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Canadian Rail 380 1984

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Canadian Rail 380 1984

Canadian Rail
,. …. ) …


No. 380

Published bi-monthly by the Canadian Railroad
Historical Association P.O
Box 148 St. Constant P.O.
JOL IXO. Subscription rates $23.00
(US funds
if outside Canada)
EDITOR: Fred F Ar:lgus
CO-EDITOR: M. Peter Murphy
Mich~1 Paulet
The first locomotive built in
Canada was the Toronto built
by James Good in 1853. As this
year is the sesquicentennial of
the city of Toronto we are happy
to print this drawing of the
historic locomotive. The drawing
was made in 1932 by John Loye,
the founder of the C.R.H.A., and shows
the Toronto as it was
after it lost its outside frames
in an early re-vamping •. It was,
unfortunately, scrappe d in 1881.
A rare view of a short-lived
train. VIA No. 19, St.Laurent
at Drummondville Que. on Dec.
27 1982. The regular engine 6760 had
broken down which explains
why C.N. 3679 was leading.
Photo by Willie Radford.
Back in 1948, Montreal Tramways
car 879 was operating on route 5A
Ontario as an extra. This was one
of the first steel street cars
in Canada (1907), but the series
became extinct in 1953.
C.R.H.A. Archives, Toohey ColI.
ISSN 0008-4875
Box 1162
New Brunswick E2L 4G7
Box 22 Station B
Montreal, Que. H3B 3J5
Box 141, Station A
Ottawa, Ontario K 1 N 8V1
Box 5849, Terminal A,
Toronto Ontario M5W 1 P3
300 Cabana Road East,
Windsor Ontario N9G 1A2
Box 603
Cambridge, Ontario N 1 R 5W1
Box 593
SI. Catha rines,
Ontario L2R 6W8
Box 962
Smiths Falls
Onl. K7A 5A5
Box 6102, Station C,
Edmonton Alberta T5B 2NO
60 -6100, 4th Ave. NE
Calgary, Alberta T2A 5Z8
Box 400
Cranbrook, British Columbia
V1C 4H9
Box 1006, Station A,
Vancouver British Columbia V6C 2P1
By Elinor Barr
The distant whistle of a train always quickened
the pulse of a division point. People appeared on
the station platform
as if by magic. Workmen
stood poised, ready
to begin their appointed tasks
even before the locomotive thundered past. Right
on time, they agreed, looking
at their watches.
Near the head end
of the train the postmaster
his incoming mailbag and despatched one
in return. The agent accepted freight and express
from the baggage car amid good-natured banter.
News from along
the line filled the air.
Further down, porters assisted passengers step­
ping downto the platform for a stroll. Their sty­
lish clothes contrasted vividly with the oilstained
overalls of the car inspector checking the wheels of each coach for
hot boxes.
Here, workmen hustled blocks of
ice into water
coolers, and into refrigerator cars. There,
others uncoupled
the locomotive, accompanying
it to the yards
to begin routine maintenance. Still
others attached a replacement locomotive to the
head of the train. They had fired it up hours earl­
in preparation for this haul to the next division
The fresh iron horse pants, then snorts impat­
iently. Soon the conductors familiar
warns passengers to hurry back to their coach.
A bell rings. Doors clang shut. The train shudders
as wheels begin to turn. The cars gain mom­
entum, pass by, then diminish in size and sound
until nothing remains.
Human figures seem
to melt away as the com­
munity resumes its normal pace. Unclaimed par­
cels are transferred to the freight shed
for pickup.
Women and children gather at the general store,
socilaizing while mail
is sorted and a fresh ship­
ment of groceries unpacked. The running crew-­
engineer, fireman,
conductor brakeman–amble
to the bunkhouse to await a call for the return
trip home. Workmen with soot-rimmed eyes shovel
ashes from the spent locomotive and guide it to
the water
tank, to the coal chute, to the round-
The CPR did ~ot encourage private enterprise a~ division points. The hotel at Ignace, which also housed a general store,
was an exceptIOn. The owner frequently found himself at loggerheads with the railway company.
Photo courtesy Mrs. Ira Wilson
I I Rollway Wye
21 BoordlnCjJ Houle
3: Cobbs Hotel
4: Top Crain

house. Everyones routine revolves around the
railway and its schedule.
The Canadian Pacific Railway created dozens
of division points during the 1880s. They were
located every 125
to 150 mi les, the distance a
nineteenth century steam locomotive could travel
without extensive servicing
other than fuel and
water. Division points, whether new creations or
superimposed upon existing settlements, shaped,
indeed often ensured, a towns future. They also
played a vital role
in Canadas development, both
as service centres for trains and as communities in
their own right.
Many were literally carved
out of the wilderness,
yet they cannot be called frontier settlements in
the accepted sense of the term. They were company
towns, links
in a chain. The needs of Canadas
first transcontinental railway determined their
location and physical layout. The promise of a
job attracted the pioneers
that made up the pop­
ulation. A look at one of these instant communities
offers a great deal of practical information about

~ ~
F/Ig~ —___ _
66 0 13Z
w 8-83
early railroading. ignace, for example, became a
point in 1883 because of its central loc­
ation between existing population centres.
At the
time it boasted little more than a wye, a wood­
pile and a watertrough. Within four years these
ragtag remnants
of construction days would be
replaced by a transportation complex
of gene­rous proportions.
A survey
of the townsite dated August 31,
1883 shows only three railway facilities
narrow strip representing the right-of-way, a wye
jutting from it (allowing locomotives
to turn around
), angling toward a water source outside the plan.
The location
of the fuel supply, cordwood, is not
given. Bush
fi res have been raging, stated a re­
port earlier in the summer. At Ignace a great
dea I of ties and cordwood were
destroyed, So
few words. So much left unsaid.
Hugging both sides
of the right-of-way are ten
buildings, three of them larger than
the others.
The large one on the south side, a two-storey
hotel built
of squared timbers, appeared during
the summer of 1883. Owner
W.H. Cobb commis-
sioned the survey. Only his hotel and the right-of­
way survived the transformation period. The CPRs engineering department drafted
a detailed plan dated October 13, 1887
to mark completion of facilities. The right-of-way remains a strip 132 feet wide,
but now expands to double width for a distance of 1,950 feet. Protruding from both sides are irregular areas of additional
CPR land. All structures fall within these bound­
aries except for several to the east
–Cobbs hotel and stable, two frame and four
log dwellings, a
henhouse, a shack, and part of a fenced field mark­ed Cattle Kraal, a resting place where prairie
cattle broke their long journey eastward. The dining station stands south of the main
line, fronted by a wooden platform more than
300 feet long. An extension leads behind the st­
ation to a water closet, the only toilet facility
shown. From each side of the station a line of
track runs southward
to form a triangle; at the tip a turntable balances within a circular pit. This
arrangement allows the engine turner to direct
a locomotive either into the 12-stall roundhouse,
to the main line, or west to the ash pit and coal sheds. Still further westward huddle the pict­
uresque trio
that caught the eye of so many early travellers–an auxiliary coal shed, windmill and
pumphouse, and water tank.
Ranging along
the triangles outer edge are
workshops, storage sheds and living quarters. The
locomotive foremans home
is located on one
side of the roundhouse and
his office on the other.
80th are fenced. In between stand five structures measuring 10
X 30 feet and labeled Port. Car,
indicating they were once boxcars. One houses a
school, while
the others are earmarked for the inspector, night car inspector, tanner, and car­
penter. Scattered shelters protect sand, oil, ice, tools, and, beside the blacksmithy, Iron Racks. Comparison of the two plans reveals
that the
number of buildings increased from ten
to thirty­
five. A -bridge and building crew (8 & 8
Ignace station included a dining room for passengers as well as a telegraph office and accommodation for employees.
The structure resembles the two-storey frame design Van Horne introduced to the prairies. A weather station is attached
to the wall, foreground.
Photo courtesy Mrs. Ira Wilson
Running crews changed at Ignace along with the locomotive that pulled their train. The long building (foreground) was
their headquarters untll being called for the return trip home. Noise from the small building behind, a carpenters shop,
must have caused problems for those wanting to sleep.
Photo courtesy John E. Davies.
An engineer (right) oils locomotive No. 837 as it sits on the shop track at Ignace, the finishing touch before hauling a
train to the next division point.
Photo courtesy John E. Davies
completed the two-storey dining hall and telegraph
in May 1884, just in time for the inaugu­
ration of daily passenger service. Most other facil­
ities came into existance around the same time.
Hendersons Directory for 1884 lists
50 men
living in Ignace that year–39 CPR employees, 8
laborers, a blacksmith, a boarding house keeper, and
W.H. Cobb. Their names are Anglo-Saxon and
they came from eastern Canada. Only two would
be there a decade later –W.H. Cobb and John
Dwyer, a coal shed worker.
Among the
CPR employees listed are S.B. Fraser
as yardmaster, station agent J.R. Harding, tele­
graph operator George Turner, and John Beaumont
and John Haggarty of the dining hall. Six men
staffed the coal sheds, including foreman John
Wilson, indicating
that woodburning engines were
already being phased out. Locomotive foreman
J.B. Hammond supervised two fitters, a fitters
helper and seven engine cleaners. They worked
in repair shops that were transferred to a neigh­
boring division point after construction
of Ignaces
The 1887 plan shows no trace of the six build­
ings on the north side of the tracks. The largest,
a boarding house, burned to the ground. The others
met a similar fate two weeks later during a bush
that threatened the entire community. Ac­
cording to a crisp newspaper account, the CPR
buildings were saved with great difficulty. The
blaze was
so spectacular that residents dubbed
1886 The Year
of the Big Fire rather than recog-nlzJng the first transcontinental train
as an event
which carried far greater significance.
The following year westbound passengers
cluded five cars of immigrants from Iceland, 300
excursionists from Maine, and a number of harvest
workers heading for the prairies.
By October 1887
cargoes of buffalo bones going east
to be pulverized for fertilizer vied for
rail space with the grain
trains glutting the single main line. Ever increasing
traffic, soon
to include the legendary silk trains,
taxed the companys new division points to the
Over the years division points underwent
eral periods of heavy construction as facilities
expanded and traffic increased. Finally, during
the 1950s, the
CPR implemented a drastic change,
one which signalled the end
of division points
across the country, by switching to diesel loco­
motives. Since they required far less servicing
than steam locomotives, division points became redundant. Structures, now unused, disappeared.
Employees transferred to larger centres. The
rival of trains no longer caused a flurry of excite­ment. A species had become extinct.
Former division points retain few physical
minders of steam technology, even though it sh­
aped their destinies over a 70-year period. The
extent of the loss becomes painfully apparent
during the centennial decade
of the 1980s. Little
more than a few faded photographs and memen­
toes have survived to commemorate the founding
of individual communities.
Waler ~aal Shed
Tonk ~Wind Mill
e House
I Seclion Foremans(25×20)
2 Frame House
3 Hen House
Section Mans Log House (19x 24)
5 Log House
6 Frame House
Log House (16x 19)
SSt a b I e (22 x 4 S )
9 :
Cobbs Hofel (40 x 65 )
Hen House (4·5xI6)
II: Locomotive Foremans House
12: Shack (12x IS)
13: Car Inspectors House (14×32)
14: Dining Hall a Telegraph 0 !fice (65 75)
15: Outdoor Privy
16 : School-Port Car (10×30)
29.~ /:-……
V 28.
main line
. ,
27 .. .
~ 17 : Carpenter Shop -Porf Cor (lQx 30)
IS: To nners House -Port Car (IOx 30)
19: Night Car Inspector-Porf Car (I0x30)
20: Bunk Rooms (15×50)
21: Carpenter Shop (10×30)
22: Roundhouse
23: Turntable (52)
24: Iron Racks
25: Blacksmith Shop
26: Ash Pit (40)
27: Locomotive Foremans Office a Stores (22×26)
2S: Sand House (12×23)
29: Coal Mans House (15xI7)
30: Ice House (22x 40)
31: Coal Shed (22x2S0)
32: Section House (24×32)
33: Oil House
34: Wo rkm a ns Lo~
35: Tool House (I
35 D
SJ 17.
/# 0-
House (20x 28)
IX 12)
50 0
~ ……..
Doon B 2
7. 6. 5. t:::::::J 0
Collie Corral
POINT 1887
W Q 8-83
An Ignace crew prepares this unnumbered woodburner as a deadhead engine by disconnecting the driving rods.
Photo courtesy John E. Davies.
By: Fred Angus
The railway preservation movement is one seg­
ment of heritage conservation which has gained
considerable strength in the last quarter century.
As in most efforts there has been progress and
setbacks, successes
and failures, artifacts saved
artifacts lost. We will consider here some of
the important relics that were lost, why they were
and, more important, to try to prevent fur­
ther loss of significant railway items in the fut­
1982 railway historians were stunned
by the news from Nova Scotia that the Scotian
Rai Iway Society had scrapped its enti re collection
of railway equipment without proper notification
to other preservation organizations, organizations
that might have taken some of the equipment and
saved it from being destroyed. Included in this
wanton destruction were: a steam locomotive, an
1894 coach from the Sydney and Louisburg Rail­
way, the Nineteenth Century private car Ethan
Allen from the United States, a caboose and,
perhaps the most significant, an extremely rare
open-platform wooden baggage car originally an
Intercolonial Railway coach
built in 1875 and
Tormerly in the C.N.R. museum train. Only one
other car of this type exists in Canada -the 1877
car now at Edmonton and also from C. N.s mus­
eum train.
While this is the most extreme case of its kind
to occur in Canada, there have been, and
unfortunately will continue to be, other lesser
of loss of railway heritage. Consider the
following, all of which have occurred within the
last two years:
In West Toronto to historic railway station is
demolished despite the intention of the city to
preserve it.
In Saint John thousands of waybills of the
1880s are carted off to the dump with only a
portion saved for museums.
In Toronto a detailed large-scale model, made in
1867, of a Grand Trunk passenger car is given to
children as a plaything instead of going to a mus­
eum. This model had been exhibited at the Worlds
Fair held
in Paris France in the year of Canadas
And, briefly crossing the U.S. border, in Phila­
two street cars, one dating back to 1894,
are scrapped because the museum to whom they
were promised was delayed for two days in pick­
them up due to weather conditions.
doubt other horror stories .. could be told,
but these four examples, in addition to the Nova
Scotia dlbster, are
enough to make the point.
Efforts to preserve railway artifacts go back
a surprisingly long way to within a generation of
the birth of railways. The pioneer locomotive
Rocket, albeit much the worse for wear, found
a home in the Science Museum in England as early
1862, and other significant pieces were saved.
often by the railways themselves, from time to
time. In the United States, the Baltimore and
Ohio Railroad was foremost in the realization of
the importance of saving early equipment and so
laid the foundation not only for the magnificant
collection now in Baltimore, but also for the rail­
way museum concept itself. Even in the early
days there were set-backs. Often old engines were
more as curiosities and, having outlived
their reason for survival were cut up. Most regret­
table was the action of the Great Western railway
in England which had, in the 1870s and 1880s
preserved the board-gauge engines North Star
(1837) and Lord Of The Isles (1851). In 1906,
Our first example of Heritage Lostll is the scrapping of the
two locomotive sof the Carillon & Grenville Railway in 1914.
Here we see the Grenville,built by D.C. Gunn of Hamilton in
gust 1858, as it appeared near the end of its career. The
other engine IIOttawa
(formerly Carillon) was an 1856
IIBirkenhead bought from the Grand Trunk about 1870. This was
Canada!s last 5!6 gauge railway and was like an operating
um piece when it closed in 1910. Despite efforts to save
hem, the locomotives were sent to l1ontreal in 1914 and scrapped.
In 1937 she attained a speed of 112 miles an hour. In 1958 she,
and all of her type, was scrapped. No. 3003, seen here at
Hochelaga on September 10 1949, was one of C.P.R.s famous
Jubilee type 4-4-4s of 1936; they were in service until
almost the end of the steam era but none was saved.
C.R.H.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 49-635.
A former Montreal Terminal Railway car built by Ottawa in 1896,
No. 1054 was later an instruction car and is seen here on an
excursion on the Cartierville line on August 7 1948. It survived
until 1953, well into the era when equipment was being preserved,
but in the end it got scrapped.
C.R.H.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 48-489.
due to lack of space, both locomotives were scrap­ped by the railway
so depriving future generations
of the sight of
an authentic 7-foot gauge main­
line locomotive. In 1925 the G.W.R. did build a
full-size replica of North Star
but this is not, of course, the original engine.
In Canada no real
attempt at railway preservation occured until
World War II, and what was saved survived mainly by chance. Among the equipment saved before World
War I may be mentioned the early
locomotives Sampson and albion, C.P.R.s
famous Countess of Dufferin and Montreals first electric street car
No. 350 The Rocket.
The chance
to save Canadas last broad-gauge locomotives was lost
in 1914 when the equipment
of the Carillon and Grenville
Ry. was taken to
Montreal and scrapped despite some talk that it
should be saved. In the last 35 years great prog­
ress has been made, spurred on by the retirement of steam locomotives and street cars. and older equipment
that has survived has now shown that
we still have a long way to go to ensure the safety of these collections.
Historic railway equipment can
be lost through fire or other disaster or by being scrapped by the
rai Iway compan ies. These losses, regrettable as they are,
can be explained. Fires can occur despite the best precautions, and railway companies can not
be expected to preserve relics, after all they are
in the Museum business. What we are concerned with here
is what can be done by people who ARE
in the museum business or are interested in ra j 1-
way history to prevent losses such as those des­cribed. There are several ways
in which this can
be done:
1. Discovering and safeguarding artifacts, owned by railways and others, before they are
troyed. 2. Proper selection and appreciation of items
to be preserved. 3. Correct and well-planned restoration of ex­
hibits. 4. Adequate physical protection for exhibits.
5. Protection of artifacts against siezure for debts and against unwarrented disposal
the futu re by directors.
6. Making the public and governments aware of the importance of preserving our railway
us briefly discuss each of the above and
see how neglect of any of them can result in the
loss of significant pieces of historic railway items.
1. Artifacts can not be saved if those entrusted
with saving them do not know they exist.
In an
association such as the C. R. H.A. there are many members who can spot important items and
mention them to the association. This has resulted
in the saving of much in the past, the most recent example being the rescue of the 1882 C.P.R. coach
No. 54 in Alberta due to observant enthusiasts who noticed it and appredated (and later spent much time and effort rescuing it).
Of course smaller
items can
be saved too; old books and timetables on the garbage pile, waybills
in an abandoned station, hundred-year-old
rails being lifted from
an abandoned branch line, grandfathers toy train set,
all these may well be worth saving if we know
they are there.
The first steel street car in Canada, and one of the first in the
world, Montreal car 863, built by Pressed Steel Car in 1907, sits forelo
rnely at the back of Youville shops on June 27 1948. While 863 was
scrapped soon after, two of the same type (869 and 881)
lasted u.ntil 1953. One of these should have been kept to show the
new technology of steel equipment.
C.R.H.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 48-291.
A Montreal TramvJays two-car train in a snowstorm at Saul t on
January 1 1949. Every one of the one hundred trailers was scrapped
despite the intention to preserve No. 1676. C.R.B
.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 49-2.
2. The question of what to select for the pre­
is one that can cause more arguments
than any other. The most controversial question
of all seems to be Should equipment be preserved
only if it is typical or should brave but of ten­
unsuccessful experiments (sometimes unjustly called
be included in the collection, and where
we draiN the line?. A good example is Montreal
street cat 2501 which
was one of two duplex
cars built in 1928 and scrapped in the
1950s. 2501
was of a patented Canadian design
by the Canadian Car and Foundry Co,
and introduced by the Montreal Tramways Co.
It was slightly different from its sister 2500 (the
only other one ever built) in that it had bucket
seats instead of conventional seating. Although
considered for preservation it was not saved because
it was un-typical, and yet today the articulated
car in the latest
thing in urban transit. How valuable
56 year old Canadian-designed car of this type
would have been in a museum, and yet it was
not preserved. What about C.P. R. mogul No. 3011
(built 1888), a Montreal trailer street car, Montreal
Terminal Railway No. 1054 (1896),
C.P.R. 3000-
class locomotive? All these were in service well
into the 1950s and considered for saving; none
saved. Who knows, maybe in later years the
Turbo train
will be considered in this category!
3. Although not often realized, improper res­
toration can destroy heritage. The question here
is usually to which period to restore a piece of
equipment since it has likely had numerous chan­
ges over the years. Often the urge to back date
to its earliest appearance results in the destruction
of later additions which may be of more impor­
tance than the original item. An example
is New
Brunswick Power
Co. street car No. 82 whose significance lies in being
an example of how a
smaller company converted its equipment to
ulate the configuration introduced by the Birney
cars in the 1920s. Restore No. 82 to its original
1912 appearance and
we would have just another
single-truck street car rather than
an interesting
conversion. The original
content of an exhibit
can vary from 0 percent (i.e. a replica) to almost
100 percent depending on
age, deterioration and
How much of C.P. locomotive 144
or car Saskatchewan really date back to the
1880s, and
how much of their later history would
be lost if an ill-conceived back dating was attem­
One remembers how the vintage American
locomotive General
was restored at great
to operating condition (but with its post­
Civil-War appearance) including
such 20th century
as oil firing! How much better to have used
the money to build a replica of the General as
it really was in 1862 and to keep the original intact
as it was when retired. The choice of paint job
is also important but there is not so much irrepair­
able damage
for equipment can always be repainted.
The exception
is where fragments of original paint
(which might
be needed to match the colour)
are destroyed in the process.
4. Adequate physical protection
is rather ob­
vious. Equipment should
be under cover and pro­
from fire, rot, rust and vandalism. Smaller
items should
also be safeguarded against theft,
and books and archival material should be kept
in a controlled, dust free environment.
Of course
ideal conditions cost money and usually
are an
unattainable goal, but some safeguards are cheaper
can be effective. For example a locomotive
that must be stored outside can be given a tem­
porary coat
of paint before final restoration for
black paint is better than rerl rust, Sometimes
is better than a tarpaulin which can hold mois­
ture and actually
cause worse rusting. Naturally
passenger equipment should have its windows
boarded up and
roof made leak-proof until it can
go inside.
5. The protection of a collection against des­
truction to satisfy debts, or because a museum has
fallen on bad times, is a serious consideration.
Despite the best efforts a project
can fail due to
many reasons such as lack of proper support.
is what happened in Nova Scotia with such
tragic results. One method of protection would
be to set up a board of trustees which would be
organized separately from the museum itself and
which would
have title to the exhibits .so protect­
ing them
from claims against the museum. Trust­
ees could also guard against unwise decisions of the
museum directors who might act on
too short
an outlook. All groups preserving equipment
must realize
that they are custodians of our rail­
way heritage and,
if unable to maintain the coll­
ection, make
SE R IOUS efforts to place the items
in other collections before contemplating anything
so reprehensible as scrapping them. By serious
is meant personal contact with the dir­
of these other collections, and not just
vaguely-worded items in a newsletter. Another
reason why equipment may be lost is due to un­
wise disposal just because an item is not fashion­
able at the moment
or is thought, by the direct­
of the day, to be not typical or represent­
itive. This
is analogous to item No. 2 on select­
ion, and
it should be added that the collection
is being formed and maintained for future gen­
erations and not just to satisfy the whims of to­
6. The last,
and perhaps the most important,
that railyvay heritage can be lost is to lack
of public awareness or apathy. This will trans­
into lack of support without which even the
best projects
will fail. It is only too true that govern­
ments, foundations and others support projects
that have great public appeal if for no better reason
than the obvious one that popular projects bring
in the most votes.
If railway preservation is per­
as a group of fans simply playing trains
it can not hope for great support.
Perhaps as there is more realization that rail­
way artifacts
are not just old nostalgic puffing
billies or toonerville trollies there will be a more
general tendency
to save these pieces of our his­
tory and consider them of equal importance as
art exhibits in a gallery. No art gallery which lack-
Upside down at the bottom of a pile of burning street cars, 1676
reaches a fiery end on the morning of August 28 1959. This car
was the last of the 1600-series trailers and the one that was
slated to be saved to go with front-unit 1801. Why it was scrapped
was never satisfactorily explained.
Montreal Star.
ed the space or resources to save works of art
would destroy these works -they would be sold or traded
to another museum. Why should this
not happen at our railway museums? Many rail­
way exhibits, due to their
si;m, cannot be stored indoors without great cost. Thus deterioration
will inevitably set in. Consider how many loco­motives have been set up
in parks with great fan­
fare and then,
as the years went by and the nove­lty wore off, they slowly decay. How many of
these are truly preserved? Sometimes the story
has a happy ending
as exemplified by the recent
rescue of C.P.R.
No. 374 in Vancouver. This his­
toric locomotive had suffered 38 years of vandal­
ism but now is being restored. Others, however, are sti
II threatened. Smaller items do not present
the storage problem but are often discarded
junk, sometimes even when they are in a mus­
eum. The answer to this
is obvious; everything acquired should
be documented with the reason for its acquisition, too often forgotton. The small things are important too and everything adds up
to tell the whole story. Several years
ago a Canadian Council of Rail
Heritage was set up which is a step in the right
direction. Unfortunately after
an initial enthus­iasm, the local groups failed to support it. The
is that its activities to date have been virt-ually non-existant; a pity for this sort of group
is sorely needed. At the more local level associat­
ions owning exhibits should consider establishing boards of trustees who would oversee the conserv­
ation of historical material. One thing
is certain;
if the railway historical movement does not do
it no one else will! While it
is easy to lay the blame for the 1982
Nova Scotia scrapping on the Scotian Railway Society this would
not be entirely fair since they
are not the
real culprits. The S.R.S. did act with
grave improptiety, and cannot escape the strong­
est censure,
but so did the Nova Scotia Provincial Museum for not giving the equipment sanctury.
But the true blame should be
laid on the shoulders
of apathetic governments and general public. It
is strange that a social structure that can afford a million dollars for a hockey or baseball player
can not afford
to safeguard our heritage. The truly frightening thing
is that what happened
in Nova Scotia in 1982 could happen to any pre­
servation group, even
to the C.R.H.A. Shall the
future produce horror stories like
that in Nova
Scotia, or happier events like car 54 and locomotive 374? The railway enthusiasts must lead the way
in deciding the outcome; the answer to the ques­
is in the hands of the reader of this editiorial.
On its last run Montreal articulated car 2501 is seen on a C.R.B.A.
excursion on March 14 1953. This car was one of two built in 1928
and was ahead of its time; only now are articulated street cars co
ming into their own in North America. Both 2500 and 2501 were
scrapped in 1955 after the plan was dropped to convert them into s
ingle units. C
.R.B.A. Archives. Toohey Collection.
One of C.P.R. swell-known E-8 s, No. 1802 stops at Newport Vermont
on Ju
ne 14 1952 en route to Boston with the Alouette. 1800 and 1
802 remained in service with VIA until 1984 and are now UD for
isposal. Strangely they are not on the list of locomotive~ to be
save d be cause they are not typical ~ ~ Is this to be our next example of
Photo by Fred Angus.
VIA, Kingslol, to Toronto
6:50 a.m. I sat on the cold leather seat of Via
Rails Dayliner, Service From Kingston to Tor­
onto, Ontario, Canada, and waited for the train
to nudge slowly ahead. My thoughts d rifted to
the early morning events, which I performed seem­
ingly automatically: dressed
in the dark; ate break­
fast; called a cab; travelled
to the station; bought
my ticket; waited for the train; heard
the announce­
ment; quickly stepped through
the automatic
door; positioned myself on the platform; shivered
as the cold morning air hit my face; answered the
Toronto; stepped up; climbed four
stairs; swung
to the left; looked for the Non­
smoking section; sought
out my seat on the left
side of
the train; lifted my bags to the overhead
took my coat off; and slumped into my
The first step
onto the train was slippery this
How will I manage to get on the train
when I am
old, I muttered silently, angrily. My
thoughts drifted to a young man and girl standing
in front of me while I waited to purchase my
ticket. Were
they married? No, I didnt think so,
-the young girl wasnt wearing a wedding ring.
Were they living together? I mused at the thought
that they were eloping to start a life together in
Toronto. I stared out the greasy, large, rectangular
window which supported my left shoulder.
In the
distance, algal ponds, scattered
in the Little Cat-araqui Creek floodplain,
gave way to low shrubs,
to poplar and pine trees. Above the tree
the city slept. Nearby, the arrowheads were
to turn green, and the cattails were
slowly pumping nutrients from their watery bed
up straight, tan-coloured stalks. The dynamic bio­
logical and physical processes of the Little Cat­
araqui Creek continued incessantly.
My face tight­
as I recounted the battles with developers
who did
not care about the adverse impacts their
projects had on
the creek.
7:00 a.m. Two blasts of the whistle sounded. I
felt the familiar pull of the train and heard
squeek from the wheels as the air brakes released
their grip. The train inched forward.
Gaining speed,
the train passed under the High­
way 2 overpass, supported on either side by sed­
entary, white pillars
of concrete. There, to the left,
the John L. Smith property, sheathed in morn­
ing mist.
L. Smith was an interesting character.
A short, pudgy, balding man occupied with real
estate, John wanted
to sell 35 acres of land~ to
anyone who would offer him one million dollars.
Unfortunately, a large portion of land was
in the
floodplain of the Little Cataraqui Creek, John had
unsuccessfully sought a permit from local Con­
servation Authority
to fill 46 acres of land to make
suitable for residential or commercial develop-
ment. In frustration, John dug a long, deep trench to drain ponding water from
the land, but enraged local enrivonmentalist, called
the news media, the mayor and the Conservation Authority. John
was caught red-handed, and was told to desist
his trenching operation. Later, the Conservation Authority told John to rehabilitate the scarred land, or
be slapped with a stiff fine. Obviously, John did not abide, because the trench, now half covered by weeds,
was still present.
Five long blasts of the train whistle broke my
thoughts. The trai n approached Gardiners Road, a major north-south arterial
in Kingston Town­ship.
Five cars, waiting impatiently, lined up behind a zebra coloured horizontal barricade, while clang­
ing bells broke the stillness of the morning air.
Have you ever closely examined the right-of­way beside train tracks? The bed of grey stones supporting our train track, sloped down at a crisp angle to flat terrain where mounds of dark, oily,
rail ties lay half broken. The railway bed was weed­free
(I wondered why) in sharp contrast to the nearby vegetation.
As the train ribboned through a light· industrial area, I noticed paper, wood, plastics, metal refuse and other assortments of garbage beside the tracks. I peered into backyards of homes and tried to guess the house:hold
rets which lay within. The train raced along, and a car travelling on Highway 33, raced the train.
My eyes fixed on a rock quarry, which neighborhood residents were able to have shutdown after a lengthy Ontario Municipal Board hearing. The quarry
gave way to
Collins Bay where small crafts sailed in and out
during warm weather months.
7: 1 0 a.m. The Ernestown Township lollipop, a water tower, came into view. I wondered how long the black lettering had been painted on the out­side of the elevated reservoir. I half smiled at a
sign which indicated the site of the Ernestown Industrial Park. Ernestown,
like all Eastern On­tario municipalities, savoured new industry, and had serviced land waiting … waiting.
My ear pricked up to catch the conductors reply to the passenger sitting ahead of
me that we would arrive in Toronto at 9:30 a.m. I mentally calculated 2 hours and 20 minutes until arrival, and silently grunted
satisfacti on. The conductor leaned over
me and snapped, ticket please! I reached lackadaisically into
coat pocket and handed him my ticket. After quickly punching two clean holes,
he thrust the mutilated ticket into
my open hand. I slid down
in my seat, and turned to take in more of the
passing show.
The Lennox Generating Station,
an oil fired plant, now defunct, loomed
in the distance. The Ontario government
had shut it down when oil
prices and associated transport costs escalated to a
level which made the plant uneconomical to generate electrical power. Lennox, plagued with start-up problems
in 1977, never produced power
at fu II capacity. How many thousands of dollars
had Ontario taxpayers foolishly wasted!
Blasts from engines whistle appeared to have
no impact on cattle nonchanlantly chomping on
verdant grass
in a nearby field. As telephone poles
whizzed by, I caught the pungent
odour of a cig­
arette smoke circling towards me.
Near Napanee,
an abandoned limestone quarry came into view. Hardy wild flowers like purple
vetch contrasted sharply against the variation
greens. The Springside Park Dam on the Napanee River certainly looked inviting for a picnic on a
warm summers day.
7:24 a.m. The air brakes began to grip the train wheels and the bell began to ring; At a road cross­ing, six cars lined up
in single file and drivers snar­
led at the speeding train. The scenery -scrap metal, road construction, Purina Foods, and a gray ware­
house badly needing paint -slowed down. The grip of the brakes tightened, like a cobra snake around its prey, and
all movement in the train -h-alted.
The bell
ran on. Shut it off, I screamed silently.
After 5 long minutes, the train moved forward. Hesitantly, the brakes squeaked noisily
as they
,released. The bell continued
to clang on and annoy
me enormously. The train clicked into higher gear and the speed increased. Outside, like lonely sen­
tinels standing guard, transmission towers, support­
ing heavy I ines, saluted the passing train. As my
eyes lifted to the distance, grassy flat fields receded
to fence lines, farmhouses and trees. Suddenly,




Ontario County
ake r-~
l2 S9
9 , ;

. County
Vickerinq Ai,rport
. .
ort Hope
without warning, the conductor barked that coffee
was available.
In Pavlovian style, six people rose
from their seat, shuffled up the aisle, pulled at a
heavy metal door, and disappeared through
7:39 a.m. Sighing with relief at the bell being
turned off, I caught the sight of an airstrip with
grounded planes. With a long and cautious stare, a young boy standing away from the tracks, clung
to a beaten leather baseball glove
in one hand and with his free hand, tossed a handball
ically. The bell rang again and I watched the boy
grow smaller. The train slowed, jerked forward then backward before coming to a dead stop. Belleville (beautiful city) I proclaimed. To
right, 12 side tracks carried an assortment of cars -boxcars, flatbeds, tankers, car carriers. Only grain
cars were absent. To the left, a white and red billboard listing Belleville industries, was strongly planted beside the redd
ish brick station. Across
the street from the station, a food store and rest­aurant beckoned hungry people. Within 3 minutes the engine began the familiar pull. The cars
way without resistance and moved forward down
the track. The swaying motion of the train, the silence and increasing heat
in our car made me
My eyelids, heavy with tiredness, closed.
8:03 a.m. Near Trenton, a magnificent orange steel bridge spanned the water.
In May and Jun~


i i

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Frontenac County
30 40.Ki1ometres Sca1e:1
Kilometres 10 0 1fJ 20
J i
20 30 Mil es
Miles 16 .. Ji*iI 6 1·0
hundreds of weekend fishermen would drop anchor
from skiffs and cast for pike, perch, walleye and
other fish which migrated from the deeper water
of Lake Ontario to rest, feed and spun in shall­
ower waters
of the bay. The Moira River had 3
people fishing
from its banks.
The train collected more
passengers in Trenton
and accelerated again. The scenery
from Trenton
to Cobourg was bland; the train whistle blasted
every 4 minutes.
8:32 a.m. The train chugged
into the Cobourg
Station. Limestone and
red brick characterized
the train station.
About 30 people, suitcases in
hand, climbed aboard on the
left side of the train.
Most were
dressed in outdated clothes. All the
time the bell clanged incessantly.
As I watched the terns circle above the waves
crashing on the, Lake Ontario shore, my ears det­
ected a soft
voite across the aisle and one row
behind. I swung
my head around, and met the
eyes of an attractive woman, probably in her early
My up and down glance revealed a black
wool jacket and skirt,
set off by a white silk blouse
and black patent leather shoes. Her straw blonde
was pulled back, tied tightly on he head and
held in place with a pearl-lustre comb. I tuned in
on the conversation she was travelling to Toronto
to engage a lawyer in a custody suit over her one
year old child. Her jealous husband, after 5 years
of marriage, had suspected her of having an affair
with another man -she was innocent of course.
He kidnapped the child about 6 months ago and
never returned. When she found him, he threatened
to kill her (earlier he had mercilessly shot their
dog) if she took the child. This situation was too
much for her emotionally, so she travelled to
Calgary to seek counsel and refuge with her par­
ents. With renewed strength,
she returned east
and move in with her brother-in-I aw near Trenton,
Ontario. She had decided to initiate legal action
against her husband.
She had no money and no
job. I
felt sad for her.
9:00 a.m. The train whistled by two chemical
plants and a
sewage treatment plant with holding
ponds filled
with suspicious, dark grey effluents.
Port Hope, home
of Eldorado Nuclear, popped into
view. A smokestack discharged a white plume
(contents unknown) over Lake Ontario. In the
foreground, a number
of metal barrels containing
wastes were stacked in a fenced-off
area_ What
toxic wastes resided inside? Where would the
be disposed? A passing freight train created
a dizzying effect like strobe-lights
as my eyes
focussed straight-levelled on the last glimpses of
the barrels flashing between the speeding cars.
9:20 a.m. A long, steep, earth berm hid the
Darlington Nuclear Power Plant, still under cons­
truction. Darlington was proposed to consist of
four generating units of the CAIJDU pressurized
heavy water
type reactor. Each unit would com-
.. -.
prise a nuclear reactor, a steam turbine generator
with associated equipment and common station
services. The total station
output was expected to
be 3,400 megawatts .. A 500 kV transmission line,
north of thef site would distribute the ele­
ctricity to the Ontario grid system.
hydro had embarked on a policy of
greater self-sufficiency in energy supply. This
policy meant more utilization
of uranium fuel
for nuclear reactors. But what bothered me were
the uncertain environmental risks
to public health,
and welfare. Also issues, such as the storage
and disposal of residual wastes, the effects of
radioactive liquids emissions, commissioning chem­
(e.g. chlorine), and water treatment plant
wastes (albeit at prescribed statutory limits) on
the lake ecosystem were not
fully resolved. Most
was that Darlington (the site had
been purchased by the Ontario Government prior
to 1971) was exempted from a formal environ­
assessment (a study to assess potential
environmental effects).
9:10 a.m. Flat roofed, rectangular, industrial
plants introduced Oshawa. We passed a series of
railroad car carriers each carrying shiny new per­
sonal driving machines. Across the railroad yard,
Highway 401, the major arterial linking Mont­
real to Toronto, operated at normal level of ser­
vice. Mounds of dirt, and a right-of-way reduced
for ticky-tacky row housing beyond. Nearer,
a ground hog,
half visible from his hole in the
ground, stretched his
head high to check out the
and sounds of the early morning. More
urban structures whizzed by -manufacturing plants,
housing, a
golf course and power lines.
9:28 a.m. The proposed new town in North
Pickering and a new airport were to be part of the
Toronto Central Region Concept of concentrating
future urban development. The
Community dev­
elopment, situated 18 miles northeast
of Toronto,
would add 23,000 units of new housing stock
and would cover 24,000 acres. After an exhaus­
tive planning process involving the Province
a consortium of 13 private firms, the project was
shelved in the late seventies.
On February 28, 1979, one of the largest spills
of radioactive heavy water in the history of Canadas
nuclear power program occured at the Pickering
generating stations. However, the public
was not
told about the incident until 4 months later. Be­
cause of the size of Lake Ontario the mixture
was quickly diluted to a safe radiation level.
However, the
town of Pickering, like many coast­
al zone communities, intakes and treats Lake
Ontario water
for drinking and other uses. Al­
though the regional health
officer stated that
Pickerings water supply was safe for human con­
sumption, a number
of residents were apprehen­
sive. As I stared at Lake Ontario, the beach looked
so inviting, but the light brown murky water,
turning grey
as the water deepened looked om­
to me.
9:35 a.m. At Guildwood, the train stopped. A
green and white double decker Go Train for com­
muters to
Toronto passed by in the direction we
had come from. To the left, the Park and Ride.
lot was 50 per cent full.
9:36 a.m. A lady yelled at the conductor that
she missed her stop. The conductor calmly ex­
she should have been ready. The bell cl­
anged on. The train slowed to 20 m.p.h.
The Eglington Park and Ride car
lot was nearly
full. Billboards became more prominent. Plants,
and warehouses with side tracks lined our
main line track. The Scarborough Park and Ride
lot was filled with cars. A bridge overpass
under construction
came and went.
9:44 a.m. We passed an east bound VIA pass­
enger train. Our train unexpectedly picked up
9:46 a.m. Residential homes, 18 to 25 years
with long, narrow back yards, preceded a
regional shopping centre. Heavy industries and
expressways abruptly emerged.
9:49 a.m. The train swayed through the switch­
es in the Union Station yard. Torontos mono­
liths spiralled skyward.
9:52 a.m. The train lurched forward, then back­
ward and stopped.
Eighty years ago, in 1904, Canadian
Pac ific comple te d its Angus Shops in
Montreal. These rare photos, taken by
a member of the building contractors
firm of D.G. Loomis and Sons, shows the
structures being erected about 1903.
Courtesy of Mr. R. Hunter.
Question: When is a 440 not a 4-4-0? Answer: When its a 4-6-0
(class D4g, built 1912). C.P.R. 4-6-0 No. 440 was photographed
at St. Luc on March 18 1951.
C.R.H.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 51-101.
Old 974 is STILL good for one more trip~ Thanks to Jim Hope of
Trail B.C. we have another photo of the star of our Jan-Feb
issue. There is no data as to where or when the photo was taken.
Jim Hope Collection.
On April 28 1984 an era came to an end when the last Canadian
long-distance train left Montreals l,Vindsor Station bound for
Quebec City. Here we see C.P.s Quebec train in happier days
at Montreal West on May 20 1951 behind Jubilee class 3004.
All Quebec trains now leave Central station; however Amtraks
Ad irondack still runs into Windsor, its only remaining long
distance train.
C.R.H.A. Archives. Toohey Collection 51-243.
A Bibliography of British Railway History
first appeared in 1965. Compiled by George Ottley
of the British Museum Library, with the cooper­
of four fellow members of the Railway &
Canal Historical Society, it immediately became
an indispensible guide to almost 8,000 books and
pamphlets, publisted up to 1963, a work of unique
comprehensiveness. Its value
was further enhanced by the
fact that the term, railways, has been
broadly defined, to include trackways, wagon­
and tramways, and that British includes
Irish. Those who consulted
it were particularly
for the care taken with the annotations,
the classification and the index.
In 1983 a second edition appeared. Again it
was compiled by Ottley and associates, though the

copyright has been transferred from George Allen
& Unwin Ltd. to Her Majestys Stationery Office,
One· may criticize the application of the label,
edition, to this publication. It is not
a revised and enlarged work. It is a reprint with
typographical corrections .. , no less welcome for
that reason. What has changed is the price, which
has markedly (and understandably) increased.
Serious students, who
for whatever reason, failed
to acquire a. copy of the earlier book, will surely
to own this one.
Ottley has promised in his Introduction that
a Supplement will be offered in the near future.
It will contain more than 4,500 new entries, mostly
devoted to descriptions of works, which appeared
between 1963 and 1980,
but some to those of an
earlier period, which recently came to light. The
admirable mode
of presentation of the existing
will be retained. The Ottley Supplement
will be awaited with pleasurable anticipation.
Robert Nicholls,
February, 1984
edition, by T.A. McGavin
Published in December 1983
by the New Zealand
Railway and Locomotive Society Inc.,
P.O. Box
5134, Wellington, New Zealand.
SB IJ 0-908573-38-3
72 pp. plus
full-colour cover, 240 x 180mm, il­
lustrated $9.00 NZ
SINCE the seventh edition
of this tri-ennial
was published in 1980, diesel traction has
remained the predominant form of motive power
on the
4300-kilometre railway system of the New
but some older locomotives have been
retired and a
number of new ones have entered
service, together
with a sizeable fleet of new el­
multiple-unit train sets. In 1983 some 580
locomotives were in service, ranging in
size from
little shunting tractors of less than 10 tonnes weight
to massive and powerful 97-tonne diesel-el­
ectric locomotives capable
of hauling heavy ex­
press trains at speeds up to 120 km/hr. In addition
there were 83 electric motor-coaches and the
three twin-coach Silver Fern diesel-electric rail­
The object of this book is to offer a compre­
hensive survey
of the motive power in use on
lJew Zealand Railways, to give a brief outline of
its development, and to provide some reference
to retired equipment preserved by various groups
throughout the country. Each chapter covers a
distinct type
of motive power and gives a summary
of the principal dimensions and features of the
classes in that group, with lists showing
and when each locomotive was built, and
where appropriate when
it was reclassified or
reti res.
Steam locomotives of course have not been
used in ordinary commercial service on the NZ R
since 1971, unless one counts the vintage
ston Flyer tourist train as commercial, but
many have been preserved and some restored to
full working order, and chapter 6 in this new book
offers an up-to-date survey of developments in
this field.
The whole
book is well illustrated, and dim­
ensioned drawings
or diagrams of some of the
principal types
of equipment will be of special
to model builders. Reference is included
to the forthcoming electrification of the North
Island main trunk railway between Palmerson No­
rth and Hami
Iton, and the probable character­
of the new electric locomotives being sought
for this project.

e. uSlne
and Yukon Route System say they are en­
by a federal report favoring northern
rail operations, But, until their major mining cus­
tomer resumes production, White
Pass trains will
remain idle.
In a preliminary report on the Yukons trans­
portation requirements, a three-member Canadian
Transport Commission investigation team recently came
out in support of the railway as the best
option for transporting lead-zinc concentrates
from the Cyprus
Anvil mine near Faro, Yukon.
In June, 1982, digging at the site was ordered
stopped by the new parent company, Dome Pet­roleum Ltd. of Calgary, which had acquired the
as part of the takeover of Hudsons Bay Oil
and Gas Co. Ltd. of Calgary. Assisted by the federal and territorial govern­
ments, mining operations were resumed last April,
but the mill remained closed. The commission report says full production
cannot resume before next fall. And
if the green light
is not given before April, 1984, the startup
will have to be put back to fall, 1985. Faced with a variety of transportation options,
Cyprus Anvil
l/Iining Corp. would prefer to have
its production moved by truck from Faro to Skag­
way, Alaska,
vias the South Klnodike Highway. But to support year-round ore truck operations,
at least $18-million would have
to be spent on the
Canadian portion of the highway
to prevent danger
to public safety, the report says. The State of
Alaska would probably refuse to pay for snow
removal or other necessary costs. Until these and other issues are resolved, the Yu­
kon Government should not permit year-round heavy ore trucking operations, the report says. At the same time, it recommends
that the railway
and its unionized employees co-operate
in cost­
cutting and
that Cyprus Anvil be charged only
a break-even rate for
rail services.
In negotiations over the past year or more,
labor unions have demonstrated a spirit of con­
cilation which we expect to continue, said Thomas
King, president of White Pass and Yukon Corp.
Ltd., a subsidiary of Federal Industries Ltd. of Winnipeg.
The critical factor will be the approach taken by Cyprus Anvil and its owners. The authors of
the commissions report also say federal subsidies of up to $1-million a year might
be appropriate for a maximum of two years to underwrite the mothballing costs incurred by White
S. The Gazette.
THE FIRST COAL TRAIN OUT OVER THE Tumbler Ridge branchline was one month
earlier than planned, when
SO 40-2 no. 758 headed a 4-unit power group
(2 SD40-2s bracket­
ing 2 M630s, one being no. 708), pulling 50 new coal cars
in the BCNE 9009XX series, from Tum­bler
Ridge on Nov. 1. A few moments earlier, the
official Iast spike on the branch had been driven
just east of
the Wolverine Tunnel by Industry
Don Philips. The processed bedding coal, from the Teck Bullmoose mine,
was moved to
.. : E :: iii :::
P,lnce … .s-,,(
George ~,~~,
Ridley Island, where the 5,000 tons became the
base at the terminals for future loads
to be stored upon pending shipment to Japan (TC)
first of the G F6C electric units arrived from
GMDD London on Nov. 20. After a 2-day stop­
over in North Vancouver,
it proceeded north to
Tumbler Ridge. Attached was GMDDs new test
car, ET840, which
will stay with no. 6001 for 4
months. No. 6002
was seen in North Van. Nov.
27, while no. 6003 stopped
off on Dec. 21-28.
(NG) The
first two units have been testing on a
10km. stretch
of electrified track, including coal­
loading, when they run through at a steady 0.3
mph. Catenary
from km 129 to km 24 will be com­
pleted early in the New Year,
with the remaining
km to be done later in the spring. 98-car coal
have been operating to Ridley Island (Prince
Rupert) since
Dec. 1. CN loaned SD40 no. 5122
and SD40-2Ws no.
5318/29 to handle the coal
until electrification is completed. All 3 have
slow-speed control for coal-loading. In exchange,
BC R SD40-2s no. 760/2 have been loaned to CN
who will keep them longer to equalize the 3 for :2
S. The Sandhouse.
railroads as they prepare to invest $16.5 bi­
by the end of the decade in improving
the nations rail
In what promises to be the biggest rail cons­
truction project since the last spike in the trans­
continental railroad
was hammered home in 1885
both Canadian National
and Canadian Pacifi~
railways are carrying out overdue inprovements
to their lines and rolling stock.
The process
was set in motion by parliamen­
tary approval in lJovember
of long-awaited reforms
to Canadas Crowsnest Pass freight rate -the 87-
year-old grain-handling rate
that gave the railways
of millions of dollars in losses .
Ron Lawless, president
of CNs rail division,
remembers the night Parliament
passed the Crow
bill. It was a feeling of relief, he said. A crush­
ing burden
was lifted from our shoulders.
The new rates and a $651-million annual sub­
sidy paid
to them by the federal government will
allow the railways to recover their grain-handling
costs and
will provide them with the capital for
In the Montreal
head offices of CN and CP
Rail, plans are already being laid to hire thou­
sands of Canadian construction workers who will
be double-tracking western lines and adding new
~erminals, bridges, tunnels and routing systems
In the biggest rail expansion this century.
And th8t will mean more jobs in Quebec as or­
ders are placed for everything from locomotives
to electronic signalling devices to computers.
CN Rail, a division of Crown-owned Cana­
dian National Railway Co.,
and CP Rail a subsid­
of Canad ian Pacific Ltd., are e;pected to
place equipment orders of $1.2 billion in Quebec
alone. Ontario
will get the lions share of work
with contracts totalling $4.1 billion.
Among the Quebec firms expected
to benefit
are Marine Industries Ltd. of Sorel, which makes
covered grain hopper cars,
and Bombardier Inc.
of Montreal, which builds locomotives. Bombardier
has already been invited to bid on a first contract.
for $40 million worth of locomotives. The expan­
sion project
will add another chapter to the Great
Canadian Railway Story, providing more
that the real ties binding Canadians together are
the ones
that lie between the rails.
Our rail romance
began with the Confederation
of 1867 – a deal that helped Canadas four
founding provinces sell railway bonds.
The story picked up steam
with the completion
of ou~ national dream, the CPR, and later amal­
of other lines into the Canadian Nat­
ional system.
Now the saga takes another twist as the crusty
old Crow rate bows
out of the action and West­
ern farmers begin paying more of the cost of mov­
ing grain.
CN Rails Ron Lawless, relieved to see the end
of huge annual grain-handling losses, said: If
something hadnt been done, the two railways
have been in very dire straits in a very short
Western grain farmers have complained bit­
terly about losing the incredible bargain rate of
half a cent per ton theyve been paying since the
of the 19th century.
By the end
of the decade, farmers will be pay­
ing 60 per cent of the real cost of grain transpor­
tation compared with 18 per cent today.
Farm industry officials complain the Crow
was a virtual sellout to the railways.
Russell Allison, executive vice-president
of CP Rail, said farmers got themselves an excel­
lent deal. I
dont know of any other industry
paying 60 per cent
of its real costs.
In addition, the prairie grain growers will end
up with a vastly improved rail system and better
service once the modernization program
is com­
pleted. Canadian grain exporters
had been losing
sales because of their inability to move
large volumes
of grain to market.
Both railroads
said they could not modernize
their networks
as long as they were losing $300
million on the grain trade.
said everybody involved in the complex
of reforming the Crow rate had to make com­
and he rejected the notion that the rail­
are the big winners. A better way of putting
it, he said, might be that the railways are no
longer the big losers.
The grain rate increased
to $5.76 a ton from
its previous level of $4.89 on Jan. 1. It will double
by 1985
and increase five times by 1991.
Lawless calculates
only that in 1982 CN Rail
only $67 million in revenues for grain
as it rolled up a loss of $120 million
for the year. But it would have received grain
of $200 million in 1982 if the current
Crow reform
had been in place.
In the first nine months
of 1983, CN Rail show­
ed profit of $188.6 million compared with a loss
of $11.7 million in the 1982 period. The 83 pro­
fit figure was boosted by interim grain payments
to both railways by the federal government.
Lawless, a former vice-president
of marketing
CN Rail who took over the presidency of the
rail division in 1979,
said capital spending will
rise from just under $500 million last year to
well over $600 mi Ilion in 1984. By 1985, spend­
ing should climb
to $1 billion.
The major problem in the system is inadequate
capacity in the western rail network. For
reason, CN plans to double-track its route from
Winnipeg to Vancouver by the mid-1980s. By
CP Rail will be double-tracking only
in selected locations where theres a steep grade
in its track.
CP is expected to begin calling ten­
ders this month
for the first major project on
its shopping list a $600-million tunnel through
the Rogers
Pass area of the Selkirk lVIountains in
British Columbia.
CP will spend $3 billion during the first five
years of its construction program, Allison said.
The Crow
change makes it possible for the
to improve their plant and handle all our
goods, and, more important, our exports, Alli­
son added. Canada is an exporting nation and th is
will head us in the right direction. I give full credit
to the federal government for recognizing the
Both railways expect to hire considerable num­
bers of construction workers this summer. Allison
said CP will have at least 800 people working in
the Rogers
Pass area in the first year. CN exp­
to have 3,300 construction workers employed
this summer.
Both railways
say their modernization programs
will also include installation of high-technology
equipment such
as computer-aided dispatching and
monitoring devices and microwave communications
The expansion comes at a time when rail
is picking up. The latter part of 83 has exceeded
our expectations, particularly in bulk commod­
ities such
as grain, coal and potash, said CPs
Allison. Toward the end of the year we were
really setting records in the tons
we hand led.
see that trend continuing in 84 although
our crystal ball isnt
quite as clear for the end of
the year, when there may be some hesitancy in the
CP Rail reported profit of $132.5 million in the
first ~ine months of 1983, far ahead of its earnings
pace In 1982, when it made a $117.8-million profit
for the whole year.
CN is also encouraged by its level of traffic,
Lawless said, after moving its smallest volumes
in many, many years during the depth of the
Such commodities as lumber are moving
as demand for Canadian lumber picks up in
the U.S., where lower interest rates
have boosted
housing starts.
But the recession did force both companies
trim staff. CP Rail with 30,000 employees, laid
off about 3,000, although many of those have
been recalled. CN Rail, with 50,000 employees,
has cut 15 per cent of its work force in the last
three years.
to the future, both railways say they
will have to offer more intermodal or piggyback
services to maintain their market share in an in­
creasingly competitive and deregulated
American transportation market.
S. The Gazette.
of a bustling Brooklyn street and through a
hole excavated in the wall
of a passageway
below lies an unconventional urban archeological
site: the worlds
first subway tunnel. Amoung
the artifacts possibly awaiting discovery
are an
antique locomotive and human bones.
Bulit in 1844 as part of a railway for hauling
and produce from Long Island to Brook­
lyn the half-mile tunnel
is still intact. Its a mag­
nifi~ent piece of engineering especially for its time,
says Robert Diamond, an electrical engineeri~g
student at the City College of New York and dIs­
of the tu n nel.
The builders
of the 21-foot-wide, 17-foot-high
subway pioneered a construction technique
has been used ever since. Called cut and cover,
it involved digging a trench down the middle of
Atlantic Avenue, building stone walls and an arched
brick ceiling, covering it all with earth, then re­
surfacing the street. More than 1,000 laborers spent
seven months accomplishing this feat with only
picks, shovels and pack mules. But cut and cover
wasnt the
only engineering innovation employed.
The tunnel
was apparently the first to have vent­
ilation shafts, which
to this day keep it cool even
on sweltering summer afternoons.
The process of subway-tunnel construction
has remained unchanged ever since this one was
built, says Diamond. But in place of st?ne and
brick, todays subways use steel and reinforced
The tunnels existance
was once only a legend
to railway and Brooklyn history buffs.
Diamond vowed
to find it when he heard of the
legend on the radio three years
ago. After poring
over old newspapers and documents,
he discover­
ed construction plans fi led away in a government
These led him to the manhole. In 1981
Diamond and engineers from the local gas and
electric companies ventured down
it and into a
dirt-filled crawl space. Shining a flashlight at the
ahead of him, he spotted a small hole. And
through the hole
he found the elusive tunnel –
as it was left in 1861 when it was sealed up.
Diamond and volunteers enlarged the crawl­
way and broke through the wall
to provide easy
access. So far, their investigations have unearth­
ed old railroad spikes (the tracks were torn up when
the tunnel was closed), boot soles, ax heads, wheel­
and pottery shards. Theyve also d iscover­
ed a ham bone, an empty sardine can and a whisk­
bottle -the remnants of a workmans lunch.
The crew
is still searching for buried remains of
25 workers, victims of cave-ins and other cons­
truction mishaps whose bodies were never dug out,
as well as an ancient locomotive that may lie behind a wall deep
within the tunnel.
No evidence
has yet been found to support any
of the legends surrounding the tunnel. Over the
past century, Diamond
says, stories have linked
it to Confederate spies during the Civil War, boot­
leggers during Prohibition, smugglers, German
spies during both world wars, and Murder, Inc.,
hit man Bo Weinberg.
is now raising funds to construct a
tourist railway in the tunnel.
big steam locomotives laboring heroically
to surmount B.C.s rumpled terrain. But only
a few took photographers and fewer still took fine
We can only be grateful to the members of the
small group who
have left a worthwhile perm­
anent record
of railroading in pre-diesel days,
when locomotives tired easily and had
to be chan­
ged out, like stage coach horses, at a set mileage
One deserving high thanks
is the late AI Paull,
whose collection
of photographs is now in the
of the B.C. Provincial Archives, Paull,
who died in last
month, devoted the bulk of his
to filming Canadian Pacific Railway activity.
This loyalty is not too surprising in light of the
that he was the son of a CPR conductor.
Born in Nanaimo
in 1910, Paull was using a box
camera to photograph trains before he was 15.
He made photographs during years when the rail­
ways were
not interested in maintaining comp­
rehensive pictorial records.
Photographs were taken
on special occasions
or for publicity purposes, but normal operations
were ignored.
Most members
of the public accepted the rail­
as a fixture, necessary and as unexciting as a
water closet.
But Paull was excited and, during
out from the upholstery trade, he was to be
found waiting patiently at trackside setting up
shots. B.C. railway historian Barrie Sanford
Paull took several thousand photographs of rail­
way scenes between the mid-1920s and 1960.
activity lessened after the scrapping of steam
important contribution to preserving
S.C.s railway history
passed to Bordertown Photo­
graphs in the U.S. and
was subsequently acquired
by the B.C. Provincial Archives.
S. The Province.
the Stelco Steel plant at \Ianticoke, Ont.,
the first CP Rail train to use the railways
reactivated Lake Erie and Northern Railway
&N) line.
CP Rai I spent about $1 mi II ion to construct
and reactivate the one and a half miles (2.4 kilo­
of track and a 532-foot (159.4-metre)
bridge over ConRail tracks
to join the Toronto,
Hamilton and Buffalo (TH&B) rail line. Canad­
ian Pacific owns the
LE&N and the TH&B.
The project eliminated a bottleneck which
existed when trains tried
to cross the ConRail
tracks at a level crossing
point elsewhere in Water­
Crossing ConRail tracks was like waiting at a
busy intersection and delayed
CP Rail trains an
hour or more, explained D.C. Coleman, Eastern
Region vice-president.
Reactivating the LE&\I line reduces the return­
trip time between Hamilton and Nanticoke by
more than two hours.
in B.C. greets
passengers on B.C. Rails service
from North Vancouver to Prince George.
Every Sunday, Wednesday
and Friday, a train
of four dayliners (self-propelled pas­
senger cars) travels the 745-km route north. On
Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays, the train
makes the 13-hour return run to Vancouver.
Depending on the layout, up
to 80 passengers
can be accommodated in a car. But in the lead
car, which offers full-course meals as well as baggage
storage, seating is reduced to 40.
is no snack bar, but the railway offers
hot meals as an $18 addition to the oneway
of $46.30 to Prince George. The menu changes
daily, says company spokesman Jerry Collins. Seconds after leaving the B.C. Rail terminal at
7 :30 a.m., the train offers
passengers a view of
Vancouvers skyline. Then it passes beneath Lions
Gate Bridge and, skirting the shores
of Horseshoe
hugs the mountainsides.
Throughout the journey, travellers may glim­
pse deer, elk, moose and bears.
From Squamish east, the train begins climbing,
crossing Cheekeye
and Cheakamus Rivers and
passing Cheakamus Canyon. The mountain scenery
becomes more spectacular,
with the snow-capped
of Garibaldi and Whistler.
At Alta Lake, the train reaches the summit of
the Coastal range and begins a roller-coaster ride
as it passes through the Coastal and Cascade ranges.
At Lillooet the train is split. At least one car
on the 490-km journey to Prince George.
The remairiingcars return
to Vancouver.
north of Lillooet, the train crosses the
Fraser River on a high bridge. From
that point
north to Prince George, after briefly following
the Fraser, it swings farther inland.
At Kelly Lake, it enters the Cariboo ranching
area. But even here, the train continues climbing,
reaching 1, 177m. (3,861
ft.) at Horse Lake, the
point on the route.
Later, the train
passes the community of Chasm,
so named because of a canyon hundreds of metres
At Quesnel, travellers see a mixture of in­
dustry, ranching and lumbering. Ranches give way
to farms as the train nears Prince George, a city
of 76,000.
S. The Province.
end $80 mi Ilion to buy 48 new wide-body
but has decided after some soul­
to split the order between the countrys
two manufacturers.
The lions
share goes to General Motors of Can­
ada Ltd. at London, Ont., which will build 29
main-line locomotives, the railway
said yesterday.
General Motors boasts
that its new SD-50 model,
a 3,500-horse-power
unit being developed by the
parent company
in the United States, is state-of­
for locomotives.
Bombardier Ltd.
of Montreal will build 15
of its H R-616 3,000-horsepower locomotives. It
will also sell CN four others that it bought back
from the· railway last year to lease to CP Rail as
48 locomotives will augment Canadian
Nationals current fleet
of 2,100.
The railway
will spend $22.7 million rebuilding
32 medium-horsepower locomotives in its Montreal
shops, although there
wont be any new jobs creat­
said a spokesman.
We are pleased to announce the formation of the
the members of the Province of Manitoba. We
will be keeping you posted on the plans of the
Division as they become available and in the mean­
time if you are interested in joining the keystone
please contact Mr. Paul Schuff, 14 Rey­
nolds Bay, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3K OM4 Tele­
phone No. (204) 837-2714. Congratulations and
into the CR HA family.

St. Lawrence Valley Division
The St. Lawrence Valley Division would like to
take this opportunity to remind members that
have not renewed for 1984 that it is sti II not too
late to do so. New members are also welcome.
Dues for 1984 are $4.00 which should be sent along
with your name and address to the address given
on the
third page of Canadian Rail. Only Divis­
ion members
are guaranteed to receive notificat­
ion of all meetings, excursions and other special
events. .
La Division de la Vallee de St. Laurent voudrais
a ses membres qui nont pas renouvele
pour Iannee 1984,
quil nest pas trop tard de Ie
faire. Les nouveaux membres sont aussi les bien­
Les frais pour 1984 sont $4.00. Veuillez
la somme ainsi que votre nom et adresse
11 Iadresse mentionne sur la troisieme page de
Canadian Rail. Seulement les membres de Div­
isions sont guarantis
de recevoir avis de to utes
les reunions, excursions et dautres evenements
Toronto & York Division
For their Ontario Bicentennial Project the Div­
will restore ex-CP business car number 23
was acquired from the National Museum
of Science and Technology in Ottawa. The Div­
ision also
has a Fairmont Track Motor Car which
is temporairly in storage at the O.N.R. shops.
J. C. Bell
J. C. I Vice-President:
A. Rubin
H. Lowry
Museum: J. S. Rice
G. Bill inghurst
L. H. Partridge,
C. Langstaff,
J. Latimer,
J. Picur,
D. Henderson,
The Division
has issued a 1984 catalogue f0r
CRHA publications which is available to members
by writing to them at P.O. Box 5849, Station A
Toronto, Onto M5W I P3
By town Railway Society
The 1984 edition of the Societys Trackside
… is now available at $9.50 postage paid.
As previously reported it will now include VIA
Rail passenger equipment, streetcars and rapid
transit equipment.
Ex-CPR 4-6-2
number 1201 celebrates its
40th birthday this year and the Society is work­
ing on the preparation of a special booklet. More
on this later.
Niagara Division
An impromptlJ field trip was held by some
who visited the old Grand Trunk Tunnel
Thorold Ontario. The explorers discovered six
foot diameter icicles which hung from ceiling to
Two Division members were featured in a local
The Niagara Falls Review. The ar­
ticle conLerned
Andy Panko and Peter Bowen who
formed Niagara Rail Publications for the purpose
of publishing such books as their recent Steam
in Niagara, Their venture
has been successful
and they expect to publish more in the future.
Windsor & Essex Division
After a dormant period, the Divisions news­
letter Semaphore
is back on the rails. Besides the
regular meetings held the second Thursday
of each
month (except July & August), the Division will
be holding a Flea Market in the fall.
The Divisions 1984 executive
are as follows:
Vice President:
Rec. Secretary:
Directors: Ken
Syd Smitherman
Ken Garber
Todd Shaw
Larry Johnston
David Parker
Neil Smitherman
Bob Sanford
Jack Hart
Rocky Mountain Division/ APRA
The association has had a busy fall and winter
with work continuing at the museum. One liter-ally big
job was the moving of the Gibbons, 1919
40,000 imperial gallon, covered water
tank to the
It was moved IN ONE PIECE! This ex­
of a once-familiar structure on the Canadian
landscape in the days
of steam, will form an im­
portant and unique part of the museum complex.
Hopefully we can get more, details on its history
and move
for future publishing in Canadian Rail.
of the other museum activities included
to the tender of engine 1392; work on
1392 itself for spring inspection and steam-up;
of a furnace in the station; and of
course preparation of footings to accept the Gib­
bons watertank.
The association
has acquired ex-CP F7B No.
4459 which became
famous as the B unit
for the British Columbia lVIuseum Tram when it
travelled across Canada with Royal Hudson 2860
as the AU unit.
Canadian Railway Museum News
CN 69831 as it arrived at the St. Constant
Museum in Nov. 1979.
Built in June of
1910 this 36 foot double sheathed its 69
of service remarkably well, due in part
to its exile to maintenance of way service
in Manitoba. Doubtless the
dry cold praire
had helped slow the inevitable de­
that stal ks wooden freight cars. Thus,
from a weedy siding in Carman, Manitoba
an example of the Grand Trunks
standard vehicle of 1910 for the movement
of 30 tons of freight.
Trunk 17084 at the Canadian Rail­
way Museum Sept. 1983. The transformation
from CN 69831 is nearly complete; only
conversion to arch bar trucks remains out­
standing ..
has been installed and grab irons
have been straightened. Several coats of
primer and paint have soaked into the wood­
work. An exhaustive search of the Assoc­
iations Archives
has turned up the stencil­
ling blueprints
for Grand Trunk box cars
and the correct letters, numbers and data
have been applied. Volunteer Odilan Perr­
ault a CN pensioner has spent tireless hours
preparing the car
for display. Perraults
has worked. The photos speak for
Our thanks
to Ken Gosl~tt for the news
and photos;

Railfare has requested our assistance in their search
for photos for a new up-coming book. Anyone
has photos of electric trolley coaches of the
of Cornwall, Ontario or Saskatoon, Sask­
atchewan is requested to contact Railfare clo
IVir. Tony Clegg, 344 Beaulac, St. Hilaire P.O.
Canada, J3H 2W1
CRHA Membership
Our membership continues to climb thanks to
the prompt renewals that we are receiving from
our members. All deliquant 1982 and 83 mem­
have been re-invoiced and our membership
total now stands at 1225. We ask you to please
keep up the good work and if any member or
Division requires additional membership promo­
tion material please drop us a line.
Mr. Allan Paul, 403 Glascock Street, Raleigh,
North Carolina 27604 writes
as follows:
have recently restored a 36 inch guage, Climax
geared logging locomotive
for the United States
Forest Service. This locomotive,
CIN 1323 built
in 1915, is a Class B, 40 Ton model, thought to be
the only factory built narrow guage Climax still
in existence in the United States
or Canada. It is
now on display at the Cradle of Forestry in Am­
erica Museum,
Pisgah National Forest, North Car­
As part of my continuing research on Climax
locomotives, I
am trying to put together a com­
prehensive list
of the known examples of this
of geared locomotive still in existence in
the United States and Canada. I am aware of the
two Climax locomotives on display at the Brit­
ish Columbia Forest Museum. I was hoping that
you or other members of the Canadian Railroad
Histroical Association might
be aware of more
Climax locomotives in
Canada. I understand that
the Climax was a very popular logging engine in
your country. Also, that several Climaxs were
still operating well
into the 1950s in your country.
Should you or any of your colleagues know of
other examples of this rare locomotive, I would
be most interested in learning about them. If pos­
sible, I would like to know the locomotives pre­
sent owner, location, construction number, date
built, class, weight and condition (restored, op­
erable, der-elict, etc.).
Any assistance would be greatly appreciated. I
look forward
to hearing from you.
Douglas Courtney, 5 Melody Dr., Halifax
N.S. B3M 1
P8 has for sale extra slides con­
sisting mostly
of Canadian diesel roster
some action shots and some equip­
ment shots.
All slides are Kodachrome.
Lon Marsh, 8731-67 Avenue, Edmonton
Alta. T6E
OM9 would like to obtain items
and photos from the Northern Alberta
Railways 1929 -1984.
He would also like
information concerning the role the
had in transporting troops and su­
ppliers during World War II.
Over the years several major donations
have been
made to the Canadian Railway Museum at Delsonl
St. Constant
P.O. The original list of donors was
prepared by our Treasurer Mr. A.S. Walbridge and
recently updated
by Dr. R.V.V. Nicholls. The list
not include donations made to the CRHA
in the name of a Division. We wish at this time to
publish this list of generous donors who have
contributed from 1961 to date and express our
sincere thanks
for your help in making the Canad­
ian Railway Museum possible.
Algoma Steel Corporation
Allen, Peter C.
Aluminium Company of Canada
Angus, Donald and Mary
Angus, Frederick
Armco Drainage Canada Ltd.
Banque Canadienne Nationale
of Montreal
Bombardier, Inc.
Booth, J.R.
British American Oil Company, Grandsons
British Columbia Electric Company Ltd.
Brook-Bond Limited
Canada Dominion Sugar Company
Duff-Norton Company Ltd.
Canadian Bronze Company
Canadian General Transit Company
Canadian Industries limited
Canadian National Railways
Canadian Pacific Railway
Pittsburgh Industries Ltd.
Canadian Salt Company ltd.
Canadian Westinghouse
Company Ltd.
Casey Hewson Limited
Cheasley C.
Crawley & McCracken Company Ltd.
Cumberland Railway & Coal Co.
Dart Union
Company of Canada Ltd.
Dominion Foundries & Steel Ltd.
Dominion Bridge Company ltd.
Dominion of Canada
Dow Brewery Ltd.
Dow Chemical
Company of Canada
Eaton, Timothy C.
Ethco InveS1ments Ltd.
General MOtors, Diesel
Products Division
Grier, Mrs. Louise
Hewitt Equipment Ltd.
Hickson, Mrs.
Hollinger Gold Mines
H. P
Senator Adrian K.
Tobacco Company of Canada
International Harvester Company
International Paints (Canada) ltd.
Oil limited
Jenkins Brothers Limited
Lacey, Mrs. Herbert V.
Mrs. Lang
Lemoyne, Bland and Associates
The Macdonald· Stewart Foundation
Marathon Paper Company
The McConnell Foundation
Montreal Bronze Company Ltd.
The Olson Foundation
M. L.W., . Worthington ltd.
Molsons Brewery Ltd.
The Molson Foundation
Montreal City and District Savings Bank
Harbours Board
itt, A. Deane
Mrs. Nora Nicholls
R.V.V. Nicholls
Northern Electric Company Ltd.
of Ottawa
Hiram Piper Ltd.
Pirelli Cables Limited
ort of london Authority
Pro cor Limited
of Quebec
Provincial Bank of Canada
Pyle· National (Canada) Ltd.
Quebec Hydro-Electric Power Commission
Reford, Lewis Eric
and Saguenay Railway
Royal Bank of Canada
Royal T rust
Scott. Mrs. Clara Scott
Smith, H. Grevi1te
Soper, Warren Y.
Southam Press
Standard Chemical limited
Steel Company of Canada
Steep Rock Iron Mines ltd.
Stephens, S. A.
Texaco (Canada) limited
Toronto·Domionion Bank
Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Aailway
Union Switch
& Signal Company
United Aircraft
Vapor Heating (Canada) ltd.
Viau. Charles
Lome C. Webster
Whitley, Miss Barbara
A Montreal Tram ….. ·ays Co. t,..,o-car train, consis-;ing 01
car 1574 anj an unijentifi· j 1600-claGs trailer, is
seen en route to Blue Bonnets race track ou June 19
1948. The branch from the Cartie rville line to the
track was still verj rural in appearance then. C.R.H.A.
Archives. Toohey Collection.
Canadian Rail
P.o. Box 282 St. Eustache, Que., Canada
J7R 4K6
Postmaster. If undelivered within
10 days return to sender, postage guaranteed.
first premiere
cia •• classe
SI·fu,..:IIe, 0 …
01II1I •• lIon ~11

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