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Canadian Rail 374 1983

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Canadian Rail 374 1983

-.. –







November,. 1919.
WED. THU.
45
VANCO~U~V~E~~ ………. …
,C1op.~ ~ … .:!TORONTO
~
Toront.a:Vancouver
(Both Ways)
GO … rllelGl. SUMOAY. OCTOBE. 5th, 1 ….. ln
TORONTO
(UNION .TATION)
9.15 P.M.
DAILY
MOST MODERn EQUIPMENT
Standard Sleeping, Dining. Tourist and
Colonist Cars. First-class Da, Coaches.
Parlor Car through the Rockies.

Su .. d_t. Mo .. d.,. Wed …. d. rid
Cndl, .. Ibtlo .. ,1 .11 the ..
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OUIUAL PASSENGER DE, .. RTMEIfT, TORO.O
. Canadian.:-NatiDhalRiI-ilwall5


Published bi-monthly by the Canadian Railroad
Historical Association P.O Box
148 St. Constant P.O.
JOL IXO. Subscription rates $21.20
(US funds if outside Canada)
EDITOR: Fred F Angus
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Term of convenience to lelal entity:
The Canadian National Railways
1918 to 1923.
KENNETH S. MACKENZIE
World War One had a disruptive effort on the
entire world, and by its wayside fell two major
Canadian systems,
the Grand Trunk Railway Com­
pany of Canada and the Canadian lJortilern Rail­
way Company. The management
of the Canadian
Northern was convinced it could have ridden
out the
bad times, while Grand Trunk officers were equally
certain their railway should have survived. Recent
historical work
is showing that the nationalization
process involving these
rai Iways that resulted in the
formation of the Canadian National Railway was
not a shotgun marriage, as has been suggested,
but rather a matter of definite government policy,
largely
as a means to counteract the monopoly of
the Canadian Pacific.
1 Be that as it may, during the
period 1918 to 1923 the govern ment of Canada
took slow, methodical steps that ultimately united
a disparate group of railways into Canadian National
Railways. This article discusses
the steps leading to
what was to become the largest transportation
system
in America.
Canada
has often been described as two warring
nations existing
in one bosom, with many of its
problems being laid to
the disparities between the
two. Imagine, then, the situations where not two
but three extremely different railway systems were
brought together
to act as a cohesive unit within
this frail entity. These warring companies were,
broadly speaking, the Grand
Trunk Railway sys­
tem, run sheerly for
the profits of its absentee
shareholders
in Britain, the Canadian Government Railways, a much-scorned conglomeration of
usually-non-profitable railways, and the junior of
the group,
at least in terms of years, the Canadian
Northern Railway system,
th9 motives of whose
builders are still open
to much conjecture. 2
The grand Trunk Railway was Canadas pioneer,
but that does not release it from the opprobrium
that surrounded it and its management for much
of its independent career in Canada. When it could
not make money legitimately it did so by other
means, such as selling shares to obtain capital with
which
to pay dividends on higher preference stock,
or juggling
the books to make its results look better,
as when it was fighting for compensation from the
Canadian government. 3ut it nevertheless provided
a legacy
other than simply being first: it gave the
Canadian National much of its Quebec and Ontario
trackage and
the majority of its American connect­
ions -including a direct outlet to the Atlantic
through a year-round ice-free port
at Portland.
Maine.
The government-built railways, on
the other
hand, were unabashedly non-commercial in their
outlook and operation. They were built primarily
to fulfil political or strategic purposes. Thus the
Intercolonial Railway was built to honour a con­
federation promise
to the Maritimes; its route was
chosen with an eye
to our restless cousins to the
south and a consideration for local realities, which
explains its occasional meanders.
The majority
of these non-commercial railways
were centralized, either
in the Maritimes (the Inter­
colonial,
the Prince Edward Island Railway and the
Newfoundland Railway, for instance) or in the
west, where the most important example was the
group that became known collectively as the North­
ern Alberta Railways. The main legacy of
the
government railways was threefold -access to a
year-round Canadian port; essential mileage
in the
Maritimes, no matter how wandering the right-of­
way; and an abiding distaste
in the country at large
for government-owned and operated railways and
their
attendant expense and reputations as hotbeds
of patronage.
1. Those interested in following up on these generalisations are recommended to read: D.B. Hanna, Trains of Recol­
lection, (Toronto, 1924), especially p. 304; John Eagle, Monopoly or Competition: The Nationalization of the Grand
Trunk Railway, Canadian Historical Review, Vol. LXII, 1981, pp. 3-30; Garth Stevenson, Canadian National Rail­
ways, in AI/an Tupper & Doern, G_ Bruce, eds., Public Corporations and Public Policy in Canada, (Montreal, 1981)
pp. 319-51;and G.R. Stevens, History of the Canadian National Railways, (Toronto, 1973).
2. See rD. Regehr, The Canadian Northern Railway, (Toronto, 1976), for the most sympathetic account of the mo­
tivations of its builders, William Mackenzie and Donald Mann.
SOME TIMETABLES OF THE PREDECESSOR COMPANIES that formed the C.N.R.
But in many ways the story of the Canadian Northern Railway
is probaby the most remark­
able
of all Canadian railway stories. It was remark­
able
in that, in the period 1896 to 1914, a system was built to
rival the great Canadian Pacific Rail­
way; remarkable in that this was accomplished,
at first, with a minimum
of public funds or sub­sidies; truly remarkable for
the widespread lack of
knowledge today of its career. It is due to the
Canadian Northern Railway
that the northern prairies were opened
up when they were and not
when the
CPR decided they should be.
The builders of the Canadian Northern, William
Mackenzie and Donald Mann, ably assisted by
D.B. Hanna and M.H. Macleod, were able to turn
to their advantage the dislike of the CPR in Central
and Western Canada to receive much encourage­ment from the public and from provincial
legis-
latures. Welcomed in Western Canada, these men were viewed
as upstarts by lord Shaughnessy of the
CPR and Sir Charles Rivers Wilson of the GTR;
they were more than willing to share and exploit
contemporary opinion
in the east that Mackenzie
& Mann were nothing more than promotors det­
ermined
to sell their property to the highest bidder, without any real desire
to operate it. This was pro­bably a fundamental misunderstanding of their motives, and it
as much as anything else brought
about the catastrophic confrontation whereby
the construction of not one,
but two additional transcontinental railways was commenced
in 1903.
From
the railway boom of 1903 a direct path
can
be traced to the formation of the Canadian
National Railways. The euphoria of the times,
the
feeling of optimism, the determination to prove
CANADIAN
78
R A I L
Laurier correct about Canadas destiny, drove politicians and public alike
to clamour for a
TRANS CANADA RAILWAY
Shortest, Ocean
to Ocean
A Canadian Line
For Canadian People
Through Canadian Territory
To Canadian Ports 3
An historian writing of these days, and of det­
ermined efforts
to obtain cooperation between
Rivers Wilson and
C.M. Hays on one side, and
Mackenzie and Mann on the other,
gives an excellent
account of a meeting sponsored by Laurier; it
ended disastrously. Wilson, while imp­
ressed with Mackenzies wit and ab­
ility, still regarded
the Canadian North­
ern Railway
as a backwoods line. He
contemptuously dismissed the arrange­
ment suggested by Mackenzie and Mann
as a proposed partnership between two
very unequal railways. The general
manager
of the Canadian Bank of Commerce reported despairingly of the
meeting, and described Sir Rivers
Wilson acting
in a most tactless mann­
er and showing a complete ignorance
of
the railroads in the North West. 4
Hanna later remembered Shaughnessy telling
Mackenzie I
wi II see the hides of you and Mann on
the fence before I get through with you.
5 With
attitudes like
that it is not surprising to find all
three railways competing not very sensibly. After
1903 the Grand Trunk was preoccupied
in the west
and being sapped by its efforts
to build the Grand
Trunk Pacific Railway while watching
in awe and
horror at the cost over-runs
in the building of the
National Transcontinental Railway, its eastern
section
that was to be leased to it once the govern­
ment had completed it; the Canadian Northern
paying through
the nose for obscure lines in the
Maritimes and Quebec and Ontario to
give it its
desperately needed eastern outlet, while at the
same time pushing its own route through the Rock­
ies. The war called a halt
to the frantic compet­
ition of the two railways. The last spike on
the
National Transcontinental was driven on 17 Nov­
ember 1913; the first train on the full Grand Trunk
Pacific ran on 8 April 1914; while
the last spike
on the Canadian Northern transcontinental line was dourly hammered
in on 23 January 1915.
Canada had its three transcontinental railway lines –
and two of them were headed straight for dis­
aster.
We come now to the involved process that result­
ed
in the formation of the Canadian National
Railways. The amalgamation of the Grand Trunk
and Canadian Northern railways was a lengthy,
drawn-out procedure
that was to involve federal
legislators
in over five years of effort and countless
investigations.
The first step was
to unravel the mysteries of the
Canadian Northern System, no mean task in view of
tile results of the legal and financial wizardry of
Z.A. Lash, one of Mackenzie and Manns most
valued employees. This the government achieved
in
part by taking over all outstanding shares, first
by bringing intoeffect some clauses
of the act
granting
aid to the system that had lain dormat
since its passage
in 1914. Thus, as of 1 March 1917 the Canad
ian Northern Saskatchewan, the
Canadian Northern Western and
the Canadian
Northern Pacific railways were
all declared to be
works for the general advantage
of Canada and
hence within
the jurisdiction of the dominion
Bureau of
Rai Iway Commissioners. This was a sign­
ificant move
as it removed those subsidiary organ­
isations from provincial control, something which
the British Columbia government at least had tried
to ensu re did not happen.
Following the release of the Drayton-Acworth
Royal Commission Report
in May 1917 (probably
one of the most important such reports
in the history of Canadian National) and
the unequivocal
opinion
of the two gentlemen named that the Grand
Trunk Pacific and Canadian Northern railways
should have long since been amalgamated,
6 the
government announced in the House of Commons
on 1 August 1917 it intended
to take the necessary
steps
to bring the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway
3. This was the masthead of the Morning Chronicle, Quebec, for much of 1903
4. Regehr, op. cit.,pp. 170-111.
5. Hanna testimony to the Senate Hearing on the report of the Duff Royal Commission, 1 February 1933 Senate
Proceedings, 4th Session., 23 Geo. V., 1932-33, p. 178.
6. Report of the Royal Commission to inquire into Railways and Transportation in Canada, Canada, House of Com­
mons, Sessional Paper No. 20g. It received its short name from its two commissioners who wrote the majority report.
CANADIAN
79
R A I L
A new era starts. Canadian Nationals first timetable Jan­
uary 5, 1919. Most of the interior headings still read Tan­
adian Government Railways~
under its wing, as it was in imminent danger of
collapse. The Finance Minister stated the govern­
ment would organize that railways board of dir­
ectors as it saw fit while insisting that the parent
Grand Trunk retain its full responsibility for the
huge commitments of its ailing subsidairy. A week
later, in September, the government received the
required authorization to take over the stock of
the Canadian Northern Railway System that was
not already held by the Crown, at the price to be
determined by arbitration -so long as it did not
pay over ten million dollars for the property. 7
That was the easy part: after a, not too many
people by that time considered the stock of either
company to be an attractive investment. The next
step was to take over the operation and management
of these two railways. While the necessary delib­
erations were being carried out the railways con­
tinued to operate: not until September 1918 did
the government assert its authority over the Can­
adian Northern Railway and appoint a new board,
under D.B. Hanna. To the dismay of at least one
member of the opposition the railway was thus
left in the hands of the Canadian Northern crowd,
the same people who have been filching money
from this country for years. 8 However, he over­
simplified
the matter, for there was a major diff­
erence -Mackenzie and Mann were no longer in­
volved in its affairs.
Two months later the Canadian Government
Railways were turned over to the newly-recons­
structed Canadian Northern board for operqtion
only, leaving management, and title to the rail­
ways lands, under the old arrangement with the
Minister of Railways and Canals in charge, 9 the
government proving as reluctant as its private
enterprise rivals to loosen all controls over its
railways. Hanna, one-time
3rd Vice-President of
the Canadian Northern Railway under Mackenzie
and Mann, therefore became the president of the
slowly-uniting system.
A third Order-in-Council following hard on the
heels of the earlier ones finally established what
the new organization was to be called: Canadian
National Railway was to be the title of the new
system -but this was only a collective or descrip­
tive .
.. (but not corporate) title. In case there
was any ambiguity or misunderstanding as to the
governments intent, the order explained the dis­
tinction even farther. The use of such a title is a
mere matter of d.escription for convenience of
7. Canada, House of Commons, Statutes, 7-8 Geo. v., c. 24.
8. Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 23 April 1919, p. 1645.
9_ PC. 2854,20 November 1918.
reference and does not create a new legal corp­
orate
entity, or affect in any manner whatsover
the
legal status or rights or obligations of the in­
dividual corporations collectivel¥ so denoted.
IO
And so D.B. Hanna became the irst president of
the Canadian National Railways, albeit
not in a
legal sense!
Under
the Headline The Canadian National Railways Inaugurated, the Canadian Railway
&
Marine World quoted President Hannas announce­ment of this: Effective Jan
1,1919, the railways
heretofore known
as the following,
viz.: Canadian Northern
Ry. System.
Eastern and Western Lines; Canadian
Government Railways, National Trans­
continental Railway, Intercolonial Ry.,
of Canada, Prince Edward Island Ry.,
will be operated under
the name of the
Canadian National Railways, the head­
quarters of which will
be in Toronto.
10. PC. 3122,20 December 1918.
~==========~==========================,
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS.
Canadian Northern Railway System
Canadian Government Railways
…….. —-… ::.~ _ ….. _ …… .
—–_ … .

FOR INFORMATION AND DETAILS ADDRESS
H. S. HEAD. Forel, Frei,ht A,ent
C. H. KENT. Export A,ent
H. C. WILCOX, Import A,ent
F, STEPHANY, Frei,ht Traffic Rep.
1542 Woolworth Bid, .. NEW YORK, N. Y.
Tel.
Whitehall 6970
,
PRINTFn , … U. &. A.

I~ ,
~~1,
• 0

Ull
l}.
oJ
I
THE lARGEST
RAIL WAY SYSTEM
IN AMERICA
OOBdN
TWO MAPS OF THE CANADIAN NATIONAL SYSTEM. The first is date d 1 91 9 and shows
the system before the Grand Trunk was included the u
se of the name Canadian Government Railways in the
The other map is from a blotter dated 1925 and shows the
system after the Grand Trunk was taken over.
(notice m
argin) . comple te
CANADIAN
In operating and corresponding, off­
icers of any of the above mentioned
railways will in future use the name
Canadian ljational Railways. We shall
be obliged if
in the future the public
and our connections will address their
commu n ications and reports to the
proper officers of the Canadian Nat­
ional Railways.
11
81
Even choosing the name was no easy task. The
government defended its choice in high moral
tones, stating the new title had been arrived at
after deep discussion, taking into consideration
its philosophical intent in engaging in such an
enterprise. It was to be called Canadian National
Railways rather than Canadian Government Rail­
ways (the only other choice really mentioned by
government spokesmen) because that was more
plebeian, or more cosmopolitan. Government
suggests authority. We want to suggest that th is
is the nations or the peoples, property.
An opposition spokesman quickly cut through
this rhetoric and got to the crux of the matter, as
11. Canadian Railway & Marine World, january 1919, p. 22.
R A L
explained to him by no less of an authority than
Hanna; the government had stuck with the in­
itials
CN R because to have done otherwise would
have required repainting the initials on all the old
Canadian Northern locomotives and rolling stock.
12
This accommodation to reality, this penchant for
compromise, was carried into legal entity of the
national railways once fully formed; the new name
was ensconced in the old Grand Trunk emblem.
The solution to the name dilemma was not
without its problems, though, as more than one
person, including judges, were confused by the
legal niceties involved. One such gentleman, in
a decision rendered in the case of an employees
dispute with the Company in 1921, wrote that
in short,. for all we know, the Canadian National
Railway C·ompany has not begun to exist13 and
of course he was correct. This confusion existed
after tl1e time of the legislative statement of the
Companys legal status, too; another judge handed
down a similar decision using similar reasoning
in
December 1923. 14
12. The verbal exchange can be found in Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 23 April 1919, p. 1779.
13. Clipping, n.d., marked submitted to Directorsmeeting, October 20/21. CNR. Records, Archivists Collection.
14. See Canadian Railway & Marine World, February 1924, p. 64, reporting this case and others.
SOME OF THE LOCOMOTIVES ACQUIRED WITH THE GRAND TRUNK were quite
old and did not last long. G.T.R. 2321 had been built by Cooke
in July 1893 and became C.N.R. 171 in 1923. However it did not
serve long under that number, in fact it may never even have had
the number applied, for it was scrapped in November 1923.
CANADIAN
82

NEW·
1IkANS~:
R A I L
,CONTINENT Ai
,
S,HOR :F .. RCHJ.TE::,
– :«, Ck~Al)l~N, rmvtRN.MtSI RkU,,)S.
l1:i~flSK.;~nNG & NOR:nf~RN OlLRl() RAU~WA Y ,
, . PR;(SI,l TIU)NK R.~I.l.WAX Sy,~~t ~ ~
BETWEEN TORUNTO AND WINtjIP,E,C
. C6~111ENClNG •. Y.SS1BOU;O. –r,UESll.y. JULY !)tlt
VI~ &chtM~. ~b~tl 3~j~~~~~(~~~.~~1~:~~o~?~:::o~:~: ~
. , lb~!;lI.h llie ~:IUIl~I~.lJtI)(Qo.hltl(!
…….. Finest F.quipttumt:, Sph1ndld ~oidbed.:
How much thought the government put into
its railway company was
to be operated during its
vulnerable transition stage
is conjectural. It is a
question of critical importance when
we start to consider the state of the railway once
an unfettered Canadian National Railways management succeeded
to the task of running it. Yet it
is an area of the
railways history
that has been almost totally
ignored. There
is mo re than a 51 ight suggestion
that the government, enervated by its activities
to then, tried
to ignore the whole matter. It cer­
tainly left unanswered many questions
as to the detailed form the new structure should take. Thus
in August 1919 Hanna was forced to write to the
Minister of Railways & Canals prodding him to
take some basic decisions -for example, as to the
appointment of a new board of directors, and the
location of the combined headquarters. 15
But at least one crucial decision had been taken:
the nationalized railways were to
be run, not as a
government department
as had been the old Can­
adian Government Railways,
but as a quasi-indep­
endent body, free from political interference and
reporting directly to the Minister of Railways
&
Canals.
1 6
The subleties as to how that arrangemen1
75. Hanna to Reid, 72 August 1919, CNR. Records, Archivists Collection, File 300-2.
16. Borden put it best, speaking to parliament on 15 May 1918, Canada, House of Commons, Debates, p. 1999.
CANADIAN 83
would guarantee political independence excercised
more than a
few critics of the railway, but the
shadow
of the I ntercolonial Railways reputation
was too obvious to be avoided.
R A I L
common knowledge, and one suspects that H.G.
Kelly, the Grand Trunks president. was as per­
ceptive. Hanna himself
had no illusions that it
would not happen, although probably did not
expect to be left as long in charge as he was. In
commenting on the situation in 1921, Sir Joseph
Flavelle, the man
to whom the government had
entrusted the Grand Trunk Railway in its last days
of quasi-independence, remarked that
The major criticism of the governments actions,
however,
was not over the choice of name or the
type of control (once it was realized the railways
would
be nationalized), but at the unconscionable
time it was taking the government to bring the
amalgamation
to the point where Canadian Nat­
ional Railways became
legal entity. To be sure the
necessary legislation
was passed as early as June
1919., when Royal Assent
was granted to An
Act to incorporate the Canadian National Rail­
way Company and respecting Canadian National
Railways,l7 but there the matter languished. The
act
was not to come into effect until the board we still have, and continue
to have,
the unprofitable, uneconomic and un­
satisfactory situation in which largely
the Intercolonial Railway
is a system
operating
as before, the Grand Trunk
operating completely as before and the
Canadian Northern, Grand
Trunk Pacific
of directors was appointed, and despite the her­
culean
efforts of Prime Minister Meighen and sub­
sequently Mackenzie King and his Minister
of
Railways rx Canals, W.C. I(ennedy, nobody could be
found willing to take the chairmanship of the board.
Meanwhile Hanna
and his staff continued on,
doing
what they considered to be a creditable job
and waiting. for the proverbial axe to fall. That it
would eventually, especially in Hannas case, was
77. Canada, Statutes, 9-70 Geo., v., c. 73.
and National Transcontinental operating
commonly in harmony under one
administrative body.
What
had to be done, said Flavelle, was to take
these seperate organizations,
this great ragged
situation, and get them working together. It was
a daunting task, for the railway would always have
an absentee landlord lurking in the background
Canadian National Railway ten wheeler 1203 and
crew photograph from the Provincial Archives of
Alberta No. 87086, place and date unknown.
-a political body subject to the conditions which
may be incident in Canada. In other words, to
political reality. I have very grave doubts, he
continued, that even if the angel Gabriel came
down that this great property could be admin­
istered on behalf of the public as a public enterprise
under the absolutely necessitous condition it shoul
be. 18
Mackenzie King said it a little differently: the
difficulties that have arisen day by day in welding
together these two systems with the official staff
of each (by this time only the parent Grand Trunk
remained outside the fold) had convinced him
that it would have been practically impossible
to have done this with the head of either one of the
seperate systems at the head of the amalgamated
system.19
A PORTRAIT OF D.B. HANNA first head
of Canadian National Railways.
Nevertheless Hanna was convinced his efforts
had provided a solid basis for whoever took over
his railway, ,which was now able to render de­
pendable, efficient transportation to the coun­
try.20 He was not alone in this opinion; as the editor
of the influential journal Canadian Railway &
Marine World wrote, after a long period of dis­
heartening operating losses, Mr. Hanna was able,
in August 1921, to show net operating earnings
of $47,321.44 compared with a deficit for August
1920, of over $4,000,000. Thus the results
secured by Mr. Hanna and his officers, in the final
year of his administration, have shown conclus­
ively
that they have succeeded in consolidating
the lines into a system that need only traffic to
make it at least able to be self-supporting, outside
18. F/ave/le Papers, Public Archives of Canada, MG30-A 16, vol. 75, report of meeting, 14 September 1921. The pur­
pose of the meeting was for Flavelle to be told by Toronto businessmen why it was his duty to take the presidency of the
national railways -something earnestly desired by Prime Minister Meighen as well. See Micheal Bliss, A CaniJdian Mil­
lionaire, (Toronto, 1978), chapter 16, pp. 384-417 for an excellent treatment of Flave/les activities at that time.
19. Canada, House of Commons, Debates, as quoted in Canadian Railway & Marine World, May 1923, p. 204. This
excellent journal reported the events of these times accurately; it is well worth perusing.
20. D.B. Hanna quoted in ibid., November 1922, p. 554.
, : . . .
. ~~ ~~—-~~ -~ -.,.-,-~.~.~~-~. -,-
.. …..
.,., < . ,.,
CGR sleeper Vil/eroy first in a series of aI/ -steel sleeping
cars built for CGR in 1916, to an ICR design. Built by
National Steel Car. (ref C. Norman Lowe, Canadian Nat­
ional in the east Calgary, 1983,)
C.N. Photo 67581.
-;. ….
;.,,::r,:…?: …..
,.,.-
,,_( -i-
,/.
Baggage Car 3600 dated 1919 . but Canadian National
Railways library -buffet.
C.N. Photo 70040

,
… ~
.~ , <,:
., ….
CANADIAN 86 R A I L
of fixed charges. It is an outstanding fact, cont­
inued the editor,
of nationalized railways.23 In another instance, Kelley
intransigently refused to bring forward to a pos­
ition
of prominence within the Grand Trunk pro­
That in 1921 the Canadian National mising junior officers, in order that they would
was the only transcontinental line in be in evidence when the positions in the national
North America to increase its gross railway were being apportional. Flavelle had tried
earnings over those of 1920. Despite very hard to get Kelley to do this and was bitt­
the effects of the great industrial de-erly disappointed at his failure in not convincing
pression
which spread over the cont-the Grand Trunk president to act in a statesmanlike
inent, and slowed down all depart-manner. I ments of business, the progress in the plaining how Canadian National Railways was
work of making the National System later susceptible to charges of being run by a Can­
great and successful was well main-adian Northern clique. Flavelle felt betrayed by
tained under Mr. Hannas direction.
21
his fellow businessman and did not hesitate to say
This was by no means a minority opinion and it
seems that while the politicians were deciding the
destiny o·r his railway, Hanna and his staff laboured
mightily to provide a worthwhile legacy for who­
ever took over.
The events surrounding the takeover of the Grand
Trunk Railway were entirely another matter.
Where Mackenzie and Mann agreed to assist in
any way, the Grand Trunk management, led by
H.G. I(elley, made no bones of the fact they would
not cooperate in any way to lessen the impact
of the merger. Mackenzie apparently was parti­
cularly helpful, informing the government (hope­
fully
with tongue in cheek) that as he was very
intimately acquainted with all aspects of the
Canadian Northern Railway he would be very
happy to make his services available to the new
management as it wished -all without remuneration,
Meighen hastened to assure parliament. 22
Kelley on the other hand did his best to ob­
struct an easy transition, to the dismay of Flavelle,
chairman of its board since May 1921. This led
ultimately to a discreditable scene at a meeting
attended by Meighen where a disgruntled Flavelle
confronted Kelley with evidence of duplicity in
his dealings with the Montreal Star newpaper,
whose editor and publisher were both sworn foes
21. Ibid., p. 559.
so in public and even more bitterly in private.
24
Grand Trunk shareholders were as reclutant to
give up their shares as their officers were to give
up control of the railway. The legislative process
that effected this was largely by way of act of
parliament rather than by the more informal Order­
in-Council approach that had taken care of the
Canad ian Northern. Parliamentary auth ority to
commence the takeover was granted in November
1919. with authority for the takeover itself being
passed
in May 1920. Not until a year later, in May
1921, did the government step in to exert control
over the management of the system. Then it ap­
pointed a Committee of Management to insure
operation in harmony with Canadian National
Railways. This committee consisted of two Grand
Trunk officers, two representatives of the govern­
ment, and a fifth, nominated by the others. 25 This
group never functioned owing to the hostile
attitude of Mr. Kelley and the Grand Trunk rep­
resentatives, 2 6 so the. Grand Trunk stumbled along
while a government-appointed board of arbitration,
as in the case of the Canadian Nothern but with
slightly different parameters, determined the worth
of its stock and the compensation to be paid to its
shareholders.
Much has been written of the perfidy of the way
in which the Canadian government finally took
22. Meighens statement on The Railway Situation in Canada, Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 15 May 1918,
p.999.
23. Regehr, op. cit., pp. 409-10 contains an excellent account of this.
24. Flavelle Papers, lac. cit., are instructive reading!
25. Canadian National Railways, a document in CNR. Records, Archivists Collection.
26. Gerard Ruel to Deputy Minister of Railways & Canals, 14 February 1929, ibid.
Interior of C.N. Passenger Car. c. 1920.
C.N. Photo 67582.
over the Grand Trunk shares. Initially the govern-wrote that the case may be one of generosity
ment offered them a perpetual annuity on a rather than street justice in view of the lengthy
sliding scale to a maximum of $3,6000,000 in record of the Grand Trunk.29 In the eyes of the
consideration of the surrender to the Crown of shareholders, at least, street justice prevailed. They
all the capital stock. The Grand Trunk refused received nothing for their shares.
to have anything to do with this and turned down The last report to be considered before the
the offer almosy scornfully and most unwise-Minister of Railways &. Canals made its recomm-
ly,2 7as one participant wryly noted. Unwisely, endations was that of the Grand Trunk Arbitr-
because when the arbitration board handed down ation Board. It was released on 7 September 1921.
its
majority decision it stated these very shares Then a federal election intervened and resu Ited in
were worthless. The award -or, more precisely, a change of government. This and the real problem
the lack of one -was challenged in the courts all of finding a replacement for Hanna postponed the
the way to the British Privy Council, but to no ultimate decision for months. Finally, on 4 October
avail. No court considered the shareholders had a 1922 the new board of directors, including Sir
legal
leg on which to stand. Henery Worth Thornton, was named.
30
They met
Appeals were then made to the Canadian govern-on 10 October and passed the formalities resu Iting
ments sense of moral responsibility, a remarkable in his becoming president of the Canadian National
tactic for those whose companys probity had been Railways. The order-in-council making the ap-
discredited as details
of its machinations had be-pointments, on 4 October 1922, made Canadian
come obvious to auditors pouring over its books. National Railways a legal entity. On 20 January
Drayton and Acworth in 1917 had stated that 1923 the government at last overcame its reluctance
the purchase of the Grand Trunk shares should and turned over the management of the Canadian
be negotiated as a case for generosity rather than Government Railways .. Ten days later, struggling
strict justice.
28
This statement was later paraphrased all the way, the Grand Trunk Railway was add­
(or
perhaps aptly misquoted) by an official who ed,31 uniting the system as it is largely known today.
27. Ibid.
28. Drayton-Acworth Report, op. cit., p. Ixv.
29. C.G. MO(Jn, ~ Synopsis of the Drayton-Ackworth (sic) Report -1917; with Particular Reference to the Grand
Trunk and the G. T.P., Montreal, 13 January 1921, CNR. Records, Archivists Collection.
30. PC. 2094, 4 October 1922.
31. PC. 181, 30 January 1923.
CANADIAN
88
RAJ L
First Class Sleeper Toronto. Built by Canadian Car & Foun­
dry,
1919. All steel, 12 sections 1 drawing room sleeper.
Interior . green plush. Mahogany berths. One of 45 of its
type.
C.N. Photos 67542 and 67599.

IS
By Les Kosma
In this automobile age, where elapsed time to
reach
our destination is an important factor, we
are
apt to take the history of our highways very
much for granted. Cruising along, passing the
ocasional historical site marker and stopping
only out of sheer necessity, we can easily
become restless and bored. Yet, most of us
know practically nothing about the areas
through which we pass. Perhaps a better
appreciation of the history of the province
would alleviate our boredom and open our eyes
to
what is around us. Highway 16 west of
Edmonton is a route with a particularly
fascinating past.
The road we
think we know so well today had its
beginnings well over 150 years ago. The area
between Fort
Edmonton and the Athabasca Pass,
east
of Jasper, was long the exclusive domain of the
Indians until David Thompson became the first white
man to traverse this vast region, making his way in
1810
to Kootenay House in the B.C. interior. The next
significant event in the region occurred in 1823when
a half-breed furtrader with blondish hair crossed the
Athabasca Pass.
Hoping to build a cache further
west, he crossed through yet another pass and
cached his
goods near the Fraser River on the
opposite side of the Divide. It was his nickname that
became attached to this latter pass -Tete Jaune,
French
for Yellow Head.
In the 1870s, surveys for a transcontinental
railway (a condition of British Columbia joining
Confederation), sparked considerable interest in the
area. Prepared
by noted government engineer
Sanford Fleming,
this proposed route carried the line
west from
Winnipeg to a point just south of
Edmonton, through the Yellowhead Pass and on to
Vancouver. However it was later found expedient to
shift the proposed line further south, shortening the
mileage
to Vancouver and ensuring that the new
railway
would compete favourably with American
railways
south of the border. It also proved to be
politically useful as a deterrent against American
expansionary movements towards Canada.
As a result the
Canadian Pacific Railway
abandoned its Yellowhead alignment in favour of a
new one through Calgary, thence striking west
through the Kicking Horse and Rogers Passes in
British
Columbia. The region west of Edmonton fell
silent again, peopled only by Indians and furtraders,
for the next thirty years.
Alberta became a province in 1905. Fittingly, late
that same year the Canadian Northern Railway
(CNoR) -considered a
local railway -reached
Edmonton from Winnipeg. The next year it
This was the
private train carrying Grand Trunk
Pacific
officials on their first inspection visit to
Edmonton in 1904. Provincial Archives of Alberta, E.
Brown Collection No. B6219.
CANADIAN 90 . R A I L
completed branch lines to Morinville and Stony
Plains. This latter branch was planned as the initial
phase
of the CNoRs mainline to Vancouver, B.C.
Competition arrived in Edmonton in 1909 in the form
of the Grand Trunk Pacific (GTP), an off-shoot of the
old Grand
Trunk Railway system (GTR) in the east.
An Tiltense
corporate rivalry developed between
the CNoR and GTP.
This competitiveness was
further fuelled by public opinion: westerners saw
these new railways as a way
of breaking what they
felt was a
monopoly in the west by the well­
established Canadian Pacific Railway. Sensing the
attitude of their constituents, the two senior levels of
government jumped on the railway bandwagon and
government purse strings were loosened. Scores of
subsidies and bond guarantees were offered to
railways in return for development of new lines
throughout western Canada. Overnight, railways of
every conceivable nature sprang up out of nowhere ..
It was in this prevailing mood that the CNoR andGTP
plunged headlong into an extension of their railway
empires.
Without pausing in Edmonton the GTP relentlessly
continued its main line west through Stony Plains
passing Lake Wabamun and
continuing on to Edson,
By 1912 steel had reached Tete Jaune
Cache in B,C,
Portions of the main line west
of Edmonton opened
as early as 1910, but the line was not officially
completed to Prince Rupert until 1914.
Earlier,
through political manoeuvering, the GTP
gained the
upper hand over its rival. Concentrated
lobbying in Ottawa by the GTP to the BoarG of
Railway Commissioners forced the
CNoR to
abandon hopes of using its Stony Plain
branch as a
springboard for its main line west. Licking its
corporate wounds, the CNoR consolidated itself and
only resumed buiding its main line in1911, but with a
revised location that left St.
Albert on the Morinville
Branch. Proceeding west past Onoway it skirted Lac
Saint
Anne and Lake Isle to Evansburg. The line
passed three miles south of Edson
to Tollerton,
thence north of Brule Lake to Jasper. In the
mountains, it climbed the Yellowhead
summit before
swinging south towards Vancouver, The CNoRs
main line was ultimately opened
in 1915.
Several factors dUring
construction of both main
lines
cr~ated havO6 with the rai Iways. Both
companies found themselves in a financial squeeze
as a consequence
of a mild depression in 1913. The
outbreak of the Great War in August 1914 brought
fu rther woes: ram pant i nflationtook its toll and
government guarantees and the bond market -on
which the railways relied heavily –
quickly dried up.
Both railways had barely
completed their
respective main lines before they were on the
brink of
col lapse(-
t1istory has recorded that senseless
duplication of
Grand Trunk Pacific officials leaving Edmonton after
their first inspection visit to the district in 1904.
Provincial Archives of Alberta, E. Brown Collection
No. B6218.
rail lines, especially through areas of limited
potential, were
economic blunders o·f the first
magnitude. It proved to be the
undoing of the CNoR
and GTP,
as well as numerous other railways across
Canada. Many railway
companies dropped from the
corporate registers, culminating in the formation of
the Canadian Government Railways in 1915 and the
Canadian National Railway in 1918,
which gobbled­
up the defunct CNoR that same year. The Grand
Trunk Railway system succumbed to a similar fate in
1923, after
protracted discussions with the federal
government under the guise of a Royal Commission.
As constructed, the
CNoR and GTP main lines
were parallel to each
other, From Edmonton west
there were never more than five miles apart and
in
many cases only a stones throw separated their
respective grades until they diverged for good near
Mount Robson, B.C. During World War One a
shortage
of rails overseas prompted the dominion
government to investigate the feasibility of
consolidating the numerous Canadian rail lines, The
set
of dplicate lines west of Edmonton was a likely
candidate.
In 1917, under the powers granted by the
War Measures Act, the rails from
portions of both
main lines between Imrie
(now Styal) and
Resplendent (near Red Pass
Junction, B.C.) were
removed and the remanants
of the two lines were
combined into a composite main line. Since the GTP
was
built to a higher standard, most of the track
removal occurred on the Canadian Northern. Over
200 miles
of grade was stripped of its rail; only t·he
ties and bridges remained.
Lacking better alternatives, settlers
found the
abandoned grades to be
convenient wagon roads.
. The railways still retained
ownershipofthegradesas
they believed that the consolidation was merely
Enth
~
NORTH
~ CNoR
8
CNoR & GTP MAINLINES -Edmonton (Alta) to Mt. Robson (B.C.) 1910-1917
temporary, anticipating that the pre-war services
could be restored at the cessation of hostilities in
Europe.
Although use of the grades as ad hoc public
roads was technically illegal, the railways turned a
blind eye for a while.
But the steel was never relaid and in 1921 the
Edmonton Chamber of Commerce, the Alberta Good
Roads Association and the Alberta Motor
Association appealed to the provincial government
to acquire the roadbed for highway purposes. The
joint petition declared that a highway based on the
utilization of abandoned grades would be an assetto
the province and provide employment to veterans of
the war. It was also felt that if the 210 miles of old
grade were not maintained
they would revert to a
wild state. The petition urged work to proceed
immediately and declared that it would require an
estimated $94,500 to
convert the railway grades. But
as the grades remained the property of the railways
the provincial
government was very reluctant to
commit funds to maintaining the roadbed.
The next year, the province initiated negotiation:
with Canadian National Railways, (trustee of the
CNoR and GTP Companies). regarding the use of
the
abandoned grades as roadways. But terms could
not be found to suit both parties and legal
technicalities prevented outright purchase of the
grades in question. The CNR was still adamant that the
abandoned lines would be later rehabilitated and
put back into operation. The province would not
consider leasing the grades only temporarily for use
as a road and so no settlement was reached.
In spite of this impasse the roadbed continued to
be used by residents and travellers as
extemporaneous roadways. Frustrated by the lack of
progress of the negotiations, the Edmonton Good
Roads Association decided to take a diferent tack. In
an
effort to publicize the necessity of having an all­
weather road
to Jasper the Association offered a
prize to the drivers
of the first car to travel from
Edmonton via the Yellowhead Pass to Victoria, B.C.
The
challenge was taken up by Messrs. lleimeyer
and
Silverthorne in the summer of 1922. Utilizing the
old grades for much of the first part of the trip they
reached Jasper in fou r days.
Contrary to expectations, the region was not
totally lacki ng roadways. Road construction west of
Edmonton had been started as early as 1906. By fits
and starts, a rudimentary road was extended by 1910
to Entwistle, where
traffic was ferried across the
Pembina River to Evansburg. Various minor road
work was also initiated further west. Continual
improvements to the Edmonton-Evansburg road
made it all the more imperative to get a reasonable
road the rest
of the way to Jasper Park.
In 1924 the province entered an agreement with
the federal
government under the Canada Highway
Act (1924). Provided with loans under the Act to
expand its main
highways system, the province
initiated upgrading of the Evansburg road. A steel
bridge was thrown across the Pembina River and the
74-mile road was gravelled. It
now became Highway
14. As a show of good faith, in 1924 motorists in
Edmonton and surrounding centres raised $5000 by
public subscription. This enabled clearing of parts of
the old railway tote roads, repairing stretches of the
abandoned grade, and the surfacing of some
trestles.
By the early 1930s the province had extended the
road from Evansburg
to the Jasper Park Gates. But
because it was unable to exploit the abandoned
grades, the road was rather primitive. In contrast, a
fine gravelled road
from the park gates to the town of
Jasper was developed by the federal government,
using the old grade extensively.
Provincial
negotiations with the CNR reached
fruition in 1935 with an agreement that authorized
the province to utilize 80 miles of abandoned grade
between Evansburg and Pedley as public roads. The
highway had finally made the grade and the old
roadbed and
many unemployed men were put to
work. By 1941 the highway, now renumbered to 16,
had become a significant transportation link in
G TP officials on train attending driving of last spike at
Nechako River Crossing, Finmoore, BC. (mile 1372.1)
8 April 1914.
C.N. Photo 73247-3.,
Alberta. Upgrading continued and in 1970 the
highway was incorporated into and opened as part of
the Yellowhead Route. Stretching from Portage La
Prairie,
Manitoba, to Prince George, B.C., it proved
to be a convenient alternative to the Trans-Canada
Highway in western Canada,
Reminders of the past endure along the route from
Edmonton to Jasper. Long stretches of the original
railway grade survive intact with old railway
structures including stations, round-houses, and
bridge abutments; railway camps, abandoned
town sites and mines waiting to reward the history­
seekers. They remain as testaments not nly to the
mistakes of the past, but also to the vision of those
who contributed to the evolution of the Highway 16
of today.
Overland by the Yellowhead by J.G. MacGregor, Western
Producer Book Service, Saskatoon. 1974.
Canadian Railway and Marine World,
June 1917. (Microfilm:
University of Alberta).
Edmonton-Edson-Jasper Road, M. Kehr. Unpublished report by
Alberta Transportation.
Department of Public Works Annual Reports, 1905 -1941. Alberta
Transportatin Library.
Reprinted from Alberta Transportation magazine.
We wish to express our thanks to Lon Marsh of
Edmonton for selecting the photos to illustrate this
article.
Linking up steel on the Grand Trunk Pacific
transcontinental line in 1914. Provincial Archives of
Alberta, E. Brown Collection No. B6190.
The Grand Trunk station in Edmonton was still under
construction when the first train arrived on
November 4, 1905. Provincial Archives of Alberta, E.
Brown Collection No. B7071.
Train No.
1 of the Grand Trunk Pacific arriving at
Tofield Station in 1908. Provincial Archives of
Alberta No. A2912.
Grand Trunk engine No. 45 and crew, photograph
taken by Ed. McCann circa 1910. Provincial Archives
of Alberta, E. Brown Collection No. B6144.
Early Construction Days -circa 1912-14 Grand Trunk
Pacific.
C.N. Photo X-36158.
G TP 4-6-2 No. 1111 and crew photographed in 1912.
Photo
courtesy Provincial Archives of Alberta No.
A3349.
Standard Grand Trunk Pacific Passenger Train. At Pac­
ific, B.C. Station, 119.4 mHes east of Prince Rupert. (alt.
371 feet); picking up passengers en route to Jasper. Headed
by 4-4-0 loc. GTP 111. built 1909 by Montreal Locomotive
Works, later CN No. 385. Scrapped 1927.
Line first opened 4 June 1912.
C.N. Photo X-51181-1O
THE GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY
THE PROVINCE OF CANADAS
POLITICAL FOOTBALL
By: A. L. Smaltz
. …. -..
. ..
FEW PHOTOGRAPHS SURVIVE of Grand Trunk locomotives of the 1850s.
This view is the oldest known and was taken in 1856. The engine
is G.T.R. No. 106 built by Portland in February 1850 and formerly
the ircoos of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence R.R.
lilt would be harder to say whether the Grand
Trunk Railway corrupted Canadian politics or
whether Canadian politics corrupted the Grand
Trunk. 1
When noted Canadian historian of the stature of
Chester Martin makes such a forthright statement as
the above, it offers considerable food for thought
to a student of the history of transportation in
Canada. In .singling out the Grand Trunk railroad
by name Martin focusses attention upon its many
strengths, weaknesses and influences on the politics
of the times.
The railroad was a favorite target for politicians
during the union of the two Canadas. It was used
as a political
football by many of them in their
attempts to curry public favour, to harass their
opponents and to promote any pet projects they
happened to desire at that particular time. The
Grand Trunk was created in good faith with high
ideals
and the welfare of Canada as its major goal.
Controversial
and conniving actions on the part of
contractors, financiers and politicians soon obs­
cured these objectives. Political arguments in both
Britains House of Commons and Canadas own
assembly began after the railroads inception.
These arguments soon turned the feelings of-ll1e
1. Chester Martin, Foundations of Canadian Nationhood, Toronto, The University of Toronto Press, 1965, p. 230.
CANADIAN 96
Canadian public towards the railway from those of
willing acceptance and cooperation
to dislike and
mistrust. Many of
the newspapers of the time laun­
ched violent attacks
UfJon it to enhance th is an­
imosity. Their items were often based on rumors
and malevolent distortions of facts.
The purpose of this essay
is to examine some of
the more important reasons why the Grand Trunk
Railway became one of the Province of Canadas
major political footballs.
Before
we can examine and understand the
reasons why the railroad got into such difficulties,
a brief exami nation
of a few ground facts relating
to the railway itself and the Canadian political
structures of
the times would be helpful.
When Britain abolished
the preferential duties
on colonial grain
in 1846 and then swung over to
full free trade by 1849, she removed Canadas
advantage
as a seller in the British market. This ,appeared
to be a decided threat to Canadaa econo­
mic welfare.
There was danger that the carrying
industry
… of Western Canada as that term was
then understood, would become diverted
to rail­
ways over
the border. 2 Hence a demand arose for
an
all Canadian railway which could tap the Amer­
ican middle east–west transportation system which
would help
to offset some of Canadas trade losses
in the British market. This would be accomplished
by lowering the selling price of Canadian goods
through cheaper freight rates.
The Grand Trunk Railway was
the answer to this
demand.
It was built between 1852 and 1856 and
connected
Toronto to Montreal. In 1852 it also
leased
the lines of St. Laurence and Atlantic rail­
way which extended from Montreal,
to Portland,
Maine.
In 1859 the line was extended west from
Toronto to Sarnia and a line was leased from Detroit
to Port Huron. Thus by 1860 the Grand Trunk
railway owned or controlled trackage running
all
the way from Detroit through the Canadas to
the Atlantic seaboard, realizing the dream of many
Canadian politicians who had felt
The great and
R A I L
increasing trade of the Western country with the
seaboard, renders it therefore a matter of the
highest importance … to establish a rapid, short
and uninterrupted line
of communication between
the two. 3
The Grand Trunk was a privately owned company
which was incorporated
in Canada and consisted of
a board
of eighteen directors and the shareholders.
Of
the directors nine were to be appointed by the government.
4 A large part of its capital came from
English investors and eventually a large part from
the Canadian government. The head office of the
company was
in London. Six of the nine Canadian
directors were officers
of the crown. They were:
1. John Ross, Solicitor-General,
2. Francis Hinks, Inspector-General,
3. E.P. Tache, Receiver-General,
4. Malcolm Cameron, President of
the Executive
Council,
5. James Morris, Postmaster-General,
6. R.E. Caron, Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.5
Sir Georges Etienne Cartier, a leading figure
in
Canadian politics, was made the companys legal
advisor.
Such an impressive array
of government hier­
arachy attached
to a private company was to say the
least, unusual. Later events showed that this laid
the groundwork for an era in which parliament
became
the field of railway debate.6 To make
matters worse, these crown officers names were
officially listed as government supporters of
the
railway in the orginal prospectus which was pub­
lished by the Grand
Trunk. This had serious re­
percussions later on.
The Canadian political structure of
the period
cannot be described so easily. Strange as it may
seem, there were no clear
cut political parties in
existence such as we have today. In the assembly
members
… were broadly grouped as those in
power
or those out. 7 However loose party group-
2. Norman Thompson and J.H. Edgar, Canadian Railway Development, Toronto, The Macmillan Company of Canada
Limited, 1933, p. 59.
3. G. P. deT. Glazebrook, A History of Transportation in Canada, Toronto, McLelland and Stewart Limited, 1964,
vol. 1 p. 159.
4. S.J. McLean, National Highways Overland. Canada and Its Provinces, Toronto, Publishers Association of Canada
Limited, 1913, vol. 10, p. 396.
5. J. Castell Hopkins, Grand Trunk Railway, Canada, an Encyclopaedia of the Country, Toronto, The Linscott Pub·
lishing Company, 1898, vol. 2, p. 111.
6. Oscar D. Skelton, The RaHway Builders, Toronto, Glasgow, Brook and Company, 1922, p. 53.
7. Paul G. Cornell, The Alignment of Political Groups in Canada 1841·1867, Toronto, University of Toronto Press,
1962, p. 83.
CANADIAN 97
ings did appear in both English and French Canada
and all
told, there were eight definable groupings
during the union
of the two Canadas.
B
From 1854-
1864 there were ten
different ministries which
governed the province
of Canada. 9
We have now examined the basic concepts behind
the
formation of the Grand Trunk Railway and also
taken a cursory look at the political structure of
the times. How then did the railroad get enmeshed
8. Ibid., pp. 67-68.
R A I L
in politics and become a political football? There
were many reasons including finances, overop­
timism, poor planning and plain bungling.
One of
the major reasons was that many politicians of the
period
used Grand Trunk as a tool in combination
with other railroad projects of the times, to further
their own political and selfish ends.
One politician whose name crops up repeatedly
in early Grand
Trunk history is Sir. Francis Hincks.
He was Inspector-General in the Baldwin-Lafontaine
9. G. R. Stevens, Canadian National Railways, Sixty years of trial and error, Toronto, Clarke, Irwin & Company Lim­
ited, 1960, vol. 1, p. 254.
A FAMOUS SERIES OF G.T.R. LOCOMOTIVES was the Birkenhead type,
fifty of which were built at the Canada Works in Birkenhead
England in the 1850s. This is G.T.R. No. 50 at Riviere du Loup in 1860.
This engine was built in January 1856 and is one of the
earlier type.
-y;
A CLEARER VIEW OF A BIRKENHEAD is this one of No. 55 of the Great
Western Railway. It was built in November 1855 and although it
was not a Grand Trunk engine it is similar to the G.T.R. engines
built at the same time.
cabinet (1848-1851), and then became premier
of the united Canadas from 1851 to 1854 under a
Hincks-Morin Reform coalition.
It was under his
leadership
that Grand Trunk railway was incor­
porated, granted a charter, and construction
began
on the line from Toronto to Montreal. As previously
noted
he was one of its first directors.
While
it is true he was one of Canadas pioneer
railway promoters,
he used his political power on
many occasions
for his own personal benefit. In
1854 after being suspected
of many shady deals in
connection
with the railroads, Hincks, after a
furious
scene in the assembly, was driven from
office. A month later the legislature forced him to
appear before a special committee on charges of
corruption. He was questioned regarding the owner-
10. Ibid., p. 463
ship of 1,008 shares of Grand Trunk stock worth
£ 25,000. He was charged with having speculated in
the stock
of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic railroad-­
which
was the Grand Trunks eastern extension to
the Atlantic seaboard. He was also accused of
changing the location of a short railway so it would
enable him to make a profit on some land he had
bought.
Finally he was charged with profiteering
in bonds
of the City of Toronto which it had placed
at the disposal
of the Toronto, Simcoe and Lake
Huron railroad, (later acquired
by the Grand
Trunk). 11
After examining the evidence, the committee
absolved Hinks
of all wrong-doing and by in­
ference
it relieved the Grand Trunk of all the
charges that it was a corrupting influence on Cana-
11. A. W. Currie, The Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, Toronto, The University of Toronto Press, 1957, pp. 35-36.
CANADIAN
99
R A I L
dian public life.12The president of the Grand Trunk
railway stated publicly
that the charges against Hinks were laid by local contractors whose pride
was wounded because
he employed English builders.
This neat dismissal
of the charges and the reason
for them being laid do
not explain certain facts.
Hincks at
no time was able to explain satisfactorily how
he came into ownership of the $25,000 worth of Grand Trunk stock.
13
He never did satisfactorily
explain the charges
of manipulating St. Lawrence
and Atlantic railroad stock, said manipulations
resulting
in him being privately rewarded by banking
interests. This accusation was
not entirely un­founded.14He also did
not explain why he purchased
a large amount
of the City of Toronto bonds at a
discount
of twenty percent and later resold them to
the city at par. The
amount involved was £40,000.
15
Whether the charges against Hincks were true or
not the best
that can be said is that they lowered
his political prestige and led to his defeat, at their
worst they tell the story
of a public man to whom the temptations
of office proved overwhelming.~ 6
Hincks actions while a director of the Grand
Trunk railway and a power
in the Canadian gover­
nment were unquestionably one of the reasons why,
in the eyes of the public, it became a political
football.
Another prominent figure whose association with
the Grand Trunk railroad and other lines caused many a flurry
in parliament was Sir Alexander
Tilloch Galt.
In many of our school history text­books the impression
is created that this Father of
Confederation
was an eminent and honorable
statesman. The records indicate
that he was a railroad opportunist of the highest degree and entered
politics for
the specific purpose of forwarding
his business interests. 17
At first his accomplishments in promoting rail­
roads appeared to be highly commendable. He was sincerely interested
in seeing a railroad built from
Portland, Maine to Montreal for the benefits it
12. Ibid., p. 36.
13. Stevens, Canadian National Railways, vol. I, p. 79.
14. Currie, The Grand Trunk Railway, p. 170.
15. Stevens, op. cit., p. 394.
would bring to the Eastern townships which he
represented in the legislature. Starting in 1848, through sheer determination and after many diff­
iculties he had seen this line through to completion
as the St. Lawerence and Atlantic railroad. After
Hincks and
the Grand Trunk charters appeared on
the scene, his ventures became somewhat dubious,
especially after
he established a full partnership with
one Casimir Gzowski, a railroad contractor from
Poland.18
For instance, knowing the Grand Trunk railroad
wanted his line
as its eastern extension, he repre­
sented it
as being complete and ready for oper­ation and
as Gzowski and Company sold it to them
for
£8.500 per mile.
19
The number of miles sold was 142. It was later revealed this selling price was twice Galts orginal costs of construction.
2o His
allegation that the railway was in good condition
was such a case
of flagrant misrepresentation that
the deal nearly brought the Grand Trunk to brink
of ruin .21 By 1856 Grand Trunk shares were only
worth sixpence on the shilling at par value.
In 1852 Hincks made a public announcement in
parliament about the Grand Trunk railway and
stated it would operate between Montreal and
Toronto. Galt and
his associates immediately bought practically the entire stock of the Kingston and Montreal
railroad.2 2 They surmised correctly
that the Grand Trunk would try to buyout this
railroad with the object of eliminationg possible competition along their own proposed route. William Jackson,
the Grand Trunk contractors
emissary, offered
to buy this stock at cost but Galt
and company refused
to part with their shares.
Once again
the public was treated to another par­liamentary investigation. The Railway Committee
of
the Legislative Assembly, which was considering the Grand Trunk scheme, investigated Galt
to
procure all the facts relative to his possession of
this stock. Their findings were simply that Galt
and company were obstructing
an arrangement
calculated
to be of essential benefit to the Pro­vince.23 They concluded Galts subscriptions were
designed
to control the legislature and government
16. Ronald Stewart Longley, Sir Francis Hincks, Toronto, The University of Toronto Press, 1943, p. 241.
17. Edgar Mcinnis, Canada, A Political and Social History, Toronto, Rhinehart & Company, 1954, p. 260.
18. Oscar Douglas Skelton, The Life and Times of Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt, Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1920,
p.96.
19. Stevens, Canadian National Railways, Vol. p. 85.
20. Ibid., p. 265.
21. Ibid., p. 264.
22. Skelton, Galt, p. 88.
23. Currie, The Grand Trunk Railway, p. 11.
IN APRIL 1857 the firm of Gunn and Co. of Hamilton produced No. 168
for the Grand Trunk. It was name d HAM and was one of a trio Cthe
othe r two we re SHEM and J APETH ), and this engine was involve d
in a dark moment of railway history when it pulled the ill fated
train that crashed into the canal at Beloeil in 1864 killing 99
pe ople .
THE FIRST ENGINE BUILT BY THE GRAND TRUNK in its Pointe st. Charles
shops was No. 209 TREVITHICK outshopped in May 1859. A year later
it pulled the royal train when the Prince of Wales visited Canada.
CANADIAN
101
R A I L
of Canada.
24
An eventual solution of the problem
was reached when Galt finally agreed to stop block­
ing the Grand
Trunk railway with the understand­
ing
that he and some of his associates should be
made directors of Grand Trunk. 25
It was Galts credit that he did not sit on the
board
of directors and resigned shortly thereafter. 26
A deal
which Galt participated in appeared to
be bordering on outright theft. At this time due
to his official position as Inspector-General, he was
able to impede any attempts to hold a parliamentary
investigation. Gzowski
and Company, (Galts part­
ner), had received
from the Canadian government
under terms
of the Grand Trunk Relief Act of 1856,
the sum
of £125,000 to build a branch line 30 miles
long
from Three Rivers to Arthabaska. It had
never
been built, the money had never been ret­
urned. G.R. Stevens
says in his book on the C.N.R.,
Could it have been because Alexander Tillcoch
Galt: .. was now Inspector-General and the prin­
cipal dispenser
of official largesse? 26
Another example of Galts machinations was
revealed before a parliamentary committee when he
admitted that Gzowski and Company received
£24,000
from the Grand Trunk Railway for land
they had purchased in Sarnia
from the governments
ordinance board
for the ridiculously small sum of
£165 10S.28
In examining Galt and his association with Grand
Trunk railway from our 20th Century perspective,
it must be realized viewpoints on this extraordinary
man could be coloured by whatever historian the
student happens
to be reading at that particular
time. O.D. Skelton in his biography on Galt makes
him
out as a noble and honorable character while
G.R. Stevens in his history
of the C.N.R. makes
him appear
as an unprincipled profiteer. However
our problem is not to pass judgment on the man but
merely to assess his relationship with the Grand
Trunk railway in terms of it being a political foot­
ball. One can only conclude that his actions and
plans
which were frequently revealed in parliament
and in the press of the time, were a major reason
why the Grand Trunk railway was considered a
hot political issue.
24. lac. cit.
25. Longley, Hincks, p. 227.
26. Glazebrook, Transportation in Canada, vol. 1, p. 162.
27. Stevens, Canadian National Railways, vol. p. 285.
28. Ibid., p. 288.
For a final look at personalities as related to the
Grand
Trunk railway and politics, let us take a
breif look at George Brown, the pr()minent editor
of the Globe, a leading newspaper of the day. He
was also a member of the legislature for Toronto
and participated in many debates on the Grand
Trunk railway in the legislative assembly. D.
Creighton stated
that resistance to the Grand
Trunk . . . became an integral part of the new
liberalism
which Brown and his accociates were
building up in
Canada West. The railway was re­
presented …
as a malign creature of Montreal
finance which robbed the
public treasury and im­
poverished the
poor farmers.2 9 This type of crit­
icism certainly did
not help the railroad politically,
or do anything to add to its stature in the eyes of
the public.
This
same George Brown, ostensibly an hcnorable
and fighting leader of the Clear Grit party, was
supposed to have done very well for himself out of
one of the railroads, the Great Western which was
later absorbed by the Grand Trunk. He purchased
a woodland property in Bothwell, Kent
county and
when the railroad crossed his land
he arranged a
cordwood contract
with them which yielded him,
accordin~ to contemporary reports, as much as
£ 50,000 ayear.3 0 This comment can be taken with a
grain
of salt however, because according to J.M.S.
Careless biography
of George Brown, a few years
later
he was so short of funds he made a trip to
Montreal in order to arrange a $20,000 mortgage on
this
same property. 31
Again, our issue is not with George Brown or his
associates
but politics and the Grand Trunk. His
political attacks certainly
hurt any public image the
railway
was trying to maintain. This time the
reasons for this type of footballing could be laid to
Browns aim to discredit the government whenever
he was in opposition. His remarks were influenced
in large measure
by opposition to Hinks. 3 2
Plain bungling
as previously noted, a large part-in
making the Grand
Trunk a political issue. Also
mentioned
was the fact that six officers of the
crown
had attached their names to the original
prospectus
of the Grand Trunk railway. This was
29. Donald Creighton, John A. Macdonald, The Young Politician, Toronto, The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited,
1956, p. 250.
30. Stevens, The Canadian National Railways, vol. 1. p. 251.
31. J.M.S. Careless, Brown of the Globe, Toronto, The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 1959, vol. 2 p. 7.
32. Longley, Hincks, p. 234.
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~IACKENZIF..
CANADIAN
103 R A I L
then circulated in England to entice the public to invest their funds
in Grand Trunk stock in order
to build the railway. With these funds, plus fin­
ancial assistance from
the Canad ian government,
the contractors proceeded
to go ahead and bui Id.
Progress was sporadic due to lack of funds and on
many occasions,
the financial condition of the
G rand Trunk –three ti mes
in succession rescued by
the government was desperate
in the extreme. 3 3
A grave error was made by the crown officers
of the government in allowing their names to be affixed
to the prospectus. This blunder resulted in
major repercussions in both the Canadian and
3 ritish pari iaments, and generated i II wi lion both sides of the Atlantic which lasted for years. The
situation evolved
in this manner:
In 1856 the railroads finances reached such a crisis due to a shortage
of funds, the English stock­
holders sent over
the Hon. William Ilapier, a British financier and shareholder,
to see if something could be done
about it, such as government inter­
vention.
In presenting his case, Napier claimed that
many private investors had bought Grand Trunk stocks and bonds because the signatures of the
crown officers on the prospectus fooled them into
believing the Grand
Trunk railway was backed by the Canadian government.
He also pointed out
that these same officials were in the board of directors thus enhancing this belief. Under such
circumstances
the partnership of the company
and the province had been presumed and on the
strength
of that partnership the British investors
had put their money into
the venture. 34
To make matters worse, Cayley, the Inspector­
General of the Mcllab-Morin administration evaded :some of Napiers arguments
in parliament and yet
privately accepted
his contractions. 35These should
have been strongly refuted because the Grand
Trunk from the very
outset had been clearly in­
dicated as a private venture. The acceptance of Napiers claims by Cayley
immediately stirred up a hornets nest
in both the
British and Canadian parliaments. Many members
of the house
of Lords and other prominent figures
in Britain berated the Canadian government for its sharp practices and deceptions.
36 Tilere was:;
even agitation in England for Great Britain to cut
herself loose from this corrupt colony.
33. Creighton, Macdonald, p. 253.
34. Stevens, The Canadian National Railways, vol. 1, p. 274.
35. Loc. cit.
36. Stevens, op. cit., p. 276.
37. Loc. cit.
38. Hopkins, Canada, An Encyclopaedia, vol. 2, p. 123.
39. Loc. cit.
The Canadian reaction to these charges was equally hostile. Joseph Howe rose
to his feet in
parliament and gave vent to a mighty roar …
and compiled a recriminatory catalogue of blots on the escutcheon
of Great Britain. 37
Once again the Canadian public was treated to
the spectacle of the Grand Trunk being kicked
around
by politicians, and this time the issue enco­mpassed
two major governments–those of Canada
and Great Britain.
It is no wonder many of the
people came to regard the mere mention of the
Grand Trunk with violent distaste. And the cause
of this particular footballing was simple–the govern­
ment
in power, the Lafontaine-Baldwin ministry,
was
short sighted in allowing crown ministers to
attach their names to the prospectus of a private
company. Thus it could be stated
that plain govern­
mental blundering was,
in this particular instance,
another reason for
the Grand Trunk becoming a political football
Poor planning was also a major cause
of the rail­
way being booted around the floor of the
legi­
slature. In November of 1860 the government
appointed a commission
of three to enquire into
financial position and management
of the rail­
way. Their report contained much information
related directly
to the poor planning which went
into the building of the railway. Here are two examples:
For more than half its length, the Grand Trunk runs parallel
to the grandest water communication
in the world … and upon which the prosperity
of Canada and of
all interests connected with it, mainly depends. Yet from the inception
of the
Grand Trunk … the policy has been to run in
competition with the water, to regard it as an enemy, rather than a most efficient ally.
38
The second example taken from the report is
equally revealing. The Grand Trunk seems system­atically
to have placed itself beyond the reach of
the business of almost every town it passes. On the
whole length of the line from Sarnia to Montreal,
it
is only at Guelph and Toronto that the station
is in proximity to the town. 39
Exposures such as these on the floor of par­
liament provided much political propaganda for the newspapers of the day.
It is much wonder that
members of the legislature like George Brown felt
GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY.
Montreal & Toronto DiBtriot.-S. T. WEBSTER, Bupt. Montreal & Kingston Diat. J. S. Mum,
~upt. Toronto &; Kingston Dial .Wx. BHANLY, General Manager.
BTNDABD OF TINWt-OlQcJc at Depot,· Montreal, 25 minutell faster than Hamilton.
Montreal to Toronto .. Toronto to Montreal.
STATIONS.
ExpreB8.-Mall. Miles. Miles. Expres~ Mall.
.A;.Jt.
P. 1I. LEAVE ARRIVE P. 1II. ….. M.
8 130 800 . ….. Montrenl ……
888 9 20 94<>
908 860 16 · …. P.()inte Claire ….. 818 8M 9 08
904 21 …… St. Annes …… 812 8 41
~~
9 j2
24 …… Vaudreull …… 809 8 81 84()
924
~~.
· .. Cedars (Road to) …
~ 826
950 944 · … Coteau Landing … 2!l6 804 806
1000 44 … River Beaudette … 289 7 4T
10 ~ 1022 M · ….. LanCWlter .•.. . 219 780 7 21
10 86 60 · ..• Summels~wn …. 218 706
10M ;10 M 68 Arr. Cornwall Lve 265 708 64<>
11 06
11 10 Lve do. Arr. 6~ 680
11 21 78 · …. Moulinette …•. 260 6 15
11 28 1180 11 · DickinSons Landing. 2M 6 81 6~
11 47 84 · …… A ultsvilJe ….•. 249 648
~~
12 06 92 · … Williamsburg …. 241 600 6 81)
1224 99 ……. Matilda ……. 2.34 54U 6 12
1985 104 · …. Edwardsburg ….. 229 600
12 85 112 ~.Prescott Junction ..
221 520
1240 125.> 118 · … , .• Prescott ……. 220 5 16 485
~~
120 · .. : .. ·Mai tland ……. 218 4 17
1M 125 Arr.lh·8i·kville Lve 208 460 4M
1 10 180 Lve do. Arr. 44:> 400
140 129 · ..•.. Lyn ……… 204 860
1~ 187 · .. ,MaJJorytown …..
1~6 4 18
168 141} …… LallSdowne; ….. J~1 8 !:i9
2 12 24:5 1M · ….. Gnnan0i¥e …… l1A 840 ~4:5
8 20 169 · … Kingston Ills …. 164 200 260
880 173 .Arr. JUOfltlOO Lve 160 800 1M
Ii 10 840 Lve o. Arr. 2 40 140
….. Collins Bay· …..
84:5 188 · …. Earnestown •..•• 14:5 2 16
410 4~ 199 ……. Napanee …… _
184 100 1240
~07 201
· …. TyondOn~a .•… 124 12 SlO
440 6 22 218 · … Shannonvi Ie …. 120 1 29 12 06
~r>:S 640 220 Arr. llelievUle Lve
113 108 11W
600 64!> Lve do. AlT. 108 1145
6 27 6 18 282 ……. Trenton …….
101 1240 11 15
660 6 137 242 …… Brighton …… 91 12 18 lOW
6~ 600 249 …… Colborne ……
84 1205 10 ~
718 25& · .. , … Grafton …….
11 10 11
688 7 80 .26.3 Arr .. Cobou!,g .. Lve
70 1185 10 ()()
648 745
Lve do. Arr.
11 20 945
708 8 10 211 …… Port Hope …… 62 11 02 9 ~5
820 214 · •… Pori Britain ….. 59 9 1~
128 8M 280 ….. Newtonville …..
68 1048 900
7M 8M 286 …… Newcastle …… 41 1{) 80 845
745 908 290 …. :Bowmanville ….. 48 10 20 8 32
8 05 985 800 …….. Oshawa …..•.
83 968 8M
8 18 950 804
· …. Port Whitby ….. 29 9W 71>8
10 05 810
… Duffins Creek …. 23 135
10 10 312
· .. Frenchmans Bay … 21 7 27
lO 2D 816
… Port Union …… 17 7 15
10 00 820
· …… Scarboro …… 18 I 700
~ 16 1100 827 …… Don ……… 6
I
8 41S 620
80
1116 888
.••. TOlOIlto …. 880 600
P. M. A. :N. ARIUVB
LEAVE
ONE OF THE FIRST G.T.R. Montreal-Toronto schedules. Thirteen hours
was a great improvement over the older methods, and even today the
speed has only been increased by a factor of threet
CANADIAN
GllUD TRUN][ RAILWA.Y.
T
HE PUBLIC ARE RESPECTFULLY IN-
JOll.MED that the RAILWAY WILL BE OPEN.ED TR iOUGH­
.ur TO TORONTO,
On MONDA.Y, OCTOBER 27·
TJUINB WILL RUN AS iOLLOWB:
THROUGH TRAINS,
8TOPPING AT ALL PRINOIPAL 8TATIONS,
WUlleaTe MONTREAL 8yery marnlng,.(8;lOdaye excepted,) at 1:80 .4. M.,
arrlyln, at TORONTO at V:8{ P.}t.
Will ler~ORONTO at 1:00 A. M., arrlylng al MONTREA.L at 1;00
LOCAL TRAINS,
81OPPING AT 8TATIONS,
Will
lean IIROOKTlLLlII. daiIY,rar MON1REU at 8:811, A. H.
returolo, IrOIll MONTREAL at 8:80, P. :.t.
WIU lean BlIILLElILLE, dally. far BROCKVILLE, at 1:00, A. M.
returnln, from BROOKVILLE at 8:10, P. M.
WlU lean OOBOtrRG, daUy, for TORONTO, al 6:80, A. M.; returD­
m. trom TOIlONT..1 at 4:4:), P. M
The Trains will be run on Montreal Time, whioh it-
ali Kinutel falter than Brockville Time.
12 .. Kingston
143t ,, Bellnille
23 Toronto
Jrellbl Tralnt will Dot run helween BroekTllle and Toronto durln~
he flnt week.
Fares between Toronto and Montreal :
IInl Ola.u ……………… …………….. ,10 00
BeooDd do ………………………….. ;…… i 00
1f0lltn&!. Ootober 18, ISH.
8. P. BIDDEIl,
General Man,er,
1016
105
R A L
THE GRAND TRUNK STATIONS WERE WELL
BUILT and some of the original
ones have survived to the present.
This stone one at St. Marys
Junction was built in 1856 and has
been pre se rve d as a he ri tage
building. The photo was taken by Gordon
Taylor on February 24 1983.
THE ORIGINAL NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT
which told the public. that the
long-awaited Grand Trunk line was
open for service all the way from
Montreal to Toronto. This historic
date was Oct. 27 1856.
justified in attacking the Grand Trunk railway
at every
opportunity?
The foregoing has been in broad terms, an
attempt to cite a few of the chief reasons for the
Grand
Trunk Railway becoming a political puppet
of the day. One can easi Iy come to an overall
conclusion
even from the few situations we have
discussed.
Most
of the major reasons why the Grand Trunk
Railway became a political football in the province
of Canada can be summarized as follows:
1. Many politicians used it as a means to further
their own selfish ends, not realizing there could be
a possibility of exposure in parliament.
2. Some politicians such as George Brown when a
member
of the opposition, used it as an instrument
to publicly discredit the government.
3. Many
of its appearances as a topic of debate in
parliament were
caused by lack of sufficient capital and short-sightedness and bumbling on the part
of
government officials.
4. Finally, poor planning and management
caused
its name to be bandied about on the floor of the
legislatu
re.
Nevertheless, while many
of the people who
built the Grand Trunk had feet of clay, it was built.
And it was built at a crucial time in Canadas history
when politicians were striving desperately
to unite
the gravely divided British
North American colonies.
These strivings resulted in Confederation, a union
of the provinces which has stood for 116 years.
The Grand
Trunk railway, despite being a politi­
cal football, did tie the country together and help
create a bigger and more prosperous Canada. One
cannot help
but see the logic in Mason Wades
remarks when
he said the Grand Trunk railway was
a unifying force without whose assistance the
union
of British North America would have been
a farce. 40
40. Mason Wade, The French Canadians 1760-1945, Toronto, The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 1956, p. 314
Bibliography
Careless, J.M.S., Brown
of the Globe, Toronto, The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 1959,
vol. 2
Cornell,
Paul G., University of Waterloo, The Alignment of Political Groups in Canada 1841-1867,
Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1962.
Creighton, Donald, John A Macdonald, The Young Politician,
Toronto, The Macmillan Company
of Canada Limited, 1956.
Currie,
AW., The Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, Toronto, The University of Toronto Press, 1957.
Glazebrook,
G.P. deT., A History of Transportation in Canada, Toronto, McLelland and Stewart
Limited, 1964, vol. 1.
Hopkins, J. Castell, Grand Trunk Railway, CANADA, an Encyclopaedia of the Country, Toronto,
The Linscott Publishing Company, 1898, vol. 2.
Longley, Ronald Stewart, Sir Francis Hinks,
Toronto, The University of Toronto Press 1943.
Mcinnis, Edgar, Canada, A Political and Social History,
Toronto, Rhinehart & Company, 1954.
McLean, S.J.,
National Highways Overland, Canada and Its Provinces, Toronto, Publishers Associa­
tion of Canada Limited, 1913, vol. 10.
Martin, Chester, Foundations
of Canadian Nationhood, Toronto, The University of Toronto Press,
1955.
Skelton, Oscar D., The Railway Builders,
Toronto, Glasgow Brook and Company, 1922.
Stevens, G.R., CAN AD
IAN NATIONAL RAI LWAYS, Sixty Years of Trial and Error, Toronto, Clarke,
Irwin & Company Limited, 1960, vol. 1.
Thompson, Norman and Edgar, J.H., Canadian Railway Development, Toronto, The Macmillan Com­
pany
of Canada Limited, 1933.
Wade, Mason, The French Canadians 1760-1945,
Toronto, The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited,
1956.
CANADIAN
107
R A L
SCENE OF CONSIDERABLE ACTIVITY as passengers wait A
at the Grand Trunk station in Toronto in 1857, less
after the line opened. Despite the fact that it was
football the G.T.R. was built to high standards and
the distinction of posessing the longest railway in
for a train
than a year
a political
cave Canada
the world.
C.R.H.A. .
communications
C.R.H.A. COMMUNICATIONS
MAY -JUNE 1983
1983 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
The following slate of Directors was elected ~t
the Annual Meeting of the C.R.H.A., responsI­
bilities were
assigned at a subsequent Board Meeting
as follows:
President:
Vice-president:
Vice-president, Public relations:
Vice-president and Treasurer:
Secretary:
Honorary president, Archivist:
Editor Canadian Rail:
Director:
Legal consul:
Acquisition committee:
CO-editor Canadian Rail:
Director Membership Promotion:
David W. Johnson
Charles Dejean
Roger Desautels
A.Stephen Walbridge
Bernard Martin
Robert V. V. Nicholls
Fred F. Angus
Alan Blackburn
C. Stephen Cheasley
Ken Goslett
M. Peter Murphy
Louis Guyette
In addition each C.R.H.A Division is invited to
send one representative to the Board of Directors,
to date the following representatives have been
appointed:
New Brunswick, John K. A Pollard,
Niagara, Ken Gent,
Toronto & York, J. Cris Kyle,
St. Laurence Valley, J. P. Chartrand.
Mr.
Jim Patterson has been retained in the cap­
acity of Membership Services for 1983.
We invite all remaining C.R.H.A. Divisions to no­
minate
their representative to the Board of Dir­
ectors and
notify Mr. Bernard Martin, Secretary as
soon as possible of your nominee.
NEWS FROM THE DIVISIONS
Rideau Valley Division:
We are pleased and proud to announce ~he
formation of our twelfth Division located in Smith
Falls, Ontario
and serving members located in the Rideau Valley and Srockville
areas. Your Board
of Directors approved the submission presented
on behalf
of the Division at its last meeting, the
Division application
was signed by 11 members
and
was headed up by William Le Surf. The mail­
ing address
for this new Division will be:
Rideau Valley Division,
P.
O. Box 962,
Smith Falls, Ontario
K7A 5A5
Welcome aboard.
Rocky Mountain Div./ APRA.
The gang in Edmonton during the winter con­
tinued
their active pace at the Museum. Work con­
tinued on
the station with construction of a full­
length platform and repairs to the stucco sidin.g. The
platform and station will be completed in time to
greet visitors to the Museum this summer.
Four ex-Northern Alberta Rly.
work cars have
been acquired for use on steam-powered trips. The
cars wi II be converted back into passenger cars
and require a good deal
of restoration although they
are serviceable.
Calgary & Southwestern Div.
1983 is the 10th anniversary of the founding of
the Division. Founding members included A
Coverdale,
C. Ellington, E.R. Dubber, G. Fillion,
D. L. Gilbert, AW. Haynes, E. Holm, E. Johnson,
R. Keller, T. Kirkham, L. Unwin, S. Wieser, G.M.
Whitlock and
D. Wingfield. Some interesting events
are planned.
For example in March, N.R. (Buck) Crump,
Honourary President cut a cake afterwhich a meet­
ing
was held with Gary Anderson of the Cranbrook
Landmark
& Museum presenting a slide and talk
shown on the restoration of the 1929 Trans-Canada
Limited. These activities formed part
of a weekend
during which members
of the Crowsnest and Kettle
Valley Division of CRHA were guests. There were
visits
to Calgary Transit Shops, Heritage Park, CP
Alyth Yard and the Sarcee CN Rail facilities.
C
& SW, along with the Alberta Pioneer Railway
Assoc. participated in the preservation
of a very old
CP first class passenger car which had been situated
at Blairmore Alberta. Numbered 54 the car had been used by
the old Western Canadian Collieries mine as
an assay office. The plan called for moving
the car to Heritage
Park and the move was completed successfully on Friday February 25 and Saturday February 26. A
protective cover
will be placed over No. 54.
The APRA who
is spearheading the restoration is
now working on funding for restoration and stor­
age at Heritage Park is guaranteed only until May
1, 1983. Hopefully someone at C & SW or APRA
will provide a complete story on Car 54 for Can­
adian Rail (hint hint!) C
& SW is also helping to develop a tourist railway line
in conjunction with the Province of Alberta and the City of Drumheller. Besides
the operation of a
steam train the line would include a Museum of
Min­
ing & Accommodations.
The Divisions display
at the Calgary Area Model Railway Show was well received by the visitors to the show.
As the accompanying photos show, the
C
& SW members had some interesting items and photos on display. Plans are being made for the
1984 version which
will be held on February 4 and
5.
Toronto & York Division
During February the Division exhibited a display of railway artifacts
in an East York library. The ex­
hibit included
an N-guage model layout and was organized
to appeal to both children and adults. This could be a good idea for other Divisions
to pub­licize their organization and many public llibraries
are looking for displays.
By town Railway Society
Twenty-two members of the Society partici­pated
in a very interesting excursion organized by
a number of the participants. The excursion was held on March 4 and 5
to mark
the last run of member Don Gaw
as a conductor Don retired after
43 years on the C.P. R. VIA run from Ottawa to Sudbury and return. To mark
the occasion a buffet supper was held at the hotel
in Sudbury where members stayed the night. A spec­
ial sign was made and placed on the front of the
ROC-train for the Saturday trip home. Everyone enjoyed themselves with lots of
rail activities in
Sudbury and the CP line between there and Carleton
Place.
Work crews have been busy on Car 27 at Thurso this past winter. The light can now
be seen at the
end of the tunnel in the restoration of the car.
The
~ai~ ~ork to be completed yet is the stripping of paint inside and the applying of stain and varnish. Other members have
at the same time been work­
ing on the steam locomotives at the Museum of Science
& Technology, cleaning and painting them.
SWITCH LIST
83-4
1<. D. Mosher, 116 Des Pins, R.R. No.2,
Marieville Que., JOL 1JO is collecting switch
keys from railroads both past and present
that have operated in Canada.
83-5
Ralph
A. Percy, 50 Heath St., Toronto Onto
N4T 1S3 is still offering for sale back issues
of Canadian
Rai I particularly since 1971 as
well as Upper Canada Railway Societys
Newsletter (Rail & Transit) since 1960.
He also has some 1947 -48 -49 Trains
all of 1951 -52 -53 Trains. All are in good
shape.
83-6
Peter
D. Willmott, Tasia Consulting Services,
P.O. Box 127 Station U, Toronto Onto
will have a new catalogue of rail photographs
available at the beginning
of June. Price
is $2.50 each for CRHA members. The June
issue will be an expanded version of the
82 –
83 winter catalogue which included
photos
of CN locomotives, freight and pass­
enger cars in B & Wand colour; Conrail,
Florida
East Coast, VIA Rail, GO Transit
as well as photos of CP and CN structures.
Mr.
Willmott advises that for every photo­
graph purchased
by C R HA members a dup­
licate
will be donated to the C R HA Museum
in the
area inwhich the member lives. This
offer will run to the end of 1983.
Mr.
Willmott will be contacting directors
of the CR HA Divisions to have a member
designated
to co-ordinate this program. So
order your catalogue and talk to your Div­
ision directors concerning
this offer.
83-7
Alan
F. Lill, 5569 Corfez Rd., North Van­
couver,
B.C. V7R 4P9 is looking for copies
of diagrams and/or unpublished photos for
C.N. R. passenger equipment in service in the
early
to mid-1950s that was not in service
by the 1970s
(eg. wooden and non-air­
conditioned steel equipment). Mr.
Lill is
building a model railway and needs data
such
as num~ers etc. for some of his equip­
ment.
Of particular interest: 1) wooden express/
mail-car-numbers?
(used in Palmerston Onto
area). 2) steel express/mail cars-numbers?
(used in Jasper-Prince Rupert area) 3) wood
4-wheel
truck express cars-numbers etc.
Mr.
Lill would like to hear from anyone who
has diagrams or photos and can provide more
details
of what he is looking for.
NOTES FROM MEMBERS
A number of members have written concerning
the
changes to Canadian Rail in particular the in­
corporation
of Communications as part of the
magazine rather than a separate insert.
R. L.
Kennedy writes that he would be content with a
single quarterly
issue to save money and suggested
that news items and all current stuff be removed
and
put in an expanded Communications and mail­
ed monthly, making Canadian Rail content all historical plus features.
Lorne
Unwin at the Calgary and Southwestern
Division writes
about the concern of members of
the Division over the timeliness of information
provided through Communications which it is
felt will be worse under the new arrangements.
The timeliness
of Communications has been
a continuing concern
of your Directors ever since
it was introduced in the early 1970s. With budget
constraints and depending on volunteer workers
it
is hard for any non-profit group to meet desired
deadlines in the way a money-making organization
can.
The changes
to a bi-monthly should hopeful­
ly improve things rather than make them worse.
With the experience gained
with the new format
and with the bi-monthly publishing the Canadian
Rail crew
is finding the scheduling of production
for each issue much easier. As one member says
we should have done it this way a long time ago.
This issue of Communications is to appear in
the May-June
issue of Canadian Rail and is up to
date as of April 1. With the first three neW issues
completed
we should have a pretty good idea of
scheduling for Communications as well as Can­
adian Rail.
From this I hope to come up with a news
and events submission deadline
for the Divisions
and
other contributors to Communications
(likely about 3 months which is not bad compared
to commercial railfan magazines).
So please bear with us while we work on this.
Hopefully we can again provide timely notices and
news, making
Communication a useful link
among the Divisions.
Bruce Ballantyne
MANY
THANKS
Every year the
donations received
would like to thank
Association in
fol/owing:
Dana Andrews
James R. Arkie
Robert I Arther
A.P. Baines
R.
C. Ballard
Walter Bedbrook
Alex Binkley
Arthur J. Bird
R. Boisvert
G. Bonne
the
C.R.H.A. benefits from the
from
all
last
many individuals. We
who contributed to the
year, particularly the
T.J. Garrett
Jag A. Goddya
Alan Goldberg
John A.
Griffith
D.R. Hannah
Albert J. Hart
Philip R. Hastings
J. Hawksbridge
W. Alan Hepiler
Gordon
C. Hill
Yves Bourassa
W.C. Bowen
Robert W. Bradley Edward C. Brown
Robert H. Brown
R
oy Brubacher
W.E. Bru
ton
Robert E. Byrnes
Jacques Caya
Wm. F. Chapman
J
ean-Yves Chateauvert
C
.
S. Cheasley
R. Clark
J.F. Codere
G.A. Collins
B.
A. Cooper
A. Coutts R.N.
L. Davies
Wm. Dick
Dollard Dubuc
0.
5. Dunbar
Robert Dunning
R.J. Evans Wenda
ll A. Fisher Lawerence
Fulton Jr.
H. Graham Pitcher
Stan
ley Ramar Rene Sagesser
Laurent St. Mart
in
Douglas G. Shields
Wm. R. Southworth David Spaulding
R.A. Spencer
James H. Stanley
J.S. Stephens
James Sweet
AndrewW. Taylor F.A. Templeton
Harvey J. Vale
Dr. A. Vanterpool
James A. Venus
D.H. Walkington
Patrick Webb
John W. White
John W. Wightman
Robert
Williams Dough Wingfield Evelyn
S. Hingston
George
W. Horner
L.G. Hoye
John F. Jarrell
Malcolm Joel
David W. Johnson Shirley H. Jones
Jim Kerr Gerald Knowlton Robert Laurin
K.A. Love Wayne MacNaughton
Alise Macredie Albert Madison
A. MarcouilJier
Richard Mason
John T. McGoey
G
eoffrey
Miller
Peter Mu rphy
T. Musc
his
Berna
rd Myers
John W. Myers
Robert V.
V. Nicholls
John Nunns Kerry
Pashak
BACK COlER
Compartment· Library· Buffet Car No. 1062. Fort AI·
exander. As built in July 1920, one of twenty bUIlt by
Can·Car between 1920 and 1927. Note the Canadian North·
ern Symbol modified to read Canadian National: These
cars were converted to bedroom·buffet·lounge cars in the
late
1940s
C.N.
Photo 67604.

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