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Canadian Rail 393 1986

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Canadian Rail 393 1986

Canadian Rail
No. 393
JULY-AUGUST
1986
.. ~
CANADIAN PACIF!C AAII..W
. ARRIVAL OF THE FIRST THROUGH TRAIN AT THE SEABOARD OF BRITtS COL.UMBIA. .
~aM –1r-1 …. QOIIL.~~
… -.. -~~~L..

NAI)
Published bi-monthly by the Canadian Railroad
Historical Association P.O. Box 148 St. Constant P.O.
JOL 1 XO. Subscription rates $25.00
($23.00.US funds if outside Canada)
EDITOR: Fred F Angus
CO-EDITOR: M. Peter Murphy
OFFICIAL CARTOGRAPHER: William A Gennaniuk
LAYOUT: Michel Paulet
FRONT COVER
One
hundred years ago this month, on July 4, 1886,
the first regularly-scheduled transcontinental train in
Canadian
history completed its six-day journey from
Montreal as it arrived at Port Moody British Colum­
-bia. A t last, the promise made to
B. C. when it
joined confederation in 1871 had been fulfilled.
INSIDE FRONT COVER
Mor: treal in t~e 1860s was already a thriving metro­
polis when this very clear
and detailed photo was
taken from Mount Royal. This was how the city
looked when its first street cars began to run 125
years ago. Note the recently. completed Victoria
Bridge and,
just above the towers of Notre Dame
t~e island terminus ~nd wharf of the 1852 ex ten;­
·/On
of the Champlam and St. Lawrence R. R., by
the 1860s part of the Montreal and Champlain.
Most of the buildings in the photo are gone now
but some have survived and may still be recogniz­
oed today.
Public Archives
of Canada, photo C·453
IL
ISSN 0008-4875
NEW BRUNSWICK DIVISION
P.O. Box 1162
Saint John.
New Brunswick E2L 4G7
ST. LAWRENCE VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 22 Station B
Montreal, Que. H3B 3J5
BYTOWN RAILWAY SOCIETY
P.O. Box 141. Station A
Ottawa, Ontario K 1 N 8V1
TORONTO & YORK DIVISION
P.O. Box 5849, Terminal A.
Toronto, Ontario M5W 1P3
WINDSOR-ESSEX DIVISION
300 Cabana Road East,
Windsor, Ontario N9G 1A2
GRAND RIVER DIVISION
P.O Box 603
Cambridge, Ontario N 1 R 5W1
NIAGARA DIVISION
PO. Box 593
St.
Catha rines, Ontario L2R 6W8
RIDEAU VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 962
Smiths Falls. Ontario K7A 5A5
ROCKY MOUNTAIN DIVISION
P.O. Box 6102. Station C.
Edmonton. Alberta T5B 2NO
CALGARY & SOUTH WESTERN DIVISION
60 -6100. 4th Ave. NE
Calgary. Alberta T2A 5Z8
CROWSNEST & KETTLE-VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 400
Cranbrook. British Columbia V1C 4H9
PACIFIC COAST DIVISION
P.O. Box 1006. Station A.
Vancouver. British Columbia V6C 2P1
KEYSTONE DIVISION
14 Reynolds Bay
Winnipeg. Manitoba R3K OM4
Just what were Montreals
first street cars like ?
By: Fred Angus.
A NEW ERA AFFECTING THE MATERIAL INTERESTS
of the city, and, if we may judge by the experience
of other cities,
one which must have great ultimate
results on the prosperity of Montreal, was inaugurated
yesterday by the
opening of the city passenger
railway .
With these words began the account in the Montreal
Gazette of Wednesday November 27, 1861 describing
the Official Opening of Montreals First Street Car Line,
This c
oming November, it will be a century and a
quarter since these
words were written, but they were
surely true; in fact, today it would be almost impossible
for a city the size of Montreal to function without a good
public transit system. Over the years, much has been
written· about the· history of pubUc transportation in
Canada,
including Montreal; but little has been
mentioned about the original cars themselves and
some pictorial material is patently inaccurate. Reliable
information is rather scanty and there still exists some
doubt as to the appearance of those horse-drawn
street cars with which the service began in 1861 . It is
quite appropriate at this time to take a look at the era
when all of Montreals urban transit was powered by
horses, and try
to answer some questions about the
first rolling stock.
To understand the importance of the first street car
line,
one must have a definition of the term Public
Transit. Strictly speaking, any vehicle offering trans­
portation to the public could be termed a public transit
vehicle. This would include present-day taxis or the
earlier horse-drawn cabs, of which the latter existed
long before 1861. Such vehicles were, however,
occupied exclusively during a given trip by the
passengers hiring them and were not available to
others during that time. A true public transit vehicle as
defined here is useable by anyone during the trip
An omnibus of the 1840s. The ones that ran in Montreal in 1848 may have looked like this,
CANADIAN
subject to there being space available. Even using this
definition, public transit did exist on Montreal streets
before 1861.
Thirteen years before, there was a little­
known line, details of which are Lost in Antiquity but
which was a real pioneer. On may4, 1848, what may
have been
the first public urban transit line in Canada
(Antedating Torontos Yonge street line by one year)
began
operation in Montreal. An organization called
the City Omnibuses began a seN ice between the
Bonaventure Station of the recently-opened Montreal
and Lachine Railroad and the Longueuil Ferry. News­
paper advertisements announcing the proposed
seNice indicated that there would be six round trips a
day, presumably
connecting with the Lachine trains.
However, by May 25, 1848 the seNice had become
more ambitious. The omnibuses were Now Running
and a trip was made every half hour from 6: 30 a. m. to
7:30 p.m. The route was Via St. Antoine, McGill, St.
Paul, St.
James, Notre Dame and St. Mary(now part of
Notre Dame) streets, and a fare of 3 pence currency
(equal
to five cents) was charged. Most important, it
was
announced that persons not intending to go by
the railroad can also be conveyed from any part of the
city
within the limits and streets described by the above
line
of omnibuses; also passengers can be taken up
or set
down at any point on the route by intimating their
wish to the driver. These statements mean that this
was a true public omnibus seNice and not just a
connection to the railway. There was even talk. of
extending the seNice to the extremity of St. Antoine
suburbs, but we do not know if this was ever done.
In
1848, there was nothing novel about omnibuses.
They had started in Paris in
the 1820 s as a vast
improvement over coaches for city transportation. By
mid-century, they were common in a number of large
cities,
notably London Paris and New York. Their name
was later abbreviated
into the present-day Bus.
While we have no details of the Montreal vehicles, or
even how many there were, they may well have
resembled
the New York ones of which more than 300
were in seNice in 1848. The nineteenth century
omnibuses were small and rough riding, running as
they did on the unpaved or cobblestone streets of the
time. A similar vehicle, of somewhat later vintage, has
sUNived and
is now at the Canadian Railway Museum.
This City Omnibus seN ice must rank as Montreals
first real public transit (unless something even earlier
existed). It
definitely ran, but we do not know for how
long or under what circumstances it ceased to exist.
Perhaps in
1848, the time was not yet ripe for such a
seNice, the economy was depressed and the popula­
tion of Montreal was quite small, factors which may
have
contributed to the demise of the City Omnibus
scheme which was soon gone and forgotten.
By 1860, the railway age had arrived and the boom
of the 1850s had made Canada railway concious.
113
R A I L
Montreal was much larger and more in need of public
transportation. Street railways were coming into use in
North America and at this time a plan much more
ambitious than an omnibus line was evolved for
Montreal. This was no less than the laying of rails and
inauguration of a street railway seNice. The fact that
the earlier seNice had existed in no way detracts from
the importance of the street railway scheme. Running
on tracks, the cars ran much more smoothly and could
be much larger without increasing the load on the
horses. This was to be a city-wide system with a
substantial capital investment; and was, in fact, the
first permanent seNice which has evolved without
interruption to the present time. One must not forget,
however, that it did have a predecessor which was born
. ~~-lr ;~ .–
I~
:nl
I
, !~i
. I[ ; ), •. ~ -~ H:
T
HE hoprietor of the Clh OM~jIJ. SES
i
hattillg ~nterro .into arra~mflltlerit the
l10NTRf~AL AND LACHINB RA·liL1R AD
COMPANY, to rnn a LINF. of OMNIBUS Sid
tonnexion ~ith the Rilro~ao Lacbine~:wil be
pr~p:t~ h~ THURSDAY, t1 4* of May ext/.
I
to CONVEY PA5S~NGE S to an 1rom the
Rnittoad Terminus, t rou3 the prine piit St t.
of the City 88 follow •. -. :-: ~
From Rnilroad 7n-From Fout 4[
. mim.. I Alary t d.
By Bontwenture, Grtat By Notre D .,. reat St.
Jame.,· and No-St Jame., ~d Bo-
Ue Dame Stree1; navtpn~re J15 el.:
aJ80. by St. JOIIlph, also,. y ~. Paul,
MGiIl, and St. Paul 1IGI1I d st. JCJlQpb
~treel j ,: ~reet.. ~ –
7i oe! ck A. M. 7.ocl k, .A~ …
~9i db 8j do I d~
1· flo • .~ ti~ dcf
• ~ do .l p. J.. I I (h> ,. !If.
i do J . rl~l . 1 c10 I wt
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, :1
I I FARE. . f!
T~Rtt PENCJ..:,.jncludiD~ b~gage 3110t ex
,(ted ng ~8 weight. . j -1 ~~
11 Y (l. . ~ 1,,53
I ~. B,-Peraotfj not intendmg to ~otiby the
Ra.tl$o~, nn alio he conveyed f anT: part of
the (,ltY within thh limits and .tree deaqnbed by
,the abOe Line yf ~~~~ibu5e… -0- .~:
The first announcement of the Montreal omnibus service.
Montreal Gazette May 5 1848. Public Archives of Canada.
CANADIAN
I},·—–~————
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TlIB ]f( !ITHEA ,NT> LACHl~l:
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! to dt) Ind hQr}, tht IRm, dll. 1(l4a.do.
:In:! elM!! ,to I.l.Lhrn~ .• H. includlllg llull~~l(p 1101
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h~(rt r.,mf/lt:k.1 10 hllve mOlt Ihjurut ~rljll
Arr~1 2~. lNHl. . . 51
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Inti ~t. Mary ~Irtell. I I I
r.,!ftlII!ln (DII lIt laktn up, (Ir/ ~/, d()~;n. lit
IIny 1>(Ilit I)n thlr TOOl,., by IlI1il11 n~,,h,rr wi.h
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Jo~ Ih,. ron,,itntt of i,hrtir Ol(ib,n Tir­
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114
The next omnibus announcement offered expanded seNice.
Note that
it is adjacent to the Montreal and Lachine R. R. Notice.
Montreal Gazette
May 25 1848. Public Archives of Canada.
R A I L
about a bakers dozen years before its time and which
should be recognized as such. The new street car
seNice was,provided by the Montreal city passenger
railway which was incorporated on May 18. 1861 and
began operation on November 27 after a ceremonial
opening the day before.
In
our search for the appearance of the first street
cars. a
good place to start is the contemporary
newspaper accounts which are fairly detailed and are a
good source of information. It is sometimes said that
newspaper coverage of this event was somewhat
curtailed. and was pushed to the inside of the papers
due to the demand for space for world news. It is true
that there was much momentous news that November
of 1861 ; the Civil War was raging in the United States
and the threat of war hung over Canada. as crises such
as
the Trent Affair were major topics of discussion. It
was a worrying time. a far cry from the happy summer of
1860 when the Prince of Wales had opened the
Victoria Bridge. However, the accounts of the start of
street car seNice were full and adequate and were not
pushed aside. While important to Montreal, the street
railway did not have the national. and even world­
wide. significance of the opening of the longest bridge
in the world just fifteen months before. so did not have
as
detailed coverage. In keeping with the ordered
Victorian World of 1861. the account of the street
railway opening was just where it ought to be. on the
page with City News. where it would have been even if
there had been no other news. In fact. the front page of
the Gazette on that November 27, 1861 was taken up
mostly by advertising. the usual format at that time. no
mention of street cars. no mention of Civil War!
The papers state quite clearly that there were four
cars in the city on that first day of service, and that they
were kept at Alloways Royal Horse Bazaar. located
only a short distance from where the headquarters of
the Transit Commission are located at the present time.
Further on. The Gazette article tells that each car was
pulled by two horses. Since the first route, on Notre
Dame street. was almost level. the fact that two horses
were required indicates that the cars were quite large
by contemporary standards but. of course, small by
those of today. Such a supposition is reinforced by the
fact that a report of December 1861 states that as many
as 70 passengers were crammed into one car in rush
hours! Again, two new cars delivered just before the
end of the year are described as Smaller but more
Elegant than the first cars. While this is all we can read
directly from contemporary sources, it allows us to
hypothesize that the first horsecars were large, two
horse, cars probably with a body length of sixteen feet
excluding platforms, a size that was more or less
standard at that time.
To find further information, we must explore other
sources. An important point is that the American
A view showing one of Torontos first street cars (1861). It is probable that Montreals cars were ve/y
similar.
The first tram in London England. This is the best view of a gothic-window horsecar, similar to the type that
probably ran in Montreal. Londons trams started in 1861, the same year as Montreals, and both were of North
American design.
———–
MONTREAL
CITY PASSfN GER RAil WAY I
THE CARS will COMMENCE RUNNING
I THIS ~IORNING, in St. Mary, Notre Dame
and St. Joseph Streets, at SEVEN oclock, and
continue at intervals of FIFTEEN rtfINUTES until
TEN P. ~I.

Fare, Five (Jents.
TICKETS, in Slips of 25, for One Dollar;
and School Childrens Tickets, 50 for One Dol­
lar. For sale by the Conductors on the Cars.
S~ G. STEWART,
Supt.
~Iontreali Nov. 27. 1861. 283
• •
The official announcement of the opening of the first street car line in Montreal, the City Passenger Railway. Note
that the printers cut depicts an 1840 s vintage railway car. Public Archives of Canada. Photo no. L3266.
CANADIAN
contractor Alexander Easton built the Montreal system
immediately after completing the line in Toronto that
same summer. With regard to the Toronto horsecars,
we are on much surer ground, since an inventory of all
the
rolling stock was made when the street railway
changed hands in 1891. At that time, the 12 original
cars of 1861 were still on the roster. Numbered 1 to 12,
they are
listed as sixteen-foot cars and, to clinch
matters, a photograph exists showing one of them. No
number is visible, but the car is a large horsecar with
nine small windows, each of which is surmounted by a
gothic arch. The roof is of a simple Ogee form, raised
over the centre aisle and low at the sides, running
straight through with no separate platform hoods and
no clerestory windows. This was a fairly common form
on cars of the early 1860s, but fell into disuse about
1865. Since Toronto did not acquire any cars between
1862 and 1874, the one in the photo must be one of
the 1861··lot.
The
Toronto cars are described as Built in
Philadelphia by a
company in which Alexander Easton
had an
interest. An advertisement for the Philadelphia
car builder Joseph R. Bolton dated February 1862
shows a car almost identical to the Toronto ones.
Perhaps
this builder is the one used by Mr. Easton.
Records
indicate that Montreals fi rst street cars were
also built in Philadelphia and supplied by Alexander
Easton. For these reasons, it is very tempting to
assume that both the Montreal and Toronto cars were
the same, but perhaps we should dig a little deeper
before coming to a conclusion. After all, no photos are
known of the first Montreal cars, so we are dealing with
circumstantial evidence.
117 R A I L
The absence of photographic documentation is not
in itself a serious objection to assuming that such cars
ran in
Montreal. All photographs of Montreal horsecars
are
very rare, even though by 1892 well over 150 were
in seNice. There were only six of the first type (the
original four plus two delivered a few days later) so the
chances
of one of them being photographed was rather
remote.
However, there are other illustrations of the
time in the
form of drawings, woodcuts and the like. A
picture on a
Montreal street car ticket of the period of
the late 1870s .. shows a horsecar somewhat re­
sembling the Philadelphia design already discussed.
An article appearing in a
magazine in 1875 shows a
gothic-window horsecar on St. Lawrence Boulevard
and
depicts several details found on these cars and not
on later ones. While many such drawings are fanciful, it
is unlikely
that the artist would depart so much from the
1870 s desig n, and use one so like that of the early
1860s if these cars were not then running in Montreal.
In 1875, the original cars would have been only
fourteen years old and were undoubtedly still in regular
seNice. In 1886, the City Passenger Railway changed
its name to the Montreal Street Railway, probably
because the initials C. P. R. were confused with those of
a new, somewhat larger, railway! New tickets were
then engraved by the Canada Bank Note Company.
These portray a car
very similar indeed to the gothic­
window design and, as the Bank Note Company was
then new, and did not have a large stock of previous
engravings, this design may
have been newly prepared
to show a Montreal car, albeit of a design rather
outdated by
1886.
JCISEPH R. BOLTON,
(8 U 0 0 (> …… 0 r ~ <> ~:1:a:n. b …. ~ ~ do C1r <> r t <> n. .J
11ULADIlLlHIA CAR WORKS.
!
—-r;r I The subscliber h(\ill~ pllrchA.sell .he entire Srock. M ….
_:r-r–;–r –;-_ -ohillery, &e., nf Ihe 11111;: tiltll of lDIUALL 6: GORTON,
Il{Y·~….. ; ~ Rnd hnvingellgngtJ ~Ir. I.. ~, GOH.lON II) ,lJorpelinienJ
~m~ I lli~l1 ~ ~ . L Ihe ,uechaolcul ep,rlDlenl, IS fully propuroll 10 [urui.b
-1 rr-r r r .~~,. r -PASSENGER AND FREIGHT OAllS
r . .
:. or every de!lariDlion, according 10 order, a( the sbortelL
I :;-& nolice, RUU of the be:i(. UltiLerillls Ilnd orkmIlDship.
IRON CASTINGS
1>~~~~~~~~~~~1~i or &11 kinus mndE on the mosL JeD.8ooo.ble (erms.
/~ Orders for an) kiuu or
CAR WORK
. repeclrully .olicited.
JOSEPH R. BOLTuN.
~ht .ud Uamion .IHr.et •• PhlJaddphta.
fbIUfl.fl1,ISOi.
An 1862 advertisement for a Philadelphia car builder. The car depicted is typical of the period and is very like the
Toronto one. It may well be that Joseph R. Bolton built Canadas first street cars.
MONTREAL,.
CITY PASSENGER RAILWAY CO I
r
~ OTICE 18 HEREBY GIVEN to the SHARE­
HOLDERS of this COMPANY, in accord­
a::;e with a Resolution of the Board of DirectorR
pr:.:lseu nt their Meeting of tbEl 12tb instant,
that a. ell1 of TEN PER CENT. on the New
Subscribed Stock will bflcome due and pa,Vaolc
at MOLSONS BANK, Montrea.l, on FRIDAY,
the FTWrEENTH day of January next.
(By olClcr.) WM. H.
HOPPER,
SecretalY·
Montreal~ Dec. 14, 18G3.
mwf 397
A later City Passenger Railway notice depicting a horsecar.
While
numbered 1, it is probably not a Montreal car but
rather a standard printers cut. It does, however, show a
horsecar design
of the mid-to-late 1860 s and therefore
was a
new cut when the print was made.
Public
Archives of Canada. Photo no. L3267 .
. –:
:: .-:;.L
Unless some strong contrary evidence turns up, one
must conclude
that Montreals first street cars were the
same
as those in Toronto and similar to the Philadelphia
drawing. One
thing is certain. The 1861 horsecars
were not like those often
shown in imaginative
drawings and other illustrations purporting to show the
earliest days of Montreal transit. They did
not have the

Bombay roof (so called because the first of this
design were built for Bombay.lndia by
John Stephenson
of New York) with eyebrow window and side clerestory,
and they certainly did
not have the Monitor or deck
roof. The former feature
did not appear until about 1870
while the deck roof was not much used on street cars
until the
1880 s and is more associated with early
electric cars than
with horsecars. Around 1870, there
were many improvements in horsecar design
with the
result that
the cars of the 1870 s differed in numerous
respects from those
of the previous decade. Most
important they were considerably lighter and therefore
easier on the horses. The
window configuration was
different in
that the sash were opened by lowering them
into a pocket beneath the windowsill, instead of
moving up behind the gothic arch; thus the windows
could be made larger and the arch eliminated. By 1870,
most street car windows were opened by lowering, a
feature
that lasted well into the electric car era. lIot
until about
1910 did windows that raised to open
become
common again on city street cars.
Although the horsecars of 1861 were of an outdated
design by the
1870s, it is very likely that they lasted
considerably longer than
that; probably until near the
end
of the horsecar era. As we have seen, Torontos
first cars lasted until 1891, and it is likely that
Rail de Phil.1d.llhi~. dil J/p-rail.
Coupe en traTen de la Toie de Philadelphie.
An 1882 diagram of horse car track construction using Step Rail. Montreals tracks were of this construction
dating
back to 1861.

CANADIAN
r5 GOOD-fOR ONE TRIP.
~~~~
A Montreal street car ticket of the late 1870s
shows a slight variation of the gothic window
design.
Montreals did the same. In Montreal, the rails were
not used during the winter months, while open cars
provided much
of the service in summer. Therefore,
closed cars did
not see a vast amount of service; and
COURTESIES IN THE CITY CARS.
URBAr Lwv, (!cho nOljllsl tnA … n the still (n.: gUIfit:mor! had ,aeated/or htr.)_41 ~Vo(/tin9. Jir.
GE:oiTLE1U,N.- Oh I 1 bfg yor/T pardo,,; / tholl, 119
R A L
those of older design were probably only used in rush
hours after about
1880. Given the good maintence for
which the Montreal system was noted, as well as the
heavier construction
of the first cars, it is very likely
indeed
that they would have seen thirty years service
and survived until the
1890s, when electrification
made
them redundant. During the conversion period,
the
winter sleighs were retired; and the need for
horsecars increased
substantially. In fact, the company
actually
bought some second-hand horsecars in 1893!
Thus it is unlikely that much scrapping was done just
then, and some of the 1861 cars may have lasted until
the
completion of electrification in October 1894.
Regardless of how long they lasted, all these old
cars have been gone for many years, in most cases
without any record of their appearance. Most horsecars
that have survived (and
they too are rare) date from the
1880 s or early 90 s with possibly some from the late
1870s. It is still possible, however, to ride a horsecar
in regular service and
get the feel of what it was like
when they ran in most cities. The city of Douglas in the
Isle of Man has the worlds only survivjng non-museum
POllTE IHTT FIt …. ,L YOOTR.- Will YI{ oecepl my Stat, Madam ,
fORnT L … DY.- Thank you, Sir, 1 ,hollldbt mOrfnappy; .!.Ul, roJlly, f (WI ~ry mr.ull a/raid I <0,.-
Mid-Victorian humour on the horsecars! Two amusing cartoons showing the interior of Montreal horsecars. These
cars are
of the later, lightweight, type. Both cartoons are from the Canadian ///ustrated News, the former dated
Feb. 25 1871, and the latter May 27 1871. Public Archives of Canada.
The Main in 1875. Here we see a clear view of a horsecar with gothic windows going up St. Lawrence
Boulevard, at the corner of Ste. Catherine street. A few details, such as the dashboard shape and the fewer
number of windows, do not quite jibe, but the basic details, even including the brackets supporting the roof ends,
agree
almost completely with the Toronto cars. This is excellent evidence that these cars ran in Montreal since the
artist would not otherwise have drawn a car so unlike those of the 1870s and so like those of 1861. E. Haberer, the
artist who engraved the picture on wood in 1875, lived until 1921 , almost half a century later. He had a great talent
for detail and perspective which tends to support the theory that the depiction of the car is authentic. Canadian
Illustrated News December 25 1875. Public Archives of Canada.
A
proof prepared by the Canada Bank note company in
1886 for the new tickets of the Montreal street railway.
The car is of a type quite old-fashioned by 1886,
and resembles the kind in use when the street cars
started in 1861. horsecar line. Dating
from 1876, the line runs a full
service
in summer months using both open and closed
trams, the oldest
of which was built in 1883. Their
closed cars are
almost identical to those that were so
common in North America a hundred years ago. One of
the very few remaining, perhaps the only one, of the
early
1860s design of horsecar is the one, dating from
as early as 1859, preserved by the Baltimore streetcar
museum
in Baltimore, Maryland. This car is slightly
different than the probable Montreal type in that the
roof ends are more rounded and the
window arches are
semicircular rather than
gothic. However, the basic
design
is very similar and the resemblance is at once
apparant.
As
we complete the first 125 years of continuous
transit service in Canada, it is hoped that these remarks
will make more clear the image of the little two­
horsepower cars that started it all so long ago. They
were the ancestors of all the street cars, buses, trolley
buses and rapid transit trains that have served Canadian
cities
for a century and a quarter. They deserve a
thought at this time.
CANADIAN
121
NOTE: The author would appreciate having any
information which would throw any more light on the
appearance
of Montreals horsecars. Whether it
corroberates
or contridicts the theories given in this
article, it
will help to increase available knowledge of
this pioneer service. Any major facts uncovered will be
printed in later issues
of Canadian Rail.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Montreal Gazette: May 5 1848.
Montreal Gazette: May 25 1848.
Montreal Gazette: November 27 1861.
Montreal Gazette: November 29 1861.
Montreal Gazette: January 8 1864.
Canadian Illustrated News: February 25 1871 .
Canadian Illustrated News: May
27 1871.
R A I L
Canadian Illustrated News: December 25 1875.
Canadian Illustrated
News: December 29 1877.
Les Tramways et les Chemins de Fer sur Route.
By F. Serafon. Paris
1882.
The
Development of the Tram Car. By John A. Brill.
Cassiers Magazine: August
1899.
Montreal Street Railway Annual Report for
1910.
Fares Please. By John A. Miller. New York 1941 .
Street Railways
of Toronto. By Louis H. Pursley.
Los Angeles
1958.
The Montreal City Passenger Railway.
By Omer Lavallee.
C. R. H .A. Montreal 1961 .
Buses Trolleys and Trams. By Chas. S. Dunbar.
London
1967.
Horsecars Cable Cars and Omnibuses.
By John H. White Jr. New York 1974.
How the same artist drew an actual horsecar of the 1870 s! Looking up McGill College Avenue as a horsecar
passes eastbound on Ste. Catherine street. The car is of the type introduced in the 1870 s and in regular use for
twenty years. Contrast this with the 1875 view. This street corner is now (1986) about to be redeveloped, but the
view of the mountain and the McGill Campus should remain just as it was in the horsecar days. Canadian
Illustrated News December 29 1877. Public Archives of Canada.
Probably the best existing photograph of a Montreal closed horsecar in seNice is this one taken outside the Chateau
de Ramezay some time in the 1880s. This is the kind often described as the type that inaugurated the seNice but,
as
we have seen, this car dates from about 1880 and is quite different from those of 1861. Public Archives of
Canada. Photo no. C56442.
For our farewell look at the horsecar era, we leave the reader with this pleasant summer scene on Craig street about
1890. We are between the Drill Hall and Champ de Mars, and are looking east. In addition to the elegant carriages,
we see
two westbound horsecars; one open the other closed. By this time, the days of the horsecars were
numbered for soon the trolley wires would go up and the horses would rest from their labours of hauling the cars,
after a job well done. Public Archives of Canada. Photo no. C 7092 7.
Aftel 54 tiJals,
The Trans Canada Limited
By: Mike Westren
THE THEME OF EXPO 86, TRANSPORTATION
and Communication, must strike some
kind of chord in all rail enthusiasts. The
show being in Vancouver, the western Canadian
membership
will only have itself to blame if
it
feels ignored in CANADIAIJ RAIL in 1986 !
Believing that history involves the past, present
and
future, the movement of the 1929 Trans
Canada
Limited from Cranbrook to Vancouver
fulfills all three. The past of course is the vener­
able classic
train itself, the present its appearance
at Expo, and the future its continued restoration
and preservation in
Cranbrook, B.C. This ar-
ticle is principally concerned with the move to
keep its appointment with the present. The
Trans Canada
Limited forms an important seg­
ment of the VIA Rail pavilion at the 1986
Worlds Exposition.
Cranbrook Railway Museum had to pro­
vide a crew
of four to look after the train du­
ring its
journey to Vancouver. It bears stress
that this was not a passenger carrying run. Fur­
thermore, after the train has been returned to
its base in the East Kootenays, there are no plans
to run it again. Working the passage were Garry
Anderson, executive
director of C RM, Bob
Leaving Cranbrook 0421 Thursday 86.04.24;

CANADIAN
Pause at Fort Steele to check journal
temperatures;
Service
dated stencil;
125 R A I L
Gill, one of the TCl exhibit supervisors at Expo,
Adolf Hungry Wolf,
author and photographer,
and
the writer. Part of the price of this ticket
to ride, however, was to produce this piece.
For
any who might imagine this trip was a holi­
day,
the entire week gave new meaning to the
old expression that there is no such thing as a
free ride. Nonetheless, it was certainly a privi­
lege to be invited to participate, and was eagerly
accepted.
I suppose I can claim
to have been involved,
as at least a more tha n interested observer,
practically since the inception of the project.
To watch this collection grow from nothing
to a representative, restored consist from this
classic train has been close
to fantastic. Full
credit has
to go to the vision, dedication and
perserverence of
executive director, Garry An­
derson, for
whom the appearance of the train in
Vancouver must be a crowning achievement. It
is deserved recogn i ti on of h is work a nd lead er­
ship.
Introduced
in 1919, the Trans Canada li­
mited rose to become the countrys premier
train. A brand-new set
of luxury rolling stock
was created
in 1929 by the Canadian Pacific
Railway for this train. Dubbed
the Millionaires
Special, this first class only, sleeping car express
was
the elite method of crossing the country.
The privations of the economic collapse known
as
the great depression killed the train in 1932.
The heavyweight steel cars were relegated
to
lesser service and dispersed. To resurrect this
great train, cars were acquired variously from
work train service and semi derilect storage.
Skipping lightly over
the months, even
years, of
often frustating negotiations and pre­
parations, Monday
86.04.21 marked the physical
start of the move. Early in the morning, CP Rail
crews arrived and laid
temporary track panels
across from
the parallel main line to the Mu­
seum site. This had
to be done twice to pick
up
the cars dispersed on the two adjacent Mu­
seum tracks.
By mid-afternoon, Cranbrooks
yard engine GP9 no. 8636 had extricated all
five participating passenger cars. Two had
to be
taken a
short distance north and turned on the
Crestbrook industrial wye. The train was mar­
shalled into
the correct order and propelled
into
the car shop tracks beside the roundhouse.
The
next two days saw continuous activity as
sixty journals had
to be checked, brasses honed
CANADIAN
Passing Columbia Lake, B.C.;
At mile 127, Windermere subdivision;
Awaiting new crew at North Bend;
126
R A I L
or replaced, new Iambs wool lubrication
wicks installed, brake
gear checked, valves ser­
viced and truck pivot plates treated with gra­
phite grease. Emblazoned with fresh 4-861
CP/CK servIcing record stencils, CP Rail pro­
nounced the train
as fit for the journey as it
was ever likely to be. At 1530 on Wednesday
86.04.23, modern steel caboose no.434472
was
attached. Yard engine no.8636 again doing
the honours, the consist
was backed a few miles
south on the main, in the
direction of Moyie,
and running and brake tests performed.
All the while work had been continuing
inside the train. Last
minute wiring, painting,
fixing all had to be attended to. Air conditioners,
added
for climate control following restoration,
had to be properly secured in frames slung
below the
cars. Packing of china and glassware,
checking pendant light fixtures, loading in sup­
plies and
gift shop material, the number of
things to be done seemed endless. The lists
on Garrys famous clipboard never appeared
to get any shorter in spite of supreme efforts
by all involved.
Now the train was parked on the main
line
immediately south of Cranbrook station,
awaiting the appointed
hour for the first de­
parture
of the Trans Canada Limited in 54
years. The
fruits of ten years labour by the
Cranbrook Archives, Museum and Landmark
Foundation, five heavyweight steel
cars res­
plendent in fresh tuscan red paint, stood proud­
lyon the high iron. The train, in assembled
order, consisted
of the following: full baggage
car 4481, sleeping car Rutherglen, dining car
Argyle, solarium-lounge car River Rouge and
business car British Columbia.
Although never
part
of the Trans Canda Limited, the business
car
does represent the degree of provision made
for company executive travel during the same
period. Put in the care of the Cranbrook col­
lection in
1983 by the British Columbia Heritage
Trust, this car was in service up
ti II 1982 at
Nelson, B.C.
as no. 19. The British Columbia
served
as Museum crew accommodation for the
journey, and
will provide supervisory staff quart­
ers at Expo. Combination baggage-sleeper no.
4489
has since joined the exhibition train. It
was donated by Dofasco Ltd., and was shipped
directly from Hamilton, Ontario to arrive in
Vancouver early evening
of Friday 86.05.09.
Internally intact,
but in original and unrestored
condition, no 4489 currently presents a striking
contrast to the fully reconditioned wood and up­
holstery finishes of the other cars.
The
journey from Cranbrook to Vancouver
began in earnest
during the pre-dawn hours
of Thursday, 86.04.24. New GP38-2 no. 3085,
the last of the 1985 order for these locomotives,
was assigned as train engine. It was coupled on
and
drew the train into Cranbrook station.
At 0421, just getting light and distinctly cold at
– 8 degree Celsius, Extra
3085 moved out for Fort
Steele and the Windermere subdivision. The
train was subject to 25 mph slow orders as
far as Golden, and frequent stops were made
to monitor journal temperatures and running
gear
condition. This was an unique opportunity
to ride a passenger train on the Windermere
sub. In years gone
by, passenger services had
been provided
only by a daily mixed train.
A picturesque run
through the Columbia Valley,
bright sun burned off the early mist, and we
arrived safely at Golden 1348. All times, inci­
dently, for the run are recorded in Pacific Time,
as used by CP Rail on the Pacific Region. The spectacular
Mountain subdivision to
Revelstoke was accomplised in daylight. The
slow
order had been officially raised to 30 mph,
but th is smooth rid i ng stri ng of heavywe ights
was capable of quite a bit more in complete
safety. Connaught Tunnel, Stoney Creek bridge,
these were
just a sampling of the delights to be
experienced from the open verandah on British
Columbia. No pushers were required to assist
Extra 3085 through the Selkirks. Darkness
overtook the special en route for Kamloops,
that city being reached shortly after midnight.
Westbound Canadian, VIA train no.1, arrived
in
Kamloops a short while later, creating quite
a spectacle of 1929 and 1955 vintage trains
alongside each
other in the middle of the night.
By
0640 on Friday 86.04.25, the Trans Canada
Limited was parked in the yard of North Bend.
With a break of some four hours, the Museum
crew had a chance
to stretch and partake of
breakfast in the small local cafe.
Extra 3085 resumed its voyage west at
1110, heading
down the Fraser Canyon to Co­
quitlam. A stop at Mission City with its beauti-
Departing
North Bend 1110 Friday, 86.04.25;
Full baggage car 4481;
Sleeping car Rutherglen;
Dining car Argyle;
Solarium-lounge car River Rouge;
Business car British Columbia.
ful old station as a photo setting would have
been most desirable,
but this was not to be.
Some delay at Coquitlam was expected due
to heavy interchange traffic during the late after­
noon. The GP38-2 no.
3085 was dropped off,
and a pair of GP9s, nos. 8672 and 8665 substi­
tuted. Four miles further on, at Saperton, the
CP Rail locomotives and caboose were released.
CN switcher SW1200 nO.1330 and transfer
ca­
boose no. 76657 were added, and the consist con­
tinued a further twelve miles over BN/CN (fo­
reign) trackage
to the Canadian National station.
The
train was first turned on the wye, caboose
dropped off, then propelled into its appointed
resting place for the duration of Expo. Arrival
time was 2115 on Friday 86.04.25, just forty
hours and 623.2 rail miles from leaving Cran­
brook. Thanks to the care and vigilance of the
CP Rail car shop and operating crews, the journey
was made completely without incident. CN then
took over for the last few miles and spotted
the train in place without any trouble.
During the course of the following week,
power, water and sewer services were
put in
place. The
train is now properly installed as
part of VIA Rails pavilion at the CN station for
the duration of Expo, 86.05.02 to 86.10.12.
Arrangements have been made with a caterer
for special luncheons, dinners and receptions
on the Trans Canada
Limited. Contact execu­
tive
director Garry Anderson, (604) 688-2789
on board the train for details.
Special
mention should be made of VIA
Rail, Expo 86 and CP Rail for their sponsor­
ship
of this exhibit. Acknowledgement is due
the Cranbrook Archives, Museum and Landmark
Foundation for releasing a prime attraction for
an entire tourist season. Restoration was made
possible
through Federal and Provincial Job
Creation programs, assistance from the B.C.
Heritage Trust, and the balance
from private
and corporate donations.
If there is a disappoint­
ment, it is the failure to get heavy G3d Pacific
locomotive no.CP 2341 to Expo. This steam loco­
motive had been allocated to the Museum on
permanent loan
by C R HA, but insurmountable
transportation problems arose. CP 2341 will
remain at the Canadian Railway Museum at
St. Constant, Quebec,
for the forseeable future.
This display of classic varnish from a bygone
era,
thought to be lost forever, is commended
to your attention when visiting the 1986 Worlds
Exposition.
NOTE: The Cranbrook Railway Museum is re­
presented
within CRHA as the Crows­
nest and Kettle Valley Division.
II
Le Cure Labelle et Ie
Chemin de fer du Nord
Par: Jacques Messier
QU EST -CE QU UN CURE DE CAMPAGNE DU SIEcLE
dernier peut-il avoir d aussi intriquant? lis furent
pourtant nombreux ces cures et non pas sans
histoire. Lun
dentre eux, et peut-ihre un de ceux qui
s est distingue
tout particulierement sur la scene
politique et financiere du Quebec, fut Ie cure Labelle.
En plus detre un homme de poids, ce qui nest pas
peu dire avec ses plus de trois cents livres, il apparaTt
comme un bon vivant
au rire eclatant. Mais sil avait
I audace des
hommes d avant-garde, tous ne sont
cependant pas prets a lui reconnaTtre sa subtilite. Ami
des politiciens dont Honor.e Mercier, et des grands de
la finance dont Hugh Allan, c est autour du cure Labelle
que de telles
sommites aaient concerter leurs efforts
pour construire
Ie chemin de fer des Laurentides.
Le cure Labelle travaiait dabord et avant tout dans
Iinteret de la colonisation entre 1868 et 1891, dont Ie
chemin de fer aait constituer Ioutil privilegie a
I etablissement de nouveaux colons. Ses voyages de
colonisation –
dont une trentaine dans les Laurentides,
Ie conduisirent jusqu en Europe a quelques reprises,
puis dans
Iouest canadien ou il visita dit-on, la famille
de Louis Riel.
Son ideologie etait liee
a celie de la croissance,
autant economique que nationale.
II croyait aux vertus
de
la prosperite que representaient Ie tourisme,
I industrie miniere et forestiere, et meme Iagriculture,
ce qui suscita des controverses sur ses possibilites
da ns Ie nord.
Pour lui,
Ie Quebec se devait d entrer dans I ere du
modernisme et
Ie chemin de fer allait I aider a realiser
ses objectifs. Son bureau etait tapisse de cartes
geographiques sur lesquelles il tra(::ait une foule de
chemins de fer.
II avait du reste en tete Ie chemin de fer
du Grand-Tronc qui solutionnait Ie probleme de
transport dans Ie sud du Quebec vers les Etats-Unis,
particulierement
en hiver. II lui semblait injuste que Ie
sud jouisse des avantages que Ie nord ne pouvait se
permettre. Et pourtant. sa volonte de faire profiter Ie
nord de cet immense avantage quetait Ie chemin de
fer, naura-
t-il ete quune demi-reussite? Lhistoire
ne Ie dit pas encore clairement. Du reste, les efforts
deployes par ce grand ami
du rail n auront pas ete
vains.
Plusieurs
sattardent a dire que Ie chemin de fer au
Canada n est rien d autre qu une aventure liee d abord
et avant
tout a I ouest du pays. En effet, vers 1870,
alors que
Ion se preoccupe dunir Ie Canada par un
chemin de fer, les interets de
la colonisation allaient
dans
Ie sens de la survie au Quebec tout comme dans Ie
reste du pays, surtout en cette periode de crise
economique et d emigration massive vers les etats de
la Nouvelle Angleterre. Le projet de colonisation n etait
donc pas propre au Quebec. Nous voyons par exemple
que
Ie Canadien Pacifique aait lui aussi elaborer toute
une propagande afin
dinciter les nouveaux colons a
s etablir dans I ouest du pays.
Neanmoins, autour de
1850, lOntario comptait Ie
double des effectifs ferroviaires par rapport a ceux du
Quebec. Mais
a la fin du siecle dernier, la carte
ferroviaire
du Quebec ressemblait davantage a une
vaste
toile d araignee. Plusieurs compagnies voyaient
Ie jour, meme si leur rentabilite laissait a desirer. L outil
de
developpement allait devenir un nid de speculation
ou fourmillaient hommes d affaire et hommes politiques,
et pourquoi pas
Ie clerge! Ainsi, ce sera vers 1870 que
Ie Quebec dec ida de se doter dune politique en
matiere de chemin de fer, dans I espoir de surmonter la
crise qui a court. De la, Ie cure Labelle aait faire son
chemin, sans se gener pour manifester son interet pour
Ie nord. II multiplie les rencontres, les banquets, et
surtout, entretient une volumineuse correspondance.
D abord incorporee sous
Ie nom de Montreal
Northern Colonization
Ry. Co. en 1869, puis de la
Montreal Ottawa & Western Ry. en 1875, La Montreal
Northern Colonization
Ry. Co. passa aux mains dun
syndicat quebecois
en 1875, Ie Quebec Montreal
Ottawa
& Occidental Ry., et il fallut attendre un an pour
assister
a I inauguration du premier convoi a rouler sur
Ie tron(::on entre Montreal et Saint-Jerome. Le cure
Labelle venait de realiser son reve
Ie plus cher. II aura
fallu attendre sept ans pour construire
34.74 milles de
voie ferree, soit
un peu plus de 4 milles par an. Des
deboires politiques entre les divers niveaux de gouver­
nement forcerent les directeurs des compagnies qui
etaient souvent meles aux affaires publiques,
a reviser
leurs methodes
de financement. Le cure Labelle ne
manquait pas
dimagination en cette matiere.
En plus des octrois al/oues par Ie gouvernement a
partir des contributions municipales et des ventes de
bons,
Ie cure Labelle organisait de spectaculaires
convois de traineaux chargee de bois de chauffage pour
les pauvres de Montreal.
En plus d epater les curieux et
surtout
d aider les misereux quoi de mieux pour
publiciser une campagne de
financement pour un
projet qui trouve difficilement preneur durant les
annees de crise qui prevalent vers
1875.
Malgre les efforts deployes jusqu en 1878, Ie
chemin de fer ne pu faire ses frais et les contribuables
commencerent a contester Ie bien-fonde du projet. Les
espoirs des;us allaient degenerer en une commission
royale d enquete sur I administration de la Q. M. O. & O.
vers
1880. Le Quebec se departit du chemin de fer en
1882 a la suite des conclusions du rapport devenues
genantes pour Ie gouvernement en place, pour Ie ceder
au Canadien Pacifique qui termina son prolongement
jusqua Labelle. La duree du service voyageur fut a
peine centenaire sur I ensemble
du reseau long 158
milles.
Le cure Labelle etait devenu sous-ministre de la
colonisation en 1887 dans Ie cabinet Mercier, et son
chemin de fer etait passe entre les mains de gens plus
fortunes qui voyaient
neanmoins en ce petit chemin de
fer d
embranchement, un maillon de ce vaste projet
quetait la realisation du chemin de fer du Canadien
Pacifique
dun ocean a I·autre.
Le Canadien Pacifique menait egalement sa propre campagne.de colonisation. Le fourgon no. 303 transforme en
musee agricole servait a inciter /etablissement de nouveaux colons sur les terres de /ouest du pays.
Nouvelles C. P. Rail v. 14 no. 13 octobre 1984.
C.P. CORPORATE ARCHIVES
KEEPING TRACK
By: Roger Desautels
Avec /
with: MICHAEL SARRAZIN and
MARGOT KIDDER
Realisation / direction and production:
ROBIN SPRY
De gauche a droite / Left to right:
Michael Sarrazin, Stan Sma ill, Mike Malo, Margot Kidder and Roger Desautels
LE MUSEE FERROVIAIRE CANADIEN, A
Delson / St. -Constant, Que.,
devient Ie
plateau de tournage dun film despion­
nage. Le CIA et Ie KGB sont impliques.
Depuis
Ie 3 novembre 1985, certaines
parties du
film sont tournees a differents en­
droits sur
les terrains du Musee. De plus, du
7
au 11 novembre, Iaction se passe abord ou
a proxi mite des tra ins. Les prod ucteu rs 0 nt,
pour Ioccasion, loue de C.N. cinq fourgons
de quarante pieds avant encore une passerelle
sur
Ie toit, et un wagon plat de cinquante-sept
pieds; et
de VIA Rail, deux voitures ordinaires
en acier inoxidable (ex C.P.) numeros 122 et
126.
Les wagons de C.N. sont maquilles en
FEDERAL RAILWAY et ceux de VIA en
AMTRAK pour les besoins du film. Les lo­
comotives du Musee assurent
Ie remorquage de
ces trains.
Au debut
doctobre, David Monaghan,
Directeur du Musee,
me confie la tache de diriger
CANADIAN
les mouvements des trains pour cette production.
Je confie a Stan Smaill la tache de mecanicien
et a
Mike Malo celie de serrefrein. Et tous trois
attendons avec anxiete Ie jour J. De plus Mike
est Iagent de liaison entre Ie Musee et la pro­
duction pour les sequences ou les convois ne
sont pas impliques.
Le 28 octobre nous sommes convoques
aux bureaux de TELESCENE pour prendre
connaissance du travail qui nous attend et
don­
ner explications et conseils a ces gens qui ne sont
pas familiers avec Ie materiel ferroviaire.
_
Le 1 er novembre, un convoi de C.P. livre
les wagons au Musee; Mike et Stan sont la pour
les recevoir.
Le 3 novembre sur Ie sentier de la future
ligne de tramway, Ie CIA et Ie KGB sont im­
pliques dans une
chasse en auto; Ie lendemain,
les memes personnages se cachent dans les bois.
(toujours au Musee). Le 5 novembre, un cadavre
est retire
de la riviere. Pour permettre cette
prise, on a erige une digue afin delever
Ie niveau
de
la riviere St. -Pierre. Cette riviere si lion ne
les terrains du Musee. Mike est en devoir ces
trois jours.
Le 7 novembre,
debut du tournage des
sequences nocturnes impliquant les trains. Stan,
Mike et moi sommes convoques pour 13hOO;
il nous
faut pn§parer Ie convoi. Ce dernier com­
prend
notre locomotive no. 30, un wagon plat
sur lequel est monte Ie camion-generatrice; un
fourgon dans lequel on y entrepose Ie mate­
riel
necessa i re au tournage: ecla i rage, trepieds
etc.
et les voitures 122 et 126 de V IA qui, pour
la circonstance sont maquillees en AMTRAK.
La loco no. 20 est placee sur une voie devite­
ment pour minimiser Iattente au cas ou la loco
no.
30 tomberait en panne.
Cette
nuit Ie tournage implique un con­
voi de voyageur qui est arrete
en pleine cam­
pagne dans
la nuit. Laction se deroule a Iex­
terieur Ie long de la voie et Ie train repart. Toute
la nuit jusquau bris de plateau a 06h30, nous
n§petons
les memes mouvements: arret, depart
et retour en position originale. Au lever du
jour, il ne nous reste plus qua tituber vers notre
couchette !
Notre repos est de courte duree, nous
sommes attendus
aujourdhui (vendredi 8 nov.)
a 16hOO. Cette
nuit, nous utilisons Ie train de
marchandises. A notre arrivee, nous plac;:ons les
voitures de voyageurs a la gare Hays, car cest
133
R A I L
113 quest prevu Ie tournage samedi soir; et no us
partons avec Ie wagon plat, Ie fourgon et notre
fourgon de queue a 16h45 nous sommes sur
Ie plateau. Les employes de la production saf­
fairent a monter la camera sur Ie wagon plat,
puis nous allons
au bout de la voie a la rue Des­
Bouleaux chercher les 4 autres fourgons requis
pour cette sequence du film; ensuite nous pla­
c;:ons Ie convoi a Iendroit prevu pour Ie tourna­
ge et Iequipe de production complete les der­
niers preparatifs.
Pendant
ce temps, Mike et moi accueuillons
dans
Ie fourgon de queue un visiteur de marque:
nul autre que Iancien Premier-Ministre du Cana­
da,
Ie Tres Honorable Pierre-Elliot Trudeau
accompagne
de ses trois fils: Justin, Michael et
Sacha. M. Trudeau est un ami
de la com­
medienne
Margot Kidder, et est venu lui rendre
visite sur
Ie plateau. Cet instant restera grave
longtemps dans
notre memoire. Mike et moi
lui avons explique ce que sont Ie Musee Fer­
roviaire Candien, I Association Canadienne dHis­
toire Ferroviaire et leurs histoires. M. Trudeau
a semble tres interesse et
laisse entrevoir une vi­
site
de notre Musee dans un avenir prochain.
Apres
ces emotions, Ie travai I reprend et
dautres emotions nous
attendent; des cascades
sont prevues au cours de ces sequences. Un
cascadeur est sur place, mais Iacteur John Boylan
decide de faire
lui-meme ses cascades: sauter
sur Iechelle latera
Ie dun wagon passant a envi­
ron 12
km/h. et monter sur Ie toit. Lautre
cascade consiste a courir dun bout a Iautre
du
train (5 fourgons) sur les toits des fourgons;
ce qui rend la course plus difficile cest quil
doit courir vers Iarriere du train a la meme
vitesse que celui-ce. (12
km/h) Sachant comment
il est difficile de marcher sur un train et sauter
dun wagon a Iautre, je dois dire que Iacteur
a accompli
sa tache avec tres grande distinction.
De plus vers 22hOO pour ajouter a notre
tension,
la locomotive no. 30 manifeste un
problt!me,
les courroies entraihant Ie compresseur
glissent et
chauffent, il nous faut la remiser et
recourir aux services de la no. 20. Le jour se
leve et cest Ie bris de plateau. Notre journee
nen est
pas pour Ie moins terminee. II nous
faut preparer Ie convoi de voyageurs
a
la gare Hays et Iavant du convoi est dans
Iautre
direction. Les deux voitures de voyageurs
sont deja
en place, ma is i I reste Ie fou rgon et
Ie wagon plat. Habituellement pour ce genre
CANADIAN
de manoeuvre, nous utilisons 2 locomotives,
mais nous nen avons
quune; alors Stan propose
dutiliser la grue electrique de la Montreal Tram­
ways. Nous approchons
Ie deux wagons a Iavant
de la grue et pla<;:ons la loco no. 20 sur une voie
adjacente, puis nous
poussons ces deux wagons
passe Iaiguille et Ie tour est joue. Apres avoir
place Ie train a
la gare Hays, nous pouvons nous
reposer; il est
maintenant 10hOO. Nous disposons
de 9 heurs de repos car no us sommes attend us
sur Ie plateau pour 19hOO.
Samedi Ie 9 nov. 19hOO, nous reprenons
Ie collier, Ie train est en position et les techni­
ciens saffa irent a la preparation du plateau. Un
petit entretien avec Ie realisateur, il me fait
part des sequences quil veut faire, je relaie ces
renseignements a
Mike et Stan, et nous sommes
prets. Arrivee
en gare, arret, depart; nous re­
petons
les memes mouvements une vingtaine de
fois au moins; ces sequences etant fi I mees de
plusieurs angles. Ceci no us amene au lever du
134
R A I L
jour et bris de plateau. A propos la gare Hays
est devenue
AMTRAK ROUSES POINT N.Y.
pour les besoins de la cause.
De· retour a 15h30, no us preparons Ie
train pour la derniere nuit de tornage. Encore
une
fOis, il nous faut ateler la locomotive a Iautre
extremite du convoi. Je propose de vider une
des voies reliee au pont-tournant des 3 locomo­
tives a vapeur et du chasse-neige qui y sont
gares. Ensuite nous pla<;:ons Ie convoi sur cette
voie et
la locomotive no. 20 se rend sur Ie pont­
tournant par Iautre; apres avoir aligne Ie pont a
la premiere voie, il ne reste plus qua atteler la
locomotive et Ie tour est joue. A 17h30 Ie convoi
est rendu sur
Ie plateau tel que demande par
Iequipe
de production. Ce soir les sequences
sont tournees a
Iinterieur des voitures de voya­
geurs;
Ie convoi reste immobile jusqua environ
03hOO. A ce moment Ie train doit avancer a
environ 20
km/h et Iacteur principal (Michael
Sarrazin)
doit tirer Ie robinet durgence, provo-
CANADIAN
quant un arret brusque du train; un cascadeur
tombe dans Iallee.
Le manege se repete une demi­
douzaine de
fois, Ie soleil se leve et cest Ie bris
de plateau. Pour nous Ie travail ne sarrete pas la,
premierement il nous faut placer Ie wagon plat
au qua i de la rue Des Sou leau x pour permettre
de descendre
la generatrice; pu is assembler
Ie train pour Ie remettre a C.P. Rail.
Nous finissons
pour midi et a ce moment
la seule chose qui nous interesse: cest notre
lit! Mardi Ie 12 novembre 1985, Mike et Stan
livrent Ie convoi a C.P. Rail et la vie normale
reprend
au Musee.
Lexperience est tres enrichissante
pour
tous, et nous oublions un peu la fatigue accu­
mul!~e pendant Ie tournage.
Roger Desautels
KEEPING TRACK
CANADIAN RAILWAY MUSEUM IN DELSON/
St.-Constant, Que., became the set of a spy
movie. The KGB and the
CIA were involved.
From November 3rd 1985, parts of the
movie were shot
at different locations on the
C.R.M. grounds. Also
from November 7th
through the 11 th, action took place on or near
trains.
Producers had,
for the occasion, leased
from CN Rail five 40 box cars with a walk-on
roof and one 57 flat car; and from VIA Rail
two stainless steel coaches number 122 and
126 (ex C.P.).
CN
cars were lettered FEDERAL RAIL­
WAY and VIA coaches AMTRAK. Museum
locomotives number 20 and
30 pulled those
trains.
In early October, Museum
Director David
Monaghan requested
me to direct the trains
movements
for this production. For this job,
I was seconded by Stan Smaill as engineman
and
Mike Malo as brakeman. The three of us
were anxiously waiting 0 day!
Mike Malo was also liaison officer between
the Museum and the
production people for
a II act i on ta king place on the Museu m site where
trains were
not required.
135
R A I L
On October 28th, the three of us attended
a meeting
at Telescenes offices in Old Montreal,
to find out what was expected of us and to give
explanations
about rai Iway equ ipment to the
production people.
On November 1st, a
CP Rail way freight
delivered the rolling stock to our siding; Stan
and
Mike were on duty to accept it.
On November 3rd, an automobile chase
took place on the right-of-way of the future
streetcar loop. KGB and CIA spies were involved
in the
action. The next day, the same people were
hiding in
the woods. On November 5th, a body
was pulled out of the river; for this scene, the
St.·Pierre River, which crosses the Museum
grounds, was dammed
so its level would be
raised.
Mike was on duty for those days.
On
Thursday November 7th, the first night
scenes with trains were shot. Stan, Mike and I
had
to report at 1 :00 a.m. to prepare the train;
the passenger train included our locomotive
number 30, one flat car loaded with the power
generator truck, one box car loaded with most
of the set accessories: lights tripods etc. and
coaches
122 and 126 d isgu ised as AMT RAK
equipment. Engine 20 was placed on a nearby
siding
to minimise waiting time in case of break­
down with locomotive 30. Action that night
involved a passenger train stopped somewhere
in the
country-side. The story took place along
the railroad
track while the train was leaving.
The same moves were repeated again and again
until 6:30 a.m., when the wrap-up occurred.
By daybreak, there was only one thing to do:
get into bed.
On
Friday November 8th, after a short
rest we had to report on the set at 4:00 p.m.
That night, we were using a freight train. We
first spotted the two coaches at Hays station,
ready for Saturday nights action, and left for
the set with engine 30, flat car, box car and
our caboose. At 4:45 we were on the set and the
production employees mounted the camera on
the
flat car; we then went to DesBouleaux St.,
where
the four other box cars were hooked to
complete our freight train. We brought back
the
train to the set, so the production crew
could make
the last scene for this sequence.
At that time, Mike and I hosted a very important
visitor in the cabboose: The former Prime Mi·
CANADIAN
nister of Canada, the Right Honorable Pierre
Elliot Trudeau and his three sons: Justin,
Michael and Sacha.
Mr.Trudeau, a friend of ac­
tress Margot Kidder, was paying her a visit on the
set.
Mike and I will surely remember these mo­
ments
for a long time. We told our distinguish vi­
sitor about the Canadian Railway Museum, the
Canadian Railroad
Historical Association and
their history. Mr. Trudeau seemed very interested
and
is looking forward to visit our Museum in
the near
future.
After these events, stunts were to be per­
formed. A stunt man was on hand, but ac­
tor John Boylan decided to try himself. One
stunt consisted in jumping on the side ladder
of a passing train (box car) and climbing to
the roof as the train is rolling at about 12 km/h
(8 mph). Another was to run from the front
to the back of the train on the roof of 5 box
cars while the train was in motion. To make it
,more difficult, he had to run towards the back
of the train while it was moving forward on a
curve. The script called
for him to run at the train
speed to appear in a standstill position for the
camera.
Knowing how hard it is to walk on
box cars and jumping to other cars, John Boylan
got
an A for this stunt.
To add to our stress, engine 30 developped
a
problem at arount 10:00 p.m.; the belts
on the compressor were skidding
badly and
overheating.
We had to change locomotives.
We resumed operations with engine 20. We were
at daybreak and
it was a wrap-up for every
body but us. We had to line up the passenger
t
rain at Hays station. The two coaches were
already in place
but we still had to run the en­
gine around the flat and box cars. Usually we use
two locomotives for a move like: this, but we
had only one in service. So we:spotted the two
cars on the streetcar track and placed engine 20
on a
track next to them. Usjng a Montreal Tram­
ways electric crane, we pushed the
two cars
past the switch so engine 20 could couple to
the other end of the cars. We lined up the train
at Hays station. It was then 10:00 a.m. and we
went straight to sleep!
136
R A I L
Saturday November 9th, 7 :00 p.m. after
a generous nine hour rest, the train was ready;
and
production crews were making the final
touches before the camera rolled. After a short
briefing from the director, who discussed what
he expected of us, I relayed the info to Mike
and Stan and we were ready: arriving at the sta­
tion, stopping, departing and back to square one.
We did those moves about twenty times until
daybreak (6:30 a.m.), so the camera could
take it from different angles. Incidentally, Hays
station
was AMTRAK ROUSES POINT N.Y.
in the story.
At 3:30 p.m. Sunday November 10th we
were
getting ready for our last night of filming.
Again we had
to run the engine to the other
end of the train. This time, we removed the three
steam engines and
the rotary snow plow from
one of the turntable leads, placed the train on
it and used the other lead and the turntable to
run around. It worked fine and at 5:30 p.m.,
the train was ready on the set. That night they
were recording shots inside the coaches. The
train stood still until about 3:00 a.m. For the
rest
of the night, we moved forward at about
20 km/h (12 mph), actor Michael Sarrazin pulled
the conductors emergency valve, stopping
the train; a stuntman fell in the isle. Then
back
to square one, and we did again for
about half a dozen times, By daybreak, it was
the end
of filming. But work was not over yet
for us as we had to spot the flat car at the load­
i
ng dock near DesBouleaux St. to let the gene­
rator truck off, and then reassemble the train
to be delivered to CP Rail.
Finally we finished for noon, and again
the
only thing Stan, Mike and I were longing
for was our bed!
We found this experience very interesting
and
forgot for a little while how tired we were.
Roger Desautels
CN IS IN THE FOREFRONT IN THE
SEARCH FOR THE MOST
EFFICIENT LOCOMOTIVE
DESIGNED TO MEET CANADIAN
CONDITIONS.
by Bill Palmer,
with thanks for special assistance on the history
of eN dieselization to J. Norman lowe, historical
research officer.
Friend or foe?
My country is not a country its the winter My garden is
not a garden its the plain My road is not a road its
the snow
My country is not a country its the winter
These words by composer/singer Gilles
Vigneault in what many regard as_ his most
suCcessful song, Mon Pays, will strike a familar
note in the heart of any railroader. However,
snow -and Canadian winters -has long been
an
enemy of efficient rail transport in this country.
Canadian National has made major contribu­
tions to the evolution of a state-of-the-art
locomotive, designed specifically to meet the
severe conditions of a Canadian winter. Only in
the Soviet Union is weather such an important
factor in rail transport.
For some insights into CNs programs for
motive power, Movin talked with W. (Bill) L.
Draper, assistant chief of motive power.
Our company is in the third year of a 10-year
program to upgrade our motive power, he said,
and we recently took delivery of the first of more
than 40 state-of-the-art mainline freight-haul
locomotives to be used mainly for our unit train
operations in Western Canada.
He added that the new units have a number of
important advantages over existing heavy-freight
locomotives. Briefly, they are:
o 10 percent more fuel efficiency
o 20 percent more pulling power
o easier accessibility for maintenance
o increased reliability, particularly in winter
operation
o more space in the cab
o a sophisticated control console for ease of
operation by the locomotive engineer.
The first of these new locomotives was
manufactured by the Diesel Division of General
Motors of Canada in London, Ontario. Mr. Draper
pointed out that a top priority in the programs for
Reprinted from C. N:Movin
design and production of these locomotives has
been
cooperation between the Brotherhood of
Locomotive Engineers and Canadian National. A
long-standing committee representing these two
groups continually assesses the appropriate
technology, employee needs and safety features.
Testing, testing …
Mr. Draper was first involved in the analysis of
winter-related locomotive problems in 1958
when he was diesel inspector in Toronto.
A
major challenge was to find ways to reduce
the possibility of snow shorting out a traction
motor, the major cause of CN locomotive failures
during the winter.
W.D. Piggott, then general superintendent of
equipment, told him to live in the engine room of
locomotives for as many winters as necessary
until CN determined the cause of the problems.
Two years later, Mr. Draper was promoted to
general foreman in Montreal and the investi­
gation was terminated.
Later, in 1977, he was general superintendent
of equipment in Toronto and he set up a small
research operation in Stratford, Ontario, to
determine how excessive snow gets into a
locomotive traction motor, causing failure. TV
cameras were also used to record the observat­
ions.
As these tests continued, IVIr. Draper spent two
weeks, in February 1978, observing railroad
operations in the Soviet Union -specifically,
how they coped with snow and winter.
Whi Ie there, he noticed that the Soviet
railroaders had found one way to combat the fact
that in a snowy environment the normal cooling
air flow causes a blizzard inside the engine
compartment.
They used two air intake systems, one on top for
use in winter; a second lower one for summer
operation. Mr. Draper added that they also used a
CANADIAN
138
R A I L
flapper valve that discharged hot air and
prevented snow from coming in -as well as
burlap screens over all openings.
Because our snow is wetter, the burlap isnt
much use in this country, he said.
Mr.
Draper and his team began their testing
with a modified F9 locomotive. Special ducts
were introduced to bring cooling air to each
traction motor from a blower over the main diesel
engine. This cooling air is vital during the warm
seasons but is not required much of the time in
winter. For this reason, the intake can be partially
blocked in winter, eliminating most of the
problem of snow shorting out the traction motors.
Mr. Draper added that the purchase of the
new, specially designed locomotives is only one
part -albeit vital -of the companys overall
motive power program. In addition, he said,
we are retiring old, low-horsepower locomot­
ives, and remanufacturing others at our Point St.
Charles
shops in Montreal to extend their life
another 20 years.
A third element of the motive power program is
the winterization of locomotives now in service.
Why is this important? He pointed out that during
the summer season, an average of 200 locomot­
ives are out of service for repairs; during the
winter, that number is increased by 50.
The
new motive power program did not spring
up overnight. Many long hours have gone into
determining the design innovations, and Bill
Draper has been at the heart of much of that
research.
Most of what I saw in the U.S.S. R. had
convinced me that CN was on the right track in its
modernization program. We still had a problem,
though. Although we have severe and long
winters compared to most other countries,
including the United States, they didnt seem to
be long enough to justify the expenditures needed
to winterize our motive power fleet. As well,
finding suitable locomotive designers who would
address our Canadian problems was difficult.
Mr. Draper said that CN was fortunate during
this time to work with Bombardiers Rail and
Diesel Products Division -in particular with
Gerard L. Lepage, then president of that division.
The
result of the combined CN/Bombardier
design consultation was what is now called the
Draper Taper, in honor of Bill Draper.
Easier acces
A key to the design is the wide carbody. Al­
though there had been wide carbodies before,
they were rigid with a heavy structure and thick
walls; that resulted in a narrow passage through
the engine area.
Since the wider carbody design provides ample
space between body walls and the engine for the
maintenance crews, their work is made easier
and safer, particularly in winter. As well, most
side-door handles are now on the inside.
In
traditional locomotives, the side doors could
become blocked by snow building up on the
walkways -which themselves could become
treacherous for the crew.
Why is the design called the Draper Taper?
Because a major feature of the concept is a
cutaway of the body behind the cab. This tapering
into that cab provides a long rear view from that
cab, truly a revolutionary approach for locomot­
ives. This means the cab crew can easily inspect
the train even on slight curves.
The
Draper Taper also provides 25 percent
more cab floor-space. This is accomplished by
setting the electrical cabinet farther back in the
body; newer locomotives will have a small control
console replacing the larger traditional wrap­
around model.
An additional benefit of the larger cab will to be
to
provide room for a larger crew as End-of-Train
Units are installed, replacing the traditional
cabooses.
Another winterization feature of the Draper
Taper locomotive is that the cooling blower for
the electric traction motor has been equipped
with a system of servo-controlled louvres (a feed­
back system consisting of a sensing element, an
amplifier, and a servomotor).
Changes in traction-motor temperatures
activate the louvres -when the motor tempera­
ture increases, the louvres open to admit air;
when temperatures drop, as they often do in
winter, the louvres close.
The
feature greatly eliminates the problem
mentioned earlier, Mr. Draper said: snow
shorting out a traction motor, the major cause of
locomotive failures during winter.
Although this louvred design eliminates 80
percent of the snow entering the traction motor, a
second problem is that of snow coming through
the bottom of the traction motor; Mr. Draper has a
plan for a new gearcase to help reduce the snow
intake as well.
He added that when the louvres are closed, the
load on the blower decreases and the draw from
the main main engine is reduced from about 120
hp to 40 hp. The result? Significant fuel savings.
CANADIAN
139
R A I L
Remanufacturing program
Over a 10-year period, CN has a program of
remanufacturing low-horsepower diesels for
branch line and switch service, incorporating Mr.
Drapers winterizations features. That remanu­
facturing is taking place at CN shops in Moncton,
N.B
., and Point St. Charles, Montreal.
In addition to the winterization improvements,
the units will be supplied with cash-resistant.
electrically heated cabs; upgraded traction
motors; enhanced wheel-slip prevention
systems, and hot-well fuel systems.
As well, the remanufactured locomotives will
provide a low idle for fuel savings, an automatic
water pump, and engine purge systems.
An important factor in the remanufacturing
program is the expected improvement in
reliability from 50 000 kilometres before a
failure, to 160000 kilometres. The cost of these
units is about $800000 compared to $1 300000
for a similar new locomotive.
Mr. Draper added that the remanufactured
units will have the history of each locomotive
analyzed through a computer, which will improve
trouble shooting immensely.
For
the CN customer, reliability will be at the top
of
the list of advantages of the Draper Taper. In
addition, CN railroaders welcome many others –
from fuel savings to improved safety. But no one
sees this as the ultimate locomotive, and the
search will continue for additional diesel
improvements, a quest that has an honorable CN
history.
The history of eN diesels
Bill Drapers name has been added to a long list of
railr
oaders who have contributed to important
milestones in the history of CN. Another was
Charles Edward (Ned) Brooks, chief of motive
power during the 1920s.
In his autobiography, One Mans World for It,
Maynard Albert Metcalf, vice-president. traffic,
CN, wrote:
Brooks was one of the first mechanical
officers to foresee the day when the diesel loco­
motive would take the place of steam as the prime
means of locomotion on railroads, and he went to
work on the problem. In his research and experi­
mentation, with the support of (chairman and
president, 1922-32) Sir Henry Thorton and
(president,
1934-41) S.J. Hungerford, he found
an enthusiastic ally in Alan E.L. Chorlton, techni­
cally trained executive of Beardmore and Sons of
the United Kingdom, who had developed a diesel
engine with wei~ht and dimensions attractive for
adaptation to railway motive power.
Brooks and Chorlton … first concentrated on
the idea of developing a direct drive, with clutch,
etc., thus eliminating the heavy cost of electrical
apparatus needed to produce a diesel-electric
unit. After much effort and experimentation, a
working model was produced. But the principles
employed could not be economically and effect­
ively translated to heavier units, and it was
abandoned in favour of the diesel-electric with
locomotive CN 9000 being built as the first
prototype of the kind to be used on any railroad.
:The
work of Brooks, Chorlton, and Ramsay
Gage,
chiefelectrical engineer under Brooks, had
not gone unnoticed by steam locomotive builders
in the United States. By the time the
experimental No. 9000 was place in service, their
technical staffs and facilities, as well as those of
General Motors Corporation, were being directed
toward the all-out development of diesel-electric
for railroad use on the North American continent.
for railroad use on the North American continent.
The first modern, production-line dieseJs
acquired by CNR were 16 switchers bought for
the Grand Trunk Western in 1942.
Thus ended the Brooks saga of trying to find a
system of direct drive for the diesel engine that
would have eliminated the expense and compli­
cations of the electric drive.
The age
of diesel power had certainly begun,
but it was not until after the second World War
that the railroads in North America were able to
earnestly search out new, better ways to move
their goods. .
In
his biography on CN president Donald
Gordon (from 1950 to 1966), The Great Scot.
Joseph Sch u II wrote:
Freight traffic, always dependent on volume,
would have to be moved in faster bigger trains.
The
locomotive was the real answer to that. and
the age of coal steam was already passing. Oil­
firing was cheaper, particularly in the oil-rich
West, but even that was temporary. Everything
pointeo now to the new diesel engine which
operated at half the cost and required a fraction of
the maintenance of the steam locomotive. Yet the
expense of changing to diesels, large enough in
itself, was dwarfed by the other demands of
increasing traffic.
Longer and heavier trains would require
improved roadbeds. Increased speed of
movement would demand the addition of sidings
where the slow train held for a through train
could be shunted into a hole. At terminal points
were trains were made up there would have to be
miles of trackage and all the electronic equipment
of huge, sprawling hump yards, receiving the
CANADIAN
inward cars, assigning their destinations and
parcelling them up in outward-bound compon­
ents … What confronted (Mr. Gordon) was a re­
volution in the business of transportation.
A major milestone took place in the history of
the diesel on May 27, 1948, when the first of two
powerful diesel electric road locomotives was
delivered to Canadian National Railways at
Bonaventure Station in Montreal.
They were later placed on the freight run
between Toronto and Montreal to speed the
service between these two centres.
Canadian
National Magazine described the
locomotives and the event:
Attractively painted in green and gold, the
new diesel consists of three units of 1500 horse­
power each, built by the Electromotive Division of
General Motors …
In announcing the purchase of the road
diesels,
(C.E.O. and president, 1941-1949) R.C.
Vaughn
referred to the exhaustive tests made in
July 1947 with a demonstrator unit. An exacting
schedule in heavy-freightand fast passenger train
services was fixed over 7446 miles in 11 days.

These tests: he said, convinced us of the
practical value of these diesels. They represented
a practical advance in motive power with with we
will be able to continue to serve Canada with the
most efficient, economic and modern form of land
transportati on.
The CNR, he reca11ed, had pioneered the use
of diesel
units in regular service on the North
American continent in 1925. This road diesel
was the first to be introduced in post-war Canada.
Another stepping stone took place on
December 3,
1949, one month before Donald
Gordon took office, when the Continental Limited
pulled out of Montreals Central Station for
Winnipeg … hauled by a shiny new streamlined
giant of the rails, a General Motors demonstrator
diesel-electric, No. 9051.
Canadian National Magazine reported
that the
big, triple-unit locomotive of 4500 horsepower
made the full run to Winnipeg … arriving in the
morning, then turned around that same evening
to complete, at Montreal, the first long-haul
passenger run with a diesel in Canadian railroad
history.
It was a test trip, the first of a series, to
discover how the diesels will react during
crosscountry passenger service to Canadian
operating and weather conditions ….
E.J. Feasey, general supervisor of diesel
equipment, and the man responsible for working
out the fueling and watering details enroute, has
140
R A I L
seen the diesel fleet of the CNR develop into its
present total of 148 locomotives. Early this year
(1950), 26 more are due and, when these have
been delivered,
the whole province of Prince
Edward Island
will be dieselizedand the freight
service between Montreal and Jonquiere,
Quebec, will be operated by huge road diesels as
the Montreal-Toronto run has been for the past
18 months.
In 1953, another milestone: The delivery on
January 21st of narrow-guage diesels to New­
foundland. Built by General Motors Diesel
Limited at London, Ontario, the 1200 hp locomot­
ives
were called another stride forward for CN in
its
continuing program to provide the people of
Newfoundland with a high quality of service. For
the builders, it marked the successful completion
of a new engineering venture -the construction
of their first narrow-gauge locomotives. To the
business (and business-woman) in Newfound­
land, the advent of the modern motive power
forecast a faster and more efficient freight
service.
On October
6, 1954, another milestone was
made when the Ocean Limited streaked through
the St. Lawrence Valley and across the Maritimes
to Halifax behind a two-unit diesel locomotive. It
was considered to be the first Canadian National
main line passenger train to go diesel and the
forerunner of many more of its kind.
The diselization of CNs
motive power fleet
continued until 1960, when the last steam
locomotive
was retired from commercial service.
An outline of that process is reported in
Canadian
national in the East, written by CNs
historical research officer J. Norman Lowe:
Early in 1951, CN had a total of 2448 steam
locomotives on
the roster, of which the average
age
was 32 years. Over 500 of the locomotives
were over 40 years old and of that number there
were no fewer than 177 different subclasses of
steam power on which component parts were not
interchangeable.
Since steam power required greater maint­
enance than the diesel -about six weeks each
year … it
was not surprising that there was a
gradual increase in the number of diesels
purchased.
By 1951 the railway had a total of 289
diesel-electric locomotives -mostly switchers.
The fo11owing year the number increased to
395, to 615 in 1954, and by the end of the
fo11owing year 783 diesels were in varied
assignments. In 1961, the number had risen to
2128, fell to 2014 by 1969, and in 1975 (all lines)
showed 2363 locomotives in use. As of July,
1985, 2044 units were listed.
)
I
I
I
1
As CNs program for Draper Tapers
continues, those numbers will increase. And
Rudolph Diesel, German inventor of the internal-
combustion engine named after him, would be
pleased.
ENGINEERS WITNESS
By: Ralph Greenhill
Sandy Worthen
Examining the photographs in Mr. Ralph
Greenhills Engineers Witness, it is easy to
conclude that mankinds accomplishments often
have been measured by his triumphs in the three
branches of engineering. At least it would seem
so in the Nineteenth Century, when the sciences
of photography and electrical and mechanical
engineering were advancing hand in hand.
Mr. Greenhill has assembled a remarkable
collection of Nineteenth Century photographs of
engineering triumphs from a variety of well
established sources. While many of them
perforce are the work of United States
photographers, the selection presents a
significant proportion of pictures by Canadian
photographers of Canadian subjects.
It is
exciting to see on the dust-jacket, and
repeated on page 64 (plate 22), William Notmans
extraordinary photograph of Grand Trunk
Railways locomotive engine Trevithick, under
construction in the railways Pointe-Saint­
Charles Shops, Montreal, in 1959. In the picture,
an added attraction is the presence beside the
first driving-wheel of Frederick Henry Trevithick,
then locomotive superintendent of the GTR and
grandson of the Cornish builder of the worlds
first railway engine.
Notmans series of pictures of the construction
of the mile-long Victoria Tubular Bridge at
Montreal in 1858-59 illustrates clearly the
methods used in the mechanized construction of
this pioneer undertaking.
And there are many more picturs of Canadian
and American engineering feats of the last
century, ninety photographs in all, some taken as
stereographic views, others in glass-plate size.
In
his introduction, Mr. Greenhill says that, as
the technique of photography was perfected, the
reality of the photographic image astonished the
public. While this is so indeed, it was more
truthfully the realism in the representation of the
subjects which was astonishing. Moreover, the
astonishment continues even to the present day,
although these portrayals of engineering marvels
of the last century may now appeal to a more
discerning viewer.
Selecting photographs for a publication really is
a
matter of personal taste; the most that an editor
can anticipate is that a majority of the readers will
agree with his choice. But when the selection
includes portraits of subjects as diverse and as
captivating as the side-wheeler Queen of the
West of the mid-Nineteenth Century and the
views of Roeblings Niagara Suspension Bridge of
1859 (by William England), how can there be any
question about its appeal.
In
this review, only a few of the extraordinary
photographs can be mentioned. There are many
others, each one unique. While the marvels of
railway civil and mechanical engineering are
many and varied, a pleasant variety is provided by
views of the Templeton Asbestos Mine near
Perkins Village, Quebec
(ca. 1892 by S. J. Jarvis)
and
the boiler room of the Toronto Electric Light
Company in
1897 (by F. W. Micklethwaite).
Likely every
viewer will find a personal
preference among the many photographs
presented in Mr. Greenhills collection. But
surely constructions such as the Corliss
Centennial Engine, Philadelphia, PA, 1876
(Centennial Photographic Institution), the
Double-Corliss Engine, Mechanics Mill, Fall
River,
MA, 1868-70 (stereo half by Benjamin W.
Kilburn),
the cog-railway locomotive Tip Top of
the Mount Washington Railway ca. 1875 (by B.
W. Kilburn) and the colossal Burden Water Wheel
of c. 1879 at Troy, NY (by H. A. Foy) must be
singled out for special attention and detailed
examination.
Mention must be made of the picture captions,
since
they are inseparable from the photographs.
They are concise and
written clearly and they
provide
the reader with sufficient information
about each of the subjects shown.
No better description of this unique collection
of photographs can be given other than that
written by the author in his inroduction:

Almost every aspect of civil and mechani­
cal
engineering in the second half of the
Nineteenth Century was illustrated by photo­
graphy. The
photographic record ends at the
end of the century with a superb document­
ation of the bu ilding of the worlds first major
hydroelectric generating plant at Niagara
Falls (plates
88 & 89).
The
camera was to witness the transition
from an age of iron and steam to that of steel
a nd
electricity a nd to record it with a rea I ity
that stirs the imagination.
Looking
through Engineers Witness, one is
reminded
time and again of the care with which
the photographs presented have been selected
from a wealth of available material.
In
1985, Mr. Greenhill completed a 31-year
career with the Canadian Broadcasting
Corporation as photoarchivist and photographic
technician. His book, History of Canadian
Photography, was published in 1965 and was
revised and republished in 1971. Mr. Greenhill
confesses to a special affection for railways and
his
continuing activity in the collection of early
photographs places special emphasis on railway
subjects.
ENGINEERS WITNESS Ralph
Greenhill
The Coach House Press, 401 (rear) Huron Street,
Toronto, on
M5S 2G5 Canada. $42.00 ppd.
212 pp., 90 b&w plates, List of Plates;
Acknowledgements; Introduction; Index;
265 x 23 cm; dust-jacket; hard-cover.
C.R.H.A.
com
NEWS FROM THE DIVISIONS,
PACIFIC COAST DIVISION. Several interest·
ing meetings were held during the winter. In
January an update on SteClm Expo was provided
by Grant Ferguson of Granville Transportation
Consultants. In February, Mike Green and Phil
Sunderland provided slide presentations on the
Far East, including Japan, China and India.
Work is proceeding on the Divisions Fraser
Mills station. They have obtained an order board
from the Skookumchuck CP station as well as
a scissor phone and headset from Be Rail.
TORONTO & YORK DIVISION. On June 8,
members journeyed by bus to the New York
and Lake Erie shortline in Upper New York
State. The NY & LE features a scenic ride with
a
train pulled by an ALCO C·424. At the time
of writing, the Division was ll1aking arrangements
f
or a party of members to attend the Canada
Railway
Sesquicentennial Conference July 18
to 20.
BYTOWN RAILWAY SOCIETY. Members
have
enjoyed a number of very interesting meet­
in
gs during the past spring. In April, Bob Meld­
rum provided an excellent slide presentation
on his
trip to India. Bob describes the colour
of personal experiences tr
avelling through the
Indian countryside. Some moments were exciting,
other frightening!
In May, members were treated to the recol·
lections and slides of Omer Lavallee, who de­
scribed 111 words and pictures his experience
du
ring trips to Newfoundland. As usual, Omer
added interesting and sometimes comical expe·
rienc
es
he had during these trips.
Also in
May, a group of members had the
opporlUnity to travel on the Thurso Railway
which ru
ns north from the Ottawa River, east
of t
he city of Ottawa. The Thurso Railway
(formerly the Thurso and Nation Valley) is the
last logging railway in the east, and is to be
abandoned by the end of the summer. The
BACK COVER
Society trips (there were three) were nostalgic

last passenger runs and consisted of the
Societys ex-CP o
fficial car number 27 and
ex-CP
caboose 436436. The short trains were
haul
ed by one of the Railways GE 70-tonners.
COMMUN ICATIONS
COMMUNICATIONS May 19, 1986
Locomotive number 374 was moved to the
Ex
po site on the turntable in front of the Round·
house on
February 12. Steve Stark gave his
final report as the Oirector of Special Projects
at t
he February meeting. The move went smooth­
ly, and received coverage both in print and on
the evening n
ews. A steam generator wi!! be
installed to
provide steam to the cylinders and
to
blow the enginess whistle. A builders plate
was re-fabricated by Versatile Pacif
ic and bol·
ted on, and the loco
motives bell was provided
by the Vancouver Centennial Museum and in­
stalled thirty minutes before number 374
was moved. The inside of the cab was painted
wscan
red, as it appeared in 1886. After all of
the uncertainties with regards to funding and
politics it was
extremely satisfying to see
the engine hoisted o
nto the turntable, new
paint gleaming in the February sunshine.
Steve extended special thanks
to all of the
PCD members
who contributed time, physical
e
ffort and money to the number 374 pro­
ject.
He also had praise for the workers at Ver·
s
atile Pacific, who finished the difficult task
of re·assembling the engine. The name of sev·
eral
of those whose efforts were especially note­
w
orthy will be included on the plaque installed
at t
he site. No one, however, gave more than
Ste
ve himself, who put in countless hours of
volunteer time to lobby, cajole, humour, plead
and thredten
several levels of bureaucracy to·
wards a
ction. Our thanks for a job well done
g
o out to St
eve.
(The Sandhouse -PCD D
ivision)
{Me
n;:i a Jacques Beaubien Jr. and Doug Smith)
011 II sunny afternoun II cl!lIrury ago the phutographerS shutter caprure(/ this busy scene on Montreals
Sr. James
Street. Even the pedcsrrians seem frQZf~n In mid-stride, showing thar this was an instanran
eous phorogriJph, rather unusual for the 1880s. HOrSCC3rS were t~en the prin.lc1rv ,!,ezJrlS of public tra!)
sit, a
l/hougll II is surprising how few action phoros of them aXlst. An ommbus IIr .,150 very much In
evidence, as are pflVilre C1irria{1(s and wagons The horSec1Ir5 h.we been gom, for more rhan 90 years.
and the tracks lor almost 30, but the street is srill ,1 busy thoroughfare.
Public ArchiveS of CiJnada, photo C·70921
Canadian Rail
P.o. Box 282 St. Eustache, Que., Canada
J7R 4K6
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return to sender, postage guaranteed.
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