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Canadian Rail 390 1986

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Canadian Rail 390 1986

Canadian Rail
No. 390
JANUARY­
FEBRUARY 1986

Published bi-monthly by the Canadian Railroad
Historical Association P.O. Box 148 St. Constant
P.Q. JOL 1 XO. Subscription rates $25.00
($23.00 US funds if outside Canada)
EDITOR: Fred F Angus
CO-EDITOR: M. Peter Murphy
OFFICIAL CARTOGRAPHER: William A Germaniuk
LAYOUT: Michel Paulet
FRONT COVER:
1986 marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of
the city of Vancouver B. c., an event which will be
commemorated by EXPO 86. Vancouvers career as
a
railway terminus began on a day in May 1887 when
the first C.P.R. train to roll past the former terminus at
Port Moody pulled into Vancouver. This photo,
reproduced from an original sepia print, shows the
locomotive just after it had been uncoupled from the
first train. Just about everything from a picture of
Queen Victoria (who was having her 50th jubilee) to
evergreen boughs were used in the decoration. This
locomotive, No. 374, has been preserved and will be
one of the most important exhibits at EXPO 86.
INSIDE FRONT COVER:
About the same time that 374 was arriving at
Vancouver a continent away, in Yarmouth N. 5.,
Western Countries Ry. No.2 GEO. DOANE posed
for its photo beside the ornate wooden station. This
engine was later Yarmouth and Annapolis No.2, and
still later Dominion Atlantic No.7. The station stood
until about 195D.
Collection of Paul H. Cleveland.
NAil
A4IL
ISSN 0008-4875
NEW BRUNSWICK DIVISION
P.O. Box 1162
Saint John,
New Brunswick E2L 4G7
ST. LAWRENCE VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 22 Station B
Montreal, Que. H3B 3J5
BYTOWN RAILWAY SOCIETY
P.O. Box 141, Station A
Ottawa, Ontario K 1 N 8V1
TORONTO & YORK DIVISION
P.O. Box 5849, Terminal A,
Toronto, Ontario M5W 1 P3
WINDSOR-ESSEX DIVISION
300 Cabana Road East,
Windsor, Ontario N9G 1A2
GRAND RIVER DIVISION
P.O. Box 603
Cambridge, Ontario N 1 R 5W1
NIAGARA DIVISION
P.O. Box 593
St.
Catharines, Ontario L2R 6W8
RIDEAU VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 962
Smiths Falls, Ontario K7A 5A5
ROCKY MOUNTAIN DIVISION
P.O. Box 6102, Station C,
Edmonton, Alberta T5B 2NO
CALGARY & SOUTH WESTERN DIVISION
60 -6100, 4th Ave. NE
Calgary, Alberta T2A 5Z8
CROWSNEST & KETTLE-VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 400
Cranbrook, British Columbia V1 C 4H9
PACIFIC COAST DIVISION
P.O. Box 1006. Station A,
Vancouver, British Columbia V6C 2P1
KEYSTONE DIVISION
14 Reynolds Bay
Winnipeg, Manitoba R3K OM4
A Question of Compatibility
On Passenger Trains
!Jl …
I~.
By: Howard Shepherd, Fred Angus
and James Sponholz
Two views of a proposed steam-operated public railway of about 1820. In those days
even
the track was not standardized as witness the cog wheel beneath the locomotives.
CANADIAN
In the very earliest days of railways there were
few common standards between the various lines.
Wheels, gauge, couplers, brakes, even motive
power, varied from company to company. But as
most routes did not connect with each other it did
not matter very much.
Gradually, as railway systems developed,
standardization slowly came about. Flanged
wheels and locomotive power came very early, in
the 1830s. The most important item was gauge
which, after various attempts, became reasonably
standardized in North America by the late 1880s.
The
Westinghouse air brake came into great use
during this time, and, in the 1890s, standard
couplers replaced the various early designs. Thus
by
1900 the whole North American continent was
moving generally in the direction of standard­
ization which would allow virtually complete
interchange of equipment.
By
1910 passenger cars being equipped with
safe electric light instead of oil or gas Lamps.
Usually each car had its own batteries and
5
R A I L
associated generator, but if equipment was to be
trainlined, voltage and polarity would have to be
standardized as well. The most usual standard
came to be 32 volts direct current, and even now
older cars, still in service, use this voltage. More
modern passenger equipment, built from the late
1930s through the 1950s, had the higher 64 volt
system, but this equipment could not be trainlined
with 32 volt cars. Heating of cars had originally
been done by stoves but this dangerous and
inconvenient method was replaced by steam heat,
a
natural in the days of the steam locomotive but
not so suited to diesel operation without specially
equipped units.
However, both of these standards are fast being
made obsolete by the latest generation of
passenger rolling stock which uses an electrical
system operating an 480 volts alternating current.
The basic concept, known as head-end power, is
different too, and is used for heating and air
conditioning as well as lighting. The main power
comes, not from batteries and generators on each
In the old days gauges were even mixed in the same train! This photo, taken about 1870, shows a Great Western
train operating on dual-gauge track before the Provinciar 56 gauge was abolished. The sign NG indicates
that there were narrow gauge (i.e. 4 8/:2) cars in the train.
Photo: Canadian National.
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Some of the couplers in use
in 1884.
Eventually a
standard design evolved but
it took a long time.
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car (except for small emergency units), but from a
large
generator on board the locomotive. Car
generators and, above all, steam lines are no
longer used.
of electrical and heating equipment on passenger
cars.
The
first H.E.P. cars began operating, in the late
1950s, on the Chicago and Northwestern bi-Ievel
commuter cars, and quickly spread to that lines
long-distance passenger equipment. Other
Chicago commuter trains followed suit, and by
1968 H. E. P. had spread to the Northeast corridor in
the United States. The resurgance of U.S. national
commitment to passenger trains following the
creation of Amtrak in 1971, and the energy crisis of
1973, required the ordering of large numbers of
passenger cars and locomotives. It was wisely
decided at that time to employ H.E.P. on all new
This means, of course, that all cars in the train
must be of the same standard. Previously cars of
different voltages could be intermixed provided
that they were not trainlined together, but with the
head-end-power (H.E.P.) system such intermixing
cannot be done. Thus we see a new standard that
is rapidly being accepted across the North
American continent. As the gauges and couplers
were standardized in the last century, the present
time is witnessing along-overdue standardization
A dual-guage yard at Port aux Basques in Newfoundland. Here the two gauges come together and car bodies are
transferred from standard-gauge trucks to narrow, and vice versa.
Photo by Fred Angu$.
equipment and gradually to convert any older cars
which would be retained in service and known as
Hefitage Equipment. Until such older cars could
be converted they could not, of course, be used in
the same train as new equipment; this caused
some inconvenience, such as no sleepers on
certain long-distance overnight trains, but all have
now been converted and equipment is now
interchangeable.
The head-end-power concept is not confined to
the United Staes but has, in fact, been in use in
Canada
for almost a decade and a half. The
Canadian pioneers of this system were C.N.s
Tempo trains as well as the GO Transit
operating out of Toronto. More recently VIA Rails
new L. R.C. equipment has adopted this system and
on occasion
actually does intermix L.R.C.
locomotives, Tempo cars
and Amtrak cars on the
Toronto-Chicago run. So far no newer Canadian
passenger cars have been placed in service
although this situation may soon change. None of
the older VIA equipment has been converted to
H.E. P. and
present plans do not call for this to be
done. Thus we still have the semi-archaic sight of
steam lines spewing clouds of vapour, steam­
generator cars behind those locomotives that are
not especially equipped for passenger service,
lights that burn dimly if batteries are not properly
charged and, of course, that old winter problem,
frozen
steam lines.
However the days of steam-heated cars appear
to be
numbered. First, Ontario Northland
announced that they would be ordering new bi­
level intercity passenger cars, and then VIA Rail
embarked on a policy of re-equiping its entire
passenger fleet with new cars and locomotives.
While full technical details do not appear to have
been released yet, there is every reason to believe
that the new equipment will have 480 volt A.C.
head-end-power. The only disquieting note is that
VIA does not, at present, plan to upgrade some of
the older cars, such as the former C.P. stainless
steel equipment, but prefers to replace them
completely. While Amtrak originally had similar
plans, they eventually adopted the modified idea of
full upgrading of the best of its Heritage fleet.
Perhaps
eventually VIA will do the same.
The
United States adopted standard H.E.P.
passenger trains at a time when its passenger fleet
was being renewed and replaced from the wheels
up. Such a renewal and upgrading is a necessity in
Canada today as so much equipment becomes
more and more unmanageable despite the interim
refurbishing that has been done on some cars. It is
hoped
that VIAs new program of re-equipment
(and, hopefully, upgrading of some cars) will
proceed with full priority. While steam heat and
similar anachronisms are interesting to railfans
and historians, they must be replaced by more up­
to-date technology if the passenger train is to
survive in Canada. A good start has been made.
This
should continue to include all VIA trains and
ensure full compatibility and interchangeability of
the passenger train equipment throughout North
America.
A
step
up

car
used
by
Amtrak
to
allow
use
of
both
single­
level
and
bi

Ievel
cars
in
the
same
train
. Tuscon
Artzona
in
June
1984
.
Photo
by
Fred
Angus.
Clouds
of
steam
pour
from
the
front
of
the
train
on
a
cold
day
at
Calgary
Alberta
. H.E. P.
will
eliminate
this
scene
too.
Photo
by
Fred
Angus
.
gets
cold
lots
of
steam
is
needed.
Here
we
see THREE
steam-generator
cars
on
the
passenger
train
en
route
to
Churchill
Manitoba
in
Mav
1983
.
Such
a
sight
will
disappear
with
H.E.P.
Photo
by
Fred
Angus
.
A
present
day
Amtrak
train
including
fully

rebuilt
Heritage
cars
.
CANADIAN
9
R A I L
Intermixing of VIA and
Amtrak equipment is done
with the newer cars. Here
we see Tempo cars on an
Amtrak train; the Internat­
ionaj which runs between
Toronto and Chicago.
Photos by Gordon Taylor.
The
new L. R. C. and G 0
cars are compatable with
the new system.
Photo
by Gordon Taylor.
DID THE RATHBUN COMPANY OF
DESERONTO, ONTARIO, BUILD
STEAM LOCOMOTIVES?
By: Fritz Lehmann
The Rathbun Company of Deseronto, Ontario,
may have been the last traditional Canadian
family firm to attempt locomotive manufacture:
following in the footsteps pioneered by James
Good of Toronto and the Kinmond brothers of
Montreal in 1853. But Rathbun built very few
locomotives if any, and does not seem to have
attracted any customers outside the Rathbun
empire of industries and short-line railways.
Rathbun did not have the capital and other
resources to pursue the locomotive dream for
very long. A
new book on the Rathbuns of Deseronto,
Donald M. Wilsons Lost Horizons: the Story of
the Rathbun Company and the Bay of Quinte
Railway (Belleville: Mika Publishing Co., 1983),
adds
considerably to the overall picture of Edward
Wilkes Rathbun, his family firm, and the
industrial empire centered on Deseronto,
Ontario, in the late nineteenth and early
twentieth century. But it does not settle any of the
questions about the Rathbun locomotive
enterprise, perhaps because the evidence simply
no longer exists. Some tantalizing photographs in
this book show a few industrial shunting
locomotives of a very home-made appearance
(0-4-0T steam dummies, locally called motors)
in contrast to some larger conventional 0-4-0STs;
and there are two fine photos of the locomotive
shops in 1882.
Edward Wilkes Rathbun (1842-1903) was an
old-fashioned industrialist in the great nine­
teenth century patriarchal mold.
1
His American
father, Hugo B. Rathbun, had a large lumber
business centered around his home base at
Auburn, New York. The father acquired a sawmill
at Culbertsons Wharf, Ontario, and founded
what became the present town of Deseronto
CANADIAN
there. After school and business experience in
New York City, Edward joined his father in the
lumber business. His fathers health began tofail
and at the age of 20 Edward was in charge.
Edward Rathbun seems to have been a man of
unusual judgment and energy. His letters show
intelligence, directness, a forceful personality,
and not much in the way of literary polish. He was
not over-schooled, probably an advantage in his
time and profession. By expansion and
diversification, Edward built up the assets of H.B.
Rathbun & Co., the family firm, from about
$50,000 when he took it over to over $2,000,000
when he had the Canadian operations incorp-
11
R A I L
orated in New York in 1884, but now with
Oswego as its principal place of business. In
1889 the town of Deseronto was incorporated as
well, and Edward Rathbun was its first and only
mayor from that time until the year of his death,
1903.
2
An excellent study of Rathbun by James A.
Eadie brings out the strength of his character. In
two speeches in Deseronto in 1898, Rathbun
expressed his philosophy of life. He was proud to
be a manufacturer, who gives employement to
enterprise, labour, and capital, the factors that
combine to make a nation. A lifelong devout
Presbyterian, Rathbun believed that the
Sixteen street cars were built by the Rathbun company for the Montreal Park and Island Railway
in 1896 and 1897. The 12 cars of 1896 were single-truck and numbered 20 to 37 (later 7000 to
1022 even numbers), while the four built in 1897 were double-truck and had numbers 32 to 35
(later 7024 to 1030 even numbers). Car 1014 seen at Snowdon Junction in 1904 and car 1030
seen on the Back River line the same year show both types as built.
M.
U. C. T. C. C ol/ect ion. C. R. H.A. Archives.
CANAD.IAN
Christian religion is the foundation of progress, it
inspires to faith in God and our fellow men. He
went on to show how this fit in with his business
philosophy: faith is the creator of enterprise and
progress, the very opposite of distrust,
skepticism, and doubt. His religious faith thus
reinforced his confidence that his lifes work
was morally as well as materially successful.
Providence will bless our efforts if honestly put
forth, he said My life has been devoted to the
building up of industries, and as he gazed
around Deseronto, he saw factories and homes
that to me are of paramount importance to all
else.3
With sawmills and timber licenses all over
eastern Ontario, Rathbun became one of the
pioneer champions of modern forestry pract­
ices–a passionate advocate of preservation and
renewal of this resource. He also was energetic
in efforts to utilise previously wasted resources,
another pet idea of his, and set up sash, door, and
blind factories, a large charcoal works, match
splint factories, a shipyard, chemical works,
cement and gas works. He built the Bayof Quinte
Railway and Navigation Co. to connect Deseronto
with the Grand Trunk, and acquired and
completed the Napanee, Tamworth and Quebec
Railway (renamed Kingston, Napanee & Western
in 1890, merged into his Bay of Quinte Ry in
1893) and built or acquired the Thousand Island
Ry. and the Oshawa Ry. to link his industries and
hinterland resources. Much of thiS energetic
expansion and diversification was intended to
move the Rathbun Co. and the town of Deseronto
beyond a simple dependence on lumbering, as
the marketable timber accessible to river and lake
transport in the area was depleted.
4
One part of this diversification effort concerns
us. In the fall of 1889, the foundations for a large
locomotive repair shop were laid in Deseronto.
5
This was associated with a plant to manufacture
railway cars there as well. The railway car works
had a modest success and remained in business
until 1913; the locomotive side of the business
did not fare so well. The locomotive shop at first
did repairs and rebuilding for the Rathbun railway
lines, for instance, in December 1889 the new
shop was fitting Napanee, Tamworth & Quebec
#6 with a snow plough and vacuum brakes.
6
But
it was also looking for outside orders, and in that
same month built two new snow plows for the
Grand Trunk.1

There -seem to be no surviving records of the
Rathbun Locomotive Works and Car Shops at
Deseronto, and
the information available is very
sketchy. Indeed,
it is somewhat confusing. The
12
R A I L
Kingston newspaper in the early 1890s report that
three locomotives were built at Deseronto in
1890 and 1892 for the Bay of Quinte Ry., while
two were built by Canadian Locomotive and
Engine Co. of Kingston for that road in 1892 and
1893, and the Kingston works also produced a
portion or a boiler for another in 1893-­
presumably finished at Deseronto. The Canadian
Locomotive & Engine Co. works list shows only
one locomotive for the Bay of Quinte Ry., its #5,
completed in February 1893
B
These contemporary newspaper notes are
better than nothing, but often too brief to do more
than tantalize. A second engine for the Bay of
Quinte railway has been built at Deseronto, in
the Daily British Whig of Oct. 4, 1890, certainly
seems clear enough. But there is no reference to
the first locomotive other than the implication
here that there was a first locomotive also
manufactured at Deseronto.
In
August of 1892, we are told that the Rathbun
Co. ordered thirty tons of castings from the
Kingston Foundry.9 Some of these could have
been for railway work, or for any of Rathbuns
many industrial enterprises; they would not have
been delivered in time to be part of the new
locomotive (presumably the third built in
Deseronto) reported later that month: a new
locomotive for the Bay of Quinte Ry. in service on
August 25, 1893, weighs 45 tons, and a few of
the largest details were made in Kingston, the
balance in Deseronto. R. McLeod of Rathbun
was the constructor.10 Robert McLeod was
foreman of the Deseronto locomotive works. But
the following winter, the Rathbun Co.s foreman,
McKeown, was in Kingston to inspect the
locomotive being built by the Canadian Locomo­
tive & Engine Co. for his firm,ll and we never
learn what became of the boiler which the
Kingston works produced at that time for
Rathbun. So it looks like Rathbun can be credited
with three, just possibly more, locomotives–all
for a railway line owned by the same family.12
This is close to being own shop production.
Since Rathbun certainly hoped for outside
business, however, and the exact relationship
between the railway and the locomotive and car
works is not clear, but would appear to be that of
two distinct firms or divisions within the Rathbun
empire, I think we can count Rathbun as one of
the Canadian locomotive builders–albeit the
smallest.
The Rathbun Co. had more luck with the
railway car business, and are believed to have
manufactured a number of freight cars for the
Canadian steam railways of the day. The car
works also built passenger cars tor the Kingston
and Pembroke Ry, and the Bay of Quinte Ry., and
built some electric cars in the beginning of the
interurban traction era for the Cornwall Electric
Ry., the Tillsonburg Ry., the Montreal, Park &
Island Ry., and the Oshawa Ry.13 A large electric
car for freight service, referred to as a locomotive,
was built for the Kingston, Portsmouth &
Cataraqui Ry. in 1898 (The locomotive, to be
used
for the present on the Mooers elevator spur,
has a
strong pulling capacity. ) 14 Electric
locomotives and a steam 0-4-0Twere built for the
Oshawa Ry.15 .
They
were unfortunate in the timing of their
entry into the locomotive business, The 1890s
were a long period of depression. Even the
Kingston works had an extremely thin time from
1892 until they went into liquidation in 1899.
Their annual sales dropped from 11 in 1892 to 6
in 1893, and then 3, 3, 4, 7, and 1 in the next few
years. Employees were laid off and the works
were closed most of the year each of those years.
Thus the times were not propitious for a new
(LO~~O PA!>:>ENG~R tIOTOR CAll
FOil THE
/ONTREAL PARK &,j.5LAND RAILWAY.
~
entrant to the Canadian locomotive field in the
early 1890s. In fact, Dubs & Co. of Glasgow, one
of the greatest locomotive producers of Europe,
wrote off its 1886 investment in the Kingston
works as worthless paper at this time, so it is no
surprise that Rathbuns Locomotive Works failed
to prosper.
There is evidence that the Rathbun companies
possessed the technical competence to build
locomotives, especially considering the relative
simplicity and small size of the engines we
presume were built (industrial 0-4-0s and light 4-
4-0s). There is a Canadian patent issued to
James B. Stewart of Deseronto in 1886 for
Counterbalance for Link Motion of Steam
Engines.16 This is for application to stationary
steam engines, making use of a small steam
cylinder and piston bracketed to the fixed frame of
the engine and arranged to take the weight of the
valve and link motion gear from the eccentrics
whereby the gear can be more readily operated
by the usual hand lever my invention is
applicable to
propeller and other vertical
.
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PUIN
A scale drawing of one of the 1896 Rathbun cars built for the M. P. & I. Ry. Note the unusual
seating arrangement. These cars did not last very long in passenger service in Montreal, being
retired in 1907.
CANADIAN
engines. The Deseronto steam dummy
motors give the appearance of being vertical­
boilered, perhaps an adaptation of the logging
industrys steam donkey engine, which would
reasonably adaptation of practical expertise
among the Deseronto mechanics.
Mathew J. Butler, Rathbuns chief engineer
from about 1883 to 1900, is primarily known for
railway, bridge, and factory construction.
Michael Haney hired him away from Rathbun in
1900 to supervise his Hillsbourough bridge
contract in Prince Edward Island, and then Butler
was the chief engineer for the construction of
Haneys own project, the Locomotive and
Machine Co. of Montreal in 1902-3 (which
became the Montreal Locomotive Works in
1908). With boilers and castings from two
suppliers in Kingston, Butler and the mechanics
and engineers in Deseronto could easily build
locomotives. What we would like to know for sure
is, did they? how many? when? and for whom?
14
R A I L
FOOTNOTES ON RATHBUN
1 K(enneth) A. C(atto), Edward Wilkes Rathbun,
A Standard Dictionary of Canadian Biography:
Canadian Who Was Who, ed. Sir Charles G. D.
Roberts & Arthur L. Tunnell (Toronto, 1938),
vol. II, pp. 371-372; Donald M. Wilson, Lost
Horizons: The Story of the Rathbun Company
and the Bay of Quinte Railway (Belleville, 1983).
2 James A. Eadie, Edward Wilkes Rathbun and
the Napanee Tamworth and Quebec Railway,
Ontario History, vol. 63 no. 2 (June 1971),
pp. 11 3-1 30.
3 Rathbuns speeches, published in full in the
Deseronto Tribune, Feb. 4 and April 15, 1898,
are quoted in James Eadie, op. cit., pp. 125-126.
4 James Eadie, op. cit.; Public Archives of
Ontario, G. 8 #19, unpublished manuscript by
Andrew Merrilees, The Railway Rolling Stock
Industry in Canada: A Historv of 110 Years of
CANADIAN
15
R A I L
The 7897 double truck cars were converted to Pay-As-You-Enter operation and lasted in
passenger service until the 1920s. Here we see 7026 and 1028 in service as rebuilt about
7913. The body of car 1026 lasted as a first aid shelter at St. Hubert airport as late as 7947.
M U. C. T. C. Collection. C.R.H.A. Archives.
Canadian Railway Car Building (1963), unpag­
inated, 2 pp. section The Rathbun Company,
Deseronto, Ontario; M. D. Leduc, Bay of
Quinte Railway, Canadian Rail, no. 174 (Feb
1966), pp. 213-214. The cover of this issue
carries a photograph of Montreal Park & Island
Ry. 1014, a trolley car built by Rathbun in 1896.
5 Kingston Daily British Whig, Nov. 1, 1889.
6 Ibid., Dec. 14, 1889.
7 Ibid., Dec. 20, 1889.
a Canadian Locomotive and Engine Co. #440 of
Feb. 1893. The Kingston Daily British Whig
reporls a locomotive for the Bay of Qu i nte Ry.
being built at the Kingston Co., Dec. 31, 1891;
an
engine under construction for the Bay of
Quinte, Sept. 23,1892 (and a portion of one);
Jan. 26, 1893; Jan. 30, 1893 (and a boiler for
another); this locomotive completed (turned
out another locomotive for the Bay of Quinte Ry.
yesterday
… has still another to build -my
emphasis), Feb. 9, 1893,
9 Kingston Daily British Whig, Aug. 10, 1892.
Note that the Canadian Locomotive and Engine
Co. itself got an order from the Rathbun Co. a
year and a half later, for 40 tons of castings.
Kingston Daily News, Feb. 2, 1894.
10Daily British Whig, Aug. 27,. 1892.
Ibid., Jan 26, 1893. Ref. to Robert McLeon as
loco.
works foreman in July 1892 in Donald M.
Wilson, Lost Horizons: the Story of the Rathbun
Company and the Bay of Quinte Railway
(Belleville: Mika, 1983), p. 179.
12The Clegg and Corley roster of Canadian Nat­
ional locomotives, based on official sources,
shows three small Canadian Northern 4-4-0s
as rebuilt by Rathbun, 1893(7). I believe that
these must be the locomotives built at Deser­
onto for the Bay of Ouinte Ry. in 1890-1892,
and absorbed into the Canadian Northern roster
when it bought Rathbuns railway in 1909.
Anthony Clegg and Ray Corley, Canadian
National Steam Power (Montreal, 1969), p. 68.
13public
Archives of Ontario, Merrilees manu­
script (see foote note 4); Kingston Daily British
Whig, April 6, 1869 (Cornwall, Tillsonburg,
Feb. 13, 1897 (Montreal); Aug. 28, 1897 (dump
car for Asbestos & Asbestic Co.).
14Kingston Daily British Whig, Jan. 15, 1898.
15Wilson, Lost Horizons, p. 154.
16James
B. Stewart, Canadian Patent No. 24802,
issued 1886 (application dated 13August 1886).
17Wilson,
Lost Horizons, pp. 59, 80, 125-126.
BOR
1, 2, 6, 7, 8, to Canadian Northern Ry.
55-59 in 1909. Canadian Northern stock records
do not give a builders name for thes locomotives,
but show them as rebuilt by the Bay of Ouinte
Railway. R. F. Corley and D. M. Wilson assumed
that this meant simply overhauling and updating
of existing locomotives purchased from some
unknown supplier. Our evidence is too sketchy to
be conclusive, but I believe it can be used to
support a suggestion that these locomotives were
in fact manufactured, or at least assembled with
some cornponents locally made, in Deseronto.
Canadian Northern 55-57 (BOR 1, 2, 6) acquired
by Canadian National Rys., became 125, (1 st)
126,
(1 st) 127. The 125 was altered with 63
drive wheels and 140 psi boiler pressure;
scrapped in
1923, 1922, and 1920. Oshawa Ry. 1
scrapped 8/
1916. NOTE: This list does not guess
possible
industrial locomotives. SOURCES: King­
ston Daily British Whig, Oct. 4, 1890, and Aug. 27,
1892; A. Clegg and R. Corley, Canadian National
Steam Power (Montreal, 1969), p. 68; Donald M.
Wilson, Lost Horizons: the Story of the Rathbun
Company and the Bay of Quinte Railway (Belle­
ville,
1983), pp. 21, 38, 40, 64, 68-69, 142, 154,
179.
SUGGESTIONS FOR A LIST OF
RATHBUN-BUILT LOCOMOTIVES
date built built for
( 1 ) 1890 (7) Bay of Ouinte Ry. 1
(2)
10-1890 Bay of Ouinte Ry. 2
(3)
08-1892 Bay of Ouinte Ry. 6
7
7 Bay
of Ouinte Ry. 7
?
7 Bay of Ouinte Ry. 8
7
7
Oshawa Ry. 1
type cyls. driv. BP
4-4-0 17×24 62 145
4-4-0 17×24 62 145
4-4-0 17×24 62 145
4-4-0 15×22 62 145
4-4-0 15×22 62 145
4-4-0T 7 7 7
SPECIAL NOTICE
Canadas Railway Sesquicentennial Conference
The conference to help commemorate the 150th anniversary of
the opening of Canadas first railway will be held in Montreal
from July 18 to July 20, 1986.
There will also be post-conference activities and tours on Monday
July 21, the actual day of the 150th anniversary.
Help celebrate
the sesquicentennial of Canadas railways!
Reserve the dates now!
More details in the next issue.
EDMONTON RAILWAY
PHOTO AI,BUM
It is our great pleasure to present a collection of photos of the railways and
bridges in Edmonton Alberta in the first quarter of the twentieth century.
Unless otherwise indicated the photos are taken by McDermid Studios and
are from the collection of Walter M. Stanley.
Edmonton Grand Trunk Station. Note -Horse drawn busses that transported passengers to their Hotels.
Scene just East of Grand Trunk Station showing four modes of transport. The building, middle right is the old
Immigration Hostel long since gone. Since 1925 there is a subway under the tracks at this location.
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The Map dated 1923 Revised 1945 was made from a large 4 by 8 map that used to hang in many a Western
Stations. The original of this map was obtained at an auction and I have now donated it to the Railway station
that has been built in the reconstruction of Fort Edmonton.
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MAN I
CANADIAN
22
R A I L
Early construction on the Canadian Pacific high level bridge. Buildings in the distance are those of what was
then called Strathcona.
Canadian Pacific High Level Bridge under construction. It also shows some of Fort Edmonton buildings on the
grounds of the Parliment Building with the dome still being constructed.
CANADIAN
23
R A I L
A Street car and train on the completed bridge.
October 2nd 1902, the first train to cross the Low Level bridge which allowed trains into Edmonton from
Strathcona.
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The blue print of the proposed High Level Bridge was found in an old C.P.R. desk
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The Low Level bridge during the 1915 flood. A one time there was a loaded train stationed on the bridge with a
locomotive on each end to help stabilize the bridge. If it looked like the bridge would give way the locos would
then pull each half of the train off the bridge. Note: the C.N. MacDonald Hotel on the top of the river bank.
Four spectacular views of the
1915 flood at Edmonton
showing the efforts of the
Canadian Northern to save
the low-level bndge. A train
of box cars loaded with coal
was moved on to the bridge
in an attempt to weight down
the bridge and prevent it from
being swept away For a
while it was touch-and-go as
we see in the view of the
ruins of a building piled up
against the bridge. However
the effort was successful and
the bridge still stands today.
City of Edmonton Archives.
Nos.
EA-25-20, EA-25-38,
EA-25-8, EA-25-3G. All
courtesy of Lon Marsh.
CANADIAN
27
R A I L
A decorated locomotive used on an early Royal Visit. It was either the Duke of Gloucester or Duke of Connaught.
Jasper Avenue underpass newly completed under the C.P.R. tracks, with a train headed south toward the
High Level.
No less
than
TEN C.
P.R.
locomotives
crossing
the
high
level
bridge
en
route
to
the
shops
on
the
South
side. The
occasion
was
the
Royal
visit
of
1939.
Quite
a
tonnage
for
the
the
old
bridget
An early scene at Dunvegan just outside of Edmonton.
The
incline railway that lifted heavy loads from the river valley to the top the hill at 101 street. The C.P.
Chateau Lacombe is now built on this site.
CANADIAN
30
R A I L
Two of the river Paddle boats that plied the North Saskatchewan river in Edmonton. These were mainly
used as pleasure excursions between Fort Saskatchewan to the North East and Big Island up river.
VANCOUVER: STEAM EXPO, THE LARGEST-EVER
assembly of steam locomotives since the 1 948
Chicago Rail Fair, joins the roster of EXPO 86
once-in-a-world Special Events. More than 25
operating steam locomotives plus vintage rail cars
will gather in Vancouver, British Columbia, from
May 23 to June I, 1986.
This splendid celebration of the bygone era of
steam enhances the 1986 World Expositions
transportation and communications theme. It also
marks the centennial of the completion of the
transcontinental rail road in British Columbia. As
well, the May 23 opening date of STEAM EXPO
commemorates the arrival of the first
transcontinental passenger train in Vancouver in
1887.
STEAM EXPO is guaranteed to make train buffs
of hundreds of thousands of visitors, says Claude
Richmond, minister of Tourism/EXPO 86. Its a
thrilling addition to the Expositions already
unparalleled programming.
Initial response to STEAM EXPO has been
overwhelming. All participating nations have been
invited to send steam locomotives for public
display and demonstration. From North America
alone more than 25 groups have now expressed
strong interest. Participants will absorb their own
transportation costs.
STEAM EXPO will be held at the CN railyard on
Terminal Avenue, adjacent to the East Gate on the
main Expo site. EXPO 86 is upgrading the display
area and
will contribute to participants expenses
during this Special Event.
car
STEAM EXPO will generate enthusiasm and
excitement amongst railway afficionados around
the world. Inquiries are already pouring in to EXPO
INFO
from all corners of the world for information
on the STEAM EXPO Special Event.
STEAM EXPO is coordinated by Granville
Transportation Consultants Ltd. of Vancouver.
EXPO 86 will feature one of the largest
gatherings of these iron horses in North
America during its special STEAMEXPO event.
Among the collection of more than 25 locomotives
plus vintage rail cars at STEAM EXPO from May 23
to June I, 1986 will be:
Royal Hudson:
British Columbias own and most
famous steam locomotive will lead the grand
parade of steam on May 23. Built for CPR. The
Royal Hudson saw the end of its in-service life
steaming between Vancouver and Revelstoke.
During its time, it also ran in the prairies. It now
operates as a tourist attraction during the summer
months. During STEAM EXPO, locomotive 3716
will fill in on the Hudsons regular run between
North Vancouver and Squamish.
Two Spot: This Shay-type locomotive was built
in 1912 and retired in the late 1950s. The Two
Spot spent its entire lifetime working the forests
around Port Alberni. It was returned to steam by
volunteers from the Alberni Industrial Heritage
Society. Currently it is on display at the Alberni
Valley Museum. In addition to this locomotive, the
Alberni Valley Museum is bringing two loaded log
cars,
two steam-donkey engines, a 14-ton
CANADIAN
switching locomotive (built in New Westminster)
and a 1947 Hayes logging truck. During
STEAMEXPO volunteer crews from Port Alberni
will put the Two Spot to work with actual steam
logging operations.
Inyo #22:
One of the locomotive built by the
Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1875, Inyo #22 was
a prized possession of the Virginia & Truckee
Railroad,
which ran between Reno, Nevada and
Virginia City. Retired from the railroad Inyo #22
was purchased by Paramount Studios and
featured in several western movies. It was
repurchased by the State of Nevada and restored to
original condition complete with brass trim and
fine paint. Joining Inyo #22 is another Virginia &
Truckee Railroad treasure –Caboose #9. It too has
been
refurbished and is once again complete down
to spitoons built into the floor. The Inyo comes
from the Virginia & Truckee Railroad Museum in
Carson City, Nevada.
The Gypsy: A
unique, little logging locomotive,
the Gypsy is the proud possession of the Northern
Counties Logging Interpretive Association from
Eureka, California. Measuring about six metres
long, Gypsy has four driving wheels, the usual
boiler, an open cab
and a steam-operated winching
machine on front. This part-locomotive, part-Iog­
loader,
part-yarding engine is the only one of its
type in
existence. During STEAM EXPO, Gypsy will
be accompanied by two log cars and a redwood log
two metres in diameter and five metres long.
Gypsys
enthusiastic crew, dressed in authentic
loggers clothes from the early 1900s, will
entertain with several demonstrations.
Two historic locomotives, as yet to be annouced,
from California State Railroad Museum in
Sacramento, California will also share
STEAMEXPOs plateform space. This museum,
one
of the finest in North America, features a
multitude of exquisitely restored locomotives.
For
further information, contact:
Gail
Flitton,
Director,
Media Relations,
(604)
689-1986.
THE
WORLDS FIRST IMAX 3-D FILM WILL BE
screened at Expo 86 as part of Canadian
Nationals contribution to the international
transportation and communications fair.
The
film is being sponsored by CN, produced by
the National Film Board of Canada, and will be
presented at the CN Theatre – a permanent, 500-
seat auditorium located at Canada Place, site of the
Government of Canadas Expo pavillion.
32
R A I L
IMAX, the trademark of IMAX Systems
Corporation, Oakville, Ontario, is a Canadian­
developed film-making technique that involves a
screen 15.2 metres* high by 21.3 metres wide.
The first 2-D IMAX film, made by National Film
Board film maker Donald Brittain, was seen at Expo
70 in Osaka, Japan. At Expo 85, being held at
Tsukuba, Japan, both 2-D IMAX films and 3-D
Omnimax films are being screened. Omnimax was
developed by the same company and involves
projecting onto a dome -planetarium style.
For
the 3-D film to be shown at Vancouver, the
audience will see the double-projected images by
wearing glasses with right and left sides polarizing
light from different angles.
IMAX theatres -not in 3-D -are also found at
the Smithsonian Institutuion in Washington, D.C.;
the Kennedy Space Centre at Cape Canaveral,
Florida;
the National Museum of Photography, Film
and Television, in Bradford, England, and at 30
other locations around the world.
Omnimax theatres are in place in Hong Kong,
Paris, The Hague, Yokohama,
and at several
locations in the United States.
The IMAX film uses the widest motion picture
stock available, with an almost square picture for
each frame. As a result, the projection will be the
largest film image in the world. The cameras and
projectors required are large and complex, but
have proven themselves through 15 years of
quality production.
The third dimension
Creating the 3-D film for Expo 86 requires twice
the normal camera requirements to do the filming,
and twice the projector equipment to screen it.
It also requires completely different points of
view on the part of the producer and director to
understand the limitations and new-found
freedoms that the process offers.
Colin Low of the National Film Board is writing
and producing the CN movie, and he said that
what interests me is the chance to give viewers a
cOFjlscious
awareness of themselves and the
experience at the same time. Thats what art is,
what great theatre is.
The film itself is being created to blend
entertainment and information about CN. It will
present a view of why things are carried, and
explore how peoples wants are satisfied through
transportation and communications.
It will zoom in on people as they use technology
in the service of others, and then zoom in on others
as their needs are fulfilled.
The first metre of film was shot on October 5,
1984, and before it is completed more than 50000
metres of film will pass through the two IMAX
cameras. This summer, that will be edited down to
2633 metres -timestwo, since two printswill run
simultaneously for the 3-D process.
The
story board
The opening sequence of the movie shows
voyageurs paddling down the fur route from
western to eastern Canada in the 1660s. The
scene was actually shot in the Gatineau district
near Ottawa, when the trees were at their brilliant
fall best.
Other scenes include a ride with an engineer
down the Fraser Canyon, a snowmobile journey
through a forest, a helicopter trip over another
forest as logs are flown out.
Subject to the final editing, some of the other CN
jobs to be featured in the film include: train
dispatcher, motive power controller, track
maintainer, P-811 track maintainer, truck driver,
forklift operator, signal maintainer, telecommun­
ications technician and telephone equipment
installer.
On camera: Among the scenes being shot for the
CN Rail IMAX 3-D film is this one of an operating
replica of the John Molson steam engine, on
display at Canadian Railway Museum at St­
Constant, Quebec.
ONE STEP FORWARD,
TWO STEPS BACKWARD.
That sometimes strikes me as the prevailing
formula in Canadian transportation.
For
example, in March 1976, the LRC -Light,
Rapid,
Comfortable -train set a Canadian rail­
speed record of 129 m.p.h. at a CP Rail test track
in Montreal. (This was in the nice days when
trains still went miles, rather than kilometres.)
A
month later, the Turbo train beat that record,
reaching 140 m.p.h. at an Ontario test track. The
Turbo, as we know was later scrapped and
replaced by the LRC.
But the interesting thing is the previous rail
speed record of about 112 m.p.h. had stood for 40
years. It was set in 1936 by a CP steam
locomotive on a regular run.
Now, as a
taxpayer, I felt a curious sense of
unease. After hundreds of millions of dollars in
research and development involving untold
energy and intellectual and engineering talent,
we managed to develop two trains that could go
faster than a piece of equipment operating on
19th century technology.
City stations shut
There have been few reports of any paying
passenger on the Montreal-Toronto run ever
experiencing these speeds on a regular LRC or
Turbo run.
Meanwhile, at the same time we were setting
those records, trying to speed up transport, we
were closing downtown train stations and
opening Mirabel airport.
Maybe they understood transport better in the
days of steam, before the advent of high-priced
consultants and research and development
budgets.
Back in
the 1970s, the geniuses who run
Transport Canada (encouraged by then Quebec
City Mayor Gilles Lamontagne) decided to close
the old station. And they built a tacky new station
way out in the suburb of Ste. Foy, in the shadow of
the Pierre Laporte Bridge.
Presumably,
that decision was arrived at by the
same geniuses who decided to close downtown
stations in Ottawa and other Canadian cities and
spend more taxpayers money building new
stations out where the airports are.
Now,
Im not a highly paid tranportation
consultant, but I can say with a fair amount of
certainty those were bound to discourage
passenger rail traffic. Whether this was the plan,
I cant tell. But that certainly was the result.
One of
the best arguments in favor of train
travel over air travel is downtown-to-downtown
convenience.
But I stopped using the Quebec City train simply
because it meant taking a $10 taxi ride from that
insipid commuter-style Ste-Foy station to get into
town. The same goes for Ottawa.
Transport Department geniuses managed to
make me into an intercity bus passenger.
Guy Chartrand, president of Transport 2000, a
lobby and
study group, says it cost the federal
government $6 million to shut the old Gare du
Palais. The property was then given to Quebec
City, which turned it into a farmers market.
Via Rail
then proceeded to lose 100,000
passenegers a year.
The new mayor of Quebec City, Jean Pelletier,
Transport 2000 and other people who arent
Tranport Department geniuses have lobbied for
years to get the trains back into the downtown
Gare du Palais, where they should have remained
in the first place.
Putting the 8.7 kilometres of track back in
shape,
and laying new track into the station
proper, has cost $28 million.
Chartrand estimates Quebec City spent $17.2
million because of the shutdown in 1976 -$12
million to change road structures, and $5.2
million fixing up the station. Add to that an
estimated $10 million in lost revenue to Via Rail.
All told, Chartrand figures, the closing of the old
station was a $60-million mistake.
(Nick
Auf der Maur -The Montreal Gazette)
BEFORE PACIFIC STREET GREW INTO THE SWEEPING
six
lanes of Pacific Boulevard, the CPR Round­
house was hidden deep in industrial territory at the
foot of Drake Street. Now the boulevard runs right
beside what is left of the Roundhouse complex.
Anyone who passes the Expo 86 site can look toward
the water and see the legacy people at work.
There were once seven brick buildings on the 13.5-
acre Roundhouse site. Half of one of them is left. The
portion that is still standing includes one of the three
oldest buildings in Vancouver.
But the back of the blacksmiths shop is gone. The 12
Roundhouse stalls erected in 1912 are gone. So is the
oil storage building, repair shed, car shop, coach yard
administration and repair shop, dining car and linen
storage building.
Expo 86, a
transportation fair, had no use for these
buildings. B.C. Place, the crown corporation that has
leased the land to Expo, had no use for them either, at
least until widespread protest in 1981 forced a
reconsideration.
Legacy-person Dykes looks at the structure under
repair and says: You can see how tempting it would be
to bulldoze the whole lot:
Its true that the building is far from looking good.
What remains is the 33-metre turntable and two
sections of the roundhouse itself -the original six­
stall
1886 section and an addition to the west of it built
in 1950 to service diesels.
The
Roundhouse doors are gone, and the windows
that havent been removed are smashed. The curved
1888 section that serviced Engine 374 after its
inaugural trip from Montreal to Vancouver stands open
to the skies, waiting for replacement roof.
The
pits where men worked under steam engines are
full of water. Rotted posts have been sheared off at the
bottom and the roof they once supported rests on
temporary steel braces. The walls remaining from
1888 look pitifully weak, especially now that the 1912
section that shored up the east side has been torn
down.
The Roundhouse looks considerably more healthy in
the drawings in architect Norm Hotsons office on
Hornby Street. The prettily colored elevations show
warm red brick walls, red metal roofs, the great engine
doors painted forest green, the glass all replaced and a
new entrance at the back of the blacksmith shop where
the building was cut off.
Since mid-September, an eight-man crew from
Halse-Martin Construction Co. has been at work on the
building to bring it up to the standard of the National
Building Code by next spring.
The
S2.46-million renovation includes Sl.2 million
,-
.-.. ——-~
——-~
~-.-
in new electrical services. plumbing, heating, air
conditioning and structural upgrading.
In Hotsons design, the steel is painted brick red.
Theres no attempt
10 hide the sleel. Were saying this
is
an old building that we braced, Hotson says.
For the duration of
Expo, the Roundhousewill be one
of four
theme pavilions. and will be dedicatedto man in
motion. The machine shop will house the Luke
Rombout-curated Expo art exhibition.
After Expo. the Roundhouse
will be convened to
retail stores and restaurants, some serving the
surrounding residential area, others drawing
consumers from the rest of the city.
The machine shop may become a
community centre.
In
what he calls an interesting mixture of uses,
Hotson is hoping that
pan of the 1888 section can be
used as a functioning railway museum, with facilities
for the repair of steam engines.
AN ADVANCED BRIDGE DESIGN TO MATCH
the modern rapid transit technology
thats the key to hrin9ing the Vancouver
Regional Rapid Transit
line to Surrey.
The bridge
to be built across the Fraser River
is a cable-stayed structure, similar to a suspen­
sion
bridge.
Steel cables fan out
from the tOI)S of two-
110-metre towers to anchor the bridge deck.
Rapid
transit trains will cross the bridges twin
guideway.
A rapid
transit-only bridge was chosen after
engineering studies determined thot piggy-back­
ing on
the Pattullo Bridge would take longer
and cost
more.
Tile innovative and lightweight cable-staye{l
b
ridge can t)e built for about $33 million, in
1983 dollars.
Tentative plans call for the bridge to cross
the Fraser River at
an angle. about 200 metres
downstream
from the Pattullo highway bridge
EXPO
For that reason. the pits in the floor are being
covered.
not filled in, and Hotson is lighting to have all
of
the !rack leading into the building, and at least 40
feet of outside track connecting to the turntable
returned 10 the site.
II seems odd 10 have 10 fight for these things
because thats
what makes it authentic. he says.
and
the CN railway bridge.
Considerable local
expertise in cable-stayed
bridge technology has been generated by the
engineering studies related
to the proposed
Annacis
highway bridge from North Delta to
New Westminster.
The rapid
transit bridge will have the same
ultimate passenger-carrying capacity as the
Pattullo Bridge; it will be lighter and thus cheap­
er
to build. It will have to canry only one rapid
transit
train on each track, of a maximum train
size of seven cars.
A high
way bridge must be designed to carry
a load equivalent
to all lanes full of traffic, al­
though this occurs infrequently.
Another factor reducing weight and cost is
the width of the rClpid transit bridge. It needs
to be only wide enough to carry a twin guide­
way -about 8.5 metres.
A
highway llridge capable of carrying an
equivalent number of people would have to be
several times wider and would cost two to three
times
as much,
On the New Westminster side, the bridge
approaches w
ill start from a point just west of
Elliot Street and Columbia Street. The bridge
itself
would be approximately 745 metres long
-about the
same as the Pattullo Bridge,
But
the centre span between the towers will
be about 300 metres long, double the Pattulls
main span.
Its an important consideration for
a bridge across such a h
eavily·used navigable
river.
On the Surrey side, the bridge touches
d
own in the Bridgeview area, close the Pat·
tulia Bridge approach.
Cable-stayed bridges in
Montreal is a Canadian
example
of the technology.
S. VANCOUVER REGIONAL RAPID TRANSIT
BACK COVER: A view, taken about 1925, showing Edmontons new C.N. slation as well as
the old G. T.P. one. The station has nowbeenrep/acedby the new C.N. lower.
McDermid Studios. Colleclion of Walter M. Stanley.
Canadian Rail
P.o. Box 282 St. Eustache, Que., Canada
J7R 4K6
Postmaster. if undelivered within
10 days return to sender, postage guaranteed
Book Tanl
rate des livres
P[IIMfT. 11

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