Published bi-monthly by the Canadian Railroad
Historical Association P.O
Box 148 St. Constant P.O.
JOL IXO. Subscription rates $23.00
if outside Canada)
EDITOR: Fred F Ar:lgus
CO-EDITOR: M. Peter Murphy
OFFICIAL CARTOGRAPHER: William A Germaniuk
The first locomotive built in
Canada was the Toronto built
by James Good in 1853. As this
year is the sesquicentennial of
the city of Toronto we are happy
to print this drawing of the
historic locomotive. The drawing
was made in 1932 by John Loye,
the founder of the C.R.H.A., and shows
the Toronto as it was
after it lost its outside frames
in an early re-vamping •. It was,
unfortunately, scrappe d in 1881.
mSIDE FRONT COVER:
A rare view of a short-lived
train. VIA No. 19, St.Laurent
at Drummondville Que. on Dec.
27 1982. The regular engine 6760 had
broken down which explains
why C.N. 3679 was leading.
Photo by Willie Radford.
Back in 1948, Montreal Tramways
car 879 was operating on route 5A
Ontario as an extra. This was one
of the first steel street cars
in Canada (1907), but the series
became extinct in 1953.
C.R.H.A. Archives, Toohey ColI.
NEW BRUNSWICK DIVISION
New Brunswick E2L 4G7
ST. LAWRENCE VALLEY DIVISION
Box 22 Station B
Montreal, Que. H3B 3J5
BYTOWN RAILWAY SOCIETY
Box 141, Station A
Ottawa, Ontario K 1 N 8V1
TORONTO & YORK DIVISION
Box 5849, Terminal A,
Toronto Ontario M5W 1 P3
300 Cabana Road East,
Windsor Ontario N9G 1A2
GRAND RIVER DIVISION
Cambridge, Ontario N 1 R 5W1
SI. Catha rines,
Ontario L2R 6W8
RIDEAU VALLEY DIVISION P.O.
Onl. K7A 5A5
ROCKY MOUNTAIN DIVISION
Box 6102, Station C,
Edmonton Alberta T5B 2NO
CALGARY & SOUTH WESTERN DIVISION
60 -6100, 4th Ave. NE
Calgary, Alberta T2A 5Z8
& KETTLE-VALLEY DIVISION P.O.
Cranbrook, British Columbia
PACIFIC COAST DIVISION
Box 1006, Station A,
Vancouver British Columbia V6C 2P1
AND THE C.P.R. SAID LET
THERE BE DIVISION POINTS …
By Elinor Barr
The distant whistle of a train always quickened
the pulse of a division point. People appeared on
the station platform
as if by magic. Workmen
stood poised, ready
to begin their appointed tasks
even before the locomotive thundered past. Right
on time, they agreed, looking
at their watches.
Near the head end
of the train the postmaster
his incoming mailbag and despatched one
in return. The agent accepted freight and express
from the baggage car amid good-natured banter.
News from along
the line filled the air.
Further down, porters assisted passengers step
ping downto the platform for a stroll. Their sty
lish clothes contrasted vividly with the oilstained
overalls of the car inspector checking the wheels of each coach for
Here, workmen hustled blocks of
ice into water
coolers, and into refrigerator cars. There,
the locomotive, accompanying
it to the yards
to begin routine maintenance. Still
others attached a replacement locomotive to the
1. LOG HOTEL
head of the train. They had fired it up hours earl
in preparation for this haul to the next division
The fresh iron horse pants, then snorts impat
iently. Soon the conductors familiar
warns passengers to hurry back to their coach.
A bell rings. Doors clang shut. The train shudders
as wheels begin to turn. The cars gain mom
entum, pass by, then diminish in size and sound
until nothing remains.
Human figures seem
to melt away as the com
munity resumes its normal pace. Unclaimed par
cels are transferred to the freight shed
Women and children gather at the general store,
socilaizing while mail
is sorted and a fresh ship
ment of groceries unpacked. The running crew-
to the bunkhouse to await a call for the return
trip home. Workmen with soot-rimmed eyes shovel
ashes from the spent locomotive and guide it to
tank, to the coal chute, to the round-
The CPR did ~ot encourage private enterprise a~ division points. The hotel at Ignace, which also housed a general store,
was an exceptIOn. The owner frequently found himself at loggerheads with the railway company.
Photo courtesy Mrs. Ira Wilson
I I Rollway Wye
21 BoordlnCjJ Houle
3: Cobbs Hotel
4: Top Crain
house. Everyones routine revolves around the
railway and its schedule.
The Canadian Pacific Railway created dozens
of division points during the 1880s. They were
located every 125
to 150 mi les, the distance a
nineteenth century steam locomotive could travel
without extensive servicing
other than fuel and
water. Division points, whether new creations or
superimposed upon existing settlements, shaped,
indeed often ensured, a towns future. They also
played a vital role
in Canadas development, both
as service centres for trains and as communities in
their own right.
Many were literally carved
out of the wilderness,
yet they cannot be called frontier settlements in
the accepted sense of the term. They were company
in a chain. The needs of Canadas
first transcontinental railway determined their
location and physical layout. The promise of a
job attracted the pioneers
that made up the pop
ulation. A look at one of these instant communities
offers a great deal of practical information about
R A I L
F/Ig~ —___ _
IGNACE AS A STATION
66 0 13Z
early railroading. ignace, for example, became a
point in 1883 because of its central loc
ation between existing population centres.
time it boasted little more than a wye, a wood
pile and a watertrough. Within four years these
of construction days would be
replaced by a transportation complex
of generous proportions.
of the townsite dated August 31,
1883 shows only three railway facilities
narrow strip representing the right-of-way, a wye
jutting from it (allowing locomotives
to turn around
), angling toward a water source outside the plan.
of the fuel supply, cordwood, is not
fi res have been raging, stated a re
port earlier in the summer. At Ignace a great
dea I of ties and cordwood were
few words. So much left unsaid.
Hugging both sides
of the right-of-way are ten
buildings, three of them larger than
The large one on the south side, a two-storey
of squared timbers, appeared during
the summer of 1883. Owner
W.H. Cobb commis-
sioned the survey. Only his hotel and the right-of
way survived the transformation period. The CPRs engineering department drafted
a detailed plan dated October 13, 1887
to mark completion of facilities. The right-of-way remains a strip 132 feet wide,
but now expands to double width for a distance of 1,950 feet. Protruding from both sides are irregular areas of additional
CPR land. All structures fall within these bound
aries except for several to the east
–Cobbs hotel and stable, two frame and four
log dwellings, a
henhouse, a shack, and part of a fenced field marked Cattle Kraal, a resting place where prairie
cattle broke their long journey eastward. The dining station stands south of the main
line, fronted by a wooden platform more than
300 feet long. An extension leads behind the st
ation to a water closet, the only toilet facility
shown. From each side of the station a line of
track runs southward
to form a triangle; at the tip a turntable balances within a circular pit. This
arrangement allows the engine turner to direct
a locomotive either into the 12-stall roundhouse,
to the main line, or west to the ash pit and coal sheds. Still further westward huddle the pict
that caught the eye of so many early travellers–an auxiliary coal shed, windmill and
pumphouse, and water tank.
the triangles outer edge are
workshops, storage sheds and living quarters. The
locomotive foremans home
is located on one
side of the roundhouse and
his office on the other.
80th are fenced. In between stand five structures measuring 10
X 30 feet and labeled Port. Car,
indicating they were once boxcars. One houses a
the others are earmarked for the inspector, night car inspector, tanner, and car
penter. Scattered shelters protect sand, oil, ice, tools, and, beside the blacksmithy, Iron Racks. Comparison of the two plans reveals
number of buildings increased from ten
five. A -bridge and building crew (8 & 8
Ignace station included a dining room for passengers as well as a telegraph office and accommodation for employees.
The structure resembles the two-storey frame design Van Horne introduced to the prairies. A weather station is attached
to the wall, foreground.
Photo courtesy Mrs. Ira Wilson
Running crews changed at Ignace along with the locomotive that pulled their train. The long building (foreground) was
their headquarters untll being called for the return trip home. Noise from the small building behind, a carpenters shop,
must have caused problems for those wanting to sleep.
Photo courtesy John E. Davies.
An engineer (right) oils locomotive No. 837 as it sits on the shop track at Ignace, the finishing touch before hauling a
train to the next division point.
Photo courtesy John E. Davies
completed the two-storey dining hall and telegraph
in May 1884, just in time for the inaugu
ration of daily passenger service. Most other facil
ities came into existance around the same time.
Hendersons Directory for 1884 lists
living in Ignace that year–39 CPR employees, 8
laborers, a blacksmith, a boarding house keeper, and
W.H. Cobb. Their names are Anglo-Saxon and
they came from eastern Canada. Only two would
be there a decade later –W.H. Cobb and John
Dwyer, a coal shed worker.
CPR employees listed are S.B. Fraser
as yardmaster, station agent J.R. Harding, tele
graph operator George Turner, and John Beaumont
and John Haggarty of the dining hall. Six men
staffed the coal sheds, including foreman John
that woodburning engines were
already being phased out. Locomotive foreman
J.B. Hammond supervised two fitters, a fitters
helper and seven engine cleaners. They worked
in repair shops that were transferred to a neigh
boring division point after construction
The 1887 plan shows no trace of the six build
ings on the north side of the tracks. The largest,
a boarding house, burned to the ground. The others
met a similar fate two weeks later during a bush
that threatened the entire community. Ac
cording to a crisp newspaper account, the CPR
buildings were saved with great difficulty. The
so spectacular that residents dubbed
1886 The Year
of the Big Fire rather than recog-nlzJng the first transcontinental train
as an event
which carried far greater significance.
The following year westbound passengers
cluded five cars of immigrants from Iceland, 300
excursionists from Maine, and a number of harvest
workers heading for the prairies.
By October 1887
cargoes of buffalo bones going east
to be pulverized for fertilizer vied for
rail space with the grain
trains glutting the single main line. Ever increasing
to include the legendary silk trains,
taxed the companys new division points to the
Over the years division points underwent
eral periods of heavy construction as facilities
expanded and traffic increased. Finally, during
the 1950s, the
CPR implemented a drastic change,
one which signalled the end
of division points
across the country, by switching to diesel loco
motives. Since they required far less servicing
than steam locomotives, division points became redundant. Structures, now unused, disappeared.
Employees transferred to larger centres. The
rival of trains no longer caused a flurry of excitement. A species had become extinct.
Former division points retain few physical
minders of steam technology, even though it sh
aped their destinies over a 70-year period. The
extent of the loss becomes painfully apparent
during the centennial decade
of the 1980s. Little
more than a few faded photographs and memen
toes have survived to commemorate the founding
of individual communities.
Waler ~aal Shed
Tonk ~Wind Mill
I Seclion Foremans(25×20)
2 Frame House
3 Hen House
Section Mans Log House (19x 24)
5 Log House
6 Frame House
Log House (16x 19)
SSt a b I e (22 x 4 S )
Cobbs Hofel (40 x 65 )
Hen House (4·5xI6)
II: Locomotive Foremans House
12: Shack (12x IS)
13: Car Inspectors House (14×32)
14: Dining Hall a Telegraph 0 !fice (65 75)
15: Outdoor Privy
16 : School-Port Car (10×30)
27 .. .
IS: To nners House -Port Car (IOx 30)
19: Night Car Inspector-Porf Car (I0x30)
20: Bunk Rooms (15×50)
21: Carpenter Shop (10×30)
23: Turntable (52)
24: Iron Racks
25: Blacksmith Shop
26: Ash Pit (40)
27: Locomotive Foremans Office a Stores (22×26)
2S: Sand House (12×23)
29: Coal Mans House (15xI7)
30: Ice House (22x 40)
31: Coal Shed (22x2S0)
32: Section House (24×32)
33: Oil House
34: Wo rkm a ns Lo~
35: Tool House (I
House (20x 28)
Doon B 2
7. 6. 5. t:::::::J 0
EAST OF TELEGRAPH
IGNACE A SAD I V I S ION
W Q 8-83
RA I L
An Ignace crew prepares this unnumbered woodburner as a deadhead engine by disconnecting the driving rods.
Photo courtesy John E. Davies.
By: Fred Angus
The railway preservation movement is one seg
ment of heritage conservation which has gained
considerable strength in the last quarter century.
As in most efforts there has been progress and
and failures, artifacts saved
artifacts lost. We will consider here some of
the important relics that were lost, why they were
and, more important, to try to prevent fur
ther loss of significant railway items in the fut
1982 railway historians were stunned
by the news from Nova Scotia that the Scotian
Rai Iway Society had scrapped its enti re collection
of railway equipment without proper notification
to other preservation organizations, organizations
that might have taken some of the equipment and
saved it from being destroyed. Included in this
wanton destruction were: a steam locomotive, an
1894 coach from the Sydney and Louisburg Rail
way, the Nineteenth Century private car Ethan
Allen from the United States, a caboose and,
perhaps the most significant, an extremely rare
open-platform wooden baggage car originally an
Intercolonial Railway coach
built in 1875 and
Tormerly in the C.N.R. museum train. Only one
other car of this type exists in Canada -the 1877
car now at Edmonton and also from C. N.s mus
While this is the most extreme case of its kind
to occur in Canada, there have been, and
unfortunately will continue to be, other lesser
of loss of railway heritage. Consider the
following, all of which have occurred within the
last two years:
In West Toronto to historic railway station is
demolished despite the intention of the city to
In Saint John thousands of waybills of the
1880s are carted off to the dump with only a
portion saved for museums.
In Toronto a detailed large-scale model, made in
1867, of a Grand Trunk passenger car is given to
children as a plaything instead of going to a mus
eum. This model had been exhibited at the Worlds
in Paris France in the year of Canadas
And, briefly crossing the U.S. border, in Phila
two street cars, one dating back to 1894,
are scrapped because the museum to whom they
R A I L
were promised was delayed for two days in pick
them up due to weather conditions.
doubt other horror stories .. could be told,
but these four examples, in addition to the Nova
Scotia dlbster, are
enough to make the point.
Efforts to preserve railway artifacts go back
a surprisingly long way to within a generation of
the birth of railways. The pioneer locomotive
Rocket, albeit much the worse for wear, found
a home in the Science Museum in England as early
1862, and other significant pieces were saved.
often by the railways themselves, from time to
time. In the United States, the Baltimore and
Ohio Railroad was foremost in the realization of
the importance of saving early equipment and so
laid the foundation not only for the magnificant
collection now in Baltimore, but also for the rail
way museum concept itself. Even in the early
days there were set-backs. Often old engines were
more as curiosities and, having outlived
their reason for survival were cut up. Most regret
table was the action of the Great Western railway
in England which had, in the 1870s and 1880s
preserved the board-gauge engines North Star
(1837) and Lord Of The Isles (1851). In 1906,
Our first example of Heritage Lostll is the scrapping of the
two locomotive sof the Carillon & Grenville Railway in 1914.
Here we see the Grenville,built by D.C. Gunn of Hamilton in
gust 1858, as it appeared near the end of its career. The
other engine IIOttawa
(formerly Carillon) was an 1856
IIBirkenhead bought from the Grand Trunk about 1870. This was
Canada!s last 5!6 gauge railway and was like an operating
um piece when it closed in 1910. Despite efforts to save
hem, the locomotives were sent to l1ontreal in 1914 and scrapped.
R A I L
In 1937 she attained a speed of 112 miles an hour. In 1958 she,
and all of her type, was scrapped. No. 3003, seen here at
Hochelaga on September 10 1949, was one of C.P.R.s famous
Jubilee type 4-4-4s of 1936; they were in service until
almost the end of the steam era but none was saved.
C.R.H.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 49-635.
A former Montreal Terminal Railway car built by Ottawa in 1896,
No. 1054 was later an instruction car and is seen here on an
excursion on the Cartierville line on August 7 1948. It survived
until 1953, well into the era when equipment was being preserved,
but in the end it got scrapped.
C.R.H.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 48-489.
due to lack of space, both locomotives were scrapped by the railway
so depriving future generations
of the sight of
an authentic 7-foot gauge main
line locomotive. In 1925 the G.W.R. did build a
full-size replica of North Star
but this is not, of course, the original engine.
In Canada no real
attempt at railway preservation occured until
World War II, and what was saved survived mainly by chance. Among the equipment saved before World
War I may be mentioned the early
locomotives Sampson and albion, C.P.R.s
famous Countess of Dufferin and Montreals first electric street car
No. 350 The Rocket.
to save Canadas last broad-gauge locomotives was lost
in 1914 when the equipment
of the Carillon and Grenville
Ry. was taken to
Montreal and scrapped despite some talk that it
should be saved. In the last 35 years great prog
ress has been made, spurred on by the retirement of steam locomotives and street cars. and older equipment
that has survived has now shown that
we still have a long way to go to ensure the safety of these collections.
Historic railway equipment can
be lost through fire or other disaster or by being scrapped by the
rai Iway compan ies. These losses, regrettable as they are,
can be explained. Fires can occur despite the best precautions, and railway companies can not
be expected to preserve relics, after all they are
in the Museum business. What we are concerned with here
is what can be done by people who ARE
in the museum business or are interested in ra j 1-
way history to prevent losses such as those described. There are several ways
in which this can
1. Discovering and safeguarding artifacts, owned by railways and others, before they are
troyed. 2. Proper selection and appreciation of items
to be preserved. 3. Correct and well-planned restoration of ex
hibits. 4. Adequate physical protection for exhibits.
5. Protection of artifacts against siezure for debts and against unwarrented disposal
the futu re by directors.
6. Making the public and governments aware of the importance of preserving our railway
us briefly discuss each of the above and
see how neglect of any of them can result in the
loss of significant pieces of historic railway items.
1. Artifacts can not be saved if those entrusted
with saving them do not know they exist.
association such as the C. R. H.A. there are many members who can spot important items and
mention them to the association. This has resulted
in the saving of much in the past, the most recent example being the rescue of the 1882 C.P.R. coach
No. 54 in Alberta due to observant enthusiasts who noticed it and appredated (and later spent much time and effort rescuing it).
Of course smaller
be saved too; old books and timetables on the garbage pile, waybills
in an abandoned station, hundred-year-old
rails being lifted from
an abandoned branch line, grandfathers toy train set,
all these may well be worth saving if we know
they are there.
The first steel street car in Canada, and one of the first in the
world, Montreal car 863, built by Pressed Steel Car in 1907, sits forelo
rnely at the back of Youville shops on June 27 1948. While 863 was
scrapped soon after, two of the same type (869 and 881)
lasted u.ntil 1953. One of these should have been kept to show the
new technology of steel equipment.
C.R.H.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 48-291.
R A I L
A Montreal TramvJays two-car train in a snowstorm at Saul t on
January 1 1949. Every one of the one hundred trailers was scrapped
despite the intention to preserve No. 1676. C.R.B
.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 49-2.
2. The question of what to select for the pre
is one that can cause more arguments
than any other. The most controversial question
of all seems to be Should equipment be preserved
only if it is typical or should brave but of ten
unsuccessful experiments (sometimes unjustly called
be included in the collection, and where
we draiN the line?. A good example is Montreal
street cat 2501 which
was one of two duplex
cars built in 1928 and scrapped in the
was of a patented Canadian design
by the Canadian Car and Foundry Co,
and introduced by the Montreal Tramways Co.
It was slightly different from its sister 2500 (the
only other one ever built) in that it had bucket
seats instead of conventional seating. Although
considered for preservation it was not saved because
it was un-typical, and yet today the articulated
car in the latest
thing in urban transit. How valuable
56 year old Canadian-designed car of this type
would have been in a museum, and yet it was
not preserved. What about C.P. R. mogul No. 3011
(built 1888), a Montreal trailer street car, Montreal
Terminal Railway No. 1054 (1896),
class locomotive? All these were in service well
into the 1950s and considered for saving; none
saved. Who knows, maybe in later years the
will be considered in this category!
3. Although not often realized, improper res
toration can destroy heritage. The question here
is usually to which period to restore a piece of
equipment since it has likely had numerous chan
ges over the years. Often the urge to back date
to its earliest appearance results in the destruction
of later additions which may be of more impor
tance than the original item. An example
Co. street car No. 82 whose significance lies in being
an example of how a
smaller company converted its equipment to
ulate the configuration introduced by the Birney
cars in the 1920s. Restore No. 82 to its original
1912 appearance and
we would have just another
single-truck street car rather than
conversion. The original
content of an exhibit
can vary from 0 percent (i.e. a replica) to almost
100 percent depending on
age, deterioration and
How much of C.P. locomotive 144
or car Saskatchewan really date back to the
how much of their later history would
be lost if an ill-conceived back dating was attem
One remembers how the vintage American
was restored at great
to operating condition (but with its post
Civil-War appearance) including
such 20th century
as oil firing! How much better to have used
the money to build a replica of the General as
it really was in 1862 and to keep the original intact
as it was when retired. The choice of paint job
is also important but there is not so much irrepair
for equipment can always be repainted.
is where fragments of original paint
be needed to match the colour)
are destroyed in the process.
4. Adequate physical protection
is rather ob
vious. Equipment should
be under cover and pro
from fire, rot, rust and vandalism. Smaller
also be safeguarded against theft,
and books and archival material should be kept
in a controlled, dust free environment.
ideal conditions cost money and usually
unattainable goal, but some safeguards are cheaper
can be effective. For example a locomotive
that must be stored outside can be given a tem
of paint before final restoration for
black paint is better than rerl rust, Sometimes
is better than a tarpaulin which can hold mois
ture and actually
cause worse rusting. Naturally
passenger equipment should have its windows
boarded up and
roof made leak-proof until it can
5. The protection of a collection against des
truction to satisfy debts, or because a museum has
fallen on bad times, is a serious consideration.
Despite the best efforts a project
can fail due to
many reasons such as lack of proper support.
is what happened in Nova Scotia with such
tragic results. One method of protection would
be to set up a board of trustees which would be
organized separately from the museum itself and
have title to the exhibits .so protect
from claims against the museum. Trust
ees could also guard against unwise decisions of the
museum directors who might act on
an outlook. All groups preserving equipment
that they are custodians of our rail
way heritage and,
if unable to maintain the coll
SE R IOUS efforts to place the items
in other collections before contemplating anything
so reprehensible as scrapping them. By serious
is meant personal contact with the dir
of these other collections, and not just
R A L
vaguely-worded items in a newsletter. Another
reason why equipment may be lost is due to un
wise disposal just because an item is not fashion
able at the moment
or is thought, by the direct
of the day, to be not typical or represent
is analogous to item No. 2 on select
it should be added that the collection
is being formed and maintained for future gen
erations and not just to satisfy the whims of to
6. The last,
and perhaps the most important,
that railyvay heritage can be lost is to lack
of public awareness or apathy. This will trans
into lack of support without which even the
will fail. It is only too true that govern
ments, foundations and others support projects
that have great public appeal if for no better reason
than the obvious one that popular projects bring
in the most votes.
If railway preservation is per
as a group of fans simply playing trains
it can not hope for great support.
Perhaps as there is more realization that rail
are not just old nostalgic puffing
billies or toonerville trollies there will be a more
to save these pieces of our his
tory and consider them of equal importance as
art exhibits in a gallery. No art gallery which lack-
Upside down at the bottom of a pile of burning street cars, 1676
reaches a fiery end on the morning of August 28 1959. This car
was the last of the 1600-series trailers and the one that was
slated to be saved to go with front-unit 1801. Why it was scrapped
was never satisfactorily explained.
ed the space or resources to save works of art
would destroy these works -they would be sold or traded
to another museum. Why should this
not happen at our railway museums? Many rail
way exhibits, due to their
si;m, cannot be stored indoors without great cost. Thus deterioration
will inevitably set in. Consider how many locomotives have been set up
in parks with great fan
fare and then,
as the years went by and the novelty wore off, they slowly decay. How many of
these are truly preserved? Sometimes the story
has a happy ending
as exemplified by the recent
rescue of C.P.R.
No. 374 in Vancouver. This his
toric locomotive had suffered 38 years of vandal
ism but now is being restored. Others, however, are sti
II threatened. Smaller items do not present
the storage problem but are often discarded
junk, sometimes even when they are in a mus
eum. The answer to this
is obvious; everything acquired should
be documented with the reason for its acquisition, too often forgotton. The small things are important too and everything adds up
to tell the whole story. Several years
ago a Canadian Council of Rail
Heritage was set up which is a step in the right
direction. Unfortunately after
an initial enthusiasm, the local groups failed to support it. The
is that its activities to date have been virt-ually non-existant; a pity for this sort of group
is sorely needed. At the more local level associat
ions owning exhibits should consider establishing boards of trustees who would oversee the conserv
ation of historical material. One thing
if the railway historical movement does not do
it no one else will! While it
is easy to lay the blame for the 1982
Nova Scotia scrapping on the Scotian Railway Society this would
not be entirely fair since they
are not the
real culprits. The S.R.S. did act with
grave improptiety, and cannot escape the strong
but so did the Nova Scotia Provincial Museum for not giving the equipment sanctury.
But the true blame should be
laid on the shoulders
of apathetic governments and general public. It
is strange that a social structure that can afford a million dollars for a hockey or baseball player
can not afford
to safeguard our heritage. The truly frightening thing
is that what happened
in Nova Scotia in 1982 could happen to any pre
servation group, even
to the C.R.H.A. Shall the
future produce horror stories like
that in Nova
Scotia, or happier events like car 54 and locomotive 374? The railway enthusiasts must lead the way
in deciding the outcome; the answer to the ques
is in the hands of the reader of this editiorial.
On its last run Montreal articulated car 2501 is seen on a C.R.B.A.
excursion on March 14 1953. This car was one of two built in 1928
and was ahead of its time; only now are articulated street cars co
ming into their own in North America. Both 2500 and 2501 were
scrapped in 1955 after the plan was dropped to convert them into s
ingle units. C
.R.B.A. Archives. Toohey Collection.
One of C.P.R. swell-known E-8 s, No. 1802 stops at Newport Vermont
ne 14 1952 en route to Boston with the Alouette. 1800 and 1
802 remained in service with VIA until 1984 and are now UD for
isposal. Strangely they are not on the list of locomotive~ to be
save d be cause they are not typical ~ ~ Is this to be our next example of
Photo by Fred Angus.
VIA, Kingslol, to Toronto
By FRED CURTIS
6:50 a.m. I sat on the cold leather seat of Via
Rails Dayliner, Service From Kingston to Tor
onto, Ontario, Canada, and waited for the train
to nudge slowly ahead. My thoughts d rifted to
the early morning events, which I performed seem
ingly automatically: dressed
in the dark; ate break
fast; called a cab; travelled
to the station; bought
my ticket; waited for the train; heard
ment; quickly stepped through
door; positioned myself on the platform; shivered
as the cold morning air hit my face; answered the
Toronto; stepped up; climbed four
to the left; looked for the Non
smoking section; sought
out my seat on the left
the train; lifted my bags to the overhead
took my coat off; and slumped into my
The first step
onto the train was slippery this
How will I manage to get on the train
when I am
old, I muttered silently, angrily. My
thoughts drifted to a young man and girl standing
in front of me while I waited to purchase my
they married? No, I didnt think so,
-the young girl wasnt wearing a wedding ring.
Were they living together? I mused at the thought
that they were eloping to start a life together in
Toronto. I stared out the greasy, large, rectangular
window which supported my left shoulder.
distance, algal ponds, scattered
in the Little Cat-araqui Creek floodplain,
gave way to low shrubs,
to poplar and pine trees. Above the tree
the city slept. Nearby, the arrowheads were
to turn green, and the cattails were
slowly pumping nutrients from their watery bed
up straight, tan-coloured stalks. The dynamic bio
logical and physical processes of the Little Cat
araqui Creek continued incessantly.
My face tight
as I recounted the battles with developers
not care about the adverse impacts their
projects had on
7:00 a.m. Two blasts of the whistle sounded. I
felt the familiar pull of the train and heard
squeek from the wheels as the air brakes released
their grip. The train inched forward.
the train passed under the High
way 2 overpass, supported on either side by sed
entary, white pillars
of concrete. There, to the left,
the John L. Smith property, sheathed in morn
L. Smith was an interesting character.
A short, pudgy, balding man occupied with real
estate, John wanted
to sell 35 acres of land~ to
anyone who would offer him one million dollars.
Unfortunately, a large portion of land was
floodplain of the Little Cataraqui Creek, John had
unsuccessfully sought a permit from local Con
to fill 46 acres of land to make
suitable for residential or commercial develop-
R A I L
ment. In frustration, John dug a long, deep trench to drain ponding water from
the land, but enraged local enrivonmentalist, called
the news media, the mayor and the Conservation Authority. John
was caught red-handed, and was told to desist
his trenching operation. Later, the Conservation Authority told John to rehabilitate the scarred land, or
be slapped with a stiff fine. Obviously, John did not abide, because the trench, now half covered by weeds,
was still present.
Five long blasts of the train whistle broke my
thoughts. The trai n approached Gardiners Road, a major north-south arterial
in Kingston Township.
Five cars, waiting impatiently, lined up behind a zebra coloured horizontal barricade, while clang
ing bells broke the stillness of the morning air.
Have you ever closely examined the right-ofway beside train tracks? The bed of grey stones supporting our train track, sloped down at a crisp angle to flat terrain where mounds of dark, oily,
rail ties lay half broken. The railway bed was weedfree
(I wondered why) in sharp contrast to the nearby vegetation.
As the train ribboned through a light· industrial area, I noticed paper, wood, plastics, metal refuse and other assortments of garbage beside the tracks. I peered into backyards of homes and tried to guess the house:hold
rets which lay within. The train raced along, and a car travelling on Highway 33, raced the train.
My eyes fixed on a rock quarry, which neighborhood residents were able to have shutdown after a lengthy Ontario Municipal Board hearing. The quarry
gave way to
Collins Bay where small crafts sailed in and out
during warm weather months.
7: 1 0 a.m. The Ernestown Township lollipop, a water tower, came into view. I wondered how long the black lettering had been painted on the outside of the elevated reservoir. I half smiled at a
sign which indicated the site of the Ernestown Industrial Park. Ernestown,
like all Eastern Ontario municipalities, savoured new industry, and had serviced land waiting … waiting.
My ear pricked up to catch the conductors reply to the passenger sitting ahead of
me that we would arrive in Toronto at 9:30 a.m. I mentally calculated 2 hours and 20 minutes until arrival, and silently grunted
satisfacti on. The conductor leaned over
me and snapped, ticket please! I reached lackadaisically into
coat pocket and handed him my ticket. After quickly punching two clean holes,
he thrust the mutilated ticket into
my open hand. I slid down
in my seat, and turned to take in more of the
The Lennox Generating Station,
an oil fired plant, now defunct, loomed
in the distance. The Ontario government
had shut it down when oil
prices and associated transport costs escalated to a
level which made the plant uneconomical to generate electrical power. Lennox, plagued with start-up problems
in 1977, never produced power
at fu II capacity. How many thousands of dollars
had Ontario taxpayers foolishly wasted!
Blasts from engines whistle appeared to have
no impact on cattle nonchanlantly chomping on
in a nearby field. As telephone poles
whizzed by, I caught the pungent
odour of a cig
arette smoke circling towards me.
an abandoned limestone quarry came into view. Hardy wild flowers like purple
vetch contrasted sharply against the variation
greens. The Springside Park Dam on the Napanee River certainly looked inviting for a picnic on a
warm summers day.
7:24 a.m. The air brakes began to grip the train wheels and the bell began to ring; At a road crossing, six cars lined up
in single file and drivers snar
led at the speeding train. The scenery -scrap metal, road construction, Purina Foods, and a gray ware
house badly needing paint -slowed down. The grip of the brakes tightened, like a cobra snake around its prey, and
all movement in the train -h-alted.
ran on. Shut it off, I screamed silently.
After 5 long minutes, the train moved forward. Hesitantly, the brakes squeaked noisily
,released. The bell continued
to clang on and annoy
me enormously. The train clicked into higher gear and the speed increased. Outside, like lonely sen
tinels standing guard, transmission towers, support
ing heavy I ines, saluted the passing train. As my
eyes lifted to the distance, grassy flat fields receded
to fence lines, farmhouses and trees. Suddenly,
9 , ;
R A I L
without warning, the conductor barked that coffee
In Pavlovian style, six people rose
from their seat, shuffled up the aisle, pulled at a
heavy metal door, and disappeared through
7:39 a.m. Sighing with relief at the bell being
turned off, I caught the sight of an airstrip with
grounded planes. With a long and cautious stare, a young boy standing away from the tracks, clung
to a beaten leather baseball glove
in one hand and with his free hand, tossed a handball
ically. The bell rang again and I watched the boy
grow smaller. The train slowed, jerked forward then backward before coming to a dead stop. Belleville (beautiful city) I proclaimed. To
right, 12 side tracks carried an assortment of cars -boxcars, flatbeds, tankers, car carriers. Only grain
cars were absent. To the left, a white and red billboard listing Belleville industries, was strongly planted beside the redd
ish brick station. Across
the street from the station, a food store and restaurant beckoned hungry people. Within 3 minutes the engine began the familiar pull. The cars
way without resistance and moved forward down
the track. The swaying motion of the train, the silence and increasing heat
in our car made me
My eyelids, heavy with tiredness, closed.
8:03 a.m. Near Trenton, a magnificent orange steel bridge spanned the water.
In May and Jun~
30 40.Ki1ometres Sca1e:1
Kilometres 10 0 1fJ 20
JIM J : J
20 30 Mil es
Miles 16 .. Ji*iI 6 1·0
hundreds of weekend fishermen would drop anchor
from skiffs and cast for pike, perch, walleye and
other fish which migrated from the deeper water
of Lake Ontario to rest, feed and spun in shall
of the bay. The Moira River had 3
from its banks.
The train collected more
passengers in Trenton
and accelerated again. The scenery
to Cobourg was bland; the train whistle blasted
every 4 minutes.
8:32 a.m. The train chugged
into the Cobourg
Station. Limestone and
red brick characterized
the train station.
About 30 people, suitcases in
hand, climbed aboard on the
left side of the train.
dressed in outdated clothes. All the
time the bell clanged incessantly.
As I watched the terns circle above the waves
crashing on the, Lake Ontario shore, my ears det
ected a soft
voite across the aisle and one row
behind. I swung
my head around, and met the
eyes of an attractive woman, probably in her early
My up and down glance revealed a black
wool jacket and skirt,
set off by a white silk blouse
and black patent leather shoes. Her straw blonde
was pulled back, tied tightly on he head and
held in place with a pearl-lustre comb. I tuned in
on the conversation she was travelling to Toronto
to engage a lawyer in a custody suit over her one
year old child. Her jealous husband, after 5 years
of marriage, had suspected her of having an affair
R A I L
with another man -she was innocent of course.
He kidnapped the child about 6 months ago and
never returned. When she found him, he threatened
to kill her (earlier he had mercilessly shot their
dog) if she took the child. This situation was too
much for her emotionally, so she travelled to
Calgary to seek counsel and refuge with her par
ents. With renewed strength,
she returned east
and move in with her brother-in-I aw near Trenton,
Ontario. She had decided to initiate legal action
against her husband.
She had no money and no
felt sad for her.
9:00 a.m. The train whistled by two chemical
plants and a
sewage treatment plant with holding
with suspicious, dark grey effluents.
Port Hope, home
of Eldorado Nuclear, popped into
view. A smokestack discharged a white plume
(contents unknown) over Lake Ontario. In the
foreground, a number
of metal barrels containing
wastes were stacked in a fenced-off
toxic wastes resided inside? Where would the
be disposed? A passing freight train created
a dizzying effect like strobe-lights
as my eyes
focussed straight-levelled on the last glimpses of
the barrels flashing between the speeding cars.
9:20 a.m. A long, steep, earth berm hid the
Darlington Nuclear Power Plant, still under cons
truction. Darlington was proposed to consist of
four generating units of the CAIJDU pressurized
type reactor. Each unit would com-
prise a nuclear reactor, a steam turbine generator
with associated equipment and common station
services. The total station
output was expected to
be 3,400 megawatts .. A 500 kV transmission line,
north of thef site would distribute the ele
ctricity to the Ontario grid system.
hydro had embarked on a policy of
greater self-sufficiency in energy supply. This
policy meant more utilization
of uranium fuel
for nuclear reactors. But what bothered me were
the uncertain environmental risks
to public health,
and welfare. Also issues, such as the storage
and disposal of residual wastes, the effects of
radioactive liquids emissions, commissioning chem
(e.g. chlorine), and water treatment plant
wastes (albeit at prescribed statutory limits) on
the lake ecosystem were not
fully resolved. Most
was that Darlington (the site had
been purchased by the Ontario Government prior
to 1971) was exempted from a formal environ
assessment (a study to assess potential
9:10 a.m. Flat roofed, rectangular, industrial
plants introduced Oshawa. We passed a series of
railroad car carriers each carrying shiny new per
sonal driving machines. Across the railroad yard,
Highway 401, the major arterial linking Mont
real to Toronto, operated at normal level of ser
vice. Mounds of dirt, and a right-of-way reduced
for ticky-tacky row housing beyond. Nearer,
a ground hog,
half visible from his hole in the
ground, stretched his
head high to check out the
and sounds of the early morning. More
urban structures whizzed by -manufacturing plants,
golf course and power lines.
9:28 a.m. The proposed new town in North
Pickering and a new airport were to be part of the
Toronto Central Region Concept of concentrating
future urban development. The
elopment, situated 18 miles northeast
would add 23,000 units of new housing stock
and would cover 24,000 acres. After an exhaus
tive planning process involving the Province
a consortium of 13 private firms, the project was
shelved in the late seventies.
R A I L
On February 28, 1979, one of the largest spills
of radioactive heavy water in the history of Canadas
nuclear power program occured at the Pickering
generating stations. However, the public
told about the incident until 4 months later. Be
cause of the size of Lake Ontario the mixture
was quickly diluted to a safe radiation level.
town of Pickering, like many coast
al zone communities, intakes and treats Lake
for drinking and other uses. Al
though the regional health
officer stated that
Pickerings water supply was safe for human con
sumption, a number
of residents were apprehen
sive. As I stared at Lake Ontario, the beach looked
so inviting, but the light brown murky water,
as the water deepened looked om
9:35 a.m. At Guildwood, the train stopped. A
green and white double decker Go Train for com
Toronto passed by in the direction we
had come from. To the left, the Park and Ride.
lot was 50 per cent full.
9:36 a.m. A lady yelled at the conductor that
she missed her stop. The conductor calmly ex
she should have been ready. The bell cl
anged on. The train slowed to 20 m.p.h.
The Eglington Park and Ride car
lot was nearly
full. Billboards became more prominent. Plants,
and warehouses with side tracks lined our
main line track. The Scarborough Park and Ride
lot was filled with cars. A bridge overpass
came and went.
9:44 a.m. We passed an east bound VIA pass
enger train. Our train unexpectedly picked up
9:46 a.m. Residential homes, 18 to 25 years
with long, narrow back yards, preceded a
regional shopping centre. Heavy industries and
expressways abruptly emerged.
9:49 a.m. The train swayed through the switch
es in the Union Station yard. Torontos mono
liths spiralled skyward.
9:52 a.m. The train lurched forward, then back
ward and stopped.
Eighty years ago, in 1904, Canadian
Pac ific comple te d its Angus Shops in
Montreal. These rare photos, taken by
a member of the building contractors
firm of D.G. Loomis and Sons, shows the
structures being erected about 1903.
Courtesy of Mr. R. Hunter.
R A I L
Question: When is a 440 not a 4-4-0? Answer: When its a 4-6-0
(class D4g, built 1912). C.P.R. 4-6-0 No. 440 was photographed
at St. Luc on March 18 1951.
C.R.H.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 51-101.
Old 974 is STILL good for one more trip~ Thanks to Jim Hope of
Trail B.C. we have another photo of the star of our Jan-Feb
issue. There is no data as to where or when the photo was taken.
Jim Hope Collection.
On April 28 1984 an era came to an end when the last Canadian
long-distance train left Montreals l,Vindsor Station bound for
Quebec City. Here we see C.P.s Quebec train in happier days
at Montreal West on May 20 1951 behind Jubilee class 3004.
All Quebec trains now leave Central station; however Amtraks
Ad irondack still runs into Windsor, its only remaining long
C.R.H.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 51-243.
A Bibliography of British Railway History
first appeared in 1965. Compiled by George Ottley
of the British Museum Library, with the cooper
of four fellow members of the Railway &
Canal Historical Society, it immediately became
an indispensible guide to almost 8,000 books and
pamphlets, publisted up to 1963, a work of unique
comprehensiveness. Its value
was further enhanced by the
fact that the term, railways, has been
broadly defined, to include trackways, wagon
and tramways, and that British includes
Irish. Those who consulted
it were particularly
for the care taken with the annotations,
the classification and the index.
In 1983 a second edition appeared. Again it
was compiled by Ottley and associates, though the
copyright has been transferred from George Allen
& Unwin Ltd. to Her Majestys Stationery Office,
One· may criticize the application of the label,
edition, to this publication. It is not
a revised and enlarged work. It is a reprint with
typographical corrections .. , no less welcome for
that reason. What has changed is the price, which
has markedly (and understandably) increased.
Serious students, who
for whatever reason, failed
to acquire a. copy of the earlier book, will surely
to own this one.
Ottley has promised in his Introduction that
a Supplement will be offered in the near future.
It will contain more than 4,500 new entries, mostly
devoted to descriptions of works, which appeared
between 1963 and 1980,
but some to those of an
earlier period, which recently came to light. The
of presentation of the existing
will be retained. The Ottley Supplement
will be awaited with pleasurable anticipation.
NZR LOCOMOTIVES AND RAI LCARS 1983
edition, by T.A. McGavin
Published in December 1983
by the New Zealand
Railway and Locomotive Society Inc.,
5134, Wellington, New Zealand.
SB IJ 0-908573-38-3
72 pp. plus
full-colour cover, 240 x 180mm, il
lustrated $9.00 NZ
SINCE the seventh edition
of this tri-ennial
was published in 1980, diesel traction has
R A I L
remained the predominant form of motive power
4300-kilometre railway system of the New
but some older locomotives have been
retired and a
number of new ones have entered
with a sizeable fleet of new el
multiple-unit train sets. In 1983 some 580
locomotives were in service, ranging in
little shunting tractors of less than 10 tonnes weight
to massive and powerful 97-tonne diesel-el
ectric locomotives capable
of hauling heavy ex
press trains at speeds up to 120 km/hr. In addition
there were 83 electric motor-coaches and the
three twin-coach Silver Fern diesel-electric rail
The object of this book is to offer a compre
of the motive power in use on
lJew Zealand Railways, to give a brief outline of
its development, and to provide some reference
to retired equipment preserved by various groups
throughout the country. Each chapter covers a
of motive power and gives a summary
of the principal dimensions and features of the
classes in that group, with lists showing
and when each locomotive was built, and
where appropriate when
it was reclassified or
Steam locomotives of course have not been
used in ordinary commercial service on the NZ R
since 1971, unless one counts the vintage
ston Flyer tourist train as commercial, but
many have been preserved and some restored to
full working order, and chapter 6 in this new book
offers an up-to-date survey of developments in
book is well illustrated, and dim
or diagrams of some of the
of equipment will be of special
to model builders. Reference is included
to the forthcoming electrification of the North
Island main trunk railway between Palmerson No
rth and Hami
Iton, and the probable character
of the new electric locomotives being sought
for this project.
OPERATORS OF THE CLOSED WHITE PASS
and Yukon Route System say they are en
by a federal report favoring northern
rail operations, But, until their major mining cus
tomer resumes production, White
Pass trains will
In a preliminary report on the Yukons trans
portation requirements, a three-member Canadian
Transport Commission investigation team recently came
out in support of the railway as the best
option for transporting lead-zinc concentrates
from the Cyprus
Anvil mine near Faro, Yukon.
In June, 1982, digging at the site was ordered
stopped by the new parent company, Dome Petroleum Ltd. of Calgary, which had acquired the
as part of the takeover of Hudsons Bay Oil
and Gas Co. Ltd. of Calgary. Assisted by the federal and territorial govern
ments, mining operations were resumed last April,
but the mill remained closed. The commission report says full production
cannot resume before next fall. And
if the green light
is not given before April, 1984, the startup
will have to be put back to fall, 1985. Faced with a variety of transportation options,
l/Iining Corp. would prefer to have
its production moved by truck from Faro to Skag
vias the South Klnodike Highway. But to support year-round ore truck operations,
at least $18-million would have
to be spent on the
Canadian portion of the highway
to prevent danger
to public safety, the report says. The State of
Alaska would probably refuse to pay for snow
removal or other necessary costs. Until these and other issues are resolved, the Yu
kon Government should not permit year-round heavy ore trucking operations, the report says. At the same time, it recommends
that the railway
and its unionized employees co-operate
that Cyprus Anvil be charged only
a break-even rate for
In negotiations over the past year or more,
labor unions have demonstrated a spirit of con
cilation which we expect to continue, said Thomas
King, president of White Pass and Yukon Corp.
Ltd., a subsidiary of Federal Industries Ltd. of Winnipeg.
The critical factor will be the approach taken by Cyprus Anvil and its owners. The authors of
the commissions report also say federal subsidies of up to $1-million a year might
be appropriate for a maximum of two years to underwrite the mothballing costs incurred by White
S. The Gazette.
THE FIRST COAL TRAIN OUT OVER THE Tumbler Ridge branchline was one month
earlier than planned, when
SO 40-2 no. 758 headed a 4-unit power group
(2 SD40-2s bracket
ing 2 M630s, one being no. 708), pulling 50 new coal cars
in the BCNE 9009XX series, from Tumbler
Ridge on Nov. 1. A few moments earlier, the
official Iast spike on the branch had been driven
just east of
the Wolverine Tunnel by Industry
Don Philips. The processed bedding coal, from the Teck Bullmoose mine,
was moved to
NORTH EAST COAL
.. : E :: iii :::
P,lnce … .s-,,(
Ridley Island, where the 5,000 tons became the
base at the terminals for future loads
to be stored upon pending shipment to Japan (TC)
first of the G F6C electric units arrived from
GMDD London on Nov. 20. After a 2-day stop
over in North Vancouver,
it proceeded north to
Tumbler Ridge. Attached was GMDDs new test
car, ET840, which
will stay with no. 6001 for 4
months. No. 6002
was seen in North Van. Nov.
27, while no. 6003 stopped
off on Dec. 21-28.
first two units have been testing on a
of electrified track, including coal
loading, when they run through at a steady 0.3
from km 129 to km 24 will be com
pleted early in the New Year,
with the remaining
km to be done later in the spring. 98-car coal
have been operating to Ridley Island (Prince
Dec. 1. CN loaned SD40 no. 5122
and SD40-2Ws no.
5318/29 to handle the coal
until electrification is completed. All 3 have
slow-speed control for coal-loading. In exchange,
BC R SD40-2s no. 760/2 have been loaned to CN
who will keep them longer to equalize the 3 for :2
S. The Sandhouse.
R A I L
A NEW AGE IS DAWNING FOR CANADAS
railroads as they prepare to invest $16.5 bi
by the end of the decade in improving
the nations rail
In what promises to be the biggest rail cons
truction project since the last spike in the trans
was hammered home in 1885
both Canadian National
and Canadian Pacifi~
railways are carrying out overdue inprovements
to their lines and rolling stock.
was set in motion by parliamen
tary approval in lJovember
of long-awaited reforms
to Canadas Crowsnest Pass freight rate -the 87-
year-old grain-handling rate
that gave the railways
of millions of dollars in losses .
Ron Lawless, president
of CNs rail division,
remembers the night Parliament
passed the Crow
bill. It was a feeling of relief, he said. A crush
was lifted from our shoulders.
The new rates and a $651-million annual sub
to them by the federal government will
allow the railways to recover their grain-handling
will provide them with the capital for
In the Montreal
head offices of CN and CP
Rail, plans are already being laid to hire thou
sands of Canadian construction workers who will
be double-tracking western lines and adding new
~erminals, bridges, tunnels and routing systems
In the biggest rail expansion this century.
And th8t will mean more jobs in Quebec as or
ders are placed for everything from locomotives
to electronic signalling devices to computers.
CN Rail, a division of Crown-owned Cana
dian National Railway Co.,
and CP Rail a subsid
of Canad ian Pacific Ltd., are e;pected to
place equipment orders of $1.2 billion in Quebec
will get the lions share of work
with contracts totalling $4.1 billion.
Among the Quebec firms expected
are Marine Industries Ltd. of Sorel, which makes
covered grain hopper cars,
and Bombardier Inc.
of Montreal, which builds locomotives. Bombardier
has already been invited to bid on a first contract.
for $40 million worth of locomotives. The expan
will add another chapter to the Great
Canadian Railway Story, providing more
that the real ties binding Canadians together are
that lie between the rails.
Our rail romance
began with the Confederation
of 1867 – a deal that helped Canadas four
founding provinces sell railway bonds.
The story picked up steam
with the completion
of ou~ national dream, the CPR, and later amal
of other lines into the Canadian Nat
Now the saga takes another twist as the crusty
old Crow rate bows
out of the action and West
ern farmers begin paying more of the cost of mov
CN Rails Ron Lawless, relieved to see the end
of huge annual grain-handling losses, said: If
something hadnt been done, the two railways
have been in very dire straits in a very short
Western grain farmers have complained bit
terly about losing the incredible bargain rate of
half a cent per ton theyve been paying since the
of the 19th century.
By the end
of the decade, farmers will be pay
ing 60 per cent of the real cost of grain transpor
tation compared with 18 per cent today.
Farm industry officials complain the Crow
was a virtual sellout to the railways.
Russell Allison, executive vice-president
of CP Rail, said farmers got themselves an excel
lent deal. I
dont know of any other industry
paying 60 per cent
of its real costs.
In addition, the prairie grain growers will end
up with a vastly improved rail system and better
service once the modernization program
pleted. Canadian grain exporters
had been losing
sales because of their inability to move
of grain to market.
said they could not modernize
as long as they were losing $300
million on the grain trade.
said everybody involved in the complex
of reforming the Crow rate had to make com
and he rejected the notion that the rail
are the big winners. A better way of putting
it, he said, might be that the railways are no
longer the big losers.
The grain rate increased
to $5.76 a ton from
its previous level of $4.89 on Jan. 1. It will double
and increase five times by 1991.
only that in 1982 CN Rail
only $67 million in revenues for grain
as it rolled up a loss of $120 million
for the year. But it would have received grain
of $200 million in 1982 if the current
had been in place.
In the first nine months
of 1983, CN Rail show
ed profit of $188.6 million compared with a loss
of $11.7 million in the 1982 period. The 83 pro
fit figure was boosted by interim grain payments
to both railways by the federal government.
Lawless, a former vice-president
CN Rail who took over the presidency of the
rail division in 1979,
said capital spending will
rise from just under $500 million last year to
well over $600 mi Ilion in 1984. By 1985, spend
ing should climb
to $1 billion.
The major problem in the system is inadequate
capacity in the western rail network. For
reason, CN plans to double-track its route from
Winnipeg to Vancouver by the mid-1980s. By
CP Rail will be double-tracking only
in selected locations where theres a steep grade
in its track.
CP is expected to begin calling ten
ders this month
for the first major project on
its shopping list a $600-million tunnel through
Pass area of the Selkirk lVIountains in
CP will spend $3 billion during the first five
years of its construction program, Allison said.
change makes it possible for the
to improve their plant and handle all our
goods, and, more important, our exports, Alli
son added. Canada is an exporting nation and th is
will head us in the right direction. I give full credit
to the federal government for recognizing the
Both railways expect to hire considerable num
bers of construction workers this summer. Allison
said CP will have at least 800 people working in
Pass area in the first year. CN exp
to have 3,300 construction workers employed
say their modernization programs
will also include installation of high-technology
as computer-aided dispatching and
monitoring devices and microwave communications
The expansion comes at a time when rail
is picking up. The latter part of 83 has exceeded
our expectations, particularly in bulk commod
as grain, coal and potash, said CPs
Allison. Toward the end of the year we were
really setting records in the tons
we hand led.
see that trend continuing in 84 although
our crystal ball isnt
quite as clear for the end of
the year, when there may be some hesitancy in the
CP Rail reported profit of $132.5 million in the
first ~ine months of 1983, far ahead of its earnings
pace In 1982, when it made a $117.8-million profit
for the whole year.
CN is also encouraged by its level of traffic,
Lawless said, after moving its smallest volumes
in many, many years during the depth of the
Such commodities as lumber are moving
as demand for Canadian lumber picks up in
the U.S., where lower interest rates
But the recession did force both companies
trim staff. CP Rail with 30,000 employees, laid
off about 3,000, although many of those have
been recalled. CN Rail, with 50,000 employees,
has cut 15 per cent of its work force in the last
to the future, both railways say they
will have to offer more intermodal or piggyback
services to maintain their market share in an in
creasingly competitive and deregulated
American transportation market.
S. The Gazette.
R A I L
DOWN A UTILITY MANHOLE IN THE MIDDLE
of a bustling Brooklyn street and through a
hole excavated in the wall
of a passageway
below lies an unconventional urban archeological
site: the worlds
first subway tunnel. Amoung
the artifacts possibly awaiting discovery
antique locomotive and human bones.
Bulit in 1844 as part of a railway for hauling
and produce from Long Island to Brook
lyn the half-mile tunnel
is still intact. Its a mag
nifi~ent piece of engineering especially for its time,
says Robert Diamond, an electrical engineeri~g
student at the City College of New York and dIs
of the tu n nel.
of the 21-foot-wide, 17-foot-high
subway pioneered a construction technique
has been used ever since. Called cut and cover,
it involved digging a trench down the middle of
Atlantic Avenue, building stone walls and an arched
brick ceiling, covering it all with earth, then re
surfacing the street. More than 1,000 laborers spent
seven months accomplishing this feat with only
picks, shovels and pack mules. But cut and cover
only engineering innovation employed.
was apparently the first to have vent
ilation shafts, which
to this day keep it cool even
on sweltering summer afternoons.
The process of subway-tunnel construction
has remained unchanged ever since this one was
built, says Diamond. But in place of st?ne and
brick, todays subways use steel and reinforced
The tunnels existance
was once only a legend
to railway and Brooklyn history buffs.
to find it when he heard of the
legend on the radio three years
ago. After poring
over old newspapers and documents,
ed construction plans fi led away in a government
These led him to the manhole. In 1981
Diamond and engineers from the local gas and
electric companies ventured down
it and into a
dirt-filled crawl space. Shining a flashlight at the
ahead of him, he spotted a small hole. And
through the hole
he found the elusive tunnel –
as it was left in 1861 when it was sealed up.
Diamond and volunteers enlarged the crawl
way and broke through the wall
to provide easy
access. So far, their investigations have unearth
ed old railroad spikes (the tracks were torn up when
the tunnel was closed), boot soles, ax heads, wheel
and pottery shards. Theyve also d iscover
ed a ham bone, an empty sardine can and a whisk
bottle -the remnants of a workmans lunch.
is still searching for buried remains of
25 workers, victims of cave-ins and other cons
truction mishaps whose bodies were never dug out,
as well as an ancient locomotive that may lie behind a wall deep
within the tunnel.
has yet been found to support any
of the legends surrounding the tunnel. Over the
past century, Diamond
says, stories have linked
it to Confederate spies during the Civil War, boot
leggers during Prohibition, smugglers, German
spies during both world wars, and Murder, Inc.,
hit man Bo Weinberg.
is now raising funds to construct a
tourist railway in the tunnel.
S. SANDHOUSE, PACIFIC
MANY PEOPLE ENJOYED THE SPECTACLE OF
big steam locomotives laboring heroically
to surmount B.C.s rumpled terrain. But only
a few took photographers and fewer still took fine
We can only be grateful to the members of the
small group who
have left a worthwhile perm
of railroading in pre-diesel days,
when locomotives tired easily and had
to be chan
ged out, like stage coach horses, at a set mileage
One deserving high thanks
is the late AI Paull,
of photographs is now in the
of the B.C. Provincial Archives, Paull,
who died in last
month, devoted the bulk of his
to filming Canadian Pacific Railway activity.
This loyalty is not too surprising in light of the
that he was the son of a CPR conductor.
Born in Nanaimo
in 1910, Paull was using a box
camera to photograph trains before he was 15.
He made photographs during years when the rail
not interested in maintaining comp
rehensive pictorial records.
Photographs were taken
on special occasions
or for publicity purposes, but normal operations
of the public accepted the rail
as a fixture, necessary and as unexciting as a
But Paull was excited and, during
out from the upholstery trade, he was to be
found waiting patiently at trackside setting up
shots. B.C. railway historian Barrie Sanford
Paull took several thousand photographs of rail
way scenes between the mid-1920s and 1960.
activity lessened after the scrapping of steam
important contribution to preserving
S.C.s railway history
passed to Bordertown Photo
graphs in the U.S. and
was subsequently acquired
by the B.C. Provincial Archives.
S. The Province.
A 52-CAR FREIGHT TRAIN DESTINED FOR
the Stelco Steel plant at \Ianticoke, Ont.,
the first CP Rail train to use the railways
reactivated Lake Erie and Northern Railway
CP Rai I spent about $1 mi II ion to construct
and reactivate the one and a half miles (2.4 kilo
of track and a 532-foot (159.4-metre)
bridge over ConRail tracks
to join the Toronto,
Hamilton and Buffalo (TH&B) rail line. Canad
ian Pacific owns the
LE&N and the TH&B.
The project eliminated a bottleneck which
existed when trains tried
to cross the ConRail
tracks at a level crossing
point elsewhere in Water
Crossing ConRail tracks was like waiting at a
busy intersection and delayed
CP Rail trains an
hour or more, explained D.C. Coleman, Eastern
Reactivating the LE&\I line reduces the return
trip time between Hamilton and Nanticoke by
more than two hours.
SOIVlE OF THE MOST SPECTACULAR SCEIJERY
in B.C. greets
passengers on B.C. Rails service
from North Vancouver to Prince George.
Every Sunday, Wednesday
and Friday, a train
of four dayliners (self-propelled pas
senger cars) travels the 745-km route north. On
Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays, the train
makes the 13-hour return run to Vancouver.
Depending on the layout, up
to 80 passengers
can be accommodated in a car. But in the lead
car, which offers full-course meals as well as baggage
storage, seating is reduced to 40.
is no snack bar, but the railway offers
hot meals as an $18 addition to the oneway
of $46.30 to Prince George. The menu changes
daily, says company spokesman Jerry Collins. Seconds after leaving the B.C. Rail terminal at
7 :30 a.m., the train offers
passengers a view of
Vancouvers skyline. Then it passes beneath Lions
Gate Bridge and, skirting the shores
hugs the mountainsides.
Throughout the journey, travellers may glim
pse deer, elk, moose and bears.
From Squamish east, the train begins climbing,
and Cheakamus Rivers and
passing Cheakamus Canyon. The mountain scenery
becomes more spectacular,
with the snow-capped
of Garibaldi and Whistler.
At Alta Lake, the train reaches the summit of
the Coastal range and begins a roller-coaster ride
as it passes through the Coastal and Cascade ranges.
At Lillooet the train is split. At least one car
on the 490-km journey to Prince George.
The remairiingcars return
north of Lillooet, the train crosses the
Fraser River on a high bridge. From
north to Prince George, after briefly following
the Fraser, it swings farther inland.
At Kelly Lake, it enters the Cariboo ranching
area. But even here, the train continues climbing,
reaching 1, 177m. (3,861
ft.) at Horse Lake, the
point on the route.
Later, the train
passes the community of Chasm,
so named because of a canyon hundreds of metres
At Quesnel, travellers see a mixture of in
dustry, ranching and lumbering. Ranches give way
to farms as the train nears Prince George, a city
S. The Province.
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS WILL SP
end $80 mi Ilion to buy 48 new wide-body
but has decided after some soul
to split the order between the countrys
share goes to General Motors of Can
ada Ltd. at London, Ont., which will build 29
main-line locomotives, the railway
General Motors boasts
that its new SD-50 model,
unit being developed by the
in the United States, is state-of
of Montreal will build 15
of its H R-616 3,000-horsepower locomotives. It
will also sell CN four others that it bought back
from the· railway last year to lease to CP Rail as
48 locomotives will augment Canadian
Nationals current fleet
will spend $22.7 million rebuilding
32 medium-horsepower locomotives in its Montreal
shops, although there
wont be any new jobs creat
said a spokesman.
NEWS FROM THE DIVISIONS
We are pleased to announce the formation of the
KEYSTONE DIVISION of the CRHA to serve
the members of the Province of Manitoba. We
will be keeping you posted on the plans of the
Division as they become available and in the mean
time if you are interested in joining the keystone
please contact Mr. Paul Schuff, 14 Rey
nolds Bay, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3K OM4 Tele
phone No. (204) 837-2714. Congratulations and
into the CR HA family.
St. Lawrence Valley Division
The St. Lawrence Valley Division would like to
take this opportunity to remind members that
have not renewed for 1984 that it is sti II not too
late to do so. New members are also welcome.
Dues for 1984 are $4.00 which should be sent along
with your name and address to the address given
third page of Canadian Rail. Only Divis
are guaranteed to receive notificat
ion of all meetings, excursions and other special
La Division de la Vallee de St. Laurent voudrais
a ses membres qui nont pas renouvele
pour Iannee 1984,
quil nest pas trop tard de Ie
faire. Les nouveaux membres sont aussi les bien
Les frais pour 1984 sont $4.00. Veuillez
la somme ainsi que votre nom et adresse
11 Iadresse mentionne sur la troisieme page de
Canadian Rail. Seulement les membres de Div
isions sont guarantis
de recevoir avis de to utes
les reunions, excursions et dautres evenements
Toronto & York Division
For their Ontario Bicentennial Project the Div
will restore ex-CP business car number 23
was acquired from the National Museum
of Science and Technology in Ottawa. The Div
has a Fairmont Track Motor Car which
is temporairly in storage at the O.N.R. shops.
TORONTO & YORI< EXECUTIVE
J. C. Bell
J. C. I
Museum: J. S. Rice
G. Bill inghurst
L. H. Partridge,
has issued a 1984 catalogue f0r
CRHA publications which is available to members
by writing to them at P.O. Box 5849, Station A
Toronto, Onto M5W I P3
By town Railway Society
The 1984 edition of the Societys Trackside
… is now available at $9.50 postage paid.
As previously reported it will now include VIA
Rail passenger equipment, streetcars and rapid
number 1201 celebrates its
40th birthday this year and the Society is work
ing on the preparation of a special booklet. More
on this later.
An impromptlJ field trip was held by some
who visited the old Grand Trunk Tunnel
Thorold Ontario. The explorers discovered six
foot diameter icicles which hung from ceiling to
Two Division members were featured in a local
The Niagara Falls Review. The ar
Andy Panko and Peter Bowen who
formed Niagara Rail Publications for the purpose
of publishing such books as their recent Steam
in Niagara, Their venture
has been successful
and they expect to publish more in the future.
Windsor & Essex Division
After a dormant period, the Divisions news
is back on the rails. Besides the
regular meetings held the second Thursday
month (except July & August), the Division will
be holding a Flea Market in the fall.
The Divisions 1984 executive
are as follows:
Rocky Mountain Division/ APRA
The association has had a busy fall and winter
with work continuing at the museum. One liter-ally big
job was the moving of the Gibbons, 1919
40,000 imperial gallon, covered water
tank to the
It was moved IN ONE PIECE! This ex
of a once-familiar structure on the Canadian
landscape in the days
of steam, will form an im
portant and unique part of the museum complex.
Hopefully we can get more, details on its history
for future publishing in Canadian Rail.
of the other museum activities included
to the tender of engine 1392; work on
1392 itself for spring inspection and steam-up;
of a furnace in the station; and of
course preparation of footings to accept the Gib
has acquired ex-CP F7B No.
4459 which became
famous as the B unit
for the British Columbia lVIuseum Tram when it
travelled across Canada with Royal Hudson 2860
as the AU unit.
Canadian Railway Museum News
CN 69831 as it arrived at the St. Constant
Museum in Nov. 1979.
Built in June of
1910 this 36 foot double sheathed its 69
of service remarkably well, due in part
to its exile to maintenance of way service
in Manitoba. Doubtless the
dry cold praire
had helped slow the inevitable de
that stal ks wooden freight cars. Thus,
from a weedy siding in Carman, Manitoba
an example of the Grand Trunks
standard vehicle of 1910 for the movement
of 30 tons of freight.
Trunk 17084 at the Canadian Rail
way Museum Sept. 1983. The transformation
from CN 69831 is nearly complete; only
conversion to arch bar trucks remains out
has been installed and grab irons
have been straightened. Several coats of
primer and paint have soaked into the wood
work. An exhaustive search of the Assoc
has turned up the stencil
for Grand Trunk box cars
and the correct letters, numbers and data
have been applied. Volunteer Odilan Perr
ault a CN pensioner has spent tireless hours
preparing the car
for display. Perraults
has worked. The photos speak for
to Ken Gosl~tt for the news
Railfare has requested our assistance in their search
for photos for a new up-coming book. Anyone
has photos of electric trolley coaches of the
of Cornwall, Ontario or Saskatoon, Sask
atchewan is requested to contact Railfare clo
IVir. Tony Clegg, 344 Beaulac, St. Hilaire P.O.
Canada, J3H 2W1
Our membership continues to climb thanks to
the prompt renewals that we are receiving from
our members. All deliquant 1982 and 83 mem
have been re-invoiced and our membership
total now stands at 1225. We ask you to please
keep up the good work and if any member or
Division requires additional membership promo
tion material please drop us a line.
LETTERS FROM MEMBERS
Mr. Allan Paul, 403 Glascock Street, Raleigh,
North Carolina 27604 writes
have recently restored a 36 inch guage, Climax
geared logging locomotive
for the United States
Forest Service. This locomotive,
CIN 1323 built
in 1915, is a Class B, 40 Ton model, thought to be
the only factory built narrow guage Climax still
in existence in the United States
or Canada. It is
now on display at the Cradle of Forestry in Am
Pisgah National Forest, North Car
As part of my continuing research on Climax
am trying to put together a com
of the known examples of this
of geared locomotive still in existence in
the United States and Canada. I am aware of the
two Climax locomotives on display at the Brit
ish Columbia Forest Museum. I was hoping that
you or other members of the Canadian Railroad
Histroical Association might
be aware of more
Climax locomotives in
Canada. I understand that
the Climax was a very popular logging engine in
your country. Also, that several Climaxs were
still operating well
into the 1950s in your country.
Should you or any of your colleagues know of
other examples of this rare locomotive, I would
be most interested in learning about them. If pos
sible, I would like to know the locomotives pre
sent owner, location, construction number, date
built, class, weight and condition (restored, op
erable, der-elict, etc.).
Any assistance would be greatly appreciated. I
to hearing from you.
Douglas Courtney, 5 Melody Dr., Halifax
N.S. B3M 1
P8 has for sale extra slides con
of Canadian diesel roster
some action shots and some equip
All slides are Kodachrome.
Lon Marsh, 8731-67 Avenue, Edmonton
OM9 would like to obtain items
and photos from the Northern Alberta
Railways 1929 -1984.
He would also like
information concerning the role the
had in transporting troops and su
ppliers during World War II.
Over the years several major donations
made to the Canadian Railway Museum at Delsonl
P.O. The original list of donors was
prepared by our Treasurer Mr. A.S. Walbridge and
by Dr. R.V.V. Nicholls. The list
not include donations made to the CRHA
in the name of a Division. We wish at this time to
publish this list of generous donors who have
contributed from 1961 to date and express our
for your help in making the Canad
ian Railway Museum possible.
Algoma Steel Corporation
Allen, Peter C.
Aluminium Company of Canada
Angus, Donald and Mary
Armco Drainage Canada Ltd.
Banque Canadienne Nationale
British American Oil Company, Grandsons
British Columbia Electric Company Ltd.
Canada Dominion Sugar Company
Duff-Norton Company Ltd.
Canadian Bronze Company
Canadian General Transit Company
Canadian Industries limited
Canadian National Railways
Canadian Pacific Railway
Pittsburgh Industries Ltd.
Canadian Salt Company ltd.
Casey Hewson Limited
Crawley & McCracken Company Ltd.
Cumberland Railway & Coal Co.
Company of Canada Ltd.
Dominion Foundries & Steel Ltd.
Dominion Bridge Company ltd.
Dominion of Canada
Dow Brewery Ltd.
Company of Canada
Eaton, Timothy C.
Ethco InveS1ments Ltd.
General MOtors, Diesel
Grier, Mrs. Louise
Hewitt Equipment Ltd.
Hollinger Gold Mines
Senator Adrian K.
Tobacco Company of Canada
International Harvester Company
International Paints (Canada) ltd.
Jenkins Brothers Limited
Lacey, Mrs. Herbert V.
Lemoyne, Bland and Associates
The Macdonald· Stewart Foundation
Marathon Paper Company
The McConnell Foundation
Montreal Bronze Company Ltd.
The Olson Foundation
M. L.W., . Worthington ltd.
Molsons Brewery Ltd.
The Molson Foundation
Montreal City and District Savings Bank
itt, A. Deane
Mrs. Nora Nicholls
Northern Electric Company Ltd.
Hiram Piper Ltd.
Pirelli Cables Limited
ort of london Authority
Pro cor Limited
Provincial Bank of Canada
Pyle· National (Canada) Ltd.
Quebec Hydro-Electric Power Commission
Reford, Lewis Eric
and Saguenay Railway
Royal Bank of Canada
Royal T rust
Scott. Mrs. Clara Scott
Smith, H. Grevi1te
Soper, Warren Y.
Standard Chemical limited
Steel Company of Canada
Steep Rock Iron Mines ltd.
Stephens, S. A.
Texaco (Canada) limited
Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Aailway
& Signal Company
Vapor Heating (Canada) ltd.
Lome C. Webster
Whitley, Miss Barbara
A Montreal Tram ….. ·ays Co. t,..,o-car train, consis-;ing 01
car 1574 anj an unijentifi· j 1600-claGs trailer, is
seen en route to Blue Bonnets race track ou June 19
1948. The branch from the Cartie rville line to the
track was still verj rural in appearance then. C.R.H.A.
Archives. Toohey Collection.
P.o. Box 282 St. Eustache, Que., Canada
Postmaster. If undelivered within
10 days return to sender, postage guaranteed.
cia •• classe
SI·fu,..:IIe, 0 …
01II1I •• lIon ~11