSNEST & KETTLE· …. AU,£V DIVISION
PO. 80. 100
Crenbtook. Bnllih Columbli VIC 4H9
• NElSON EI.ECTRIC TRAMWAY SOCtETY
123 Vo_ S .. t
NelfOfl, B.C. VIL 2V8

PACIFIC COAST DIVISION
P.O
80. 1006. SI.11On A..
V8N;ow.r. Brlll.h Cuhlnlbo. V6C 2PI
Oeryk Sparks
David W. Slrong
Laurence M. Unwin
Richard Viberg
A. Stephen Walbridge
John C. Weir
FRONT COVER;
On _ fiml wrmers dllY IfI JsnulIfI 1952, CPR
focomotive 1258 lind U/lin 01 woodlJn CIlTS
W,f$ pictured lit Sr •. Agllthe. Ou,.
This scenic line in the Lsurent/llns IS now
scheduled to be abandoned.
CRHA
Archives, Toohey Collection.
52-002.
As pan 01 its acuvllies. the CRHA operales
the Canadian Rallwav Museum al Oe150n/51.
Constant.
Quebec which II 14 m,les~23 Km.)
from
downlown Montreal. I. open dally
from late
Mav to early Oc:tObel. Members and
thelf Immediate families Irll admitted free 01
chalge.
GO … L OF THE ASSOCI … liON THE COLLEcnON. PRESERVTION ANO DISSEMINATION OF ITEMS RELAnNG TO THE HISTDflY Of RAiLWAVS IN CANADA.
183
Embankment
or the tale of
Buried Treasure and a Lost Locomotive
by David Llewelyn Davies
Definition of Embankment -Mound constructed so as to
carry a level road or railway over a low lying place.
This
is the story of an embankment. Embankments, being
uninteresting piles
of dirt, rarely hit the headlines, but this
particular one
is associated with buried treasure and a buried
locomotive and so has managed to get itself recorded
as a
particle
of history.
Between the western flank
of the Rockies at Valemount and
the city
of Kamloops, within British Columbia, a part of the
CNs transcontinental main line uses a 200 mile long corridor of
the south flowing North Thompson River. The subject of this
article
is situated in this corridor at a place close to Cottonwood
Flats, a station point at Mile
18.8 on the Clearwater Sub­
Division
of CN s Mountain Region. This is 75 rail miles south
of Valemount and 120 rail miles north of Kamloops.
The LYON
EMBANKMENT, for that is the name of the
side valley and creek that it crosses,
is situated in rugged
mountain country and
is difficult of access by motor vehicle or
on foot. Even the correctness of the name is in dispute; CN
drawings for 123/25 show it as Lyons and Lyon, whilst a B.C.
Provincial survey of 1974 makes it Lion. I am inclined to accept
Lyon, and future historians may show he was the trestle
contractor
or the CN engineer superintending its erection.
To this day the only neighbours of the Embankment are
beaver that have built dams and lodges on either side
of it. As for
humans, the nearest are at Avola, a village
of 150 population
some 7 miles to the south.
It is true there is a hint of civilisation
close
by in the shape of the Yellow head Highway that connects
Edmonton with Vancouver; but it lies inaccessible across the
wide and swiftly flowing
North Thompson River.
If you were to walk along the track or ride a train, this curving
embankment would excite no comment.
It is about ;.i-mile long
and over 100 feet high. But between the natural vegetation
cladding its sides and the large natural features hereabout that
entirely dwarf it, it assumes an insignificance which this article
hopes to show
is unwarranted.
The story
of Lyon Embankment would have remained
untold, shrouded in its obscurity and inaccessibility, but for the
public spirited efforts
of one annonymous British Columbian
citizen.
Back in 1971 the Province
of British Columbia celebrated its
centenary
as a partner of Canadian Confederation. One man,
believed to
be a retired prospector, added to the celebrations by
organising a treasure hunt in rugged country, which with the
hindsight
of 15 years appears to lie in an area 10 miles long and 5
miles wide, and within it
is Lyon Embankment. In this area he
hid 382 Ibs of coins (1971 value of $ 2,000) and each year, for the next
12 years, he released three clues in the newspaper
Kamloops News at New Years. By January 1983 all 36
clues had been released but no one had apparently found the
treasure and the time limit for discovery was extended to 1 June
1987.
Even by this date no one had claimed to have found any of the
several caches and the custodian (the originator appears to have
died) announced he was retrieving the buried treasure. However
he would not permit a newspaperman to accompany him and
there
is now a civil law suit pending, alleging misrepresentation.
Interest
in this treasure was high in Kamloops (pop: 63,000)
over the years and
in 1984 an enterprising person published a
panoramic map with all 36 clues listed, and showing the location
of ten proven ones. Eleven of the clues contain references to
railway matters and three
of them are known to relate to the area
about Lyon Embankment.
Clue 17. Old railway ties are prevalent in the general
area.
Clue
:#: 18. More than a 1000 railway spikes are scattered
within one mile
of the treasure.
Clue
:#: 19. Go uphill from end of old abandoned railway
spur.
My wife and I were attending a banquet in early 1980 when
the topic
of the Treasure Hunt inevitably bubbled to the
surface. Very soon two
of our table neighbours volunteered
information, not about the treasure, but about a
lost
locomotive. The first man said his father had worked for CNR
between the two World Wars and had told him about a wrecked
loco left on site somewhere around Avola, but the son had
no
details. The second man was a little more specific saying that his
information had also come from a
CNR pensioner. It was to the
effect that there was a wrecked loco back in the woods opposite
about Mile
16 or 17 (this places it between 2 & 3 miles north of
Cottonwood Flats). There was an assumption it was a logging
loco and had run away on a grade or broken through a trestle and
could not be reached to be salvaged
or was so badly damaged
that it was not worth the effort
to retrieve it.
This information jibed with some third-hand information I
had previously gleaned that a narrow gauge locomotive
employed to haul fill at Cottonwood Flats had toppled over an
embankment and either had been salvaged
or buried where it
lay.
No dates were attributed to these memories but it was felt by
all three of us that the most probable period was 1920 to 1935,
and for some reason we tended to favour round about 1925.
I was quite shaken that three people, randomly sitting down
to a meal and all unconnected with active railway work, should
184
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Panoramic view, looking north, showing site of existing embankment and temporary narrow gauge gravel railway. Taken from part
of Treasure Map prepared by L. Maki and Joe Jensen, Kamloops.
. I
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possess this kind of rare and related infonnation, and so made
notes about it within a week. I decided to investigate the area but
it was not until the summers
of 1982 and 1983 that this took
place.
In the meantime I examined the standard history (text) book
of the
CNR, Canadian National Railways by G.R. Stevens
(published
by Clarke Irwin & Co. Ltd., 2 vols in 1962) and was
rewarded
by a possible clue on page 96 of Volume·II. Here the
author sets out a table
of construction progress on the Canadian
Northern Railway between
Port Mann and the BCI Alberta
border. The contractors for the 245 miles between Kamloops
and Yellow head were Northern Construction Company (sub­
sidiary of Foley, Welch & Stewart Ltd. –
(R.F. Welch (BC)
Ltd. still maintains an office in Kamloops
as railway
maintenance-of-way caterers and lodging contractors) and
Cowan Construction Company.
Stevens quotes progress as follows: –
July 1910 -Work begun.
Dec.
1913 -Roadbed completed from Port Mann to
Kamloops North. (240 m) and well advanced
over remaining section to Lucerne
(250 m).
Steel laid from
Port Mann to Cisco Bridge
(126 m) and from Kamloops to
Cottonwood
Flats (123 m).
Aug. 1914. -Steel continuous south to Gosnell (81
m.) and
almost continuous north from
Port Mann to
Messiter (383 m.)
Now it is curious in the whole ofthe approximately 510 miles
between
Port Mann and Lucerne that the two obscure names of
Cottonwood Flats and Messiter should crop up. Messiter is the
next station point to the north
of Cottonwood Flats and is at Mile
13.6.
If you asked 500 people in Kamloops today to identify
these place names, it
is likely that 499 of them would never have
heard
of either of them.
So one asks was there some large civil engineering problem
in
the locality that was holding up the joining of the two advancing
ribbons
of steel. If there was, Stevens makes no mention of it
and by
23 January 1915 the line was continuous and complete.
In June 1982 I made an initial reconnaisance. Stopping for
gas at Avola, I hit pay dirt! One man said he had heard about a
buried locomotive whilst a second man was very specific. He
said there were two locos; one was a standard gauge
CNR loco
which
fell off an unstable part of the passing line at A vola about
!-1 mile north of the (fonner) depot on the east side on a curve,
and the second was a narrow gauge loco at Lyon Creek at about
Mile
16 where the trestle had been filled in but he did not
know if this small loco was buried by a slide or ifit had fallen off
the trestle.
This was comforting confinnation of the earlier rumour and
now I had a precise location to seek out. Lyon Creek is a side
valley that drains
part of the 6,000 ft. mountain behind it to the
west. The lateral distance from the mountain summit to the
joining
of Lyon Creek with the Thompson River is 9 miles and
the vertical
fall is 3,500 feet, which will indicate the nature of the
terrain.
It is only possible to approach the embankment that crosses
Lyon Creek
by walking beside the railway track from either
direction for at least a mile because
in this vicinity the flats
18S
between the railway and the Thompson River and marshy and
pennanently waterlogged.
Eventually I reached Lyon Creek and the embankment and it
proved anti-climatic.
The embankment bridged the creek for a
distance
of 4 mile running from one shoulder of the side-valley
to the other.
It was built on a curve and had a grade of 0.3 %
falling towards Kamloops. At its southern end the embankment
meets a rocky mass upon which a ledge has been cut and which
is
protected by a tumbling rock detector fence of 1150 ft. length
which runs between Mile 17.50 and Mile 17.72. Below this
precarious ledge are a
few remains of some lumber cars that were
wrecked
in a slide in February 1981. At the north end of the
Embankment the valley sides come down less precipitously than
those on the opposite side but still fairly steeply. There
is a
freight speed restriction
of25 mph between Mile 12.0 and Mile
22.8 because
of track curvature and gradient.
Standing on the Embankment and looking west up Lyon
Creek, I saw a small narrow valley which seemed to open out
about a mile upstream and was fairly level, but beyond it seemed
to stop abruptly
in steep mountain sides. Looking east towards
the
North Thompson River was flat waterlogged land with the
river about a third
of a mile away.
As to the Embankment itself, it appeared very ordinary
except for its steeply sloping sides. Having no experience
of
judging the height of such structures, all I could think was it was
about 75-100 ft. high.
It was possible to examine the
Embankment, from its top, for about 20 to 30 ft. down the slopes
on either side, but beyond this and at the bases
of the fill there
was a tangle
of trees and heavy undergrowth -and this for its
whole length
of just over a quarter mile. It was obviously a
physical impossibility to search the whole surface
of the two
slopes and no part
of a locomotive could be seen on the visible
crown
of the Embankment.
I left much dissappointed, knowing the hope
of ever finding a
buried loco was very slim.
On returning to Avola, I made further enquiries and was
eventually directed to one
of the older residents who knew the
local history well. I knocked at the door
of a house beside the
railway and was met by a Mr. Gerald Gibson, who courteously
invited me inside once I had explained
my business. Mr. Gibson
was born
in 1900 and has lived in or about A vola since
1925.
Without hesitation,
he told me the whole story of the Lyon
Creek Embankment and it
is worth noting, amongst many
details, he quoted the precise height
of the embankment from
memory, though he had never worked on the project himself or
worked for
CNR. This is his story.
The railway was surveyed
in this area in detail in 1911 .
There were problems with crossing Lyon Creek because
of its soft bottom. Round local poles were used as pilings
and were sunk
by local labour but the trestle itself was
built
by a professional trestle gang; they used squared
timbers which were imported,
as no local sawmill existed.
It was completed in 1914. About ten years later the
railway authorities decided to
fill in the trestle and the job
was won by a contractor called McGoughin. (This name
McGoughin was later to
give me a bum steer. Mr.
Gibson pronounced the name correctly and I wrote it
186
down phonetically, giving it a misleading Scottish
flavour.)
McGough
in found a suitable source of gravel in a clitT
about two or three miles up the valley of Lyon Creek and
he built a narrow gauge railway to connect his gravel pit
with the trestle that had been built by the Canadian
Northern Railway. A steam shovel worked at this pit.
Though not precise about dates,
Mr. Gibson thought
the work was done
in the snow-free months of 1926 and
1927 and was fully complete by 1928.
The narrow gauge railway was of 3 ft. gauge and had a
total trackage
of perhaps 211 miles. The headquarters of
the outfit were sited about a mile or so from the trestle and
about halfway along the line
of the narrow gauge track,
and adjacent to it was a camp with accommodation for a
hundred men. There was even a temporary post office.
The
CNRput in a spur at the north-west end of the trestle
which could hold 2 or 3 cars. The contractors narrow
gauge line ran up to this spur so that transhipment
of camp
supplies, coal, and equipment could take place. Even
straw was delivered to stop gravel sticking to the bottom
of
the small dump cars.
There were
three dinkie locies , each pu Iling trains
of 7 to 10 dump cars. The contractor built temporary
trestles on each side of, and parallel to, the
CNR trestle to
be filled in and then laid his narrow gauge track on top of
them. Access to these dumping lines was at the north end
of the
CN trestle and in the case of the eastern dumping
line the narrow gauge trackage passed between the bents
of the main trestle.
Each of these side dumping lines
spread the gravel at its base for
40 or 50 ft. so that
eventually the embankment had a base width
of about 100
feet. After two years work the gravel
fill was up to within
25 ft.
of the top of the CN trestle. At this point the
contractor stopped filling and standard gauge cars
dumped gravel from the main-line track to centre the
whole
of the embankment and bring it to its crest. Upon
completion it stood
114 ft. high. Mr. Gibson also
mentioned that there was a man working a winch at the in­
filling site but it was unclear as to its purpose.
This was the testimony
of Mr. Gerald Gibson of Avola and
we must be grateful to him for his explicit detail which makes the
reconstruction
of the whole operation that much clearer. We had
heard the story
of the dinkie falling otT the trestle and being
buried, but had no details. Armed with this information and now
familiar with the immediate area, I decided to make a search for
the narrow gauge railway but this was delayed until August
1983. Accompanied
by my son and a friend, we commenced our
search at the north end
of Lyon Embankment.
There was no visible sign of the
CNR temporary spur but
there was a small flat area where
it could have been located.
Lower down the slope the natural
lie of the land had been
disturbed
in recent years by a bulldozer finding fill to make a
dyke on the upstream side
ofthe Embankment; to protect it from
base erosion. This work had obviously destroyed the right-of­
way of the narrow gauge railway
in the vicinity of the former
trestle. However by walking into Lyon Creek and along its northern face,
we soon came across the track bed of the
abandoned narrow gauge line without any difficulty.
It lay in a stand of conifers and there was nothing temporary
about its alignment or construction.
It ran fairly straight and with
easy curves, most
of it on the level but with a slight upgrade as it
got to within a
4 mile of the former trestle. The road bed had a
minimum
of 8 ft. width at its crown and in places extended to 12
ft. or more and anyone could be forgiven for thinking it carried a
standard gauge railway. There were no concessions to the
terrain, any rocky outcrops being blasted and all gullies filled,
the whole being made into a firm and compact roadbed.
We were
surprised to find such quality
of work for a temporary
construction project. Later reflection suggested to me a rough
and ready track had been made to reach the gravel pit, possibly
using horse traction. Later
a proper line had been made beside
it once an adequate supply of
fill had been obtained, building it
from pit to trestle; this would explain the generous right-of-way
in many places.
It was evident that most of the ties had been removed at
abandonment, and had been laid at 24 inch centres . We saw not
one spike, as mentioned
in Clue 0# 18 of the Treasure Hunt,
presumably they could have been collected by the many seekers
who had already scoured the area.
After a short while
we came across what looked like a short
passing loop, and then after about a mile or more from the
CNR
track we came to the railway yard, as expected. There was a
passing loop and what may have been one or two spurs. There
was evidence of a homemade water tank with a rotting hose –
complete with tank filling nozzle -discarded on the forest floor,
but there was no sign
of a locomotive shed, as such.
It was not difficult to find railway artifacts left by the
contractor 60 years ago. There were three
or four lengths of bent
rail
of 40 lb weight, a firebox clinker picker, and a whole clump
of metal debris, most of which was not more than 18 inches long.
A chance fmd
of a small cast iron cover, marked Canadian
Blower & Forge Co. Ltd., Kitchener, Ontario , showed it to be
the site of the camps blacksmith shop.
There was even evidence
of the type of rolling stock used on
the 3 ft. gauge line
in the shape of two discarded and slightly
twisted underframes
of dump cars, presumably battered in some
mishap. They were 10 ft. long and 52 inches wide and
in parts
were made from
~ thick plate. There were no wheels or axles to
be found anywhere but the bearing fittings on the underframes
showed them to have had a 50 inch wheelbase.
At least ten
spring-loaded car butTers, forged trumpet-looking devices, 15
long, were strewn about and
all of them and another un­
identifiable assembly were forged by Western Wheelco Scraper
Co., Aurora, Illinois, suggestive
of the manufacturer of the
dump cars. Remnants of three wooden dump boxes with metal
fittings showed them to have the following length, width and
depth dimensions: –
(a) 8 ft. X 43 X 24 – 2.1 cubic yards.
(b) 7 ft.
3 X 36 X 42 -2.8 cubic yards.
(c) 9 ft. X
48 X 40 -4.4 cubic yards.
Photos I have seen
of contractors narrow gauge dump cars show
them to be somewhat crudely built with the boxes sitting high up
and supported
by a tipping mechanism. This makes their centre
of gravity somewhat high for their heavy load and as a
/
/
/
/
narrow gauge dump
railway laid on
temporary trestle
marshy
ground
pond
SCALE: Sketch, rather than plan,
but approx. 1 inch= 200 ft.
consequence their side boards were not high -perhaps 2 ft.
maximum. I am therefore inclined to think that box (a) above
was a typical dump car, whilst (b) and (c) were the boxes for the
equivalent
of gondola cars and carried such items as coal,
supplies, food, and men.
If this line of reasoning is accepted,
then each train was capable
of carrying between 15 (7 cars) and
21 (10 cars) cubic yards of gravel, or between 40 and 57
tons.
After this search
of the camp we carried on along the track
bed but soon came out
of the conifirs and onto the valley floor
and then came to a stop at the edge
of a shallow lake caused by
beavers damming the valley at this point.
In front of us and a mile
away across the flat bed
of this side-valley was a long cliff of
gravel which formed the base of the mountain that loomed over
us. There was no time
for speculation as the mosquitos and
horse-flies were biting us savagely, so
we turned and fled the
way we had come in.
Disappointed at the unlikelihood
of ever finding the lost
locie but excited at having found the abandoned narrow-gauge
line, I started to think
of the type of engines that would have
worked it.
View of the North Thompson valley looking south. It is taken from
the very southern end
of Lyon Embankment and looks down the
valley. Part
of the rock detector fence can be seen in the distance.
Photo by the author.
/
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187

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There must have been a concentration of contractors
locomotives
in British Columbia within the years 1908-1921, a
situation not experienced before or since. This was due to a
surge
of railway construction which in the decade 1912-1921
added nearly 2,400 route miles within the Province, or about
half the total route miles that eventually existed. Much
of the
work was done concurrently, rather than consecutively.
The principal pieces
of construction were: –
(a)
Grand Trunk Pacific Rly: Edmonton to Prince Rupert,
1908-1914,705 miles (in B.C.).
(b) Esquimalt & Nanaimo Rly (CPR): northward exten­
sions, 1908-1914, 105 miles.
(c) Canadian Northern Rly: Edmonton to Vancouver,
of
which the trestle of this story was a part, 1910-1915,
495 miles (in
B.C.).
(d) Kootenay Central Rly (CPR): Cranbrook to Golden,
1912-1915,165 miles.
(e) Kettle Valley
Rly(CPR): Midway to Hope, 1910-1916,
295 miles.
(f) Pacific Great Eastern Rly (now B. C. Rly): Squamish to
Quesnel,
1912-1921,470 miles.
(g) Canadian National Rlys: Vancouver Island, Victoria to
Lake Cowichan, 1916-1921, 90 miles.
:;;
>
a:

ro
0.0
4.4
8.2
13.6

]!j.tJ
24.8
29.8
34.5
41.2
47.1
53.0
61.6
67.7
189
Time Table No. 10 -June 8th. 1980

CLEARWATER

SUBDIVISION
.~ c

0 u
.~
N iii
(J.
C c.
E S
Ui u
::::; .l:
U
.~~
u
.~ STATIONS ~ :;; uIL
>-u: 0 U5.S
….
2~3
~ …. ,eo, . .. e,w,
BR 7760
4.4
… . . . . . · … ANGUS HORNE …… … . . ..
3.8
.. . . .. · …. WOLFENDEN ……• . … 6650
5.4-
… .
I
…. ~t{-… MESSITER …….. . …
r-~ 5.2
LYON EMBANKMENT: Approx Mile 17
(J
I-
(J
· . COTTONWOOD FLATS ….
6.0
~ t{ ….. AVOLA …… WY
f-;!}. 5.0
· …. WIRE CACHE.
4.7
….. McMURPHY 6620
6.7
…. WABRON …. • . . . 6060
5.9
….. IRVINE 5850
5.9
… VAVENBY . . . . 6280
B.6
· … BIRCH ISLAND … WY 6100
6.1
· …. CLEARWATER
Two views of the Lyon Embankment taken by the author.
All the contractors who built these lines had the advantage of
steam operated equipment in the shape of locomotives, steam
shovels, and steam powered rock dril.ls. Rough and ready
tramroads were laid down quickly and just as quickly moved
elsewhere to help create the permanent bed of the new railway.
Sometimes even horse-drawn sleds and sternwheelers were used
to bring the narrow gauge equipment to a new site. The two
narrow gauges
in use were 24 inch and 36 inch, with the former
favoured
by the contractors because of its flexibility.
Three locomotive manufacturers specialised
in the supply of
narrow gauge locies, all in the USA, as the market was too small
and
too specialised for a Canadian company to compete. These
three companies
in descending order of favour in British
Columbia were: –
H.K. Porter Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; 1866-1941
Davenport Locomotive Works, Davenport, Iowa; 1906-
1933
Vulcan Iron Works, Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania; 1848-
1941.
190
The locomotives they built for contractors were inevitably
0-4-0 tank engines; three axles would not permit sharp curves to
be taken, whilst a tender was a liability.
The characteristics of a typical dinkie locomotive are set
out
in tabular form below.
Aspects
24 gauge loco 36 gauge loco
Weight
of rail/yard 201b 40 Ib
Radius of sharpest curve 25 ft. 40 ft.
Loco wheelbase 48 ins
54 ins
Loco length over buffers
14~ ft. 18 ft.
Loco width
5~ ft. 8 [t.
Loco weight when working 9 tons
16 tons
Loco boiler pressure 140
Ibs psi J40 Ibs psi
Haulage capacity
dead level 300 tons 900 tons
1 % grade 80 tons 200 tons
2% grade 40 tons 100 tons
From a contractors point of view, perhaps the last entry in
the table is the most telling. Most of the temporary lines these
dinkies worked on went up and down with the ground contours
and the elevations needed by the work
in hand, resulting
frequently
in short stretches of 2% grade. This meant that a
contractors work train was quite limited
in the tonnage it could
haul. In the specific case
of the work at Lyon Embankment, it
would seem that the maximum weight of the train, both tare and
gravel, could not exceed 100 tons.
These details tended to reinforce
in my mind the image ofthe
lost dinkie that I was looking for. It would have two domes­
one for steam and one for sand -atop the boiler and
disproportionally large to the rest of the machine, and also a
wooden cab and this too disproportionally large. Presumably
the cab would have rotted, or would have been crushed or
separated
in the accident that allegedly happened. I also
presumed contractor McGoughin would have had
no difficulty
in picking up used narrow gauge locomotives in the Province in
the 1920 s considering the concentration of them in the
preceeding decade.
My next step was to contact Canadian National Railways
and
in due course the Bridges and Structures Department of the
Engineering Division at Edmonton responded in a most helpful
way. A search
of their records provided no written material as
such but did yield three relevant drawings, copies
of which were
kindly supplied.
Suddenly this passing interest
of mine , which to this time was
of a subjective nature, now took objective form. It was possible
to regard Lyon Embankment
in a precise manner.
The plans showed the profile of the original trestle, it being
1524
ft. long on a curve, and built with 104 bents (Bents: closely
spaced vertical frames that carry bridge deck). About 75
of the
bents were of about equal height, the maximum being about
115
ft.; it is interesting to note this confirmed the testimony of Mr.
Gibson of Avola. This trestle survives to this day, sight unseen,
for it
is buried within the present gravel embankment.
The earliest drawing is dated February 1923, issued at
Vancouver
by the fledgling Canadian National Railways, and is
headed Water Tunnel, Contour Plan. It shows the intent to divert the natural water course
of Lyon Creek into a curving
tunnel carved
out of the granite rock at the southern edge of the
trestle. This rock is a solid slab
of mountainside and, as
explained earlier, the railway traverses it on ledge blasted out
by
the original railway construction gangs.
This drawing tells us
CNR was dissatisfied with the 8 year
old trestle and intended to replace it with a dirt-fill embankment
within the
next couple of years or so, for the plan carried the
words
Toe of slope of proposed fill. The thing we do not know
was the cause
of the dissatisfaction; perhaps the trestle was built
of timber not pressure creosoted -as an economy measure -and
was intended from the
start to be replaced by fill at an early date.
Alternatively, the trestle could have started to settle
in places
due to the green piles, which supported the bents, sinking or
rotting
in the marshy floor of Lyon Creek.
The solution to the culvert problem was truly ingenious,
because normal techniques could not have grappled with the soft
yielding foundation and the great mass
of embankment weight
pressing down. Today
s weathered and moss-covered entrance
to the water tunnel looks so natural, that I never gave it a thought
as being man-made. It takes the form of an elbowed L and is
3,115 ft. long and about 5 ft. diameter. Presumably it was bored
in 1923 or 1924.
The other two drawings are both dated
16 May 1925 and
were issued
by the Office of Bridge Engineer, Winnipeg; they
are headed Proposed Fill
of Trestle Bridge, Lyon Creek, Mile
17.1, Clearwater Subdivision, B. C. District. What is interest­
ing
is a subsidiary sketch showing how it was proposed to make
the fill; this has been reproduced for this article.
A
fill of ;,i million cubic yards was to be made in 1925 to a
height of 40 ft., then nearly
~ million cubic yards in 1926 and
192 7
to an 80 ft. level, all to be done by the successful bidder to
the contract. There
is no notation concerning the final 35 ft. but
the presumption
is this was to be undertaken by CNR itself by
side and bottom dumping from standard gauge ballast cars
standing on the trestle itself.
The sides
of the embankment-to-be are shown as having a
1
~ to I slope, but the site engineer was permitted latitude and
this
he must have exercised for they are very steep at about 45
degrees or 1 to 1.
We know where the
fill came from to build the lower two­
thirds
of the Embankment, but where did CNR get its fill to
complete the structure? There are no known pits
of any sort for
many, many, miles on either side
of the project and it has been
suggested the most likely site was at Lucerne, just over the
border into Alberta, and some 130 miles distant. Federal
railways do not consider such distances excessive when hauling
ballast, rip-rap, or gravel for their own use. The pit at Lucerne
has been abandoned for many years but back
in 1940 it was a
busy place using three
CNR steam shovels. It has been
estimated it would have taken 200 standard gauge trains, each
of
20 ballast cars (30 cub. yds per car) carrying 600 cubic yards of
gravel weighing 1,300 tons, to complete the fill to crest.
From this date it
is now possible to compute that Lyon
Embankment has a base width
of270 ft., a crest width of35 feet,
a height of about
115 feet, lengthof510 yards, and contains over
¥.i million cubic yards of gravel.
Having got this far
in my searches and researches, the project
languished for many reasons, the pivotal one being that life was
too busy and other matters had a higher priority. But suddenly in
the spring of 1986 a major clue appeared and away went the
project again in high gear.
At that time a 100 page booklet entitled British Columbia
Industrial Locomotives
(*) was published by the author,
Mervyn
T. Green. This was an exhaustive listing of all standard
and narrow gauge locomotives, past and present, in the Province
and worked by steam, electricity, internal combustion,
or
compressed air. The entries were grouped by type of industries
and by name
of owner. The booklet contained a wealth of
detailed information and must be regarded as the reference
source in this specialised field for many a
year to come.
In browsing through the booklet in search
of narrow gauge
contractors and their locomotives, I suddenly spotted the name
MAGOFFIN. I knew immediately my phonetic McGoughin
was in error and must be discarded forthwith. Things quickly fell
into place with the booklets data, and the assistance of the
public library
of North Vancouver District and the B. C.
Provincial Museum in Victoria.
S. S. Magoffin was an earthmoving firm created by a Sam
Magoffin by about 1920. Heresay has it Magoffin was a sub­
contractor in the building
of the Canadian Northern Railway
through the
Fraser Canyon in lower B. C. In the records of the
Railway Department
of the Provincial Government he is listed
in 1920, with a head office in Prince George, possessing 4
locomotives but no equipment
or track, and working for the
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. Identical entries continue to
1924 but by this time the number oflocomotives had dropped to
two. Foley, Welch
& Stewart Construction Ltd. built the
GTPR between Prince George and Prince Rupert and used
about
15 narrow gauge dinkies, sharing its favours equally
between the loco manufacturers
Davenport and Porter; all but
two
of them appear to be of24 inch gauge. It is thought Magoffin
purchased four
of the 24 inch gauge dinkies on site and used
them to do clean-up, fill-in and stabilisation work for
GTPR,
later to be Canadian National Railways; these he numbered 21
through 24.
Magoffin
is also known to have levelled and filled in the
North Vancouver harbour frontage
in about 1925-26 using shoe­
string equipment. There
is the suggestion he was adept at getting
the best out
of antiquated equipment and keeping his overhead to
the minimum, but this
is at variance with what was found at
Lyon Creek where no comers were cut and all was
of the highest
standard.
Magoffin s work on the former
GTPR must have petered out
by 1925 for a 1927 and 1933 directory lists his work depot as
being on the waterfront in North Vancouver. The last and final
listing appeared
in 1958 at 1227 East 3rd, North Vancouver,
when presumably Magofflll folded the business
or died; his
widow lived in
West Vancouver until her death in 1977. It is
known for certain in 1955 that his yard held a 3 ft. gauge loco
#25 (more about this presently), a Baldwin loco, about half a
dozen Davenport dinkies, many narrow gauge side dumping
(0) Booklet: 100 PP. Jan 1986. Produced & published by M. T. Green,
C.
R.H.A. Member, & Chairman of Pacific Coast Division, 1976-78. Price:
$16.00 plus
$3.50 mailing from M.T. Green, #35-7740 Abercrombie Drive,
Richmond, B.
C., V6Y 3G6.
191
Two views o/construction on the Canadian Northern about 1914.
Thejirst view
is at Stout on the Yale subdivision, while the second
is 100 miles east 0/ Port Mann.
Kamloops Museum, 2790 and 2791.
cars and tons of 40 lb rail-the same weight as that found at Lyon
Creek.
It is believed all this material, with the notable exception
of Loco # 25, was scraped soon after this date.
The entry for Magoffin Construction in the booklet B. C.
Industrial Locomotives had an intriguing piece of detail. It
showed Magoffin owned a 3 ft. gauge loco, built by Vulcan
Locomotive Works, which he had purchased
in 1920 from a
USA railway contractor called Grant Small of Spokane,
Washington. This contractor had purchased the loco new in
1910 and had assigned it the number
25, which Magoffin did not
alter. The date span
of 1910-20 covers the period of intense
railway construction in B. C. and it
is thought Small & Co. may
have been a major sub-contractor to Foley Welch & Stewart,
who were responsible for building both the
Great Northern, and
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway; so it looks
as if Magoffin
acquired #
25 on site somewhere in B. C. The published detail
in the booklet then produced a small miracle -the locomotive
was still in existence and was owned
by the B. C. Forest
Museum at Duncan on Vancouver Island.
A letter to the Forest Museum produced a most informative
response from their archivist,
Mr. Patrick Hind. Loco #25 was
purchased from Magoffin in 1955 by a public spirited logging
contractor on Vancouver Island, who at that stage was slowly
192
No attempt has been made to
trace any photographs oJ the
contractors railway or the filling
in oJ the trest/e. This
view, taken
at Lillooet on the PGE in 1927,
provides a good example
oJ how
things
were done as well as the
equipment provided.
Collection oJ Vancouver
Public Library.
collecting all manner of logging exhibits with an eye to creating a
forestry museum at some later date. In 1955 the loco had been
in
storage for a quarter century half in and half out of a building and
was covered
in rust and moss, though a test showed the boiler to
be
in reasonable shape.
The loco was immediately removed to Vancouver Island and
was run for the first time
in early 1956.
In 1965 the Cowichan Valley
Forest Museum was opened
privately
as a non-profit-making venture and a decade later was
purchased
by the B. C. Provincial Government but is still
operated
by the original governing society. From its earliest
days the Museum has worked a 3 ft. gauge steam passenger
railway during the summer months, with trackage at first a mile­
long oval but
now of 1 ~ mile configuration. Since the railways
inception,
# 25 has been the regular locomotive and continues
so to this day, which says much for her ease of working and
economy. She
is no longer a tank engine, having had a tender
added to increase water and fuel capacities and provide better
riding. So anyone visiting the
Forest Museum at Duncan can see
one ofMagoffin s locos still
at work, and can even ride behind it.
Mr. Hind supplied a wealth
of detail about the loco, the
essentials being
as follows: –
Vulcan,
0-4-0 saddle tank, builders # 1549,1910,18 tons,
wheelbase
60, length overall 208, width 7 10, height
98, tractive force 7580 Ibs, horsepower 110, speed 6 to 10
mph, cylinders 10 x 16, wheel dia 30 , water 700 gals,
tubes 84.
This makes her a powerful example
of her class as a contractors
loco, and she hardly
fits the term dinkie.
The next obvious question is, Did she work at Lyon
Creek?. The answer appears to be yes because in the middle
of 1926 # 25 was sent to the Vancouver Machinery Depot Ltd.
to
be overhauled and to have her lap-seam boiler converted to
butt strap. After a pressure test a working pressure
of 150 Ibs
was authorised, whereas previously it had been 140 Ibs. This
work was completed by 30 June 1926. This date
is significant as
Magoffin did not possess many locomotives of36 gauge and he
was embarking on a major contact.
It is almost a certainty that
#25 was hoisted onto a CNR flatcar in Vancouver and
shipped direct to Lyon Creek, or to
be more precise Magoffin
Spur.
An examination of Post Office records shows a Magoffin
Spur Post Office was registered between
15 Oct. 1925 and 9
Sept. 1928, sited
in splendid isolation and only accessible by rail
-first
by standard and then by narrow gauge. From these dates it
would appear Magoffin built his contractors line and camp
in
1925, and hauled fill for the working months of 1926 through
1928, leaving
CNR to complete its portion in 1929.
There remains one aspect
of the gravel-fill operation that has
remained a closed book but has to
be mentally explored. How
exactly did
Mr. Magoffin get the job done? I have spent some
time trying to determine his system of working but have failed to
find a satisfying practical solution, so now present
it as a
challenge to the reader. The task was to move
700,000 cubic
yards of gravel from A to B, using the components
x (steam
shovel),
y (train size & frequency) and z (time available). It
reminds one of school days in being set one of those contrived
maths
questions. Lyon Embankment stands today as Magoffills
triumph so there has to
be a correct answer.
Starting with the steam shovel at the pit, we do not know
if
there was one shovel or two, but any references I have heard
have been
in the singular so we shall presume there was only
one. A 1909 publication
says … a steam shovel with a dipper
holding 1
~ to 2 cubic yards can load 800 to 1200 cubic yards per
day, depending upon the prompt handling of the cars when
loaded .
A contractors narrow gauge dump-car
of the type already
discussed earlier will hold close to 3 cubic yards with a heaped
load, which suggests a steam shovel could load it
in two bites.
The productivity just quoted in the passage above makes for a
bite every minute, or less, and on this basis 30 dump-cars
(each
of 3 cub. yds) could be filled in one hour by the steam
shovel. This could only be attained by having the train loco
smartly position each car
in tum at the shovels reach.
Turning next to the number
of trains at work at any given
moment, their number and length in cars will be determined
by
the time taken to make a round trip, the output of the shovel, and
the capacity
of a single line railway with a mid passing loop. The
line was 2Y2 to 3 miles long and a contractors train travelling at
10 mph would take 15 to 18 minutes to traverse it. Tipping the
cars at the trestles would take little time, and so I have assumed a
one-way trip would take 20 minutes.
From the point of view of
balanced workings, and of safety, it seems feasible to permit
only two trains to be on the line with an inflexible meet at the mid
loop. This module
of20 minutes means the steam shovel could
fill 10 dump cars in that period and so fixes the train length at 10
cars. I am inclined to the view there were three trains at work,
one departing from the gravel pit every twenty minutes; this
being partly based on Mr.
Gibsons recollections of three
dinkies and trains
of7 to 10 cars. At any given moment, Train
# 1 would be departing from the pit loaded, Train # 2 would be
departing the trestle empty, whilst Train # 3 would just have
arrived at the pit and was beginning to pull its cars past the
bucket radius
of the steam shovel. It is most probable Magoffin
had a fourth locomotive at the site as a spare to provide coverage
for periodic maintenance and failures of the other engines. Each
trip dinkie would have travelled close to 35,000 miles by the
time the 3 year contract was completed.
The third and final component was time available. The
elevation at Lyon Creek is just shy of 2000 ft. above sea level
and
as a consequence only 6 months of the year are available for
working, these being May through October. In April the land
is
VULCAN 0-4-0, constmction
number 1549 at the B. C. Forest
Museum, Duncan B.
C. on
September 27, 1987. The occasion
was the last mn oj the 1987
museum season as well as
engineer Walter PqfJords last
mn beJore his retirement.
Photo by Patrick
O. Hind.
193
still partly snow covered and wet with run-otT, whilst in
November freeze-up has occurred and first snows have
appeared. I have assumed Magoffin would use all the daylight
hours available and might even have introduced double shift
working at the height
of the summer, working from 5.00 am to 10
pm. On average for the six months there would have been a 12
hour work day, and since the work camp lay in splendid isolation
without a single human distraction, long hours would not have
been intolerable providing the pay was good. I am also assuming
a
6-day week, which was not an abnormality in those days since
5
Y2 days was the norm, leaving Sunday for make and mend for
both men and machines.
Putting all this together
in mathematical terms we get: –
Hourly capacity of steam shovel = 30 dump cars = 90
cub/yds
Daily output = 12 hours X 90 cub/yds = 1080 cub/yds
Weekly output = 6 days X 1080 cub/yds = 6480 cub/yds
Annualoutput= 26 weeks(6 months) X6480 cub/yds =
168,480 cub/yds
Three Year (1926-8) output = 3 X 168,480 c/y =
505,440 cub/yds.
Unfortunately for this theoretical calculation, 700,000 cubic
yards were required
of the contractor to bring the fill to the 80 ft.
level, and I have been able to produce only a half million cubic
yards.
The only possible solution I can otTer to make up for the
short-fall
is that CNR helped with the in-filling of the
Embankment at the beginning
of the project, as well as at the
end.
At the very start of the infilling the embankment-to-be had
a wide base and it would not be illogical
for CNR to bottom
dump from its permanent trestle with Magoffin dumping from his
two temporary wing trestles.
By this means the missing 200,000
cubic yards could have been placed in the low centre of the
emerging embankment.
194
The spoil dumped from the cars running on the trestles above
could not remain as gravity had dictated and had to be evenly
spread, lightly compressed and packed around the timbers
of the
trestle bents. Much
of this would be done manually and the
majority
of the labour force was to be found here; it has been
estimated
for one shift only 20 men were needed to run shovel
and trains,
do mechanical maintenance, and manage the
catering and bunkhouse facilities. Mr. Gibson made mention
of
a man working on a winch at the in-filling site and literature of
the period talks about spreading with scrapers, so it is entirely
possible Magoffin had mechanised the gross movement
of
dumped gravel. This he would have done with a steam winch
pulling a scraper with a wire rope on a shuttle system, leaving
smaller amounts to be spread with greater precision
by the day
labourers. The
CNR drawing of May 1925 stated the fill was
To be made in lifts not exceeding 20 feet in depth; see
specifications but it
is likely this was translated into the winter
settlements
of 1926/27, 1927/28 and 1928/29.
Before
my enquiries came to an end, I had to satisfy myself
on one further point. Before having had the advantage
of looking
at the
CNR plans, I had assumed the contractor was responsible
for filling the whole embankment to its crest and I had not too
closely examined the way
in which the narrow gauge line had
made a side-by-side connection with the standard gauge spur.
Now knowing the contractors
fill reached only to the 80 ft.
level,
I had to
find out how the connection had been made and so
in the summer of 1987, accompanied by my wife, I revisited the
site.
It became obvious the connecting earthworks of the narrow
gauge line ran to the 80 ft. level and no higher; with certainty
there was no additional spur
at a higher level on the northem
slopes
of Lyon Creek. This meant there was no adhesion steam­
worked connection between the standard and narrow gauge
railways. However there was a 15-20 ft. wide and fairly evenly
graded slope running down from the former
CNR spur to the
former narrow gauge trackage below (35 vertical feet). The
passage
of bulldozers in recent years and natures debris over
time had blunted any obvious signs, but I believe this was the site
of a two-track narrow gauge (3 ft.) incline. It would have been
worked on the counterbalance system with a steam driven
capstan fitted with a brake; gravel-filled dump cars would have
acted as the counterweights.
The only other way to make the
connection was for Magoffin to have built a subsiduary trestle on
a 5
% grade for 250 yards and then connect it with his west wing
trestle. This does not seem very realistic and so I conclude the
connector was a short power-assisted gravity incline.
The end
of this story is inconclusive for at this date neither the
buried locomotive nor the buried treasure have been found.
After all these investigations, I have been asked on several
occasions
if! believe a dinkie locomotive still lies buried in or
near Lyon Embankment. My reply has to
be this.
The persistence of the story about an accident that befell a
narrow gauge loco, linked with the known building
of an
embankment, makes the story entirely plausible and probable.
All the remembrances
of this locomotive describe some kind of
accident and not an abandonment, so I think we can safely
dismiss the notion
of a dinkie standing forgotten and rusting in
the woods.
This is a Jrame oj one oj the narrow-gauge dump cars Jound at the
headquarters camp
in the woods about a mile and a half Jrom the
eN main line at Lyon Embankment.
Photo
by author.
It seems the earliest references to the loco came from CNR
pensioners and this holds a special significance for me. If this
dinkie fell off one of the two temporary trestles and was
deemed not worth recovering, it would have been covered in
gravel within weeks and would soon have been forgotten
– out of
sight, out of mind . But no, it was not forgotten and this strongly
suggests it fell at the edge
of the rising embankment and lay
either with its front end
or its cab poking out of the gravel
somewhere on the lower two-thirds
of either slope, for the good
reason the dinkie never worked above that height.
Thus it
would
have been seen by any observant train crew
or track gang,
and so
the burial became a piece of railway lore for those men
who worked the Clearwater Sub-division
of CNR. Ten or
fifteen years later vegetation took a hold of the sterile slopes of
the embankment and slowly but surely the dinkie disappeared
under a blanket
of weed, scrub, tree saplings, old ballast and
rotten ties. Time also was at work with those
CNR employees
who knew
of the incident at first hand, perhaps first sight would
be more apt; and so
by 1960 the loco had disappeared in the
minds
of men and on the slope of an embankment. If this
supposition
is correct, then may she rest where she fell those 60
years ago.
No apologies are needed for not finding the lost locomotive
and the buried treasure,
for the story of Lyon Embankment has
been revealing.
It has given us an excellent example of what was
once an important, but transitory, civil engineering activity on
all the railways
in Canada -the infilling, stabilisation and
improvement
of track beds built to pioneer standards.
Acknowledgements: Mr. G. Gibson, Avola, B.C.; Kamloops
Daily News, Kamloops; Canadian National Railways­
Kamloops & Edmonton; Mr. M. Green, Richmond, B.C.;
North Vancouver District Public Library; Mr. P.O. Hind,
Duncan, B. C.; B. C. Forest Museum, Vancouver Island; B.C.
Provincial Museum, Victoria.
Reference: Booklet: British Columbia Industrial Locomotives
.
.. Book Canadian National Railways as described in text.
Two views oj the Embankment, taken by the author in June 1989.
Above
we look south and downgrade, while the view on the right
looks
in the opposite direction.
Appendix A
TRESTLE FILLING Relevant article from textbook, Vol
II of Cyclopedia of Civil Engineering dealing with Plotting,
Topography, Railroad Engineering. Published
by American
School
of Correspondence, Chicago, 1909. Ex tract appears on
pages 277 -79 under a sub-heading
Track Maintenance.
157. Trestle Filling.
This has become a very common
form
of work for the work train. When the construction of a
railroad is once definitely decided and work
is begun, any
measure which will hasten the opening
of the road for traffic
has a very high money value. Therefore trestles have been built
where embankments are a better form of permanent construc­
tion. The preliminary construction
of trestles isfurther justified
by thefact that the immediate construction of an embankment
would often involve very expensive hauling with teams from
borrow pits
in the neighborhood, while a future fill may be
made by the train load, as described below, at a much less cost.
Incidentally, time
is allowed to determine the maximum water
flow through the hollow crossed by the line,
and the size of the
culvert required
may be more accurately determined. The cost
of the culvert, which may be very considerable, is also deferred
to a time when the road can better afford it. At the time that
many existing trestles were built the cost
of timber in their
localities was so small that the trestle may have been actually
cheaper.
195
Many roads are now confronted by the necessity of either
replacing the trestle or filling
in with earth. While the relative
cost is very variable, depending
on the local pnce of timber, the
proximity
of a sufficient supply of available filling and the
methods
to be employed, yet as an approximatefigure it may be
said that fills as high as 25 feet may be filled with earth as
cheaply as a trestle can
be reconstructed. But when it is
considered in addition that the average amount of timber
required annually
for repairs of trestles is about one-eight of
the volume, also that the labor involved in maintenance is very
great while it
is almost insignificant on an embankment, also
that the danger
of accident on a trestle and the disastrous
results
of a derailment which may occur on a trestle is so much
greater than on an embankment, the height
at which it becomes
economical
to fill with earth instead of reconstructing the
trestle increases until it may reach 50 feet.
But the filling in of
high trestles involves several special constructive features. The
hollow
may have at the bottom a very soft soil which cannot
sustain a heavy embankment without considerable settlement.
Such a settlement will prove destructive to almost
any culvert
unless a solid foundation may
be made for it. Under such
conditions a pile or concrete foundation for the culvert may
become a necessity.
The dumping
of earth and particularly ofboulders, stumps
and clods of frozen earth may do serious injury to the trestle
unless means are taken
to guard against it. This may be done
by placing an apron
on each side which will deflect the earth
196
so that itfalls outside the trestle. As the piles grow on each side
the intermediate space will bejilled
up. The longitudinal braces
which are most apt
to suffer are sometimes strengthened by
heavy timbers, which
may be old stringers, etc. The filling
should
be done regularly along the length so that the bents will
not beforced out
of place by an unsupported pressure of earth
on one side. If the bank is formed merely by dropping earth
loosely from above, its slopes will
be steeper than can be
retained permanently. The result
is frequently a disastrous
slip. Thisfeaturejusti./ies the spreading
of the earth by scrapers
as thefilling proceeds. This method has the additional merit
of
packing the earth so that there is almost no settlement and the
stringers may be pulled
and the ballasted roadbed may be
constructed very soon cifter the filling is complete. Otherwise
the settlement is so great that six months or a year must elapse
before track laying
is permissible. During this time the
embankment
may settle 10 per cent. This earth-spreading may
be done for two or three cents per cubic yard.
The choice
of filling material is an important mailer. A
sandy or gravelly soil is the best. Clay
is apt to be very
trouble-some, for, no mailer how hard
it may be in dry
weather, it will slip
and run when it becomes wet. This is
especially true when the base
of afill is on a steep side slope. In
this case the wholefill may slide down the hill. One means of
preventing this is to dig trenches along the slope. Even plowing
the surface
in contour fUrrows may be sufficient to prevent such
a slip. The materialfor such
afill will usually come as the spoil
from a widened cut, loaded perhaps with a steam shovel into
dump cars or on to flats from which it is scraped by a plow, as
previously described.
The practice
of immediately planting tufls of Bermuda grass
and even tree slips which will take root and grow
and thus bind
the embankment together as well as cover it with a surface
of
sod which will protect it from rain-wash is a measure of true
economy which always pays. The total cost
of such afill must
combine the cost
of loading, hauling, spreading (if it is done)
and the other expenses incidental
to making a finished
embankment, but the record made by many roads on these
items show that it
may be done at very much less cost than by
the methods which are usual or possible during the original
construction
of the road. When the plans call for a very long
and high embankment,
it is sometimes best to constructjirst a
trestle and operate the road over
it. The trestle should have a
life
of at least five or six years, and during that time material
can
be brought from some excavation, perhaps several miles
away, where it was perhaps loaded with a steam shovel, hauled
by the train load, dumped with an unloader, and allowed all
the required time to settle, the whole being done for a cost per
yard far less than it would have cost during the original
construction. The method has the added advantage
of
permitting the road to be quickly opened jor trajJic and
permitting it to quickly get on an earning basis, for such a
trestle can
be built more quickly than a very high embankment.
Appendix B
Reproduced from the British Steam Railway News, Vol 1 ,
No 22, dated 2-9 October 1987.
ANOTHER BURlED LOCOMOTIVE
Dear Sir,
I was very interested
to read the artical about the plan to dig
up the Furness 0-6-0, as I know
of a very strong rumour about
a second railway engine, said to
be buried /lot too far from the
one mentioned.
This
is on the site of The Chorley Ordnance Factory in
Lancashire.
In
1938 when this site was constructed, by Sir Lindsey
Parkinson and Co., the bulk
of the excavation work was
carried out
in the old method, using standard gauge railways
with steam locomotives and dumper trucks.
On section seven, where most
of this type of work was done,
one locomotive
was put out of use, and left standing at the end
of a long section of rails, at the bollom of a deep excavation.
As the work proceeded at afast pace, on 24 hour shift work,
the rails into this excavation
were removed, for use elsewhere
with the result, this locomotive became marooned,
in the
bottom
of the excavation.
This site was eventually mounded over with a
25 fl. mound
of earth, it being considered too costly to recover the engine,
and so it must remain about
30 fl. below ground.
I worked on section
6 approximately 2 to 300 yards from
this site, and I am pretty sure
of the truth of it.
The engine as far as I know was a Pecket well tank type.
This was possibly the last civil engineering
job of any size,
on which the older methods
of operating were carried out, at the
end
of 1938 a number of civil engineering experts came over
from Canada,
to demonstrate the American methods using
Caterpillar Scrapers
and tractors and other modern plants.
H. Whittaker
DORSET
The letter-writer usefully draws attention to the emergence of
the rubber-tired non-rail earth moving machine as a powerful
competitor to the contractors narrow gauge temporary railway.
It was a force to be reckoned with by the late 1930s, though its
advent was delayed in Britain because of the scarcity of oil fuels
on that island
in World War II. Contractors lines, both
standard and narrow gauge, continued to be used there during
the
war, one example being the construction
of military airfields
using the rubble
of bomb ed-out buildings as runway foundation.
End of Grand Trunk Operation
New England

In
by Douglas N. W. Smith
Crystal clear views of the interior of locomotive sheds are uncommon. This view, which was taken sometime between 1910 and
1923, shows the interior of either the Gorham, New Hampshire or Portland, Maine facility. While the belt-powered shop
equipment
on the left hand side of the photo has vanished, locomotive 1396 now resides at the Canadian Railway Museum at
St-Constant. The
2-6-0 was built by the GT in 1900 as number 922 and was later renumbered 1396. After CN took over the GT,
it was renumbered
713. Locomotive 414, a 4-6-0, was built by the Schenectady plant of the American Locomotive Company in
1906 as their number 1014. After the merger
of the GTinto CNin 1923, it was renumbered 1603. It was strikenfrom the roster in 1935.
Photo Credit: National Archives ofCanadaIPA-164845.
short line railway field.
197
In May 1989, Emmons Holdings Inc completed its purchase
of the
165 mile long Grand Trunk line between the Quebec/
Vermont border and
East Deering, Maine. Emmons is an
American rail car leasing firm which is now expanding into the
The new line will be called the St. Lawrence & Atlantic
Railroad. The new short lines name commemorates one
of the
earliest Canadian railways.
198
In October 1989, CNs Montreal-Portland and Portland-MontrealJreights met in Island Pond, Vermont beneath the spire oJthe
local church. While the trackage
was officially part oj the Grand Trunk Corporation, no GT power was to be seen. Three CN
GP40-2L (W) were on the head end oj each train. Engine 9634 headed up the Montreal-Portland train while units 9642, 9657
and 9654 lead the Portland-Montreal consist.
The grass-grown area in front oj the locomotives was once part oj a major yard.
Today, only a vacant space remains between the station and the remaining main.line trackage.
Photo Credit: Douglas
N. W. Smith
The Montreal-Portland rail line was the first real inter­
national railway on the continent. The Atlantic & St. Lawrence
(A&St.L) completed the line between Portland and Island
Pond
in February 1853. The St. Lawrence & Atlantic
completed
its line from Longueuil, opposite Montreal, to Island
Pond
in July 1853. Initially, the Canadian and American
companies planned to link up at the border. The
A&St.L,
however, barely was able to scrape the necessary funds together
to reach Island Pond. The two companies became part
of the
Grand Trunk on July I, 1853.
CN will continue to run its trains to the former divisional
point
at Island Pond, Vermont, some
15 miles from the border.
At Island Pond, St.L&A locomotives and crews will replace
those
of CN.
Emmons paid CN $12 million for the line. The price
included nine miles of welded rail and two former
CV and three
former
GT GP-9 locomotives. The new company is head­
quartered
in the station at Berlin, New Hampshire.
Central Vermont locomotive 4447 at Danville Junction Maine on
May 1}, 1989. This was the last day oj operation oj the Grand
Trunk; . ~ Maine.
Phoio by Robert H. Perry,
199
Mountain-type locomotive 6021 is pictured at Portland Maine in 1955. Mr. Perry appears in the gangway.
Collection
0/ Robert H. Perry.
Two views at Lewiston Junction Maine
on May 17. 1989. the last day o/Grand Trunk operation in Maine.
Photos by Robert H. Perry.
200
Centennial of Opening of CP
Short Line
by Fred Angus
On June 2,1889 the first through train from Montreal to Saint Jolm N.B., via Canadian Pacifics new Short Line through
Maine, departed from Montreals Windsor station.
To commemorate one hundred years since this historic event, the Canadian
Atlantic Railway (the
new operating division ofCP Rail east of Megantic Que.) arranged for a special train, hauled by former CP
steam locomotive 120 I , to run from Megantic and Saint Jolm. The locomotive and most of the cars were provided for the occasion by
the National Museum of Science and Teclmology in Ottawa. Departure from Megantic was in the morning of June 2, with arrival in
Saint Jolm in the afternoon of June 4. We present here some photos of this momentous event.
Megantic Que. June 2, 1989. Locomotive 1201 being readied for
the trip.
Photo by Fred Angus.
Near the International border on June
2, 1989.
Photo
by Fred Angus.

, L1@HtlttWbMt4lliilw.,·
NON-TRANSFERABLE !TICKET
WHDf0PfICIALLY STAMPED aOoD ,iii ,
ON~ PAB!Aae:.OPTHE CLASS DlESlaNATED
. . -To . ~ .. : ~ .
Pelro: BTA,MPED 6 WRIIT.m IN MA~IN
.,r; .~ OP~ATTA.CHED COU~NS, .
. ~:.
,.~iF:FI. CUll PHil.· [§J .
· CANADiAN lITlAlITIC RAILWAY
( : , . :(Va ~h~;1 LI~e) ._~ -~ .
. J~REDE~ICJON JeT.,
tO
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One of the special tickets issued by Canadian
Atlantic railway for the special train .
One oj the most spectacular scenes on the Short
Line is the Ship Pond bridge at Onawa Maine. Here
we see the special train crossing this bridge
on June 2, 1989. Photo by Fred Angus.
Although the steam locomotive stole the show, the reason Jor the
commemoration
was the 100th anniversary
oj the first through
passenger train. This
is the 100th anniversary Atlantic crossing
the international bridge from Vanceboro Maine
to St. Croix N.B.
on June 3, 1989, exactly a century after the pioneer train
oj 1889. Photo
by Fred Angus.
The McAdam
N. B. station is the subject oj a newly-issued
Canadian
$2 stamp. This building
was constructed by the
CPR
in 1900 and Jor many years also contained a hotel.
Happily,
it will continue to have passenger service three days a
week.
The hundredth anniversary Atlantic at McAdam
N. B. June 3,
1989.
Photo by David Morris.
201
202
Title prepared by Andrew Morris.
m BRUN8iIIJI WLi!I.
The announcement of the opening of through
service June 1889.
National Archives
of Canada. Your editor standing under the VIA sign at Mattawamkeag Maine
on June
3, 1989. The box car is newly lettered for the Canadian
Atlantic Railway. The small print reads
A division ofCP Rail.
Arriving at Vanceboro Maine in the afternoon
of June 3, 1989.
Photo by Fred Angus.
Coming into McAdam
N.B. June 3, 1989. Photo by Fred Angus.
.
…,—. –
The return trip was made without
any diesel assistance. Here
we
see the special train coming up
the scenic Saint John River valley
on June 5, 1989.
Photo by Fred Angus.
203
Sixty-eight years separate these
two views at the Reversing Falls
bridge in Saint John
N. B. The
upper view was taken
in 1921,
just after the new CPR bridge
was completed, but before the old
bridge, seen
in the background,
was taken down. The lower view
is the centennial special crossing
the bridge on June
4, 1989.
Upper photo, National
Archives
of Canada, Merrilees
Collection, PA-149066
lower photo by Fred Angus.
204
The VIA Cutbacks
Announced October 4, 1989.
(From the Official Government News Release)
NEW VIA NETWORK
• On Jan. 15, 1990, VIA Rails network will comprise the
following services:

an eastern transcontinental service, six times a week,
between Halifax and Montreal.
It will operate three times
a week via Sherbrooke, Que. and SaintJohn, N. B.,
and/
three times a week via Rimouski, Que. and Campbellton,
N.B.
• a western transcontinental service from Toronto to
Vancouver through Winnipeg, Saskatoon and Edmonton,
three times a week.
• Montreal-Drummondville-Quebec,
21 return trips a
week
• Montreal-Ottawa, 22 trips a week
• Montreal-Toronto, 36 trips a week
• Ottawa-Toronto,
19 trips a week
• Toronto-Brantford-London-Windsor, 30 trips a week
• Toronto-Niagara Falls,
14 trips a week
• Toronto-Kitchener-Sarnia,
14 trips a week
• Montreal-Matapedia-Gaspe, 3 trips a week
• Eight Remote routes (the Winnipeg-Capreol route will
be serviced by the transcontinental from Toronto to
Vancouver):
Jonquiere-Montreal, 3 trips a week
Montreal-Senneterre, 3 trips a week
Senneterre-Cochrane, 3 trips a week
Sudbury -White River, 3 trips a week
Winnipeg-Churchill, 3 trips a week
Wabowden-Churchill, 1 trip a week
The Pas-Lynn Lake, 3 trips a week
Jasper-Prince Rupert, 3 trips a week
• Rocky Mountaineer, one round trip a week, late May
to early October
• In addition to the train services listed above, the
connecting bus service between Fredericton and Frede­
ricton Junction,
N. B., will be continued.
VIA
RAIL REMOTE SERVICES
• VIA Rail will continue to provide service to truly isolated
communities, which have no alternative means
of transpor­
tation, along the following eight remote routes:
Jasper-Prince Rupert
The Pas-Lynn Lake
W abowden -Churchi
II
Winnipeg-Churchill
Sudbury-White River
Senneterre-Cochrane
Montreal-Senneterre
Montreal-J onquiere • Truly isolated communities along the current Winnipeg­
Capreol route will be served by the western transcontinental
train, beginning
in January 1990.
• The government
will be reviewing the transportation needs of
the truly isolated communities along these remote routes to
determine whether more cost-effective means of access
could
be introduced.
KEY 1988 STATISTICS FOR VIAS REMOTE
SERVICES*
Operating subsidy
Number
of passengers carried
Operating subsidy per passenger
Cost recovery
Seats occupied $58.7 million
229,116
$256
13%
29%
• Includes the nine VIA remote services that operated in 1988.
DISCONTINUED SERVICES
• The following services will be discontinued Jan. 15,
1990:
Regional Services
• Halifax-Yarmouth
• Halifax-Port Hawkesbury
• Halifax-Sydney
• Halifax-Moncton-Saint John
• Moncton-Campbellton
• Moncton-Edmundston
• Montreal-Sherbrooke
• Quebec-Mont Joli
• Toronto-Havelock
• Toronto-North Bay
• Cochrane-Kapuskasing
• Kingston-Toronto (only one daily frequency discontinued)
• Victoria-Courtenay
Other Services
• Montreal-Trois Rivieres-Quebec (north shore)

Montreal-Ottawa-Sudbury-Winnipeg-Calgary­
Vancouver (the Canadian) *
• Montreal-Toronto (overnight frequency)
• Winnipeg-Capreol (serviced by the transcontinental)
• In addition to the train services listed above, the following
connecting
bus services will be discontinued:
• Moncton-Charlottetown
• Senneterre-Val
dOr (taxi service)
• Sudbury-Capreol
• Montreal, Ottawa, Sudbury, Winnipeg and Vancouver continue to have
access to rail service.
..
~ …..
, ………
~ i ~
• …….. I
• … .t. …
·
j Iri~ —~—–i——–
: I OIuul
, ,
I Ilynnl-t
, I
, I , I
, I
: I
Edmonon I I
~~–… :
Legend Legende
VIA Passenger Train TraIn VIA
VIA
Bus Autocaf VIA
VIA~Amlrak Joint Train TraIn VIA-Amtrak
VIA-onlarfo Northland TraIn
V1A-On18110
Raltw.y Train Northland Railway
Rocky Mountaineer Le Monlagnard des Roeheuses
,
, ,
I
, ,
I
I
I
,
,
,
,
I
I
,
,
, ,
,, ~
-,
…. ,
t,
,7-………….
/ –A————-
/ i : Chun:hllJ
, , ,
: kynn Lake
I , I
, , I , , I
I I I
J03per Edmortton/ J
, ,
l ThePa!f
~….. RodI:y Mountaineer La Montagnsrd des Rooheuses
Current VIA System
New
VIA System Systeme actuel
deVrA
Nouveau
r~eau de VIA
205
206
VIA RAIL 1988 PERFORMANCE BY ROUTE
Ridership
1988
CORR1DOR SKRVICI!S:
Montreal-Quebec 287,111
Montreal-ottawa 362,698
Montreal-Toronto 1,299,287
Ottawa-Toronto
4~l5~~ Toronto-Kinaston
Toronto-Inn Bor 793:055
Toronto-Sarnia 595,820
Toronto-London 308,374
Toronto-Niagara Falls 274,490
TRANSCONTINI!NTAL SKRVICES:
Montreal-Saint John-Halifax 243,177
Montreal~1ont Joli-Moncton 227 ,089
Montreal/Toronto-Vancouver 545,010
Winoipeg-Edmonton-Vancouver 176,418
REGIONAL SKRVICES:
Halifax-Sydney 102,789
Halifax-Yarmouth 47,676
Halifax-Moncton-Saint John 48,849
Moncton-Campbellton 33,072
Moncton-Edmundston 10,401
Matapedia-Gaspe 68,564
~ebec-Mont Joli 39,216
ontreal-Sherbrooke 21,527
Toronto-Havelock 59,067
Toronto-North Bay
6~,~~~
Cochrane-Kapuskasing
Victoria-Courtenay 45:706
REMOTE SKRVICI!S:
Montreal-Jonquiere 31,400
Hontreal-Senneterre
4~b~j
Senne terre-Cochrane
Sudbury-White River 10: 195
Winnipeg-Capreol 54,101
Winnipeg-Churchill
48,~~~
Wabowden-Churchill The
Pas-L~n Lake 8 871
Edmonton-rince Rupert* 26:665
TOURISH SKRVICI!:
Rocky Mountaineer 9,542
HISTORY OF VIA
• In January 1976, the Minister
of Transport introduced a new
rail passenger transportation policy.
The government
recognized changes had to
be made as subsidy requirements
had steadily increased since 1971, while ridership had
declined.
• In February 1977, VIA was created by Order
in Council as
an arms length subsidiary of Canadian National and
incorporated under the
Canadian Business Corporations
Act to manage CNs rail passenger services.
• In March 1977 , through a $1 vote under an
Appropriation
Act, VIA was accorded the status of a railway company and
the Minister
of Transport was authorized to enter into a
contract with VIA for the provision
of rail passenger services
in Canada.
• In April 1978, VIA became an independent Crown
corporation.

At that time, the government entered into a contract with
VIA to provide the corporation with the framework to
Financial °Eerational
Subsidy Per Cost Occupancy
Passenger Recover:t Rate
($) (1.) (%)
73.8 28.4 39
40.7 31.4 50
57.1 39.7 56
49.2 40.6 50
29.9 35.8 42
32.0 43.6 52
26.0 37.2 43
29.8 30.4 42
21.4 36.9 46
116.0 30.4 61
101.2 25.4 57
199.1 30.1 70
283.8 22.3 61
86.4 17.9 37
70.4 18.6 34
95.2 13.8 26
77 .8 17 .8 31
106.5 17 .8 30
159.5 28.3 38
105.8 12.7 19
50.4 16.2 35
32.1 24.5 32
98.1 26.0 48
199.2 9.2 26
39.1 27.9 40
119.0 14.8 27
137.6 15.1 27
351.2 3.8 9
169.9 7.1 13
229.1 8.0 22
378.0 11. 7 31
130.5 9.0 7
184.5 8.0 22
484.0 13.3 42
330.7 57.3 SI
manage and market rail passenger services in Canada with
operational support from
CN and CP Rail. The federal
government agreed to subsidize 100 per cent
of VIAs
operating losses and to fund its capital investments.
• In parallel with the establishment of VIA, the fonner
Canadian Transport Commission (now the National Trans­
portation Agency) was reviewing all rail passenger services
in the national network with the aim of rationalizing them.
• VIA gradually took over responsibility for rail passenger
services from
CN and CP as the Canadian Transport
Commission completed each stage
of its review.

By April 1979, VIA had assumed responsibility for all rail
passenger services
in the national network.

By 1988, VIA had taken over almost all rail passenger
functions which CN and CP had previously carried out.
• Since
its creation in 1977, the government has spent more
than
$ 5 billion on VIA. Of that amount, over $1 billion has
been invested
in capital improvements. Recent key invest­
ments haxe been the acquisition
of new locomotives for use
on
VIAs transcontinental and corridor routes and the
modernization of train cars in the transcontinental fleet.
207
The VIA Rail Cutbacks,
Sotne Cotntnents
by Fred Angus
NOTE: The comments expressed in this editorial are those of the author, and not necessarily those of the officers, directors or
members
of the Canadian Railroad Historical Association.
For almost a year there have been unofficial reports and
rumors
of impending cuts to VIA Rail passenger train services.
Canadian Rail has reported on a
few ofthese and has expressed
cautious disapproval
of any major cutbacks. However until the
Government announced definite plans we have refrained from
active criticism since nothing was official. Since the anounce­
ment
of October 4 1989 the situation has changed and the time
for refraining is past.
We can no longer withhold comment on the
massive cuts to
Canadas passenger train service. Although
Canadian Rail is primarily an
historical publication, we feel that
the events of 1989 are of considerable historical importance and
must be commented upon.
Canada is a nation that was built by the railways. All but one
of the provinces entered Confederation by agreements which
involved mention
of railways in at least one of their clauses. The
railways were, and have continued to be, the backbone of the
nation, the binding force that has directed traffic
east-west
instead of the more natural north-south. Passenger service has
been the means by which this backbone is manifested to the
public, and for more than a century and a half has been an
important factor
in keeping the country together.
It is not our intention to dwell on the past, but to consider the
present and the future.
At present VIA is being subsidized by the
Federal government to the ex tent
of more than $ 600 million a
year. Why is this so? Ever since VIA was created
in 1977 it has
struggled along without a clear course of action, and without any
specific enabling legislation by Parliament. Successive govern­
ments have done little for VIA other than pour
in large subsidies
and so restrict its operations that it was not free to provide its
services in the manner it saw fit.
From year to year VIA has
rolled
along, going deeper into debt, until it has reached the point
where radical surgery
IS necessary to save the patient. That
surgery is necessary is granted; it is the method and direction of
the surgery that is in question. We are now at the point that it will
take no less than a complete restructuring
of VIA for passenger
rail service to survive.
Has the government the will to undertake
this restructuring?
Much
of the subsidy is swallowed up by top-heavy
management (an amount equal to almost half of the revenue
from ticket
sales), archaic work rules which discourage working
eight hours for eight hours pay and, finaly, very high
over-the­
road costs. These latter costs are still unknown to the public
despite taxpayer pressure for them to be revealed.
What IS
known indicates that these costs are extremely high. We hear
such stories as 300 % markups on the cost of services provided to
VIA by the railways. Why should work done by a railway
employee cost more than if the same employee worked directly
for VIA? In one case it
is reported, although not officially
confirmed
of course, that the cost of refurbishing one Budd rail
diesel
car, for the Vancouver Island service, amounted to about
$900,000 and, to add insult to injury, the car, after its
refurbishing, was found to have mechanical and safety defects
such
as running backwards when it was supposed to run
forwards and vice versa.
The agreements forced upon VIA by its terms of reference
with the government do not allow much elbow room
in negotiating
with the railways. This lack
of elbow room is clearly illustrated by
the matter ofterminal charges. A comparison between VIA and
Amtrak, the
U. S. rail passenger corporation, is revealing.
Amtrak, being able to negotiate more freely, has succeeded
in
securing a more favourable financial package than VIA with
regard to terminal charges
in Montreal and Toronto. The result
is that Amtrak is seriously considering increasing its services to
these as well as other
Canadian cities. When our own
corporation
is unable to secure as good a deal as a foreign one
there is something wrong. Because it
is more free from binding
restrictions Amtrak has been able to structure its service to make
optimum use
of the subsidy it does receive from the U. S.
government.
In the meantime we are to be stuck with the elimination
of the
Canadian which, runs, by the governments own figures,
70% full, while service from Senneterre to Cochrane is
maintained. The latter train is scheduled three times a week, but
in fact runs only once a week; the other two days it is replaced
over much
of its run by a taxi ride. In September 1989 your
editor made an extensive system-wide fact finding trip on VIA
lines making observations and taking comments from fellow
passengers and crew members.
Can many members of the
government say as much? Train occupancy ranged from 2
% (on
the Senneterre Cochrane run) to
101 % (on the Canadian
from Vancouver to Banff, the extra I % being passengers seated
in the dome because there were no more coach seats available).
One thing was abundantly clear. Both passengers and crew
deplored the course now being followed by the government.
Rather than belabour this depressing scenario, let
us consider
what needs to be done to secure a healthy future for the vital
backbone of passenger rail transit
in Canada. First it must be
realized that
no rail passenger lines can survive without some
kind
of subsidy , either from the government or other source. The
208
reason is simple -competltlOn. A century ago the trans­
continental service was self sustaining and required no subsidy.
But
it had no competition, and the one-way first class fare from
Montreal to Vancouver was well over
$100. Allowing for the
diminished buying power
of the dollar this would equal about
$
5000 today. This is double the proposed fare of $ 2500
suggested by the travel agency that wants to run first class tourist
trains over this route.
If VIA could fill its trains, or even run
them
75% empty, on a transcontinental fare of $5000 it too
would need no subsidy. But these figures are unrealistic to all but
the very rich, thus it
is obvious that some subsidy is needed.
The government is, however, correct in stating that a 30%
return of subsidy money is unacceptable. An improvement in
this figure can be achieved without further cuts in service. One
thing that is needed is a greatly pared-down and streamlined
corporate structure which would eliminate the unnecessary
layers
of bureaucracy that now exist. Obsolete union agree­
ments dating from the days
of steam should be scrapped and
replaced by new arrangements suitable
for conditions in the
1990s. The system is in direct need of a major infusion of
capital to rejuvenate it and bring its technology up to that of the
last decade
of the Twentieth century. Such capital need not be
from government but could be,
in part or whole, private capital
either domestic
or foreign. A good start has been made with the
acquisition
of new locomotives as well as the program to equip
the trains for head end power operation.
The question is will the
government allow such programs
to continue?
What VIA does not need is political interferance. Once a
new slimmed-down corporate directorate, consisting
of rail­
roaders not political appointees,
is in place it should be allowed
to carry
out its own plans consistant with required traffic
patterns and densities.
It should be realized that moose, elk,
deer and polar bears do not buy tickets, and, if alternative
transportation can be provided
for human passengers in remote
areas, such alternatives may become preferable to the trains.
If
such services are deemed to be in the national interest they
should be subsidized out
of a separate fund, as roads and
airports are now subsidized, and not become a drag on
VIAs
budget. Given this capital infusion, with consequent more
efficient service, and free from the obligation to pay for little­
used services,
VIAs operating budget would be greatly
reduced.
Economy
is a two-edged sword. Not only must expenses be
reduced but revenue must
be increased. The most obvious way is
to get more passengers. Contrary to popular belief the major
competitor
is not the airline or bus industry but the private
automobile. If only
2% of auto travellers switched to trains
VIAs ridership would go up 60%, far more than it could
handle.
It is illogical that trains that run full should be great
money losers; surely a fare increase
is indicated in such cases.
Other sources
of revenue should be actively sought. Referring
once again to Amtrak, there
is much potential for revenue in
carrying the mail as the latter corporation has found out. The
United States postal department has returned to the rails, as a
result
of which Amtrak has placed in service 150 new specially
designed
mail cars in the last three years. For some reason VIA
is not permitted to carry the mail, and Canada Post seems to
boast
of having phased out the use of trains as they have said
in recent advertisements. Carrying the mail by rail would, as has been shown
in the U. S. A., improve the mail service as well as
generating substantial revenue for
VIA. Has the U. S. postal
department re-Iearned something that
Canada Post does not
know? Other sources
of revenue could be exploited if only VIA
were unshakled and free to exploit them.
Our neighbours to the south were once faced with the same
situation that Canada now faces. Well over half
of its rail
passenger service was eliminated on May 1 1971, the day
Amtrak took over. In the following years Amtrak struggled with
the problems
of aging equipment, diminishing ridership, low
morale and, worst of all, the constant threat of zero
budgeting , the latter scenario being worse than the worst case
envisioned for VIA
by the present Canadian government. By
1981 Amtrak, unlike VIA today, had reached a crisis where its
demise seemed imminent. Fortunately a strong leadership
emerged and convinced Congress to invest in an updated modem
rail system and equipment.
The picture has now improved to the
point where Amtrak
is now returning 70¢ for every dollar
invested by the
U. S. government. Although it is unlikely that
Canada, due to its lower population, can reach that high a figure,
it should be able to more than double its present poor showing of
only 30¢. Where there is a will there is a way. It has been done
elsewhere and it can
be done here. All it takes is dedication and
innovative thinking. One thing that
Canadas rail passenger
service does
NOT need is negative thinking and the moaning of
those who think that the entire system is doomed because many
routes have been taken off. Amtrak had this same problem too,
and many
of the discontinued routes were later reinstated, while
even more may yet follow.
If the spreaders of doom continue it
will tend to be a self-fulfilling prophecy; this
is the last thing we
need.
It is true that the vicissitudes of VIA are very complex and we
are now at the crossroads.
We are faced with the question of
whether Canada is to become, unlike every other major nation in
the world, a country without the backbone
of rail passenger
service across it from one end to the other.
Do WE have the
backbone to ensure, by letters, telegrams, personal contact and,
yes, even protests, that the service
is maintained, expanded and
brought up to date?
We know that public opinion does have an
effect as was shown
by the last-minute decision to retain the
Atlantic and
Gaspe services. At present, even with the cuts,
the transcontinental backbone
is still intact although diminished.
We should do our best to ensure that the Royal Commission on
passenger travel, to be set up soon, can do its work in
an
unbiased efficient way, and we should be prepared to testify
before the Commission
ifneed be. Those who want VIA to fail
hope that the controversy over the cuts
will have died out by the
time
of the next federal election; this may explain why so
many cuts were made
at the beginning of the five-year plan .
We should make sure, by letters and other communication, that
the issue
is not forgotten by next election. Above all we should
follow the good advice to
use it or lose it by travelling on the
train whenever it
is feasible and constantly urging others to do
the same. Think twice before getting out the family car or
heading
for the airport; maybe the train will be as good or better.
This great and wonderful nation must not
be reduced to one with
only second-rate land passenger transportation.
It deserves no
less than a fast, safe and efficient passenger railway system from
sea
to sea.
209
FroID The Collection
Quebec Railway Light & Power Cars 401 and 105
by Fred Angus
The joint subjects of this From The Collection article are
two cars
of the former Quebec Railway Light and Power
interurban line from Quebec City to St. Joachim passing
through Ste. Anne de Beaupre.
For seventy years the Chemin
de Fer de la Bonne Ste. Anne carried pilgrims, tourists,
commuters and other passengers along the historic St. Lawrence
river
for twenty-five miles below Quebec City. Originally a
steam-powered line called the Quebec Montmorency and
Charlevoix, it was opened on August
10 1889 just 100 years ago
last summer. The line was electrified
in 1900 and became known
as the Quebec Railway Light & Power Co. In 1951 it was sold to
Canadian National Railways, but passenger service continued
until March
15 1959. Some of the original passenger cars, used
as trailers after electrification, continued in use until the end
of
passenger service. The line still exists as a branch of Canadian
National.
Car 105 was built by Jackson and Sharp of Wilmington
Delaware
in 1889, and was one of the original pieces of rolling
stock when the line opened that year.
It is a typical combination
passenger and baggage car of the period, and thus it represents
not only the interurban era but also the era
of the smaller steam­
hauled railways of the late nineteenth century.
It was little altered
in its seventy years of service and it still has some of the
original fancy red glass
in the clerestory roof.
401
is certainly the oldest electric interurban car in Canada
and one
of the oldest in North America. Built by the Ottawa Car
Company in 1902, it was one of the second lot of electric cars
acquired after the electrification
of the line in 1900. The original
electrics (the
300s) were scrapped about 1950, so the 401 was
the oldest
in service when the passenger service ended in 1959.
All the
QRL& P I interurbans: were I standard I railway width
unlike many
North American inten I ban cars. 401 was also
little altered during its career, and its appearance
in 1959 was
almost identical to how it had looked fifty-seven years
earlier.
On August
15 1889, five days after its opening, the railway
and all its belongings were blessed
by the Cardinal. Perhaps
because
of this , not to mention careful operation, the line did not
kill a single passenger during its seventy years
of operation; a
record matched by
few other lines.
On March
15 1959, the last day of passenger (and electric)
operation, the
CRHA ran a special farewell excursion using
cars
401 and 105. This was the second-to-Iast interurban line in
Canada, the last (the Niagara, St. Catharines and Toronto)
Trailer lOS, hauled by motor 401, on a CRHA charter tnp March 15 1959, the Ides of March, and the last day of electric
operation
on the QRL & P.
Photo by Fred Angus.
210
QRL & P car 401 as it appeared when almost new early in this century. The titles on the hats of the three employees read (from left
to right): Guide, Conductor, Driver.
National Archives
of Canada, Merrilees Collection, PA-149484.
ceasing operation only one week later. These two cars were
among the first to come
to the Canadian Railway Museum where
they have been stored indoors ever since.
It is hoped to restore
them
to their former condition to show what it was like to ride the
Chemin de Fer de la Bonne Ste. Anne.
The following account is taken from a guide book issued by
the Quebec Montmorency and Charlevoix
in 1895, only six
years after the line opened:
SAINTE-ANNE DE BEAUPRE
The pretty village of Sainte-Anne de Beaupre is situated 21
miles from Quebec, and may be reached either by carriage, over
the picturesque drive along the riverside,
or, by steamboat on the
Saint Lawrence. But the public required a more advantageous
way
of travelling than either of these, a way that would be less
tiresome, less expensive and more rapid. In a word the public
wanted a railroad. This road has been constructed and now
Quebec
is only at an hours ride from Ste-Anne de Beaupre.
Trains have been running between Quebec and Beaupre
since August 10th 1889, and the line has received the popular
title
of «Ste-Annes Railway».
Other lines are run
in the interests of commerce and
colonization, or, for the benefit
of travellers, whereas Ste­
Annes Railway runs especially for the accommodation of
pilgrims and pilgrimages. It was built expressly for this purpose,
with the approbation of His Eminence the Cardinal, and the
Bishops
of the Province of Quebec.
An 1895 timetable of the Quebec Montmorency & Charlevoix
Railway, showing a train at Ste Anne
de Beaupre. The first car is
similar
to 105.
Collection of Fred Angus.
211
Two views of 401 at Montmorency Falls on October 24, 1948.
CRHA Archives, Toohey Collection, 48-633, 48-634.
The railroad company and officials leave nothing undone to
preserve, and,
if possible, to increase this special character of
the line.
THE BLESSING OF THE RAILROAD
A few days after the inauguration of the new railroad, that is
to say, on August 15th, 1889, His Eminence the Cardinal,
condescended to visit Ste-Anne de Beaupre, and there, in the
presence
of the clergy and a large concourse of people, blessed
the railway and all its belongings.
WHY TRAVEL BY RAIL?
Because it is the safest, the most rapid, the most comfortable,
and the most inexpensive way.
The cars are entirely new, handsome and commodious, and,
as the road
is solid and almost level, the motion of the train is
almost imperceptible.
Once comfortably settled
in the car, the traveller is inclined
to believe himself in his own room, and makes the trip without
experiencing the least fatigue.
THE EMPLOYES
The Employes are nearly all French-Canadians and are
polite, attentive and speak both languages.
JUNCTION POINTS AND CONNECTIONS
Ste-Annes Railway connects with the Lake Saint-John line,
its terminus being beside that
of the C. P. R. at Palace Hill, and
only five minutes walk from the steamboat landings in Lower
Town.
HOURS OF ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE OF TRAINS
The time-table has been arranged principally for the
accommodations
of pilgrims.
The trains leave Palace Hill Station and stop at the Shrine. A
wide sidewalk extends from the Station to the Church.
A builders plate from car lOS. These were placed flush on the floor
immediately above the king pin.
The hours of arrival and departure of trains have been so
arranged as to give ample time to pilgrims for performing
aJi their
devotions in honor
of the Good Saint Anne, and return in time to
catch either
boat or train for home. This saves carriage hire, and
hotel expenses.
BAGGAGE to the amount of 150 lbs. will be checked free
for each fuJi ticket.
Children under the age
of five years are carried free and from
five to twelve years of age at half fare.
TICKETS will be sold at a reduced price to all persons
wishing to spend their vacation at any
of the parishes along the
line, also to students, children, labourers,
&c. &c.
For all information concerning Pilgrimages, Passengers or
Freight, address:
W. R. RUSSELL,
Superintendent,
Quebec.
212
Rail
Canada Decisions
by Douglas N. W. Smith
FOREST SUBDIVISION CUTDOWN
On August 11,1989, the NTA approved CNs application to
abandon the remaining portion of the Forest Subdivision
between Lucan and St.
Marys Junction, Ontario, a distance of
15.5 miles.
Initially, this trackage formed
part of the original main line of
the Grand Trunk (GT) between Toronto and Sarnia. Building
westwards
from Toronto, the GT reached St. Marys in 1858.
There it joined the London &
Grand Trunk Railway (L&GT)
which had completed its London-St. Marys line in September
1858. Built
by parties interested in the GT, the L&GTwas sold
to the
GT upon its completion. The line between St. Marys and
Sarnia was opened
in November 1859.
The point where the L&GT and GT joined was called St.
Marys Junction. Located in open farmland to the north of St.
Marys, the original stone station built by the GT at this point
remains standing and
is marked with a plaque by the Historic
Monuments Board. This venerable building, however,
is no
longer in use.
The Grand Trunk took over the
Great Western Railway in
1882. Over time the Great Westerns line via Woodstock and
Strathroy became the main freight and passenger route
for traffic
moving between Toronto and Sarnia.
The Forest Subdivision
was gradually downgraded to branch line status.
As shown
in the following table, the last seven years have
witnessed the abandonment
of practically all of this subdivision:
Abandoned Section of Line Distance
(miles)
Three miles east of Sarnia
to Forest
19
One mile at Sarnia 1
Forest to Parkhill
18
Parkhill to Lucan 15
Lucan to St. Marys Junction 15
Year of
Abandonment
1982
1985
1986
1989
1990
In
1987,74 carloads were handled on the trackage between
Lucan and St.
Marys Junction and resulted in a loss of
$147,707. The line is to be abandoned effective January 1,
1990.
NORTHWESTERN ABANDONMENT
On August 15,1989, the NTA authorized CN to abandon
the 18.4 mile Beeton Spur which extends from Beeton to Barrie,
and the 5.5 mile Alliston Spur from a point near Beeton to
Alliston.
These two lines were built
by the Hamilton & Northwestern
Railway
(H&NW) and were opened in 1878. The Beeton Spur
at one time formed
part of the H&NW main line between
Hamilton and Barrie. Originally, the Alliston spur was
part of a
branch line which ran
to Lake Junction in Collingwood where a
connection was made with the Northern Railway of
Canada.
From July 1, 1879 to February 24, 1888, the H&NW and
the Northern Railway
of Canada were managed by an executive
committee under the name the Northern & Northwestern. In
1888, the two properties were amalgamated into the
GT.
The line from Alliston to Lake Junction was abandoned in
two phases. The 18.5 miles between Alliston and Creemore was
abandoned
in 1955 and the 16.2 miles between Creemore and
Lake Junction
in 1960.
In 1975, the 7.4 miles
of line between Georgetown and
Cheltenham was abandoned. Nine years later, service over the
24.9 miles
of line between Cheltenham and Beeton ceased. The
South Simcoe Railway hopes to operate a steam tourist railway
on the 4 miles
of line between Tottenham and Beeton.
No traffic has been handled on the Beeton and Alliston Spurs
since 1986.
The loss in 1987 was reported to be$117,736. This
most recent abandonment completes the abandonment
of
H&NW lines above Georgetown. Between Georgetown and
Burlington, the former
H&NW line forms part of CN main
freight line between Toronto and southern Ontario points.
EARLY CANADIAN NORTHERN ABANDONED
On September 5, 1989, the NTA authorized CN to abandon
the Erwood Subdivision from Baden, Manitoba to Hudson Bay,
Saskatchewan, a distance of 49.2 miles.
This line was one of the earliest lines built
by the Canadian
Northern Railway
(CNo). It formed part of the line built by the
CNo to Prince Albert. Construction of the Erwood Subdivision
began at Swan River. Between June and December
1900, the
CNo completed 96.5 miles of line from Swan River to Erwood,
Manitoba. The remaining 8.5 miles to Hudson Bay were
officially opened to traffic by 1905.
No traffic has been handled over the line since 1986. Annual
losses
in 1987 amounted to $ 347,850. The line has been out of
service between mileposts 65 and 68 near National Mills,
Manitoba
for a number of years.
INWOOD SUBDIVISION OUT
On August 14,1989, the NTA ruled that CN could abandon
operations over the Inwood Subdivision from Grosse Isle to
Fisher Branch, a distance of 71.5 miles. Only a 0.5 mile stub
will remain at Grosse Isle. Since 1987, no traffic has been
handled over the section
of line the Agency authorized for
abandonment. Losses in 1987 amounted to $162,271.
The line
was built partially by the Canadian Northern
Railway (CNo) and partly
by a subsidiary company, the
Canadian Northern Branch Line Company (CNoBL). The
CNoBL was incorporated
by the Dominion parliament in April
1911 and subsequently merged into the CN 0 in 1913.
213
Charter
Trackage Distance
Points Connected Built Under (miles) Date Opened
Grosse Isle to
Mile 4.3
CNo 4.3 January 1912
Mile 4.3 to
Inwood
CNoBL 26.4 January 1912
Inwood to
Mile 74.5
CNoBL 43.8 December 1914
Mile 74.5
to
Hodgson CNo 6.4 December 1914
In 1982, the CTC authorized
CN to abandon the line from
the northern terminal at Hodgson to Fisher Branch, a distance
of
6 miles.
Temiscouata locomotive 8, hauling a/reighttrain, is seen at Cabano, Quebec on October 23, 1948.
CRHA Archives, Toohey Collection, 48-615.
Car Madawaska
o/the Temiscouata Railway as it appeared at Riviere du Loup, Quebec on October 23, 1948.
CRHA Archives, Toohey Collection, 48-624.
214
Temiscouata traill lIumber 2, hauled by locomotive 7, at St. Rose, Que. 011 October 23, 1948.
CRHA Archives, Toohey Collectioll, 48-610.
TEMISCOUATA TRUNCATIONS
On March 20,1989, the Agency approved CNs application
to abandon the Temiscouata Subdivision from Cabano to
Edmundston, a distance of
33 miles.
This section was built as
part of the main line of the
Temiscouata Railway between Riviere du Loup, Quebec and
Edmundston, New Brunswick. The line opened for operation
in
January 1889. The Temiscouata was sold to CN on December
10, 1949.
CN took over operation of the line on January 1,
1950.
Up to this time, handsome 4-4-0s pulled the daily except
Sunday passenger train over the line. Unlike
CP which retained
the
4-4-0 steam locomotive in service up to the end of the steam
era,
CN had ceased to operate this type of engine in the 1920s.
Thus amongst the locomotives inherited with the Temiscouata
were the last
4-4-0 type to run on CN lines.
While
CN had applied to the Canadian Transport Com­
mission for permission to abandon the line from a point 3.8 miles
from Riviere du Loup to Edmundston, the CTC had ruled in
April 1983 that CN could not abandon the section from Cabano
to Edmundston.
CN
VACATES PETERBOROUGH
Following is information from the Peterborough area.
In the Peterborough Examiner was an appreciation for the
staff
of David Fife Public School which is to be closed with a
new consolidated school to open in Keene this fall.
As a celebration for the closing, the staff and the students had
an overnight party, sleeping no doubt on the hard floor
in
sleeping bags, and then the following morning walking to the
nearby Indian River station and taking the early morning
Toronto train to Peterborough for breakfast at the nearby
Smittys Restaurant.
As noted
by the accompanying articles, CN Rail has now
vacated Peterborough! As
of 12 July CP Rail has taken over the
CN tracks serving the industrial area in the south-end of the
city.
CN can now pull up the tracks from the CP interchange
north to Lakefield and west to Lindsay. Just north
of the
interchange the tracks run up the middle
of Bethune Street for
about a mile and it was this situation that the City filed a notice
of
objection to the NTA as there was nothing in the abandonment
order for
CN to help pay for the cost of rebuilding Bethune
Street. Also nothing has been settled on what to do with
remaining right
of way . Interestingly, Trent University straddles
the Lakefield spur so they are taking over that portion for a new
science building.
On July
5th, the last CN train came into Peterborough on
what
is left of the Campbellford subdivision. The Peterborough
-Belleville portion was abandoned during
1987-88. This
portion was built as the Grand Junction Railway with the first
train arriving
in Peterborough from Belleville on January 1,
1880. The Lindsay portion was built in two stages: Omemee­
Lindsay was part of the Port Hope Lindsay Beaverton Railway
which was opened
for traffic in December 1857; The Peter­
borough -Omemee portion was built at a later date.
In 1882, these lines became part
of the Midland Railway of
Canada, which in tum was leased to the Grand Trunk in 1884.
By 1879 rails were extended from Beaverton to Midland via
Orillia. Thus for years freight service operated through from
Belleville to Midland, mainly handling grain from the Upper
Lakes
to the St. Lawrence River.
SHORT TURNS
On August 24, 1989, Her Excellency the Governor General
in Council sanctioned an agreement dated January 1, 1988
between
CP and the Wisconsin Central (WC) granting WC
trackage rights from Mile 181.1 to 178.9 of the CP Webbwood
Subdivision in Sault Ste Marie.
By virtue of this agreement, the
trains ofthe Wisconsin Central are able to operate directly from
its yards in Sault Ste Marie, Michigan through to CPs yards in
Sault Ste Marie, Ontario.
215
Results of The Survey of
eRHA MeDlbers
by Douglas N. W. Smith
The mountain of completed surveys has finally been
tabulated. Over
760 members took the time to complete the form
when returning their last years membership fees. The return
rate was quite phenomenal. Most firms doing survey work are
pleased with a
3% to 4% return rate. The 60% response rate to
this survey
is a reflection of your interest in CRHA and its
journal, Canadian Rail. The high return rate did have one
downside effect as it required a considerable increase
in the time
needed to complete tabulating the hundreds
of forms.
Many
of you took the time to add your comments to the forms
and
for these I am most grateful as they help us to better identify
the strengths and weaknesses
of Canadian Rail and to pi an
changes to address these matters.
A common comment concerned the return date printed on the
survey form. Due to problems with printing the membership
renewal forms, the surveys were mailed out several weeks later
than intended. Consequently, many members received them
after the requested December
15,1988 return date. I want to
assure each member who responded that all the surveys returned
have been included
in these tabulation, including one which
arrived
in March 1989.
1. Membership Profile
The geographical distribution of the respondents reflected
that
of the Associ,ation. Quebec, Ontario and American readers
accounted for three quarters
of those responding. Members from
other foreign countries, such
as New Zealand, Australia,
Switzerland, the United Kingdom made up
3% of the
respondents .
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF READERS
Newfoundland 1% Saskatchewan 2%
Nova Scotia 1% Alberta 5%
New Brunswick 2% British Columbia 9%
Prince Edward Yukon & Northwest
Island
1% Territories
*
Quebec 21% United States 27%
Ontario 27% Other Countries 3%
Manitoba 1%
Note: • Less than one half of one per cent.
The membership in the association does not reflect the
general age pattern
of Canadian society. Most of the members
are over 40 years
of age. Recent figures on the age composition
of the Canadian population
as a whole, indicate that the average
age of a Canadian is 31.6 years. While 35 % of the member of
the Association are 60 or older, only 16% of the population of
Canada falls into this age. Indeed, more than a few of those
indicating they were
in the Over 60 category noted that they
are octagenarians. One matter which could affect the long term future
of the
Association
is the small number of young members of the
Association. Whether this reflects a general decline
of interest in
railways, the need for ways for the Association to reach a new
generation
of young people interested in railways or simply the
difficulty
for younger members to pay membership fees is matter
for speculation and discussion.
AGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS:
Under 20
20 to 39
40 to 59
Over
60
Neglible
16%
49%
35%
The language of the respondent was 93% English and 7%
French.
Almost three quarters
of the members have been affiliated
with the
CRHA for more than five years.
LENGTH OF TIME YOU HAVE BEEN A
MEMBERSHIP OF CRHA:
1 Year
2 Years
3 to 4 Years 7%
5%
14% 5 to 9 Years
10 to 19 Years
20 or more Years 21% 29%
24%
More than one third of the members indicated that they
learned
of the Association from a friend or relative. In other
words, our members are the most effective means
of building the
Association. Such efforts are necessary if
we are to keep fee
increases to a minimum.
HOW YOU LEARNED OF CRHA:
Through a friend or relative 38%
Magazine Advertisement 26%
Visit to Canadian Railway Museum 16%
Excursion or Model Show 14%
Other
6%
2. Membership Interests
In order to determine membership preferences, most of the
questions dealing with railways involved ranki
ng a series of
choices. The tabulations presented with this report show the
ranking
of each component as well as their relative popularity.
For example,
in the ranking of railway interests CN and CP
ranked first with a score of22. Interurban electric railway scored
13 and were ranked fourth. On the basis ofthe rankings, CN and
CP were twice as popular as interurban lines.
By a large margin, the most popular subjects are CN and CP
followed closely by Canadian regional railways such as the
216
Algoma Central and BC Rail. The next most popular topic is
railway preservation.
RANKING OF RAILWAY INTERESTS
Score Rank
Canadian National and Canadian Pacific
Regional Railway
Railway Preservation
U. S. Railways
in Canada
Interurban Electric Railways
Street Railways
Railway Intermodal Operation 22
19
16
13
13
12
5
I
2
3
4
4
5
6
The purpose of the next question was to determine what
aspects
of railways the membership was interested in. Not
surprisingly, the two most favoured topics were locomotives and
passenger trains.
RANKING OF ACTIVITY INTERESTS
Score Rank
Locomotives
19 1
Passenger Trains
19 1
Freight Trains
17 2
Corporate History
16 3
Train Operations
12 4
News
12 4
Buildings and Structures 8 5
Given the popularity of locomotives,
it is fortunate that a
question was included
in the survey regarding your interest in the
different types
of motive power. Steam was by far the most
popular choice scoring
44. Diesels were the second most
popular garnering a score
of 35. Electric traction trailed with a
score
of 21.
The question asking the members to rank their interest
in the
various historical periods of railway development yielded
interesting results. The most popular period
is that from 1940
through 1960 when steam power reached its period of highest
development and then was vanquished
by the diesel locomotive.
RANKING OF HISTORICAL PERIODS
Score Rank
1830 to 1867 7 5
1867 to 1899
14 4
1900 to 1920 20 3
1920 to 1940
14 4
1940 to 1960 24 1
After 1960
21 2
Not surprisingly, the most popular item
in Canadian Rail
is the articles. The other quasi-regular columns had scores
remarkably close to one another.
RANKING OF THE CONTENTS OF
CANADIAN RAIL
Score
Articles
38
Canada Transport News 17
From the Collection 16
Business Car 15
CRHA News 14
Rank
1
2
3
4
5 With regard to photo size,
58% of the members stated they
liked the current mix
of large and small photos. Twenty seven
per cent preferred to see fewer photos, but
of a larger size.
Fifteen per cent wanted more pictures and would accept smaller
size to do so.
The membership was fairly evenJy split on the question of
paying three dollars more per year for colour covers. Fifty three
per cent favoured the idea while
47% were opposed. Many of
those opposed to colour covers stated black and white photos
were more appropriate to a historical magazine due to the limited
period
of time colour photography has been available. Those
favouring colour saw it as a way to add extra sparkle to the
magazine.
The membership indicated
its satisfaction with the magazine.
Fifty
five per cent were very satisfied and 42% were moderately
satisfied. Three per cent
of the membership expressed a degree
of moderate dissatisfaction, much of this dissatisfaction centred
upon photo reproduction. More
will be said about this matter in
the next section.
3. Comments
Approximately a quarter of those responding to the survey
took
time to add their comments. The most common comment
was an expression
of satisfaction with the magazine. Many
members also noted that it was difficult to rank their preferences.
A number
of areas for improvement were suggested. The
most common complaint centred upon the mailman folding the
magazine and/or the poor condition of the magazine after
handling by the post office. Since the time
of the survey, the
Board
of Directors approved mailing out the magazine in a
plastic envelope.
While there is additional expense involved
with this procedure, it should put an end to the damage inflicted
by the post office.
The next largest area
of complaint was the quality of
photographic reproductions which at times are too dark, too
muddy or too fuzzy to make out details. As a publication dealing
with historical matters, there are times when the only photos
available
for a given subject are less than first quality items. At
other times, this is a result of poor quality control by the
company which makes the plates used
in printing the photos.
This matter
is being pursued with the company.
The need for better proofreading was the next most common
complaint.
Up to the present time, Canadian Rail had been
typeset. This process involves the re-typing
of the fmal draft
manuscript text by the printer. The typeset text
is proof-read by
your editor, but the pressures
of deadlines and familiarity with
the text means that errors can slip through. As part of the
initiatives taken
by the Board of Directors, the production of
Canadian Rail will be shifted to a desk-top publishing
system. One
of its benefits of this change may be the elimination
of typesetting. All text will be processed
by the editor into a
computer. One
of the built-in functions of computer-based word
processing
is that the program will automatically check for
spelling errors. This should help reduce the frequency
of these
errors and
will help reduce the cost of publishing Canadian
Rail.
A number
of members stated that they would like to see more
maps. During the past year, efforts have been made to increase
the number of maps. As our cartographer lives in Thunder Bay,
the process of producing a map to illustrate an article or column
does require quite a
lon~ lead time.
Requests were made
for more French articles to appear in the
magazine. Surprisingly, about 25
% of these requests came from
members
who cited English as their preferred language. The
inclusion of more French content was seen as one way
of
attracting a larger number of Francophones. It should be noted
that a small number
of readers objected to the inclusion of
French articles. The policy adopted by the editors has been to
publish manuscripts
in the language they are written. In certain
instances,
an English precis has been included. Space limitations
prohibit marking
full scale translations of articles. It is my hope
to institute a section dealing with Quebec railway subjects in
French during 1990.
The most commonly requested addition to the magazine was
a section for modellers. Equipment plans and painting diagrams
were the most commonly requested material.
The time periods
of greatest interest are 1940 to 1960 and 1900 to 1920
respectively. The Association holds a large number
of such
drawing
in its archives. It is my hope that we can initiate such a
regular section. This will depend upon a member indicating
willingness to edit such a column.
The most popular article suggestion was
for stories concerning
the human side of railroading. This
is a great idea. As a
publication which depends upon voluntary contributions
of
articles, we can only publish material we receive. I hope that
former railroaders will write up their experiences or an aspiring
author will
go out and do interviews. The editors are available to
assist in matters of grammar and presentation.
Reflecting the strong interest expressed
in railway preserva­
tion, many members expressed a desire
for Canadian Rail to
publish news about the Canadian Railway Museum and details
about the collection.
The From the Collection column was
meant to address the history and significance
of individual
pieces at the Canadian Railway Museum or held by
CRHA
Divisions. In order to publish this column regularly, we need
more authors. With regard to the Canadian Railway Museum,
we will endeavour to publish an annual report of developments
at the museum.
One other area was raised by a number of members
concerned the focus
of the magazine. They felt that the magazine
was trying to cover too many areas. The current news section
[the Business
Car] came in for the most comments.
Generally it was felt that the Upper Canada Railway Society
and By town Railway Society pUblications do a better job
covering current news items. Other members who do not receive
these other publications, however, stated their support for
current news section
in Canadian Rail. There has been no
official editor of Business
Car for many years. The time of
your editor and co-editor is largely occupied putting together all
other sections
of the magazine. This means that the Business
Car receives much less attention than it should. Having an
additional person assume editoral responsibility for this section
would be one way
to improve its caliber.
Canadian Rail is the product of volunteer labour.
Currently, six people are involved
in the production and
distribution
of the magazine. Like most of our readers, these
individuals have family and business commitments. The
continued upgrading of the quality and contents
ofthe magazine
will depend upon additional assistance being rendered. The
217
production of the more than 400 issues of Canadian Rail has
involved the voluntary donation
of skills and time of many
members. With your continuing support, I am sure that the same
high standards will flourish
in the next 400 issues.
Annex
One of the topics in which the membership indicated it was
most interested was passenger trains. While it is predominantly
an American publication,
Passenger Train Journal has
carried articles on Canadian passenger trains on a quasi-regular
basis. The following is a list of such articles which have
appeared since January 1985.
Issue Article
January 1985
Soo Line Soujourn includes material on
Soo Line services between Midwest and
Canada.
November 1985 Anniversary
Trains recounts the history
of the Canadian and Super Conti­
nental on their 30th Anniversary.
December 1985
Ski Train Schusses in BC tells of new ski
train service
on British Columbia Railway.
February 1986
VlAs Vintage Veterans recounts history
of heavyweight cars from 1920s still on
VlA roster in 1985.
April 1986
North Country Mixed provides an account
October/
November
1986
of a trip on VlAs The Pas-Lynn Lake
mixed.
Ontario Northland provides extensive
coverage
of this lines passenger service
and equipment.
December 1986
CPs Pioneer Streamliner recounts the
history
ofCPs Jublilee steam locomotives
August 1987
February and
March 1988
July 1988
August 1988 and the streamlined cars they pulled.
Canada is Mixed Train Country is a
survey
of all mixed trains running in the
country
in 1987.
Train of Two Countries recounts the
history
of the 1937 Budd-built stream­
liner which operated on the Reading
Railway and later on
CN as Le
Champlain between Montreal and
Quebec.
Gare du Palais narrates the history of this
and the other railway stations which
existed
in Quebec City.
Toronto Hamilton & Buffalo recounts the
history of the passenger train service over
this railway.
September 1988
A Daylight for VIA reviews VIAs new
daylight passenger service through the
April 1989
June 1989 Rocky Mountains.
Farewell to the Ottawa-Toronto Overnight
Service recounts history
of this train.
A 100th Anniversary: Passenger Service
on
CPs Maine Line to Maritimes is an
extensive history of the Atlantic Limited
and its predecessors.
To inquire about the availability of back issues and their
price, members should write:
Passenger Train Journal
P.O. Box 379
Waukesha,
WI 53187-0379 U.S.A.
218
CRHA Communications
eRHA ANNUAL AWARDS for 1988
The 1988 Preservation Award was duly presented at the
Great Cranbrook
Caper over the Labour Day Weekend.
Details of the above picture are as follows: –
Following a gala dinner aboard the former
CPR dining car
Argyle, Garry Anderson (ieft) and Ken Zurosky (right) accept
the 1988
CRHA Preservation Award from Mike Westren
(centre). The certificate was awarded to the Cranbrook
Railway Museum
in recognition of its work on the 1929 Trans
Canada Limited. The ceremony took place 89.09.02 during the
Great Cranbrook Caper
No.8. Photo: Jim Cullen.
Meanwhile, through
FLAGSTOP we are encouraging
members to give their consideration
to 1989 nominations.
Mike Westren, Editor,
Flagstop.
The article Night Crawler on the Princeton princeton Sub
was nominated
for the article award in a CRHA Publication
1988 Annual Awards.
ARTICLE AWARD: -in a C.R.H.A. publication
TITLE: -Night Crawler on the Princeton SUb.
AUTHOR: -Joe Smuin
ISSUE: -THE SANDHOUSE -newsletter of
Pacific Coast Div.
REASON FOR NOMINATION:
While this is a short article necessitated by space restrictions
in a Divisions newsletter, it has much content concerning
the operations
of Canadian Pacific freight trains on its Kettle
Valley lines
in southern British Columbia. The article is very interesting,
full of hands-on experiences rather than
hearsay, and fascinating verbal expressions particular to
train crews.
Most readers probably associate the old days
of railroading
with steam locomotives, so it
is from a different perspective
to come to the realization that this articles meaning of the
good old days are those
of the first generation of diesels,
those
of GP7s and H-Liners.
The article will appear
in the next issue of Canadian Rail.
This Award (Article
in a CRHA Publication) is one of the 5
awards offered, and it
is to encourage writers to submit articles
for publication in CRHA newsletters. By re-publishing it in
C. R. it would do much to encourage authors to consider writing
for Division publications
as well as for Canadian Rail.
Mr. Philip Jago was presented with the Article Award for
his article Curtain Call for the B & W which appeared in the
September 1988 issue
of Branchline published by the By town
Railway Society. The presentation was made at the
By town
Railway Society meeting on October
3, 1989 held in the
auditorium
of the National Museum of Science and Technology
in Ottawa.
In the above photo, Mr. Jago, holding the award certificate,
is flanked by Paul Bown, BRS President, and David Johnson,
CRHA President.
DOUBLE MAILING
Members will have noticed that the last two issues (Nos. 411
and 412) were mailed together in the same envelope. This was
done because the saving on postage amounted to more than
$1000, since the rate for mailing two magazines is only one­
third more than
for mailing one. If the budget permits it is still
planned to mail future issues singly, but the situation will remain
difficult as long as
we are required to pay first-class postage
rates.
SMlms FALLS RAILWAY
MUSEUM ASSOCIATION
RIDEAU VALLEY DIVISION
CANADlAN RAILROAD HISTORICALASSOClA1l0N
P.O. BOX 962
SMITHS FALLS. ONTARIO
K7A 5A5
ANNUAL MEE
TING REPORT
There are approximately 200 paid Rideau Valley Division
members.
Interior reslOration of the eN Station-Railway Museum and
equipment in Smiths Falls is continuing 8$ cash and donations
permit. Approximately S 15.
000. was spent this past fall and
wimer on
the acquisition. lransponation and 8rTivaj ors former
CNoR-CNR passenger coaches. which aTe now on location in
fronl ofthc station. A matching Heritage Winlano Granl is
expected to recover the S 15,000 from the Ontario Ministry of
Citizenship & Culture.
, can assure
CRHA that there is a good g,roupofvoiunleers
acting on behalf of the Rideau Valley Division of CRHA to
retreve. restore and protect railway artifacts in this lUea. A
number
of those dedicated volunteer persons are being awarded
special certificates by
the Ontario Ministry of Culture this
month. David Strong; John Weir: Tony Percy; Harry Harris:
Scon uktenberger and Syd Grafton.
A New
Horirons grant applicattoo is presently being
discussed with several R
VD members chaired by Syd Grafton.
A Section 38 Employment & inunigration make work project
appl
ication (548,344.) to continue interior restoration has been
appl
ied for and acknowledged by the Ministry. (Restore flooring
in thc main waiting room. baggage room. restrooms. washrooms
and
2nd floor). An application for a summer student under the
Deed Program has been acknowledged and approved.
I am pleased to confirm that Richard Viberg has been hired as
a Consultant by the Rideau Valley Heritage Railway Association
to work on the Rideau Valley .Railway tourist and dining train
project.
The Rideau Valley Heritage Railway Association in co­
operation with the RVD-CRHA have applied for a Section 38
make wo
rk proaram to restore two of the CNR coaches at the
rail
….. ay museum. (545,879.) Negotiations are continuing with
the Ontario MiniSlrY of
Transportation-Rail Division and eN
Rail to acquire the abandoned CNR-CNoR wrile of way from
Strathcona
to Smiths Falls and the rail from Smiths FaUs to
Forfar. (Phase 1 of the Rideau Valley Railway Ikvek>pment
and Busineu Plan) Richard Vibers now hM an office in the
Smiths Falls
Rlitway Museum, 90 William Street. Smiths
Falls,
K7A 5A5 (P.O. Box 962) telephone 613-283-5696.
Negotiations are continuing between RVD and T&Y
Divisions CRHA and CP Rail to move their heritage coaches
remaining to Smiths Falls as soon as possible.
BACK COVER:
219
The RVD has acqoired 2 Vans CP 437169R and CP
437183R and a Jordan Spreader CP 4028.51 R from CP Rail
with the co-operation ofMt, Allisoo for a lax reeeiptofS6,OOO.
to cover the donation of the equipment.
An official request was made to the National Museum of
Science and Technology, Oitawi. fOl CPR Steam Locomocive
3100 and Superintendent
Car 23. Several Museum Directors
have indicated over past yeat1 that CP ) 100 would
be available
to Smiths Falls if it was to be moved. We therc:fOle made an
official request for 3100 which operated daily on passenger
trains
21 & 22 for many ye.ft.fS. It also saw s.ervice in the area on
rreight trains here as well. Many railway employees and
residen
lS arc actively supporting this move to Smiths Falls.
We were sorry to team that our good friend Jack Cook wno
s
upponed our railway museum from the start passed away.
The Division had a successful year in 1989. Ex CP
kx::omotive 6591 beeame operational and was moved under its
own power
to !.he main line. The first of several coaches is being
reconstructed.
New flagpoles have been installed and the
agents bay has been rebuilt. Future work, to continue later this
year. includes
the reconstruction oflhe main waiting room floor.
new washrooms and completion
of the baggage room. Seven
new pieces
of rolling stock have been acquired and delivered.
with
.more coming before the years end. Membership, revenues,
volunteer help and Museum visitors broke all
of the previous
records, and we look f
orward to next year.
NEW BRUNSWICK DIVISION
Mr. R.O. Thomas of Saint John N. B. sends this photo of
former CN locomotive 8245. This is lhc latest acquisition ofthc
Salem &. Hillsborough in New Brunswick, a project ofour N .8.
Division.
JtJIIlltJry, J951 Nt..· York Ctnlrof looomOlivt 451S plilltd owtJl from CPRs W,.s/mOJlnl Slo/ion.
CRIIA Arch;ts. Toohty Collnlioll. 51·031.


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