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Canadian Rail 389 1985

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Canadian Rail 389 1985

Published bi-monthly by the Canadian Railroad
Historical Association P.O Box 148 St.
Constant P.Q.
JOL IXO. Subscription rates $23.00
(US
funds if outside Canada)
EDITOR: Fred F
Angus
CO-EDITOR: M. Peter Murphy
OFFICIAL CARTOGRAPHER: William A Germaniuk
LAYOUT: Michel Paulet
Front Cover:
ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO.
The Last Spike on the
C. P. R. main line, Craigellachie B. C. November 7,
1885. The work has been well done in every way.
(Van Horne).
Canadian Pacific photo.
Inside Front Cover:
Progress
at the Canadian Railway Museum: C.P.R.
744, getting ready for its 100th birthday next March!
It has been cleaned down to bare metal and painted
in appropriate coats of black paint. The paint was a
donation from our Niagara Division, and it was
applied by Odilon Perrault.
Restored by Ken Goslett and Ken DeJean, and
painted by Odilon Perrault, A.C. & H.B. No. 4341
adds another link in the Museums freight car
collection.
Both photos by A.S. Walbridge.
ISSN 0008-4875
NEW BRUNSWICK DIVISION
P.O. Box 1162
Saint
John,
NBW Brunswick E2L 4G7
ST.
LAWRENCE VALLEY DIVISION
PO. Box 22 Station B
Montreal, Que.
H3B 3J5
SYTOWN
RAILWAY SOCIETY
P.O. Box 141, Station A
Ottawa,
Ontario K1 N 8V1
TORONTO & YORK DIVISION
P.O. Box 5849, Terminal A,
Toronto, Ontario M5W 1 P3
WINDSOR-ESSEX DIVISION
300 Cabana Road East,
Windsor, Ontario N9G 1 A2
GRAND RIVER DIVISION
P.O. Box 603
Cambridge, Ontario N1 R 5W1
NIAGARA DIVISION
PO Box 593
St. Catharines,
Ontario L2R 6W8
RIDEAU VALLEY
DIVISION
PO. Box 962
Smiths Falls,
Ontario K7A 5A5
ROCKY MOUNTAIN DIVISION
P.O. Box 6102, Station C,
Edmonton, Alberta T5B 2NO
CALGARY & SOUTH WESTERN DIVISION
60 -6100, 4th Ave. NE
Calgary,
Alberta T2A 5Z8
CROWSNEST & KETTLE-VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 400
Cranbrook, British Columbia V1C 4H9
PACIFIC COAST DIVISION
P.O. Box 1006. Station A,
Vancouver. British Columbia V6C 2P1
KEYSTONE DIVISION
14 Reynolds Bay
Winnipeg,
Manitoba R3K OM4
INFORMATION ON RAILWAY TIME
SERVICE AND WATCR-CLOCK
STANDARDS
By
Peter Kushnir C.M.W. C.M.B.H.1.
CP Rail
Time Service Technician
Starting with Rules on Time Service and Time
Standards, one
will clearly understand that rules
are set out on the assumption of
what could
happen –not necessarily
what will happen. But
over
the years, rules pertaining to standard
watches, clocks and
time on most North American
Railroads have been drastically reduced. The
simple phrase Reliable Watch or Clock took its
place.
I ask you gentlemen –reliable
by whose
standard, or
what definition. To be able to shed
some light on
how the situation looks today one
must turn back to some past history of Standard
Time
as applied to rail operation.
First, I
want to make clear that what I will say is
not intended
as criticism, but represents my own
personel opinion
which has been formulated from
my involvement in watchmaking on
this continent
since 1947.
To eliminate misunderstanding, I will
minimize as much as possible technical words
used in watchmaking.
For many years, I understood the meaning of
High Ball and even enjoyed many of them, only
to find out from Mr. J.C.
Gaw a few days ago what
this term means in rail operations. So lets High
Ball on the subject.
At the start of railroading in U.S. and Canada
there was no standard time. Every city and town
and railroad had their own standard time. For
example, before November 18, 1883, the Chicago
Tribune listed 27 local
times in Michigan, 38 in
Wisconsin, 27 in Illinois and
23 in Indiana. In the
table you have a comparison table and a map
which gives you standard time in use locally before
Sunday, November 18, 1883,
which was called the
Day of the Two Noons. North American
Railroads adopted the concept of Standard Time in
May 1872, when the Association of Railroad
Superintendents, a
forerunner of Association of
American Railroads, met in the Southern Hotel in
St. Louis, Mo. Until that day, standard watches and
clocks were never mentioned or even
contemplated until the disastrous collision April
19, 1891, in Ohio
on the Lake Shore, Michigan
Southern Railroad between a fast mail train and an
accommodation train, which I assume was a
passenger train. The story has it
that four people lost
their lives. In the subsequent investigation
and trial, it
was proven that the accident was due to
a
faulty watch in the hands of an employee in
charge of
the mail train.
This incident led to the development of standard
watches and clocks
as we know them today in the
U.S. and Canada. Old rules books mention
watches, but no reference is made about any
standard or
requirement of Railway Standard
Watches. From the start of railroading in the U.S.
and Canada, employees in train operations did
possess watches.
In the U.S. they were mainly of
American manufacture -Pitkins, Providence,
Elgin, U.
S. Watch Co., Illinois, Hampton, Rockford,
Appleton Tracy, and
Waltham. These watches
were of 7 Jewels or more. So called reliable
watches. In Canada in addition to these, watches
of Swiss and British manufacture were also used.
Clocks used
by railroads of both countries were
made by E. Howard; Waltham, Seth Thomas,
Ansonia, Gilbert & Waterbury, to name a few.
No
improvements to clocks or watches were made
unless the
manufacturer came up with something
on
their own. These improvements were only due
to competition
with no regard to any other factor.
Finally, after
the accident in Ohio the railways
recognized
the need and the importance of watch
and clock standards and inspection. Mr. Webb C.
Ball, a prominent jeweller from Cleveland, Ohio
was called in as an expert witness in the
trial
pertaining to the accident on the Lake Shore,
Michjgan Southern. He subsequently was
authorized to investigate the watch situation on
the Lake .Shore Lines, and set up a watch
inspection system. More railroads recognized the
importance of watch standardization and watch
inspection and Mr. Ball was appointed as General
Watch Inspector for many North
American
Railroads, operating out of offices in Cleveland,
Chicago, San Francisco and Winnipeg, Canada.
Some railroads set up
their own Time Service
Department also based
on the system used by Mr.
Ball. From .then on any watch being used in rail
service was required to meet the following specifi­
cations. (Here I
will be obliged to used some
technical terms).
1903
Elgin National Watch Company Movements.
Movements Specially Constructed for Exacting Railway Service.
18=Size
o. F.
Lever
Set.
Veritas. No. 214, O. F., LeerSet, Nickel.
~:j extr::t fine ruby jewels (raised gold settings) i ad·
justed to temperature, isochronism and positions i
(Iuick train with gold wheels i straight line double­
roller escapement with sleel eSCApe wheel; poised
pallet and fork; pallet arhor and escape pinion cone­
pivoted alld c:tp-jeweled i exposed pallets, compen­
sating balance; nreguet hair spring, micrometric
regulator; patent safety barrel with spring box rig­
ielly mounted OIl hridge i barrel arbor pivots running
ill jewels; display winding work; palent recoiling
cl ick ; patelll self-Iocki ng setting device, double-sunk
glass-ellAmel dint ; dust ring, plates beautifully dam·
;tskeellco, ctlrefully timed, and parts $60 00
fill(.I~· finished. throtlJ,!liout, •
R.. W. R.aymond. No. 240, O. F., Lever
Set, Nickel.
11 fille rlllly j(:wt;l:-; ( raisc:d gold settings) ; adjusted
to t trnlll wiLh gold wheels; stmight line escapement
with st<.t:l escapc wheel; exposed pallets, com pen sa·
tillf:: h:l.lllce; Breguet h;1ir spring; micrometric reg­
I1:ILor; pRtellt slfety hnrrel with spring box rigidly
1110111111..( 011 hridge; hnnel arhor pivots running in
j<.w p~tll1t slif·lock iug selling dnice; double Slink glass
<.11:111( di~l; <111~t ring; rl.t1naSkCClICO plates; care­
fllllytilHt(1, ;11l out, ,
Open Face,
Lever Set.
ELGIN
RAILROAD
WATCHES
The Elgins
BIG
4
Pass Muster
on
Railroads Throughout
the
United States.
18=Size
o. F.
Lever
Set.
Veritas. No. 239, O. F., LeerSet, Nickel.
21 fine ruby jewels l raised gold settings) ; adjusted
to temperature, isochronism alld po~iliolls j quick
train with gold wheels; straight line escapemelll
with steel escape wheel; pallet nrhor and escape pin,
ion cone-pivoted and cap-jeweled.; Cxposerl pallets:
compensating balance j Breguet hair sprillg; micro­
metric regulator; patent safety barrel with sprillg.
box rigidly mounted on bridge j display windill).:
work; patent recoiling click; patent self.locking
setting device j double-sullk. glass-enamel dial; dust
ring; damaskeened plates; carefully $50 00
tim.d, and finely:finished throughout. •
Father Time. {Ht
g ..
Leer ~et, ~ Nickel.
O. F., Len~r ~et. I
21 fine ruby jewels (gilrlerl sellillgs 1: ndjustt:rl to
temperature, isochronis111 alld positioll.; quick trail1;
straight line escapelHt;ul with sl(,.,(,.,1 (scape wh<.cI;
pallet arbor and (seapc piniol1 cOIHpivotl:o nnd CIlP
jeweled; exposed pallets; cOlllpensaLing balancl;
Breguet h:1ir spring; rnicromtlrk regulator; Opl~11
face with patent recoHing click; douhle-sunk dial
dust ring; damaskeened plntel>: carefully $40 00
timed, and finely finished throughout. •
CANADIAN
190
R A I L
Railway watch had to be openface, size 18 or 16,
17 jewel, adjusted to five positions. Accurate to 30
seconds a week, adjusted to temperature of 34 to
10 degrees fahrenheit, double roller, steel escape
wheel, lever set, micrometer regulator, winding
stem at 12 oclock, Arabic numerals printed on
white dial and have bold black hands. Grade had to
appear on a back plate.
These so called
specifications as set out by Mr.
Ball
and the American Watch Manufacturers
became a basic standard for railroad watches from
1892 onwards on North American Railroads. From
this time on we see improvements in some watch
requirements. Mr. Ball probably deserves much
credit for raising the standards of watches used by
railroad men and for the implementation of
railroad watch inspections. But at the same time
there were abuses by the watch manufacturers
and Mr. Ball in oarticular, with the introduction of
official railroad standard watch.
American watches made for railway use were
becoming works of art with features that had no
bearing on timekeeping, only decorative. Mr. Ball
was patenting all kinds of unnecessary features
and watch manufacturers would not let
:themselves be outdone and as a result, the railway
employees had to pay a high price for a standard
railway watch.
With the exception of E. Howard, all U.S. watch
manufacturers sold watch movements only to
jewellers and the same practice was used by case
manufacturers. When purchasing a railway watch
one selected a watch movement of an approved
standard to be put in a case of his choice. Because
of this practice, movements had to be very
appealing to a laymans eyes. For example, a 17
jewel watch movement made by Hampton Watch
Co. to railroad standards in 1892, wholesale cost
was $18.00 plus case, without unnecessary
features. Same movement called New Railway
cost $50.00 plus case and Special Railway cost
$70.00 plus case, depending onquality ofthe case.
The
same pricing practice was used by all U.S.
Watch Manufacturers. At that time five weeks of a
conductors salary was required to pay for a
railway watch. It is obvious that such high prices
were beyond reason. When imported quality
movements that could have passed railway
requirements, only cost $10.00 wholesale in the
U.S., they were not acceptable since requirements
stated: The only acceptable railroad grade pocket
watches are those of American manufacture.
Some of the unnecessary extra features were up
to 26 jewels which was completely unnecessary,
lever set instead of pin set, jewels set in gold bezel,
solid nickle movement, damaskeened (fine
engraving), chasing, three piece dial, and so on.
The
list is endless. A letter from the Eries Chief
Inspector who was an employee of the railroad was
published in the June 15, 1906 issue of Railway
Age. He accused the General Watch Inspectors
who were tradesmen (apparent reference to Ball)
of conspiring to require additional features for
railroad watches which would add nothing to the
durability or timekeeping capabilities of the watch.
U.S. Customs, to project American watch
manufacturers, set up an additional duty on
imported watches having more than 17 jewels and
those that were adjusted. For example, 17 jewel
movement, duty charges -$1.86 per movement.
Having more than 17 jewels, duty becomes $5.56
and in addition there is a forty-one cent to one
dollar charge for each adjustment on the
movement. As a result of these regulations all
watches imported into the U.S., regardless of their
quality, are stamped unadjusted. These
regulations are in force even today when there is
no watch manufacturing in the United States and
all imported watches into the U.S., regardless of
their quality, are stamped unadjusted.
Watch standards and time service requirements
on Canadian Pacific were reorganized on October
1, 1899, and continued, more or less, on the same
basis, as on most leading U.S. railroads. From that
date watches for CP service were officially
approved by proper authorities. This practice is still
in force today. A list of watches that have been
approved for CP service from October 1,1899, until
now is shown here.
In
the early 1930s there was great pressure
from Labour Unions for reduction of standards,
comparison and cleaning intervals, and as a result
of this the 1930s saw the beginning of erosion of
watch inspections and watch requirements. No
doubt the installation of C.T.C. also contributed to
the reduction in these standards. U.S. railroads
started gradually lowering their requirements for
inspection and servicing of railway watches and
some railroads turned back to the simple term A
reliable watch. Reliable by those standards?
Yes, the employees had a valid reason to complain
and action had to be taken. The followi ng are some
examples of relaxing the rules. Instead of
examining the situation as it developed and
redefining watch standards, eliminating
unnecessary features and thereby reducing the
cost to employees when buying a watch by
approximately 75%, railways started reducing
inspection requirements which actually did not
represent any cost. As for maintenance (cleaning)
which obviously cannot be ignored on any
instrument, requirements became inconsistent
CANADIAN
191
R A I L
and almost nonexistant. The Hamilton 505
Electric Watch was accepted in the U.S. for rail
service only because it was made in the U.S. But,
under test, it would never meet the standard
requirement for even an average time piece.
A
tuning fork type watch, such as Accutron, stops
for approximately four seconds each time it receives
a shock. It
was developed by Swiss physicist and
made in the U.S. As such was acceptable. Being
part of North America, Canadian railways usually
follow the lead of their U.S. counterparts. The
Association of General Railroad Watch Inspectors,
whose responsi bi lity is to gu ide the interest of their
railroads and employees respectively, at their
meetings overlook the possibility of conflict of
interest. In good faith, they accept the
recommendations of their watch and clock
suppliers who naturally promote their own product
with little regard to railway requirements. Finally,
being under pressure by one of our suppliers to
approve their product because everybody else did
so,
the problem had to be resolved. With the
approval of CP Rail management and to protect our
employees, in November 1977, we set up detailed
specifications for CP Rail Standard Watch
requirements. These included wrist and pocket
watches of manual, automatic, electronic, semi­
mechanical and quartz analogue type. CP Rail
approved
watches today, retail cost, range from
$165.00 to $199.00 depending on brand. This
represents approximately 1/3 of a trainmans
salary for one week. While this stand, to my
knowledge, was unprecedented, we feel that our
actions were justified since our counterparts in
Canada and
some of the leading American
Railroads have also adopted our standards. Now
we have watches made to our specifications and
needs and do not adapt our requirements to the
available watches. In this way we have eliminated
all kinds of problems and unnecessary expense to
our employees.
We are now constantly on the lookout for proper
products and can proudly state we are on the right
track.
Clocks are
another lengthy subject to deal with.
In short,
from the start of Canadian Pacific until
approximately 1910, we had various clocks in use,
mostly of American manufacture. After 1910, the
concentration to standardize our system began.
Head Office, Regional
Offices and many major
stat!ons, were equipped with selfwinding master­
set clocks, number 2, 17,18 and 20. Station clocks
were Seth Thomas World, 30 days or 8 days.
Many of these clocks are still in service today,
showing the original choice of a quality product
was valid. For dispatcher clocks, we used Waltham
8-day, 15 jewel car clocks, especially cased for our
purpose. In the past we also used some Zenith
Desk Chronometers and later Swiss portescap
battery desk clocks for dispatchers.
In
1978 we designed a dispatcher desk clock and
had these produced for us by a leading Swiss
manufacturer. It is a quartz analog movement
operated by a special battery (Mallory RM-1 N) with
vibration period of 4.5 million cycles per second.
The
only comment about this clock we have
received from the line, is that the clock is operating
as intended. Now we are in search for a proper
replacement for our comparison clocks. But with
all due respect to all electronic timing devices, I am
of the opinion that for railway use, a good quality
weight-driven pendulum clock is the most su itable,
especially where safety is of the utmost
importance. I am under the impression that all
North American railways spend a lot of time and a
considerable amount of money to promote safety
and rules on their lines, but for some unknown
reason, Time Service, Watch Inspection and Watch
and Clock Standards are sitting on the back burner.
This tolerance raises the question, are we waiting
for another mishap to happen like the one on
April 19, 1891. When one considers the cost today
ofthe smallest derai Iment, it becomes very obvious
that the cost of a properly organized and
maintained Time Service Department for the
largest railroad could be run for 50 years for far
less.
I
wish to thank you for the opportunity of being
able to express just some of the facts of the
situation and how it has developed. I would like to
leave you with some idea of how this subject
should be approached. Namely, it should be
determined, first, what do we want. Why do we
want it. And how do we get it.
I do
not have all the answers for every applica­
tion but, with these questions in mind, I believe CP
Rail is well on the way to solving some of these
problems for our Company.
18
S.
18 S.
18 S.
18 S.
18 S.
18 S.
18 S.
18 S. APPROVED POCKET WATCHES
IN
CP RAIL SERVICE
AS OF OCTOBER 1, 1899
Waltham
Vanguard
Vanguard
Vanguard
Crescent St.
Crescent St.
No.
845
C.P.R.
Appleton-Tracy
19 Jewels
21 Jewels
23 Jewels
19 Jewels
21 Jewels
21 Jewels
17 Jewels
17 Jewels
CANADIAN
192
R A I L
18 S. C.T.S. 17 Jewels
Ball
16 S. Riverside Max 23 Jewels
16 S. Vanguard 19 Jewels
18 S. Official Standard 17 Jewels
16 S. Vanguard 21 Jewels
18 S. Official Standard 19 Jewels
16 S. Vanguard 23 Jewels
18 S. Official Standard 21 Jewels
16 S. Crescent St. 21 Jewels
18 S. Official Standard 23 Jewels
16 S. No. 645 21 Jewels 16 S. Official Standard 17 Jewels
16 S. C.P.R. 17 Jewels 16 S. Official Standard 19 Jewels
16 S. C.T.S. 17 Jewels 16 S. Officia I Sta nda rd 21 Jewels
16 S. Riverside 19 Jewels 16 S. Official Standard 23 Jewels
Elgin
Illinois
18 S. Veritas 21 Jewels 18 S. Bunn Special 21 Jewels
18 S. Veritas 23 Jewels 18 S. Bunn Special 23 Jewels
18 S. Father Time 21 Jewels 18 S. A. Lincoln 21 Jewels
18 S. No. 349 21 Jewels 18 S. Bunn 17 Jewels
18 S. B.W.R. 17 Jewels 18 S. Bunn 19 Jewels
18 S. B.W.R. 19 Jewels 16 S. Sangamo Special 19 Jewels
18 S. B.W.R. 21 Jewels 16 S. Sangamo Special 21 Jewels
16 S. Veritas 21 Jewels 16 S. Sangamo Special 23 Jewels
16 S. Veritas 23 Jewels 16 S. Bunn Special 21 Jewels
16 S. Father Time 21 Jewels 16 S. Bunn Special 23 Jewels
16 S. B.W.R. 17 Jewels 16 S. A. Lincoln 21 Jewels
16 S. B.W.R. 19 Jewels 16 S. Bunn 17 Jewels
16 S. B.W.R. 21 Jewels 16 S. Bunn 19 Jewels
Hamilton
Seth Thomas
18 S. No. 946 23 Jewels
18 S. No. 260 21 Jewels
18 S. No. 940 21 Jewels
18 S. Maiden Lane 25 Jewels
18 S. No. 942 21 Jewels
18 S. No. 382 17 Jewels
18 S. No. 944 19 Jewels
18 S. No. 936 17 Jewels
Howard
18 S. No. 938 17 Jewels
16 S. No. 950 23 Jewels
16 S. No. 0 23 Jewels
16 S. No. 960 21 Jewels
16 S. No.1 21 Jewels
16 S. No. 990 21 Jewels
16 S. No. 5 19 Jewels
16 S. No. 992 21 Jewels
16 S. No. 2 17 Jewels
16 S. 110. 952 19 Jewels
16 S. No. 10 21 Jewels
16 S. No. 972 17 Jewels
South Bend Longines
18
S. No. 327 21 Jewels
18 S. Express Monarch
21 Jewels
18 S. No. 329 21 Jewels
18 S. Express Monarch
23 Jewels
18 S. 110. 323 17 Jewels
18 S. Express Leader
17 Jewels
16 S. No. 227 21 Jewels
18 S. Express Leader
19 Jewels
16 S. No. 229 21 Jewels
16 S. Express Monarch
21 Jewels
16 S. No. 223 17 Jewels
16 S. Express Monarch
23 Jewels
16 S. Express Leader
17 Jewels
16 S. Express Leader 19 Jewels
CANADIAN
193
R A I L
Zenith
Hamilton
18 S. Extra 23 Jewels
16.S. No. 950 23 Jewels
18 S. Superior 21 Jewels
16.S. No. 992 21 Jewels
18 S. Prima 17 Jewels
16.S. No. 996 19 Jewels
18 S. Prima 19 Jewels
16 S. Extra 23 Jewels
Illinois
Brandt –
Omega
16.S. Sagamo Special 23
Jewels
16.S. Bunn Special 23 Jewels
18 S. D.D.R. 23 Jewels
16.S. Bunn Special 21 Jewels
18 S. C.C.C.R. 23 Jewels
18 S. C.D.R. 19 Jewels
South Bend 18
S. C.C.R. 19 Jewels
16 S. D.D.R. 23 Jewels
16.S. No. 227
16 S. C.C.C.R. 23 Jewels
21 Jewels
16 S. D.R. 19 Jewels
16 S. C.C.R. 19 Jewels
Ball
Rockford
16.S. Official Standard
21 Jewels
16.S. Official Standard 23
Jewels
18 S. Winnebago 17 Jewels
18 S. No. 918 21 Jewels
Howard 18
S. No. 905 21 Jewels
18 S. No. 900 21 Jewels
16.S. No. 0 16
S. No. 405 17 Jewels
23 Jewels
16 S. No. 545 21 Jewels
16.S. No. 10
21 Jewels
16 S. No. 525 21 Jewels
16 S. No. 515 21 Jewels
Longines 16
S. No. 505 21 Jewels
16 S. No. 655 (Indicator) 21 Jewels
16.S. Express Monarch 23
Jewels
16.S. Express Monarch
21 Jewels
16.S. Express Leader
19 Jewels
APPROVED POCKET WATCHES IN
CP RAIL SERVICE Zenith
AS
OF JULY 1, 1928
16.S. Extra 23
Jewels
16.S. Superior
21 Jewels
Waltham
16.S. Vanguard 23
Jewels
Brandt
16 S. Crescent St.
21 Jewels
16.S. Riverside
19 Jewels
16.S. D.D.A. 23
Jewels
Elgin APPROVED
POCKET WATCHES IN
CP RAIL SERVICE 16.S. Veritas 23
Jewels
AS OF FEBRUARY 1, 1957
16.S. B.W.R. 23
Jewels
16.S. B.W.R.
21 Jewels
Zenith
16
S.
Extra RR 56
21 Jewels
16 S.
16 S.
16 S.
16 S.
16 S.
16 S.
16 S.
CANADIAN
194
R A I L
Waltham
Vanguard No. 29,
634, 001 and up
Elgin
B.W.R.
No. 571
Hamilton
No. 950 B
No. 992 B
Ball
(Hamilton) No. 992 C
No.
435 C
23 Jewels
21 Jewels
21 Jewels
23 Jewels
21 Jewels
21 Jewels
21 Jewels
APPROVED WRIST WATCHES IN
CP RAIL SERVICE
Longines
RR 280
Universal
RR 1205
Zenith
RR 120 T
Girard Perregaux
CP 307H.F.
Cyma
RR 2852 M
RR 2872 A 17
Jewels
19 Jewels
18 Jewels
17 Jewels
17 Jewels
25 Jewels
APPROVED WRIST WATCHES IN
CP RAIL SERVICE
BATTERY POWERED
Bulova
Accutron
214 17 Jewels
218 Calendar 17 Jewels
Wittnauer
RR 12 WT Calendar 13 Jewels
Rodania
RR 2780 Calendar 13 Jewels
APPROVED WRIST WATCHES SEMI-MECHANICAL
QUARlZ ANALOG BATIERY POWERED
IN CP RAIL SERVICE AS OF 1978
Bulova
Calendar
9362 Q
Calendar RR 960.111 Q
Rodania
Calendar 9952.111
RR
Calendar RR 9361 Q
Cyma
Calendar
RR 9361 Q
Calendar RR 960 Q
Rotary
Calendar
RR 9366 Q
Wyler
Calendar RR 9361 Q
Wittnauer
Calendar RR 2 Q 115 C 7
Jewels
6 Jewels
6 Jewels
7 Jewels
7 Jewels
6 Jewels
7 Jewels
7 Jewels
7 Jewels
BEFORE
AND
AFTER
THE
ADOPTION
OF
STANDARD
TIME
NOVEMBER
18,
1883
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..


N.
OAK
.
I –
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~
..


.

956.
Yo
.
I
IN,
BR
1O.Q2.
co;:o:-
10
.
08.
I
U
;
• • .
t.J
M
I
.10
.
01
1
~O~A
.
: nt. .
• •
I I
! I i
~
• Lo
cal
sun

time
by
which
the
trains
of
one
or
more
rai
i
roads
were
operated
before
Standard
Time
was
adopted
.
Figures
indicate
local
time
when
it
was
12
:
00
oclock
noon
in
Washinaton
.
D. C
AR!
t
•••


••

.,

Standard
Time
zone
boundaries
adopted
by
railroads
Nov
.
18. 1883 .
Present
Standard
Time
zone
boundaries.
COMPARATIVE TIME-TABLE,
SHOWING THE TUIE AT THE PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES.
COMPARED WITH NOON AT WASHINGTON, D. C.
There IS no .. ::it r::tilroacl COll1jJ~Lny a,clopts in(lcpcndently the time of itg own loc?.lity, or of that place nt
which its ptiacil,al olIice is situated. The inconv.fnience of such a system, if system it
ca!1 uc callccl, must be apparent to all, but is most annoying to persons l>trangers to the
ti,ct. From tltis cause many miscalculations and misconnections have arisen, yhich not
unfrequently hu,Ye been of serioul! consequ£nce to individuals, and h:we, as a matter of
course, brought into disrcpute all Railroad Guides, which of necessity give the local
times. In oner to relieve, in some degree, this anomaly in American milroarling, we pre­
sent the following table of local time, compared with that of Washington, D. C.
NOll)( .n \ A~IIl~GT()~;, n. c.
Alba.ny, N. Y …… l~ 14 1.111.
Augu,;ta Ga ……. ll 41 .A.M .
Augusta~ Me …… 11;)1 «
13:.tltimore, Md ….. 12 02 P.M.
I3eaufort, S. C ….. 11 4 7 ~U1.
Buston, Mass …… 1224 P.M.
13ridgeport, Ct ….. 12 1 G I (
I3utfltlo, N. Y …… 11 53 A.M.
Burlington, ~. J … 1209 P.M.
,13urlington, Vt …. 12 16 Canandaigua., N. Y.11 59 A.M.
Charleston, S. C … 11 49 «
Chicago, Ill …•… 11 18 ((
Cincinn:Lti, 0 …… 11 31 «
/
columhia, S. C ….. 11 44 «
CollimbuB. 0 …… 11 36 ((
Concord, N. H ….. 12 23 P.M.
I Dayton, O ……… 1132.A.M. Detroit, ?lIich
…… 11 36 (I
Dover, llcl. ……. 12 OG P.M.
Doyer, N. H ……. 1237 «
.Ea,~tport, Me …… 12 41 ((
[·runkfurt, Ky ….. 11 30 A.M.
l·rcderick, Md ….. 11 59 «
Vreoericksl.JUrg, Va.ll 58 «(
~rcderickton, N. Y.1Z 42 P.M.
I
Gahc;;;ton, Texas .. 10 49 .~.M.
(;[ollcrster, MlI.S3 .. ]2 26 P.M.
Creenficltl, .. 1218 «
Hu,~erstown, Mtl … 11 58 A.)1.
Ha,lif:tx, N. 8 …… 1254 P.M.
Harrisburg, Pa …. 12 01
I!:urtoro.
Ct ……. 12 18
Huntsvilie, Ala …. ll 21 A.M.
:oo~ .AT WASlII~GTO~, D. C.
—-_._-
lnllianapolis, Ind .. 11 26 .A.M.
. Jackson, Miss …… 11 08
.Jefferson, Mo …… 11 00 II
Kingston, Can ….. 12 O~ r.M.
Knoxville, Tenn … 11 33 .A.M.
Lancaster, Pa ….. 12 03 P.M.
Lexington, Ky ….. 11 31 .A.M.
Little Eock, Ark … 11 00 Louisville,
Ky ….. 11 26 II
Lowcll, MailS .•…. 1223 P.M.
Lynchburg, Va …. 11 51 A.M.
}Iiddletown, Ct …. 12 18 P.M.
Milledgeville, Ga … 11 35 .A.M.
Milwaukee, Wis …. 1117 A.M.
~Io bile, Ala …….. 11 16
~lontpelier, Vt ….. 1218 P.M.
Montreal, Can ….. 1214 «
~asbville, Tenn … 11 21 A.M.
~atcbez, Miss ….. ll 03 «
;{cwark, N. J …… 12 11 P.M.
~ew Bedford. MaslIi.12 25 (I
~ewburg, N. Y …. 12 12 «
Newburyport, Ms .. 12 25 «
~ewcastle, Del. … 12 06 «
~e\ Hn.ven, Conn .. 1217 «
;{ew London, (I •• 1220 II
~ ew Orleans, La … 11 08 .A. M.
;{ewport, R. I ….. 1223 P.M.
~ew York, N. Y … 1212 ((
Norfolk, Va ……. 1203 II
Northampton, Mi! .. 1~ 18 «
Norwich, Ct. …••. 1220 «
Pensn.coln., Fla ….. 11 20 A.M.
Peter,;burg-, Va …. ll 59 II
NOO:-l .AT WASHDIGTON, D. c.
Philadelphia, Pa … 1:2 08 P.lL
Pittsburg, Pa …… 11 48 A.M.
Plattsburg, N. Y .. 1? 15 P.ll.
Portland, Me …… 1:2 28 (I
Portsmouth, N. H.1225 «
Pm. uu Chic:n, Wis.ll 04 A.M;
ProvidencG, R. I … 12 23 P.M.
Quebec, Can ……. 12 23 ((
Racine, Wis ……. 1118 A.M.
Raleigh, N. C ….. 11 53 «
Richmond, Va ….. 11 58 I(
Rochester, N. Y … 1157 II
Sacketts Hbor, NY.12 05 P.M.
St. Anthony Falls ,.10 56 A.M.
St. Augustine, Fh.ll 42 I(
:::It. Louis, Mo …… 11 07 «
St. Paul, Min …… 1056 «
St.cramento, Cal. .. 902 II
Salem, Mass ……. 12 26 P.M.
Savannah, Ga ….. 11 44 A.M.
Springfield, Mass … 1218 P.M.
Tallahassee, Fla …. 11 30 A.M.
Toronto, Can …… 11 51 (
Trenton, N. J …. ,.12]0 P.M.
Troy, N. Y …….. 12 14 «
Tuscaloosa, Ala …. 11 ] 8 .A. M.
Utica, N. Y ……. 12 08 P.M.
Vandalia, Ill. …… 11 ]8 .A M.
Vincennes, Ind …. 11 1 {) ((
Wheeling, Va …… 11 45 II
Wilmington, Del. .. 1206 P.M.
Wilmington, N. C .. ll 56 A.M.
Worcester, Mass … 12 21 P.M.
York, Pa. ………. 1202 ((
By all easy calculation, the clilrercnce in time between the several places above named
ma,y be asccrtaineu. Thus, for instance, the dilTerence of time between New York and
Cincinnati may be rtscertained by simple comparison, that of the fir;;t having the Wash­
ling-ton noon :~t 1212 p. M., and of the latter at 1131 .A. u. ; and hence the dillcrcncc is 43
j
,rnillutlS, 01, in ot)Hr lV(jrd~, the nooa a.t ~ew York will be 11.17 A. M. at Cincinnati, and
llle noon at Cincillllati will bo 1243 P. M. at New York. Remember that places West are
sloWlr)) in time tll:1n tll()Se E(l.~t. Rnrt vice versa.
The Comparative Time-Table reproduced above appeared in Dinsmores
American Railroad and Steam Navigation Guide and Route-Book for October,
1857, many years before the adoption of Standard Time.
SOME THOUGHTS ON WRITING
ARTICLES FOR CANADIAN RAIL
by A.S. Walbridge
While reading CANADIAN RAIL, did you ever
stop
to think about who wrote the article, and why?
Most of the articles that apeared in CANADIAN
RAIL were written by members who are interested
in a particular topic related to, as the Associations
Letters Patent read: (for) The collection, the
preservation, the exhibition and distribution of
information, relics, documents and other historical
matter, relating to railways, locomotives and any
other means of transportation in Canada for the
mutual benefit of collectors of Canadian
transportation history. (Take a long breath, and
read those terms of reference again.)
All of us are not scholars of Canadian railway
history; but most of us can be students of the
subject. Think about taking some time to select a
subject that interests YOU which is related to our
favourite subject. The subject could be something
of local interest in the Canadian railway field –
something on which little may have been written
or published; yet which might contribute to the
total knowledge, and entertainment of your fellow
readers. Local sources of information may be
available to you, that would not be readily available
to others -your local library, old newspaper files
from your librarys files, or from the newspapers
files. The files of many Canadian newspapers have
bee·n microfilmed under Federal Government
programs; and can be ordered by your local library
for you to persue. It can be a fascinating
experience; and you will find many more topics
than railways in them that will interest you.
Interviews with Senior Citizens on their
recollections of the early days of railroading in your
area can be rewarding experiences. Try plumbing
the thoughts of your grandparents, for starters.
You may recommence their thinking processes on
not only their early experiences, and of your
grandparents parents. Their memories related to
you may well disclose family history that you may
not previously have been known to you -and not
just about railways.
There are many County Museums that have
collections of letters, newspaper clippings, snap­
shots, and magazines containing earlyarticleson
the building of Canadas railways. Make careful
notes as you examine these documents on where
you saw them. Ask the Museum Curator, or
Librarian for permission to borrow picture so that
you can have reproductions made to accompany
your article to CANADIAN RAIL. (You may have to
advance a deposit, to assure the safe return of the
material -small matter!)
Then there are other sources of historical
information. The Public Archives of Canada is
avai lable
to you -manuscripts, photographs, maps,
films, etc. Contact Information Services, Public
Archives of Canada, 395 Wellington Street,
Ottawa, Ontario, K 1 A ON3 (Phone 613-996-1473).
And dont forget our own archives. Robert
Nicholls, a
member of our Association, and a
founder of the Canadian Railway Museum, also
was the instigator of OUR archives. It occupies the
top floor of the Hays Memorial Building at the
Museum in St. Constant, Quebec. Many of the
thousands of references have been indexed; and the
work continues as the people and funds become
available. Unfortunately, we do not have a paid
staff to handle your requests for information; but
well do our best for you. (Address: Archives, c/o
Canadian Railway Museum, P.O. Box 148, St.
Constant, Quebec, Canada. JOL 1
XO)
Provincial Archives that may be closer to you are
frequently stocked with documents and photos on
railway topics; and are generally waiting to be of
service to you, the taxpayer-railway historical
researcher.
Our Editor, Fred Angus, can frequently suggest
sources of information, should you meet a
stumbling block in your research. Freds intense
interest in the subjet, and his endless and accurate
recollections of events and dates can be invaluable
to you. (Address: 3021 Trafalgar Avenue,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3Y 1 H3; Phone 514-
935-2254).
The Corporate Archives of both of Canadas
largest railways can be very useful sources of
information. Both are located in Montreal and will
generally help researchers to the extent of the size
of their small staffs.
A
few comments about grammar used in your
article might not be out of place. Try to use short
sentences. Your readers might be left breathless if
you try to say too much in one sentence. Your
article would be more readable if commas, semi­
colons, and dashes are used.
Tell
your reader early in your article -where,
when, how, why, the events took place. Our
membership covers the world; so if the action took
place in Smithville, also let him know that
Smithville is in British Columbia. When the article
,includes quotations, please state the source. And
CANADIAN
198
R A I L
why not finish off the article with a brief
bibliography of the sources of your information.
Readers of CANADIAN RAIL like lots of relevant
pictures to illustrate the articles. The Editor prefers
black and white prints, strong in contrast.
However, other forms of illustrations are welcome;
but cost more to prepare for publication. If you
wish your prints etc. returned, please ask for
them. Our Editor is meticulous about returning
them. If you would like extra copies of CANADIAN
RAIL in which your article appears, please ask the
Editor. Dont be disappointed if your article does
not appear in the immediate future. The Editor
probably will find space for it later, if not sooner.
Tell
the Editor a few facts about yourself, so he
can
introduce Author to Reader. Compose
captions for the pictures that you send. A dozen
and a
half words well chosen by the author are
more likely get the authors message across
accurately than leaving the Editors edit -for a
variety of reasons -to keep the standard of
performance up to par. The author is usually
consulted before publication, if time permits. .
Now, all of you researchers and writers, lets put
some serious thought into filling the Editors file
with interesting, well-researched articles for the
information and entertainment of your fellow
members. You will feel well rewarded for your
efforts.
Un mot a nos membres qui prefere decrire en
francais. Vos traveaux seront tres bienvenue, en
francais. ou avec un traduction en anglais.
Souvenez-vous que apeupres un quart de nos
membres portent les noms francais.
Stephen Walbridge
W~ REVIVAL
The ) lantic
By: Fred Angus.
No doubt. no uncertainty now exists. The
revival
of passenger service on the Short Line is a
fixed
fact! With this expression. similar to that
used by the reporter for the Saint John Telegraph
in
1889. we report the success of the efforts to
revive the VIA Rail passenger train from Montreal
to Halifax via the State of Maine and Saint
John New Brunswick. Passenger service on this
line had been discontinued on November 15 1981
as a
part of the large-scale cuts in the VIA system
carried out by the Federal government of that
time. For three-and-a-half years train travel
between Montreal and the Saint John –
Fredericton area meant a long detour on the
C.N. line to Moncton, then west again to Saint
John. Following the change of government last
year
it began to look more and more as if the
discontinued service would return. and finally the
announcement was made that the Atlantic. the
Super
Continental and several other trains would
be reinstated on June 1. Your editor was on board
the first regular run of the Atlantic when it left
Montreals Central Station on time at 8:45 P. M.
Friday,
May 31 1985 and
BEGAN ITS LONG-INTERRUPTED
TRIP
TO THE SEA
eleven cars behind locomotives 6777 and 6873.
Appropriately enough the last car was Banff
Park C. P. s first Park series dome car. Manyof
the passengers that night did not realize it was
the first run and that they would not be going
through Riviere-du-Loup and Mont Joli. Some
that knew of the planned re-instatement had it
expected it to start the night of June 1 rather than
May 31. However most did real ize the
significance of the occasion and quite a festive
mood prevailed. VIA had recognized the
importance of the event and had given each
passenger a fine certificate, suitable for framing,
indicating that the holder had been a passenger
on the first train.
Until midnight the train did not officially exist
but ran as Extra 6777 East. lJevertheless the
soon-to-be-scheduled time was kept to fairly
closely with departure from Sherbrooke at 11 :29,
just 12 minutes late. At four minutes after
midnight the train performed the back-up
manoeuvre unto the C.P. Rail line at Lennoxville,
CANADIAN
199 R A I L
All aboard for the Atlantic. Gate 19 Central Station in Montreal on the evening of
May 31 1985. The first Atlantic in more than three-and-a-halfyears is about to leave.
Photo by Fred Angus.
and at that time became a regular train, VIA No.
12.
So the Atlantic continued till the early
morning when there was a
STOP
FOR CUSTOMS INSPECTION
at
Jackman Maine. Until 1981 through
passengers did not have to undergo inspection at
the U.S. border but now all must answer
questions. The train was already late due to a
disturbance at Megantic, and the customs
showed extra zeal in their inspection. Since then
things are somewhat easier if the through
passenger is a Canadian or American, and the
delay is less. However these various delays
meant that departure from Jackman was not
until 4:15 A.M. or 1 hour 20 min. late. It was
daylight at Brownville Junction on June 1, and a
wet day it was. Rain fell most of the time with few
letups. Nevertheless some time was made up,
especially on the run
from McAdam to Saint
John. Finally, at 12:21, 1 hour 11 minutes late
the Atlantic
PULLED INTO SAINT JOHN
and
came to a stop just as the skies opened and a
deluge
almost drowned the disembarking
passengers! Some said that this was a good
omen, a real
baptism of the new service. In
contrast to the large crowds that greeted the
original through train on June 3 1889 there were
few people at the station to greet the incoming
train. This was due to the bad weather as well as
the fact that there had been an Advance
Atlantic on May 24 which did not carry regular
passengers but which received the publicity given
by the media to the start ofthe service. In contrast
the original inspection run arrived quietly in town
on May 16 1889 carrying only W.C. Van Horne,
R.B.
Angus, and F.W. Cram General manager of
the N.B. Railway, with a few lesser officials. They
stayed only three hours and returned; the big
cel~bration then was reserved for the first regular
train seventeen days later.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~,.
4~
.U
This
is
to
certify
that
the
holder of
this
certificate
was
a passenger
aboard
the
first
run
marking
the
restoration
of
the
Atlantic
service
between
Halifax,
Saint
John,
Fredericton
and
Montreal
via
the
State
of
Maine.
June
1985
1;:1;: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
i
~
VIA
Rail
Canada Inc,
t
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
~I~~~~

CZ:was Christmas eve in the Windermere,
Forty below –bright and clear,
The night
he left our head-end shack,
Without a hat
or coat to his back.
Ill
tell the story if I can,
Bout this tall red-headed man,
Who walked from Parson to Harrogate,
The night the train was four hours late.
CZ:was bitterly cold as I said before,
Forty below, and then some more,
But we galloped along with half a train,
Forty-five empties going back for grain.
CZ:was Lacey who thought of the boys up ahead,
And with a generous look he tumed to Red,
Theres a
shot of rum in the locker Ihere,
Take
it up to the Engineer.
Jo Red climbed down without hal or coal,
(,Twas a
cold winters night, this facl you must nOle)
And ran up ahead to the water tank,
Plunging
through many a snowy bank.
.)ferry Christmas
up there, old timer Mack,
Pat
Ihat old Hog over the back,
This
shot of rum will do the Deed,
Twill put
new life in your old iron steed.
d(,ello, down there, is that you, Red?
Merry Christmas
yourself, the Hogger said.
/11 never forget you in my dreams.
(And proceeded
to forget right then il seems).
Jhe coughed and spluttered, then held her feet,
And rushed those cars by Red so neat,
Right
then it happened –Twas one fell blow
When we left Red standing knee-deer in the snow.
…A storm cQme up, as the miles flew by,
And colder;1 got, nOI a Slar in the sky,
But we galloped along through the frosty night -­
Not a Ihought of Red and his pitiful plight.
Joan, perchance, we had switching to do,
Some cars on ahead for a lie-making crew;
Wheres Red?, says Lacey –Dam f I know;
When J saw him last he was wading in snow.
r[he thoughl flashed quickly –the mistake wed made
We had opened her up, as if making a grade,
And pulled Ihal Irain by Red so quick,
(We had 10 admillo a very mean trick).
r[he boys got busy and hung up the phone,
The dispalcher had answered in a very hard lone,
Co back with
your engine as quick as you can,
And keep on going I ill you pick up your man!
So we backed her up Ihat Christmas mom,
We were all half frozen, and very forlom
And wondered what the Super would say,
And if wed all
gel fired neXI day.
..Afy Cod, says Lacey, Theres a brakemans light,
ease up on her,
Mack, its Red alright .
Hed walked
eleven miles 10 Harrogate,
Thats
why Ihe lrain was four hours lale.
F. 1V./Hackenro/
(1876 -·(938)
HOlf,er, C.P.R.
~
1(-
CRHA
-O:
comniunlcations
COMMUNICATIONS
NEWS FROM THE DIVISIONS
Pacific Coast Division: Last June 1, the Division
officially opened the Fraser Mills station in
conjunction with Coquitlam Districts Dogwood
Days celebrations. The restoration work was
admired by about 75 people who expressed their
pleasure at the work which had been done so far.
Rocky
Mountain Division/APRA: June was a
busy month in Edmonton too with the APRA
museum participating in the Edmonton Journals
Country Tourin Project on June 9. In the span
of four hours some 1 ,600 people visited the
museum!
The museum tour was well organized. Visitors
were first met by member David Brandenburg
who provided a brief history of the station and
water tank. Then Alan Vanterpool guided them
on to enginehouse number 1 where Don Evans,
Mike Carlson and Blackie Clark guided people
through engines 1392 and 73. Harrie Pollard
answered questions and showed off the baggage.
Other members involved in continuing the
description tour were Les Corness, Colin
Hatcher, John Gilpin, Gary Bellrose (employee at
the museum), Jerry Vandermeer, Don Scafe,
Willie Wilson, John Parker, Jim Rutledge, Geoff
Lester and Trent Klein.
Everyone
went away happy and it is unlikely
that any of their questions were left unanswered.
During the summer the museum made good
use of government programs for student
employment which helped to speed up the
progress of the many projects.
By
town Railway Society: The Society celebrat­
ed its 20th Anniversary as an organized railfan
group and as such is one of the oldest other than a
few which were founded many years before (eg:
CRHA
Montreal) from a membership of approx­
imately 75 in the early years, the Society has
grown to over 260 members with approximately
40% of these from out-of-town.
The SocietyS magazine BRANCHLINE has
developed from a two to four page newsletter
produced sporadically, to an eighteen page
monthly periodical which includes photographs
and which is now offset printed.
Other Society activities have included the
acquisition and restoration of equipment ranging
from a Central Vermont steam crane to a CN 1958
Pontiac.
In
addition the group has participated in the
steam operations to Wakefield since it started
firstly with #1057 and then #1201. The most
recent activity has been the publishing business
with among other things the successful
CANADIAN TRACKSIDE GUIDE.
The
Society has been a success for the past 20
years and the plans and prospects for the future
look just as good!
Notes:
Each year,
the accounts of the Association
Renual Funds, The Canadian Railway Museum,
our Capital Trust Funds, and the National
Museums Specialized Museums Funds are
audited by DELOlnE, HASKINS & SELLS, the
International Accounting Firm. Our 1984-1985
Financial Statements have been received after
being audited. At normal rates for professional
accounting services, the cost of the audit was
$5,950. D.H. & S. invoiced the Association for
$2,800. Thank you DELOITTE, HASKINS &
SELLS for your kind treatment of our Association.
(signed) Stephan Walbridge, Treasurer
Special Note:
As you probably have noticed, COMMUN­
ICATIONS has been rather sparse for a number of
issues particularly for News From the Divisions.
There were a number of reasons including limited
activities of members during the summer. But as
has been mentioned before, the main reason is
the lack of input from the Divisions.
Except
for the occasional letter (my thanks to
those who wrote). the information for
COMMUIlICTIONS comes from the Divisions
newsletters which I get directly or indirectly (via
the By town Railway Society). For Divisions who
do not regularly publish a newsletter I have no
source of information on these activities.
At the CANADIAN RAIL Review Meeting last
February I made the suggestion that Divisions be
encouraged to assign a member to report to
COMMUNICATIONS. This member could be an
up-and-coming one who the directors feel might
be future executive material. This Communi­
cations Reporter (for want of a better title) could
perhaps attend executive meetings and learn
the ropes as he/she is making notes for the
report to COMMUNICATIONS.
I
for one find it interesting to know what is
happening in the other Divisions. This activities
and projects can be helpful for other Divisions as
well when they plan new projects and programs.
The
successful tour of the APRA museum in
Edmonton is a good example of a well organized
program. The BRS anniversary illustrates how a
railfan organization can develop and grow.
So how about it. As well as the regulars lets
here from everyone (Crowsnest & Kettle Valley,
Keystone,
Windsor & Essex, Grand River, St­
Laurence,
New Brunswick etc.).
e. uSlne
car
YOU DONT HAVE TO BE A RAILWAY BUFF OR
naturalist to join the party celebrating the
centennials of two of this countrys institu­
tions -the Canadian Pacific Railway and the
national parks system.
The last spike of
the transcontinental railway
was driven on the second try by Donald Smith at
Craige:lachie, B.C., on Nov.
7, 1885. He bent a
spike on his
first swing. .i
The Canadian Pacific Railway linking East and
West brought with it a transcontinental
passenger service that made Canadas natural
grandeur available to everyone.
The
CP Rail main line passes through the first
three national parks -Banff, established in
1885, and Glacier and Yoho, both established in
1886. Today, they are excellent places to soak up
early rail history and all three are easily reached
by
the Trans-Canada Highway.
But informal pilgrimages are probably the best
way to salute the double centennial. Craigell­
achie, a
small picnic ground with a marker for the
I~st-spike ceremony and a cairn, is only a fleeting
Sight for passengers facing north on The
Canadian,
Vias transcontinental train, whose
run between Calgary and Vancouver is one ofthe
worlds great rail trips.
Of the three original parks, Glacier in the
Selkirk Mountains, halfway between Golden,
B.
C., and Revelstoke, is the westernmost and
closest to Craigellachie. It probably has the best
combination of natural beauty and railway lore.
Glacier is avalanche and bear country. There,
railway and nature forge a flimsy truce at Rogers
Pass,
the most difficult mountain rail crossing in
Canada. A
century ago, the route snaked treacherously
through the pass, hugging the slopes of Mount
McDonald (2,893 metres) and Avalanche
Mountain (2,864 metres).
Thirty-one snowsheds, covering 6.5 kilometres
of track, were built to keep the line open in winter.
But 200 people still died in avalanches in the first
25 years the line was open. The biggest tragedy
occurred
March 4, 1910, when 62 people were
smothered by an avalanche as they were clearing
the line.
That prompted Canadian Pacific to
build the
Connaught Tunnel under Mount McDonald. To­
day,
the railway, as part of a $600-million project,
is
building a second tunnel and double-tracking
much of the line through the pass to handle
increasing
traffic demands.
The
right of way abandoned when the
Connaught Tunnel was built is now used for
hiking trails. Parks Canada, aided by CP Rail, has
built a small museum -called an information
centre on road signs -at the summit of the pass,
where the rail lines history is told in photos,
models and movies.
Three rails in
the park, su itable even for Sunday
walkers, trace old rail lines. One, called
Abandoned Rails Trail, crosses through snow
sheds at Mount McDonald. Several more difficult
climbs provide inspiring views of several peaks
named after Canadian Pacific directors and
officials,
including Mount Sir Donald (3,297
metres), which honors Smith.
Parks Canada has issued a centennial
pamphlet titled Snow War: A Guide to the History
of Rogers Pass,
with suggested hiking trails and
antage points to appreciate
the scenic glory of
CANADIAN
210
R A I L
the mountain peaks and deep valleys. Another
guide, Footloose in the Columbias, offers
information on 34 trails in Glacier and nearby
Mount Revelstoke national parks. Both are free
from the Superintendent, Mount Revelstoke and
Glacier National Parks, P.O. Box 350, Revelstoke,
B.C.,
VOE 2S0.
Source: The Edomonton Sun July 14, 1985. Via
Lon
Marsh.
ON THE MORNING
OF NOV. 7, 1885, WHILE
photographer Alexander Ross was preparing
to record the driving of the last spike, a young
boy worked his way to the front of the assembled
group and, positioning himself just beyond Dona!d
Smith, became one of the central characters I,n
what would eventually come to be one of Canada s
most recognized photographs.
It
was not completely by chance that the lad,
Edward Mallandaine, was on hand for the
occasion as he was rather enterprising for his age
and
had already established a small courier service
out of Farewell, later renamed Revelstoke, that
same year.
A CHALLENGE
The son
of an architect and civil engineer who
emigrated from England in 1860, Mallandaine
lived and was schooled in Victoria, B.C.
While in school, his teacher once made the
mistake of commenting that you cant set fire to
water.
Taking up
the challenge, he soa~ed. wo~d
shavings and paper in oil, dumped them In Victoria
harbour and set them alight. Fortunately no harm
came from his prank, but it was some indication of
the boys impetuous nature.
10¢ A
LETTER
At the age of 17, he set off east~ard to fight
Indians during the Northwest Rebellion. He got
only as far as Golden, B.C., before the hostilities
ended.
Returning west as far as Farewell, he star.ted a
small freight service catering to the railway
contractors, the newspapers and businessmen.
He
earned an average of 10 cents per letter
delivered.
Farewell was a wild town in those days, as were
all of the fledgling communities along the railway.
In
later years Mallandaine was to comme~t: life
was exciting, for there were numerous accidents,
fights, rows and thrills every day, and.all day on the
road and the camp and town. Drinklngl Yes, the
medical men were kept busy.
When Mallandaine heard that the party from the
East was en route to Craigellachie in order to
witness the driving of the last spike, he was
determined to be there.
Hopping the last construction train, he headed
west on Nov. 6 and arrived in good time to ensure
his place in history.
THE LAW
Fifty years later, as
stipendiary magistrate and
reeve
of Creston, B.C., which he help found, he still
recalled the excitement of the moment: every­
body cheered; the locomotive wh istle shrieked;
several
short speeches were made and hands
were shaken.
Major Rogers, the discoverer of the pass
named after him, became so gleeful that he up­
ended a huge tie and tried to mark the spot by the
side of the track by sticking it in the ground.
Mallandaine continued his association with
Canadian Pacific by serving as land agent for
several years, based in Cranbrook and reporting to
Colonel Dennis, the department head in Calgary.
Enterprising throughout his life, Mallandaine
worked as an architect, engineer, land surveyor, tie
and lumber agent, irrigation engineer, townsite
commissioner, magistrate, councillor, reeve as
well as serving as a Colonel in Canadas First
World War overseas forestry corps.
The last
surving member of the Last Spike
photograph died in Creston in Aug. 1949 at the age
of 82.
THE CASE FOR
DOUBLE-DECKER, SELF­
powered passenger cars. Even 40% empty, a
three-car train still covers operating costs.
By
Andy Turnbull.
Like
the cry of a lost soul, the mournfull wail of a
steam
whistle sounds across the lonely prairie. A
brilliant light stabs the darkness and the night·
express – a
mighty steam locomotive pulling a
string of brightly lighted passenger cars –
thunders on its way.
In some of those cars the rich and powerful dine
by
the light of crystal chandeliers. In others, lonely
hearts count the miles and the minutes until they
meet their loved ones, honest settlers plan their
future holdings and eager adventurers look
forward to the new sights of a new day.
Thats the way it used to be. Steam trains tied
Canada
together in the years that followed
Confederation and they were the preferred long
distance
transportation for almost all Canadians
until about 40 years ago.
Better roads and
air travel changed that. Jet
CANADIAN 211
R A I L
planes carry most long distance travellers now and
road
vehicles handle the short runs.
Many of us like it that way. Air travel is faster
over long distances and cars are more convenient
for the short haul. Often more expensive -in real
terms -than rail travel, air and road costs are
buried in
the infrastructure of our society and we
dont see them. The passenger rail service that
persists is subsidized at a cost of hundreds of
millions of dollars a year.
Doug
Smith wants to change all that. A senior
planning officer in the Railway Passenger Branch
of Transport Canada, he proposes a new machine
he says could recover the operating costs on some
routes immediately, and which should cut the
costs on all routes. Developed now, it could also be
the basis of a new export industry.
Enter Smiths proposal for the double-deck, self­
powered railcar – a combination of the two tried
and proven ideas.
A
double-deck railcar costs and weighs only
about 20% more than a single-deck car of the same
length, according to engineer Harry Valentine,
who prepared a technical report on the idea for the
Science Council of Canada, but it can haul 70-
100% more passengers. Double-deck railway
coaches make Toronto areas GO Transit
commuter trains practical, they are used on busy
routes in France and in the U.S., and their use is
planned in Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden.
Self-powered railcars have been successful in
Europe
where the engines have been located
inside
the cars rather than under them. Theres
room for a bigger engine inside the car, and the
engine is protected from the weather, making
servicing easier and cheaper.
One design
for the car, which Smith refers to as
a
BRC (Bi-Ievel Rail Car) would be 27 metres
long, would be powered by a single 1000 horse­
power diesel engine with electric drive, and would
carry up to 130 people at speeds up to 145
kilometres an hour. Each SRC could Iowa single
unpowered trailer car which could carry an
additional 130 passengers; two ·or more BRCs
could be connected to make up a train.
At about $2 million each, SRCs would be much
cheaper to buy -in terms of cost per seat -than
conventional trains of the size used on most routes
in Canada. According to Smith, a SRC pulling a
trailer car would be cheaper still, and would offer
sufficient seats to fill the needs of most Canadian
routes.
Based on
Smiths 1980 figures and on
engineering projections, BRCs could run in two­
car consists for less than the perceived cost of
driving an automobile and a three-cartrain of BRCs
could actually recover operating costs with a 60%
load – a goal beyond practical consideration for
conventional passenger trains.
Even running as single cars, BRCs would lose
less
money per seat than a three-car conventional
train loses now. That could make it practical to
consider increasing the frequency of service on
many routes – a move that would probably attract
more customers and which might well make more
routes recover their operating costs.
Some railway equipment manufacturers
dismissed the BRC as an impractical idea when
Smiths report on the potential of a bi-Ievel rail car
was published by the Science Council in 1982. But
an analagous car since developed in Italy has
proved
to be one of the most practical and efficient
passenger rail vehicles in the world. Smiths
concept looks even better than the Italian design,
which can run only as a single unit, and
considerable
interest is now being shown in the
BRC in Canada and elsewhere in Europe.
One supporter of
the concept is Jim Ferguson,
recently retired as
director of engineering for Can
Car Rail Inc.,
Thunder Say, Ont..
The idea is feasible, Ferguson says, theres
no doubt about that. BRCs could be built with
existing, well-proven components. Ive spoken to
some of
our British associates about the idea and
they like it too.
The possibility of export sales offers more
promise for Smiths proposal. In the United States
the
BRC could turn around many unprofitable
routes and potential sales for a Canadian-designed
and
built BRC could be very good.
In the Los Angles-San Diego corridor, for
example, Amtrak carried 1.2 million passengers in
1980 and lost more than $2 million on revenues of
$7.2 million. Smiths figures show that BRC trains
carrying the same number of passengers on the
route would have covered operating costs.
Development and
construction costs for the first
BRC would total about $4 million, Smith says,
noting also that it should pay for itself after a few
years of operation.
Whether a BRC will ever carry Canadian
passengers is
not known, but certainly the chances
are improved because of Doug
Smiths ability to
come up with the right idea at the right time.
The breakthrough came three years ago when
the Science Council commissioned a study of new
ideas on intercity passenger travel. The assembled
high-powered scholars peppered air, bus and car
travel
with new ideas, but came up dry on rail.
Smith, then employed by the Canadian Transport
Commission,
was seconded for one week to help
try to save the report.
The only solution I could see that would
improve performance and be economically viable
CANADIAN
212
R A I L
was the bi-Ievel vehicle, Smith recalls. The
Council liked the idea. They put HarryValentine on
the technical evaluation and I spent a year of my
spare time researching and writing the economic
side of the argument.
I already had a government job and they dont
pay public servants twice, so I guess you could call
this my gift to the transportation planners of
Canada,
Smith says jokingly.
Most passenger trains of the 1980s, Smith
says, are the same as those of the late 1890s – a
locomotive hauling one or more passenger cars
with a basic crew of five. In 90 years of railroad
development the locomotive has changed from
steam to diesel and the cars from wood to steel;
speed, safety and
comfort have been improved; but
the basic concept rema ins the same.
That concept was developed when labour was
cheap, when relatively few Canadians travelled,
and
when the railways had no competition. Times
have changed, and old ideas
just dont work any
more
.
A train consisting of a locomotive and one 88-
seat passenger coach cost at least $7.50 per train
kilometre or more than 8¢ per seat kilometre to
move in 1980. Since the practical load factor for
most services is about 60% occupancy
of seat
kilometres operated, the real cost was nearly 14¢
per passenger
ki lometre.
Longer trains cost less to run, but that doesnt
make them better transportation. A five-coach
train could run for less than 3¢ per seat kilometre
-or about 5¢ per passenger kilometre -in 1980,
but five-coach trains are not practical in the
modern travel market. It takes 264 people to make
up a
60% load for a five-coach train, and even
between major centres loads that size cant be
assembled frequently.
In real life studies,
frequency of departures has
shown to be a major factor in the use of passenger
trains. A tale of four cities illustrates the point.
The
city of London in southern Ontario has the
benefit of three rail services to Toronto -its on
the Toronto-Windsor and the Toronto-Sarnia
routes as well as being an end point on the
Toronto-Kitchener-London route. In total, there
are 14 trains a day each way between Toronto and
London. These
trains carry about 22% of all traffic
between the two cities.
In a comparable
situation there are only five
trains a day between Ottawa and Montreal and
they carry about 2% of all travellers.
If London business people want to go to Toronto
for a
day they take the train, Smith says, because
they know they can come back when they want to.
They
will not have to wait more than an hour.
But Ottawa business people who go to Montreal have
to plan their trips carefuily. If their
meetings run five minutes overtime they may face
a
three or four-hour wait for the next train. Rather
than take the chance, they usually drive their own
cars.
Amoung the known ways to increase passenger
rail
traffic are to keep fares down and to increase
the frequency of service. But increased frequency
could mean fewer passengers per trip as some
passengers abandon old
trains for new ones -and
therefore higher losses with conventional trains.
Thats an old problem for the railways and one
that might have been solved in 1948 with the
introduction of the Budd Rail Diesel Car -usually
reffered to as an RDC. An 88-seat passenger
coach
with two small diesel engines hung under it,
the RDC could run alone as a one-car train or as
one
of two or three making up a larger train. Either
way, only two operators were required and
running costs were much lower than for
conventional
trains. It was a good idea, but it came
at
the wrong time.
The
RDC was designed and built for trips of 320
ki lometres and less, but buses were taki ng over the
short runs in 1940s and early 1950s. Buses never
were and probably never will be as fast or as
comfortable as trains but they had the advantage of
being smaller, and being able
to operate efficiently
with smaller loads -and therefore to provide more
frequent service.
Rather
than try to compete with buses, the
railways chose to concentrate on long distance
travel – a market
they thought they could
dominate -and they invested more than a billion
dollars in streamlined express trains. Within a few
years new airliners gave the market to the airlines
and
virtually wiped out the railways billion-dollar
investment. In the 1950s, North American
railways gave up any hope of making a profit on
passengers and most have considered passengers
a
liability since.
But that may have been a mistake because
experience in
other countries shows that modern
trains can be faster than aircraft over downtown­
to-downtown distances up to about 500
kilometres. On these shorter trips, air travellers
can lose more
time on the ground than they save in
the air. With the right trains, Smith says, many
Canadians would soon be back on the rails.
THE TRINITY TRAIN LOOP WILL BE PRESERVED
as an
historic site, thanks to the tireless
efforts and determination of railway
researcher Clayton Cook of Brooklyn.
Mr. Cook became concerned about the
preservation of the Trinity Loop when Terra-
CANADIAN
213
R A I L
Transport announced that it would be discont­
inuing rail service on the Bonavista Branch and
the 89 miles oftrack from Bonavista to Clarenville
would be removed.
In Mayofthisyear he wrote a lettertotheMHA
for Trinity North, Charlie Brett, and sent copies of
that letter to the councils of Trinity and Bonavista.
In a letter to the editor which appeared in the
May 8 edition of the Packet Mr. Cook pointed out
that during the summer months, hundreds of
tourists from Newfoundland and outside the
province visit the train loop. Through research
Mr. Cook discovered that the loop at Trinity was
one of the only three in Canada. The other two are
located in
the Rocky Mountain railway chain and
are not visible because they are located within
two mountains.
The
Trinity Loop, being more visible in scope, he
said,
makes this train loop unique, and as such,
makes it a tourist attraction.
In June ofthis year Mr. Cook wrote letters to Bill
Matthews, provincial minister of Culture,
Recreation and Youth; James Morgan, MHA for
Bonavista South; Glenn Greening, MHA for
Terra Nova and Morrissey Johnson, MP for
Bonavista-Trinity-Conception. In his letters he
pointed out the importance ofthe Trinity Loop and
urged these people to support his idea of having
the loop declared a provincial historic site.
All of these people took action. Mr. Brett wrote
to Mr. Matthews on May 16 with the suggestion
that the Loop be declared an historic site.
Probably some consideration should be given
to preserving it as a tourist attraction with
appropriate walking trails, lookouts, etc., he
wrote.
The Town of Bonavista sent letters to
TerraTransport, MP Morrisey Johnson, the Hon.
Mr. Matthews and Mr. Morgan. The Town of
Trinity also wrote letters urging that the loop
remain.
Mr, Morgan, Mr. Greening and Mr. Johnson
wrote letters to officials of TerraTransport
supporting the retention of the Loop as a tourist
attraction,
In the early part of July the efforts of all these
people were rewarded when TerraTranspo,rt
announced that the Trinity Loop would remain
intact.
In a letter to the Town of Trinity, dated July 5,
P,A, Clarke, President and General Manager of
TerraTransport, confirmed that the Trinity Train
Loop will be retained as an Historical Site when
the removal of the Bonavista Branch Line
commences,
I am pleased to confirm, he wr~te, tha,t the
portion of trackage including the Railway Bridge,
which forms the Trinity Loop will remain in
place.
UNIQUE
IN CANADA
When the survey was made for the railway
from Clarenville to Bonavista, engineers
encountered a problem in finding a route which
would allow the tracks to run down to the tide­
water at Trinity from the high country region
between Trinity and Bonavista Bays,
The ground in the area was very hilly and the
distance fron the high country to tide-water was
so short that if the tracks were laid to the incline
the grade would have been too steep for trains to
operate,
In
railway construction the track can only be
laid to a certain incline, For a given distance,
there can only be a certain drop in elevation. If the
distance is too short from one point to the otherto
allow this drop in elevation, then the line has to be
lengthened. Such was the case for the Trinity
Loop,
When the survey was engineered, it was found
that a direct line down one of the valleys in the
Trinity Pond/Trinity region could not be located in
Trinity because of the short distance and the
sudden drop in elevation. This drop had to be
overcome, and to do so the distance had to be
increased.
As a result, the railway was curved
into a loop around a circular pond, .
The
circumference of the loop is one and a
quarter miles and the drop in elevation in circling
the pond is a little over 34 feet.
On
the route from Clarenville the train went
over the bridge, traveled the one and a quarter
miles around the pond and then emerged under
the bridge and along the edge of a steep ravine,
and continued to Trinity,
The Bonavista
Branch railway was opened in
the fall of 1911. Last year TerraTransport
received permission from the Canadian Transport
Commission to discontinue the railway service
from Clarenville to Bonavista,
The tracks
from Bonavista to Clarenville will be
removed by the end of this year. But the Loop at
Trinity will remain; a reminder of the days when
train was the only means of overland transport
along the Bonavista Peninsula, and a testimony to
the engineering skills of those who planned and
built the Bonavista Branch line.
Source: The Clarenville Packet July 31,1985. Via
Mike Wragg,
CANADIAN
214
R A I L
AN ONTARIO COMPANY AND A U.S. ARTIST
have
combined to help keep the B.C. Governments
money-losing Royal Hudson steam train on the
rails, and to make money doing it.
Christian Bell Porcelain Ltd. of Mount Forest, Ont.,
will donate $25,000 to the Government. part of the
expected proceeds from the sale of ceramic plates
marking the trains 10 years as a summer tourist
attraction.
Its
somewhat bizarre, said Derek Dulley,
proprietor of a North Vancouver store that will sell the
$89.50 plates, an Ontarian and somebody from thE
U.S.
donating $25,000 to preserve our local
attraction.
The Royal Hudson, built for CP Rail in 1940, was
bought by the Government in 1973 to carry tourists
along the scenic B.C. Railway line between North
Vancouver and Squamish.
It
has been a crowd-pleasing money-loser ever since.
In
1982, it lost $685,000, and the Government
provoked a public outcry by announcing it was seriously
considering cancelling the run.
Ted Xaras, a
Philadelphia artist who designed the
commemorative plate, said he suggested the idea of
making a save-the-Hudson donation to Christian
Porcelain owner Horst Muller.
Mr. Xaras said that. on a visit to British Columbia two
years ago, he rode in the cab of the train up to Squamish
and was impressed.

Then we heard that there was almost a threat from
within the B.C. Government of cost-cutting and they
actually proposed to get rid of this thing.
If you mention to rail fans that theres going to be a
railroad
eliminated, they sort of spring into action.
Mr. Xaras said he and Mr. Muller were motivated by
more
than simple altruism, but he denied the $1-a-
plate donation is simply a marketing gimmick.
Mr. Dulley, the North Vancouver store owner, said
the money will be used to start a permanent Royal
Hudson Steam Train Fund. His shop, Queensbury
Collectibles, is selling Hudson buttons for $1 and giving
50 cents to the fund.
TORONTO -IN EARLY SEPTEMBER 1985, CNS
laser piggyback service will link Montreal,
Toronto, and Chicago. CN will invest more
than $15 million in capital improvements to attract
use of this service. The new Laser run will use the
St. Clair tunnel between Sarnia and Port Huron,
and will run on both CNs and Grand Trunk
Western tracks.
CNs
Laser piggyback service generated more
than $7 million in revenue last year. The new line
additions are expected to. generate a potential
additional $20 million in revenue.
The
new Laser service intends to take advantage
of the nearly one million cross-border movements
which filter through Ontario annually. As Chuck
Schell, manager freight services says, CN is going
where the market is.
Initially, shipper-owned or U.S. rail-owned
trailers carrying fruits and vegetables, paper, and
general merchandise are targeted for Laser
marketing efforts. This is because more than 90%
of trailer container traffic carrying these
commodities goes by highway simply because an
effective alternative doesnt exist. We expect
Laser will capture a good percentage of this
highway market, says Jim Powell, manager
intermodal services.
According to Mr. Powell, transit time between
Toronto and Chicago will be 13.5 hours; between
Chicago and Montreal 23 hours. With a capacity to
handle some 69,000 loads per year.
One
of Lasers biggest selling points is the
reliability of the service it offers According to Ken
Moffatt, project manager intermodal, and the man
in charge of the Laser program, Laser trains reach
their destination within 15 minutes of scheduled
arrival more than 97% of the time. He attributes
this achievement in part to centralized traffic
control and double track, but most of all to the
positive attitude of the train crews.
They dont like anyone getting in their way
when its time to depart, says Mr. Moffatt.
Theyre really enthusiastic about this.
In anticipation of this run extension, CN is
committing up to $12 million for specially designed
rail equipment to carry trailers through the
St. Clair tunnel, and $2.5 million for track
expansion and additional gantry crane at
Brampton intermodal terminal (BIT). Approx­
imately $500,000 will be spent for a piggybacker at
the Montport container terminal (MCT),
CA NAD I AN
215
R A I L
BACK IN 1890, THE YEAR THAT BARNEY AND
Smith Company built a sleeping car named
Sherbrooke for the Candian Pacific, the
passenger train was king of the rails, and the care
and attention lavished on its finish and details
reflected that royal status. The Sherbrooke was
built entirely of wood, with the frame of oak and
the exterior sheathing of Honduras mahogany;
the interior walls were also mahogany, inlaid and
varnished and set off by polished brass fittings
and hardware. Heavyweight six-wheel trucks
ensured a smooth ride and a good nights sleep
for those who rode the CPRs transcontinental
route on which the car served.
After twenty years in its intended role, the
Sherbrooke was removed to the CPR Angus
shops in Montreal and converted to an officials
car with kitchen, dining room, deluxe sleeping
accommodation, and lounge. The cars ends
were converted to open observation platforms,
and in this new configuration it was christened
New Brunswick. In fact, overthe next 15 years,
it was renamed five more times before at last
being downgraded to a numbered car in 1928,
serving as such for yet another 35 years. Sold for
$1000 in 1963, it was left larQelv to the elements
LAMOILLE VALLEY RAILROAD -THE LVR HAS TAKEN
delivery of four passenger cars. ex-Lackawanna
MUs, to be used by the line for scheduled
excursions during the summer. The schedule
contemplated would be as follows: End of June through
end of August -Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays
only -Morrisville to Joes Pond and return. Middle of
September through middle of October -Special Fall
Foliage
trips -Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays only
-Morrisville to Greensboro Bend and return.
Plan of the British Columbia
and the car itself as
restoration begins.
until the West Coast Railway Association
acquired the decrepit car in 1983.
Today,
under the direction of project manager
Gary Oliver, restoration work is slowly returning
the coach to its former splendor. Appropriately,
its last name, British Columbia, has been
returned, while its panelling is being stripped and
refinished, its flooring replaced, its roof rebuilt,
and at last the classic CPR tuscan applied once
again to
the outside. The task, performed by
WCRA
volunteers and three experienced wood
craftsmen hired under a Canada Works Program
grant, is
immense but the group is confident that
the car will be ready for display at STEAM EXPO in
May of 1986. A $50,000 B.C. Heritage Trust
grant helps pay for equipment and materials,
although private sources must still be relied on to
provide as
much again to see the work to
completion.
British Columbia will be the oldest piece of
intact heritage rolling stock in the province when
it is finally ready to roll to STEAM EXPOs False
Creek yards, and
should be a standout among the
many venerable coaches coming to the event.
Source: The Pacific Express,
August 1985.
LVR locomotives assigned to the Twin State Railroad
are being housed in
the unheated former Ralston­
Purina
facility in St. Johnsbury. Alcos RS-3 #7803 and
#7805 have been assigned to the Twin State. #7803 is
the only LVR unit equipped with an electric engine
block heater permitting it to be shut down during cold
weather. #7805 recently froze up in St. Johnsbury
during the recent middle of January deep freeze.
CHAMPLAIN VALLEY NRHS via
the 470 March 1985.
THE NUCLEUS OF WHAT MIGHT BE THE START OF
a Victoria railway museum has been identified in a
study by Pat Hind
of the B.C. Railway Historical
Association.
Friends
of the E & N have taken up the cause and will
try to gauge public support for the venture.
Its also tied to the possibility of bringing back CPR
locomotive 926, which is in the National Museum of
Science and Technology, to operate a steam
train on
the E & N in 1986. The proposal first got off the ground
with the study. John Cooper of Friends of the E & N
followed up with CP Rail.
The
railway has offered to give an historic steam
crane to a local group for preservation,
rather than ship
it off to be scrapped.
It could be the beginnings of a railway museum
here, but we need to put together a group q.uickly who
would assume responsibility for this proJect, says
Cooper. . .. The
1913 crane was built in Bay City, Mich. and IS In
excellent condition. Maintenance on the crane and
boom car
which supports the cranes heavy boom,
would be minimal, but a secure storage facility is vital.
Its the last steam-operated crane in working order
with either of the two transcontinental railroads.
BRING BACK
THE 926
The 926, a 0-10 type locomotive, is the on Iy original
E
& N locomotive in existence. It would require some
work to be made operable again, but indications are
good
that the National Museum of Science and
Technology
might loan the locomotive for a 19~6 steam
train service. That is the year of the centennial of the
E & Ns completion.
OTHER EQUIPMENT
A
former E & N parlor car, the Strathcona, now
located at the B.C. Forest Museum, has also been
identified as a possible donation to a rail museum. Over
a
century old, it was used on the E & N from 1901 to
1929, when it was sold to the former manager of the
railway for a Shawnigan Lake summer cottage. It was
donated to the Forest Museum in 1968, but apparently
is
surplus to their needs. In the
CP Rail yards at Victoria is a 1905 Colonist car,
one of the last of a type
built in the hundreds to carry
emigrants to Canada across the country. It became a
work train unit in 1950 and was partially converted,
although the centre
of the car remains essentially in
original condition, under many layers of paint.
The Forest
/y1useum at Duncan also has an E & N
caboose
of turn-of-the-century vintage. It was built in
Nanaimo by John Work between 1895 and 1900 and
was donated to the museum in the 1960s. Again, it is
surplus to
the museums needs and might be made
available to a
railway museum.
S. E
and N NEWSLETTER, Jan. 1985. via
Donald Stewart.
THE CITY OF EDMONTON HAS AWARDED A
contract for
the project management and co­
ordination of the S150-million southward
extension of Edmontons LRT system to Stanley
Associates
Engineering Ltd. The project involves
underground trackage, underground stations and
the
crossing of a river valley with bridge and tunnel portals.
As
well more traditional on-grade sections will connect
the University of
Alberta and south side residential
districts
with the downtown and existing section.
City 0/ Edmonton south Light Rail Transit extension.
1-
NORTh
Its a natural extension of our developed LRT
expertise which includes bridges, track and station
design in Calgary and planning and maintenance
facilities in
Edmonton, said Ron Triffo, P.Eng., Stanley
president. The project is also in line
with our
development in the transportation area intern­
ationally.
Overseeing the project for the city are Ron Neuman,
P.
Eng., and Rod Heise, P.Eng. Ben Novak, P.Eng., vice­
president of Stanleys
northern region, is principal in
charge
ofthe project. We have all the systems in place
for scheduling, cost control and planning and
quality
CANADIAN
217
R A I L
control, some from previous projects internationally.
Therefore,
our top project manager, Ken Sorensen and
Bob Kavanagh,
will ably co-ordinate some 30
consultants and possibly over 15 major construction
contracts, said Novak.
S. CANADIAN CONSULTING ENGINEER, February
1985.
PEOPLE LOOK ON THE RAILWAYS AS BEING
old fashioned. They look at a train and its the
same
as 20 years ago. Freight trains
certainly look the same.
Locomotives are
the same shape and maybe
even have
the same paint jobs as in the 1960s,
when diesel replaced steam, but theyre incred­
ibly more efficient. The fuel efficiency of General
Motors
new SD50s is so good that its cheaper to
scrap older locomotives
than rebuild them to the
new standards. Efficiency is not only in the
engines, but the way power is controlled and, in
the near future, the use of micro computers to
interrogate the locomotive to see
how it feels.
Some automobile manufacturers have recently
introduced diagnostic search systems
as an add­
on feature. When a car goes for service, a
mechanic connects a diagnostic search machine
and sensors permanently planted in
the car report
on its condition.
The railways have used
the so-called search
machine for at least 15 years. Some
170sensors
in a locomotives electrical system report to the
search machine. Seventy-five per cent of line
failures are electrical,
so nothing is more
important than keeping a locomotives electric
circuits
in order.
The offboard search machine
will be overshad­
owed
by a soon-to-be-introduced onboard
version. Bill Draper, CNs assistant chief of
motive power, is one person eargerly awaiting
four
SD 60 Series locomotives on order from G M.
The offboard diagnostics have no memory,
Bill Draper told me. Lets say the spring tension
in a relay contact is giving trouble out on the line
but not
when the locomotive is stationary in the
shop. The offboard machine cant tell you that.
It
simply says that at this moment the contacts are
OK.
The onboard diagnostics, by comparison, have
memory and logic. They store valuable
information about malfunctions, and
with a little
detective work
you can probably find out whats
wrong. Lets say the high voltage system is acting
up. Instead of locomotive engineers telling the re­
pair people, Ive got a sick locomotive, but
dont
ask me whats wrong, the engineers interrogate
the onboard computer. They ask it
the date the
first malfunction occurred. It tells them it was
April 7. More questions and answers follow. How
many
malfunctions? Four. Throttle position? Eight
notch. Speed?
32 mph. Ahaa, now were getting
somewhere because 32 is the transition point
from series parallel to parallel. The most common
hindrance
to a clean transition is defective
diodes.
Now its a simple matter of replacing diodes.
Bill Draper is saying
that a locomotive may look
the same on the outside, but whats inside is new
and exciting, or soon will be newer and more
exciting.
The
current move to computer technology may
not look like much compared to the
switch from
steam to diesel in the 1960s, but its much bigger.
In the days of steam, there were three people in
the cab and
two at the back of the train. Hand
written train orders were handed up to locomot­
ive engineers on bamboo hoops. Morse code
was
the medium for talking up and down the line. The
move to diesel meant
fewer locomotives, because
each
was more powerful, fewer workers at the
front, because there was no coal to shovel, and
longer sidings, because diesels could pull
more
cars. That was rea lIy the extent of it. One form of
motive power was substituted for another.
Now computer technology
is allowing railways
to make notable advances. None is more impres­
sive than the
new automated system for the car
management and car tracking.
You could go into a railway station in
Saskatoon, Moncton or any other city, and,
if you
were allowed to, ask the computer to locate any of
CNs
85000 cars, and the same for the cars in CP
Rails system. The railway people know where
each car is and where it is going.
Railway signalling is not new. Canadian rail­
ways have had it since 1942, but modern versions
allow a dispatcher to set a train route automat­
ically. Computers help the dispatcher decide on
passing schedules,
which on the busiest 300-400
mile sections could mean up to 400 meets or
passing points a day.
The dispatcher has the information because
the tracks are wired. The locomotive shorts a
current between the rails and shows up on a
traffic control panel. Wiring is not
technically
difficult, but assuring a continuous bond where
rails meet can make maintenance costly. The
rails take a beating, a link breaks and someone
has to go out and fix it.
Burlington-Northern, Union Pacific and other
U.
S. railways are testing the use of satellites put
up by the military to locate trains. That may be the
way of the future but, as Canadian railway people
note,
it is only one of several technologies being
CANADIAN
assessed, with much of the work being done in
Canada.
A
consortium of systems engineers will report
this September on the best options in train control
for Canadian and U.S. railways.
According to Peter Detmold, special consultant
with Canadian Pacific Ltd. and general manager
of the Canadian-American advanced train control
systems begins next year, with implementation
beginning in 1987.
Detmold notes
that raising the level of control
technology will bring down other costs for the
railways.
The utilization of track, motive power
and cars will increase substantially, he said,
and think of all that fuel we could save!
Current signalling is extremely safe, as Bill
Moore Ede, CNs manager of advanced control
systems, noted, but
its inflexible, making it costly
to
build and maintain. Modular is the keyword
when you talk with Moore Ede about controlling.
Our current system is an all-or-nothing system;
you take all
the features or none of them, he told
me.
Modular systems allow us to add and take
away features as we wish. We avoid putting
them in where they are not needed. As an
example, broken rails are
not a problem on lightly
used lines, they occur on highly travelled, heavilly
loaded lines. Under
todays set up if we want to
put in signalling on lightly used lines we must
also include costly, hand-wired broken rail
alarms.
With a modular system we only put in
what we need.
One person who will benefit from advanced
train control is the locomotive engineer. The job
in
the cabwill be safer, Moore Ede noted, because
instructions will be clearer and more precise, and
218
R A I L
also because by putting information in the cab
we tie in with the trains brake system, and if the
instructions are not followed, the brakes are
applied.
It
will also help the track maintenance people
who have to share the line with passing trains.
Knowing train times more precisely, and knowing
the system would not allow a train to arrive early,
will make their work safer and more productive.
With so much interest in the future, the existing
areas of computer control might easily be
overlooked.
An early example is hot box
detection, pioneered by CN in Canada.
When a CN train pulls out of, say Ottawa, it is
moving on
instructions from Montreal, the
nearest control centre. Heading east, and barely
out of the city, the train goes over the first hot box
detector,
which reads the passing train.
The temperature of each axle journal box is
measured and transmitted to the Montreal control
centre where an employee watches over the
train. An overheated journal or even a piece of
dragging equipment triggers an alarm. The dis­
patcher calls the train engineer by radio: Youve
got a hot box that could seize. Then the
dispatcher consults a computer print out and tells
the engineer precisely where to look. Four cars
from the rear, its the third axle on the right.
CPs warnings are flashed locally. An elect­
ronic message, telling which axle is overheating,
is flashed on a wayside signal for the locomotive
engineer to read, or communicated directly to the
engineer by radio, using a computer-generated
voice.
Remember all
the talk about electrification?
We have it now as an experiment on a section
of S.C Rail. One reason it hasnl caughron is that
the Tlanufacturers have done such good work
improving the diesel. Electrification means heavy
investment in overhead Wires, The economiCS
favour the diesel al the moment, but the S.C Rail
e
xperiment will provide valuable data on
Canadian co
nditions should the energy scene
change.
Maybe steam will have the last laugh. We
made a big thing of progressing from steam to
diesel. Now we hear that American Coal
Enterprises has been testing an old Chesapeake
& Ohio Sleam locomotive on regular service, six
days a week for four weeks, 1Is highly Instru­
mented, with measurements 01 crank rod stress
and ex
haust emissions. that sort of detail Steam­
generation will be computer-controlled on a
proposed later version.
R
oss Rowland, who heads the U.S. group, says
steam engines would be most suitable in coal
mining and coal hauling areas. You may find that
diesel will be supplanted in some areas not by
electric but by steam.
Maybe one day youll be riding a Canadian train
through the worlds longest tunnel -CP Rails
Rogers Pass tunnel now under construction.
The rails are permanently attached to concrete
slabs instead of ties, another maintenance free
innovation being tested by CP Rail. The trains
precise location is controlled by a computer In
Montreal. Problems with the locomotive are
picked up by computer assisted monitors, and
shop crews know precisely when and where to
step in 10 make repairs. Lastly, youre riding a
steam locomotive. It doesnt look like a steam
engine of old. But it soundS like one the
haunting banshee wail of old.
Source: Transpo 85, Volume 8/3.
A NEW AND REVOLUTIONARY GRAIN CAR WAS
previewed at Transcona shops early May.
Development of the car is part of a S93-million
northern Manitoba cannot safely handle the
presenl generation 01 1 OO-ton hopper cars.
eN investigated various alternative car designs
before selecting an articulated hopper. The car
features two bodies supponed by one 70-ton truck
at the centre and a 50-ton truck at each end.
This arrangement of 8xh) spacing results In less
track loading than the conventional 70-ton hopper
cars. .
(
illustratIOn: Bill Jakobsen)
The prototype features a low centre of gravity
1213 cm above the top of the rail), an articulated
connection, and a relatively short distance
betw€;F!n truck centres (7.S m). These features
providE:! good dynamic stability and make the car
ideal for rail lines witll severe surface
irregularities.
Ti
le car has a more uniform track load
distribution, a deslyn feature that Will subject the
rail and track structure to lower stress. thereby
decreasing maintenance costs. It also compares
favourably to other car types in terms 01 load
capacity.
Under the agreement CN will pay for designing
the new car, whole the federal and Manitoba
governments will share equally the cost of
prototype construction.
The prototype is expected to be completed in
mid·June, and fieJd testing is scheduled for this
summer.
subsidiary agreement signed by the Province 01 Sources:
Manitoba and the Government 6f Canada in April
last year. 1) Transpo Canada 85, double decker item.
The concept and design for the prototype 108-
ton articulated gram hopper was undNtaken by 2) eN MOVIN, imax film item.
eNs equiprnent department. Prototype
construction began on March 1881 the Transcona 3) Keeping Track, grain car item.
shops.
Development of the car was prompted by the fflct 4) Vancouver Sun VIA Norris Adams. Steam expo item.
that eNs existing boxcar fleet is gradually being
retired. Also, the rail line to the pon of Churchill in 5) CP Rail News, Edward Mallandaine item.
Back Cover:
August 8, 1985 sawcherB-cnaCtment of the Last SpIke ceremony at Craigel/achie B. C .. A morf:! de toiled account
of this and the November 7 fe-enactment will appear. in the next Canadian Rail
Photo by Oavid Johnson.

Canadian Rail
P.o. Box 282 St. Eustache, Que., Canada
J7R 4K6
Postmaster: if undeliverea within
10 days return to sender, postage guaranteed.



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