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Canadian Rail 364 1982

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Canadian Rail 364 1982

Canadian Rail i

No.364
MAY 1982

CA
Published monthly by the Canadian
Railroad Historical Association
P.O. Box 148 St. Constant P.Q.
JOL lXO
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: M. Peter Murphy
OFFICIAL CARTOGRAPHER: William A.
Germaniuk
LAYOUT: .Mi che 1 Pau let
FRONT COVER
BUILDING THE CANADIAN PACIFIC MAIN
LINE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA involved
heavy work through very rough
country. In this view, taken in 1885,
work is proceding on 8rays tunnel
at Shuswap Lake. This is one of the
sections built by Andrew Onderdonk
between 1880 and 1885. Note
the
temporary wooden rail and the
primitive stub switch.
Public Archives of Canada Photo
No. C1609.
OPPOSITE
CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAM LOCOMOTIVE
1201 crossing the trestle at Arnprior
Ontario en route to 8arrys Bay on
an
excursion from the National
Museum of Science and Technology
in Ottawa on October 11 1980.
Photo:
Keith C. Hopkin.
R4IL
SSN 0008 -4875
CALGARY & SOUTH WESTERN DIVISION
60-6100 4th Ave. NE
Calgary, Alberta T2A 5ZB
OTTAWA
BYTOWN RAILWAY SOCIETY
P.O. Box 141, Station A Ottawa, Ontario
K1N BVl
NEW BRUNSWICK DIVISION
P.O. Box 1162
Saint John,
New Brunswick E2L 4G7
CROWSNEST AND KETTLE-VALLEY DIVISION
P. O. Box 400
Cranbrook, British Columbia
V1C 4H9
PACIFIC COAST DIVISION
P.O. Box 1006, Station A, Vancouver
British Columbia V6C 2Pl
ROCKY MOUNTAIN DIVISION
P.O. Box 6102, Station C, Edmonton
Alberta T5B 2NO
WINDSOR-ESSEX DIVISION
300 Cabana Road East, Windsor
Ontario N9G lA2
TORONTO & YORK DIVISION
P.O. Box 5849, Terminal A, Toronto
Ontario M5W lP3
NIAGARA 01 V lSI ON
P.O. Box 593
St.Catharines, Ontari
0 L2R 6WB
ST. LAWRENCE VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 99
Ste. Doroth~e, Quebec H7X 2T4
B.L.Barris and
the Canadian
Pacific contracts
of 1879
.by FredAngus
Recently a most interesting donation has been made to the
archives of the C.R.H.A. This consists of sets of original forms for
submission of tenders for the four contracts for construction of the
Canadian Pacific Railway between Emorys Bar and Savonas Ferry in
British Columbia in 1879. In addition these documents include a book
of general specifications as well as a hand-written covering letter
of explaination regarding the submission of the tenders.
The documents had originally belonged to an engineer named
R.L. Harris. He had engineered the International & Great Northern
Railroad in Texas, and had also worked on the Hoosac tunnel in the
state of Massachusetts. He, with some Canadian colleagues, planned to
bid on the Canadian Pacific contracts, but it is not known whether
they actually submitted the bids or not. In any case they were not
successful and the contract was eventually undertaken by Andrew Onder­
donk with the financial backing of Darius O. Mills of California.
Needless to say, these papers are of great historical importance, as
they they form what may be the only such set in existance.
The tender forms have spaces for detailed estimates of expen­
ses broken down into several categories such as excavating, bridging,
ties, rails, etc. Since the amounts have been filled in by Mr. Harris,
it is interesting to compare them with those on the actual contrac~
as awarded by the Canadian government in late 1879 and early 1880.
CON T R ACT MILES HARRIS BID WINNING BID
Emorys Bar to Boston Bar 29 $4,113,370. $2,727,300.
Boston Bar
to Lyt ton 29 $3,443,788. $2,573,640.
Lytton to Junction Flat 28! $2,717,890. $2,056,950.
Junction Flat to Savonas Ferry 401 $2,321,825. $1,746,150.
TOT A L 127 $12,596,873. $9,104,040.
CANADIAN 133 R A I L
The first, third and fourth of these contracts were awarded to
Andrew Onderdonk in December 1879. However on the Boston Bar to Lytton
contract the low bidder was Ryan Goodwin & Co. who were awarded the
contract on February 10 1880, but soon surrendered it in favour of
Onderdonk who then had all four contracts.
The story of these contracts is, of course, an important part
of the story of the building of the C.P.R. transcontinental main line.
In 1879 the eight-year-old promise made by Ottawa to British Columbia
to build the railway was beginning to look like a pipe dream, and the
Pacific province was seriously consideration separation from Canada.
The federal government reali~ed that it had better do something
fast or the country would start falling apart. Hence the call for
tenders for construction of this vital l27-mile section of railway
in British Columbia.
The official call for tenders was made on October 3 1879,
with the deadline for submission of the forms being noon on the
17th of November. This time of 45 days seems ama~ingly short in
view of the magnitude of the work, the distance of the construction
site from Ottawa, and the lack of suitable transportation to the
site for surveyors. Most of the time must have been taken up with
making rough
estimates and hurriedly filling out forms; it is a wonder
that any meaningful tenders were submitted at all; most of
the contractors must have been discouraged at the short deadline.
There are probably two reasons for this; the government wanted to
get something done fast to appease British Columbia, and also, it
is very likely that they simply did not reali~e the difficulty of
of
the proj ect.
Despite the disadvantages, Mr. Harris and his associates
decided to make a bid for the contracts. The forms were sent from Ottawa along with a
very interesting covering letter which is
unfortunately not signed, and does not name the other associates.
Some quotations from this letter will help explain the situation:
The head contracting party is Queen Victoria represented
by the Minister of Public Works in Canada. There are four
contracts to be awarded.
For reasons
not freely explained, of a political or mili tary
nature, it is believed to be important that the work is proc­
eeded on as soon as possi bl e.
The proposition presents one of the largest itemi~ed contracts
that has been let on this continent. The profile so called by
engineers is noticable as particularly favourable for working as
itemed contract. No work has hitherto been done on the Pacific
end of the road, the country remaining new and largely unexp­
lored. Prices will be new. Competition is narrowed to a few
because of unusual size of contract, comparitively little info­
rmation outside, and remote situation. People in Canada and the
East have little knowledge of that locality. If it has been
brought
to the notice of any parties on the Pacific coast, there
has not been sufficient time for examination.
Government
requires a deposit of $5000 with each bid as guaranty
for entering into the contract if work is awarded. The accepted
CANADIAN PAOIFIO RAILWAY,
OIOE 0 THE ENamEER-IN-OHIE.
Canauian FacifiG Railway.
TENDERS FOR WORK IN BRITI8U
COLUMlHA.
S
EALRD rrl~NDERS, flddle8~ed
to the undersigned IIond endorllOd
.. Tender8 Pncifie H.ll.ilway. will be reeoived
at, this office up 1.0 noon OD
MONDAY, the 17th day ofNOVEMlllmnoxl,
fur certain works of construotion required to he exeeutod on
the line from lIeM Yn.le to
L.1.ke Ko.mloopl!, in the following seotions,.
IVIZ:
Emorys Bin to Boston Bar •….•….. 29 miles Boston
Bltr to Lytlo,! ……………. 20 mpes Lytton to JunctIOn
liat …………. 2M! Inlles
Junction FlJ to Sn.vono.a Forry …. 40! mile!!
. Specifion.tionll, billA of quantitiell, condition!
of oOIlI.rllct, forma of tender! Itud Itll printe mn.~, b~ obto.inea on n.jlplien.tioD
at the Pncifio .n.ltilwn.y office in New WORt­
miMtnr. British Columbia, and n.t the offioe
of tho Enginoer-in-Chief a.t O!.tftWIL. Plans
a.nd profilell will be open for in~Jleotion at
the lattor office. No
tender will be entertlloined unless on one
of the printod form!! and all the oondition8-
a.re oomplied with.
ilyorder,
F. BRAUN,
Secretary.
Department of Railwn.y! and Canals, I
OLtlnra, October 3rd, 1879. ~
cAt· tf1;.
~~
——–~~~~ –79
.
THE OFFICIAL NOTICE calling for tenders on the Canadian Pacific
line in British Columbia. This notice is pasted on letterhead
of the office of Engineer-in-Chief.
m:l::
~~

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… ;:T CANADIAN
PACIFIC
RAILWAY.
TENDERS
FOR
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IN
BRITISH
COLUMBIA.
MEMORANDUM FOR
CONTRACTORS.
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1879.
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III I–CI:I 01 III
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CANADIAN 136 R A I L
bidder is required to deposit in government securities or
other representative of value five per cent of gross amount
of contract. Coupons and income maturing from such deposit
belonging to the deposi ting owner. This is a deposi t.
It is proposed that the four active partners be on the ground.
One of these is a R.R. engineer of ability and experience, a
New Englander. Two are Canadians that have made railroad con­
tracting their lifetime business, and the fourth is the writer
The two Canadian contractors are honorable and reliable. In
case of successful bids they will experience no difficulty
in furnishing the resident sureties required.
The money transactions if thought best could be carried on with government
at Ottawa directly from Boston, the four active
parties being supplied at British Columbia with the needful
working capital as indicated.,
As the deadline of November 17 approached Harris and his
confreres must have been working hastily to meet the terms of the
tenders, Certainly the copies of the forms which survive show much
evidence of hasty writing, corrections, and even the odd ink blot!
A letter from Harris to Philip McRae dated North Adams Mass. on
November 8 1879 (only nine days before the deadline) states in part:
Some pretty prompt moving may be needed this coming week and
it would be well if you could arrange so that you can get
certified checks and sureties in a hurry-II.
CANADIAN
137
R A I L
TWO VIEWS OF TRACK CONSTRUCTION IN THE FRASER CANYON in 1881. This
is the section covered by the four contracts awarded in
1879 to Andrew Onderdonk. With territory such as this, and
the limited time in which to submit tenders, it is little
wonder that contractors like R.L. Harris had little chance to
be successful.
Public Archives of Canada. Photos C7657 and C7660.
FORM OF TENDER.
IrO TENDER./or this Sectim •. will·be·,te·rluin corrl:cv
pliced and aCGurate?!! mO/lCJJed out,; flOT Unless tlteCi,uusc?cqui?·iltg.un
accepld Bank
CI,~u.t jur 85;000 ~ complil wilh.
CANADIA N PACIFIC RAIJ~ WAY.
Emorys Bar to Boston Bar, British Columbia,
LENGTH, 29 MILES.
TENDER FOR WORKS.
lJr(~ undersigned. heroby .offer ·to furnh:h all ncc~DrJ plant, .In.:J.tcria .. and labonr, 411d to 6x()ctile and
(·omp1clc(.to the-entire n.lif:.factiOII -of the Bnginccr.jn·Chief, all t-beiExoQv.atioD, GI.3ding, Bridging, Track·laying,
ThmhStlng and other worlr~, Jequiled lu he do~E on hnt·portioD of the R/lilway commencing at. Emorys Bal,
nbotlt rclU miles below yJilft. 00 the Hiver Fraser, smd 1erminaling at. B6s1oD Dar, in len.bttb.atotll!!9 TlICS;~JlOD
«Jic-!.ntnfl :lnd conditiDD~$,tilJDlft,.ted in the Genernl !3pt:ci6cation dn100 ·tbo 30t.b day of November, 1878, with
fOlnl of lol,tJO(~ IHlnc-xcd thor.elo, whlcb dOlUmcnt8 have beoD duly rond und corcfully considered j :md the
undersigned hereby proposA and aglee to cump1ete all the ·wol·ks .embraced nflder this Oontrllct by tho 3Jst.
~:l.y oT Dcccmber/ f883, foJ tho Jott-ti and pIiccsset fOllh in the 2nd column of tbo following Schedule. lho Quon­
tilies fIlrnh:hoo. iTrtho ht colcmn hov-e btFH) al:t!ur!l.tely cromputed 8~ their )~pecljve pricos, and tbc omounts
ent61ed in the 3rd~Olumn, and the Dggl(gale of tho vurious 6lms io tho 3rd column, inuludiug the Joat Hem
CS~5(J,OOO), llmou))1s 10 the bulksum oL _________________________ .. ___ . _____ ._. ________ _
.. _ •. __ …… __ .. _ .•. __ …. __ … __ . ___ ._. __ .. _ … ___ ._ .•. _____ . _______ •.• __________ .. __ ….. _. ______ .. _____ .. ____ DOLLABS,
SCHEDULE OF QUANTITIES :AND PRICES.
AllOU:>!f APPIIOl(IIlAYa QCUTlfIU. R:U. 11
Ducnllflb~ 0 Wor.&..
·Scc footnote $ cU:. I $ cI
—————–·—-·1 ··~f;–
CI,0 per . 1 .
Clo .. Cnltln.. . .. …. .• …… .• .. . … . … .. .. .. …. J.O poe m…rD., ~ g
Ullloolo: …….. , .. -….. ..•.•.. , •….. , … ,….. 10 per acre. /0-0. I (f-cr-o
F.mcin~ ……………….. _ ……….. , …. , …… L.Fe!L 10,000 porL.ft. 110 /~.
t;lIlhJ Rtx·l.;, EX!nalioo •• _ ..•.•.•.••..•…..•.••… ,. C. lordl. ~OO,OOO per C. yd. .J. :ltj~ ~
-EArth E.sC\1llrm. (h1clndtng tblrl defliCrilxd 10 Clouse )3
or tipcclfiti.ion); …. , ., ..•. • _ .•.•. ………. ..
./ ir°l .Jr;.r.,……,
I· .
por C. yd. ,0 ,,; OO~ 0-0-0
UIO&t! Rock. EnOf.tlon ……………… . :!~O,oOO
),MlO,OOO
,
—.1—–
c.,.; •• 0 •••………………….. j ………. 1 ………….. : .. :… …… 12-/{1S.7
ro
I
1I1.1:~~t~1~e~onO~~!:~rf~I.D~~I:~:I~!~:~f~C!!~d. !i~~~:t ~~c!~t~n;~f~ Ior;,bl:~:~!~:a,.?~~~r~l~~ ~t::.urfDlcDlr. 3Dd Dl3) be coosiduod rourbly
A
2
SCHEDULE OF QUANTITIES A~D PRICES.-Continued.
A rJRoxu.!AT& QO.o:TITII:8..
DlSCnlPTJOl« 0,. Wonl[.
·Sec fool note
Brought fOIIVnrd …•••••••••••••••••
Undcr-dJ8.ins
.• , , .••…•…..•.•••.•..•..•
Tunnelling (See chwsc 32 01 Spccitlcation.)
..
LIDcTnoDell in rock, in tte (ollowin:::, 1.m;:th6: 300n
60, )60, lOG, 240, 400, 360, 385, 290, 200, )50.140,
L. Feet.
1,6nO, 100, 150, 100, 110, 230, 350 Rnd 500 flo …• L. f(!c~ SRy
/. fwelve fect.-Stream TuoDClau ……………….. .
., Six (eel-Stream Tunnels …….. .
Brj dgo :M , .. onry ………•••••••.. •• , ••…..•••. ,., C. YRrds.
Culcrt Mal!ionry ..•••••••.•…. ~ …•…..•…..••.. I
Dry AJ~oDry (rllninins wRlIl;., etc.) ………………. ,
PRving …•……•……………….• , .•.•••….•
Cnot·o.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .• . ………•••..•… !
nip-rtp …… .
OI.sf..-iroo Pipes, 3ft. diamcl.er iC:iide, 1 in. tbick, laid in
conc
rete (the concrete not. included in this iteftl) •..
Haud.IRying rock embAnkmenl6, where slopes are st.eeper
t.han )
10 J (IRhom only) …………………… .
(160 ft., cl~r
I 126
Timbor Bridge Supertlrlldure •••….••• I 100 (See clRulles
42 and 4:l of Specification.)
60
0
Timber, but gumily, jM Beam Cli/tltrt&, g-c.:
]2 ft. X )6 ft. …………. ..
12 It. X ]2 ft …………………….. ..
8 ft. >.. 16 ft .. , ………….. .
sn.X12n ……………. ..
Olhcr dimemions of Timber (H required to be med)
R.l proport.ionnte pI~ces.
L. Feet.
C. Yrd,.
No.
L. Feet.
Piles drivcn (Sec clRltse .40 of 8pr.cifi(alion). …….••• L. l;-{~(l.t.
flound Timbcr for Crib Whnrlin{:,. etc., noilc61i than 12
in. diRftlct.tr ……………. : …. .•..•. …. ••.• L. F((t.
}<]lI.tled Timber in nORd Dlver~ion ClllverlA, 12ic. thick. L. FecI..
Plnnk ……… .. F.8.M.
Wrougbt. 1 ron ….•• 1.th
Cui hon ……
Ties….. ..•• ~o.
CnrrIlI.gc of RAils IUld FlI.slcninss, from JOWCI cnd 01
~cclion, including: 11.11 handling…… Tons..
TrRCkln:dns. . :lilc!O.
BaJJw;tlng …………….. ~ c. rlll(l~.
Selling Poirft:l Rnd Cr08~in~.· .•. ·… …… …..• …•.. No.
Pnl.oUc RO:ld Lev(l Cro~Ficg~ comprising Tlmbcr CnlUe-
gUlI.ma, Pl:
king, small Timber Culverls 1I1)tiu
&p,proacbe,,: Bnd Sodcl!boards, cOlDplel.e………… No.
ro cnter ·:work:.)tib)~lt rosib1f may be rl<]lliroo undor
CIAU~S 1a,:43 And ~f GencrAl Specification, snort
1UDfifi,::::~~.n~J~~.:~.~~d .. ~.~.~2.0~~~0::::: I.::::::::: :.:.
2,000
G,OOO
00
],000
I !irOOO
10,000
5,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
,00
15,000
2;000
,000
1,500
1,400
10,000
1.0,000
3,000
20,000
:1,000
bOO
1;00
3,000
••
100,nOO
0
2 3
RA.TES.
per L. (I.
per L. ft. No flo Duo
per L. n ..
J.r
/ J–
pc:r L. ft. 2-0
La 0-0-0
per C. yd.
/r z. 2.-rlrb-o
plr C. !d.
r
oro tt–o
PCl C. ~d:
.r 2-• ….,..,
per C. yd.
if
y.,..,..
l)(:rC. yd. .I
,,0….,
pr.r C. yd.
L Z. per L. f~. IL t; 0 0
I
plir C. yd. / j
.Irev-<>
per tipRn.
I tHe
i
-IT 41T-O
per SpAn. $16.
yo-u-o
per Spno. .70
i
/y ……
pOI SpAll. Il.oo I
.I-2-~a
pel Span. (; o.
~
110
per L. ft..
~
ro~
, per L. (I. .Il-.rO
per L. ft.. Joo
perL. n. Z. to
ptr L. ft.
Lt~
YOoo
pCl L. ft.
otl
,roo
per L. fL
1/°1
JoO
per M.
: 1.,°1
-100
pN It..
I/o
30-0
per It.
1-
/0
EACh.
I Z.r
/1,;ro
pcr Ton. /Iro ~.ro
pcr Mile
I
.r1
/.r <7&-0
lcr C .. nl. ,or. .,-0 (70 CI
Er(:h. /DO! 2—DO 0
En,h Irol 6 c
. ……………… 1. 250.000
.—1T~~
……………….. $ ¥./.I;J, 3 70 o •
• 1lJl:O~r;~;~~~~~t:~.~Q::ln!i~~If.rr~~~eo~1~~~I~~dl~I~:!:hee;:lt~r:~tn:D:r-:::I~r~~~:f~il::~~:I.lllen..urllnlnll, ond TO~) bl eoo,locred rrlurhl)
A
TENDER FORM FOR THE FIRST OF THE FOUR CONTRACTS. Note the
somewhat untidy entering of figures showing that this was
a working copy.
CANADIAN
140 R A I L
W
ItON UOUSI:-N ORI,LJ! A,lj,lIMS MlIss
:J.:.: __ ~::-_,_. @….:.. __ .~::.:..;~ … _::_._:~~~;~~.:….._~~~:=> ~~~J
F. E. S-ll–T. -rropri(lor.
LETTER WRITTEN BY R.L. HARRIS on November 8 1879 regarding the
submission of tenders. This leeter was not sent, probably due due
to the corrections made, but a re-copied version no doubt
was sent the same day.
CANADIAN 141 R A I L
At this point the story appears to end. Did they make the
deadline, or were they unable to raise the surety? In any case they
would have been underbid, but it would be interesting to know if
they tendered at all. Above all, who were the other associates?
Other than Harris himself, only the name of Philip McRae is noted.
Perhaps the mystery will never be solved.
As for the actual contracts, Onderdonk began work on May 14
1880, and after unbelievable difficulties was successful in compl­
eting the line to Savonas by the end of 1884. By this time of course
the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. was at work, and they awarded a
further contract to Onderdonk to continue the line to Eagle Pass where
the famous Last Spike was driven on November 7 1885.
Today
this spectacular l27-mile stretch is part of the main
line of C.P. Rail through the Fraser Canyon. All that remains of the
project of R.L. Harris are the old documents of 1879, but their story
is typical of the many unsuccessful efforts in the pioneer railway
construction in Canada.
NOTE: These documents were donated by a friend of the Association in
New Hampshire. Fortunately he appreciated the importance of them and
offered them to the C.R.H.A. This shows how important it is to keep
an eye open
for historical items that might be of interest to the
Association. The Museum is made up not only of full-size railway
equimment, but also such items as books, photographs, timetables,
tickets, and other railway-related documents. While one can not
always be lucky enough to find such things as 1879 tender forms or
1853 bonds, there are many other items of great significance still
on the loose. By locating them and making ~hem available to the
C.R.H.A. the members can help considerably to preserve the history
of Canadas railways, by saving documents which might otherwise be
destroyed.
Nhats in a name?
Part 2
by MERVYN T. GREEN
In the January 1981 issue, we commented on the frequency of n.icknames in
Canadian railroading, and listed some of the more well-known examples. We in-
cl uded Late and Poor Service (London & Port Stanley Railway) and Please Go
Easy (Pacific Great Eastern Railway) as samples of a country-wide habit of assigning
unusual and amusing meanings to the initials of railway companies.
We ended with a request for further examples; several members heeded this, and
we are now able to present a second listing of Canadian nicknames. We must thank
Ron Meyer, Phil Sunderland, and Grant Thompson for their help.
We are especially indebted to Grant Thompson, for he brought to our attention
a fascinating little paperback book, first published in 1952. Canadian
Quotations .and Phrases, Literary & Historical was compiled by Robert M. Hamilton
and contains a wealth of unusual facts. Much of what fOllows has been culled
from this source.
Alberta Great Eastern (Athabaska)
Rly
Alberta Great Haterways Rly
Algoma Central & Hudson Bay Rly
Atlantic, Quebec & Western Rly
Canadian National Railways
CNR Lines & Sections
Brandon -Portage la Prairie
Campbell ford Subdivision Charlottetown –
Murray Harbour
Edmonton -Blue River Irondale, Bancroft
& Ottawa
London -Clinton Point
Tupper -Inverness Prince Rupert -Jasper
Saskatoon -Calgary St. John,
N.B. suburban lines
Vancouver Island lines
Winnipegosis –
Rorketon
Canadian Northern Rly
Canadian Pacific Railway
Always Giving Employment
Almighty God Wonders
And God l~i 11 ing
All Curves, Hills & Bridges
The All Queer & Wobbly
Certainly No Rush
Collects No Revenue
Brandon Short Line
The Submarine Division
The Gaelic Express
The Duck and Dodge
In and Back Out
Italian Bums & Orphans
The Mary Ann
The Butter and Egg
The Juridique Flyer
The Burma Road
The Trap Line
The Turkey Trail
The Goose Lake Line
Works, Clerks & Shirks
Route of the Christmas Tree
Two Streaks of Rust
Coast to Coast
Canadian Now and Then
The Wooden Axle
Cant Pay Rent
Cant Promise Returns Chinese Pacific
(Vancouver area)
The Cheapee R.
CANADIAN
143
R A I L
PACIFIC GREAT EASTERN 2-8-0 No. S4 (built by Kingston in 1914,
serial No. 1243) shown at North Vancouver in the mid-1920s.
Photo: Ken Meri1ees.
CANADIAN
CPR Lines & Sections
Arrow Lakes Subdivision Lyndonville
Sub.
Montreal -r-1attawamkeag
Montreal -Boston
Osoyoos Sub.
Temiscaming Sub.
Cumberland Railway & Coal Co.
Dominion Atlantic R1y
DAR, Windsor -Truro Duluth,
Winnipeg & Pacific R1y
Edmonton, Dunvegan & British Colum-
bia R1y (then NAR)
Esquima1t & Nanaimo R1y
F1in F10n Branch
Grand Trunk Pacific R1y
Grand Trunk R1y
Great Northern Railroad
GNR, Port Guichon -Cloverdale Halifax
& South Western R1y
HSWR Lunenberg Branch
Hudson Bay R1y
Intercolonial Railway
Truro -Mu1grave
Halifax -Windsor & Halifax -Pictou Kettle Valley
R1y
London & Port Stanley R1y
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste.
Ma ri e Ra i1 road
Minnesota & Manitoba RR
Napanee, Tamworth & Quinte R1y
Newfoundland Railway
Niagara, St. Catherines & Toronto R1y
North Western Coal & Navigation Co. Ontarion Northland
R1y
Ottawa, Arnprior & Parry Sound R1y
Oxford & New Glasgow R1y
Pacific Great Eastern R1y
144
R A I L
The Great Octopus
The Sleepy R.
The Bow and Arrow
Snake Alley
The M and M
The Short Line
The Air Line
The Cantaloupe Trail
The Moccasin Line Cant
Run & Cant Crawl
The Blueberry Special
The Dust & Rust
The Land of Evangeline Route
The Midland
Derailments, Wrecks & Profanity Eat,
Drink and Be Cheerful Endless Ditches
& Big Curves
Enormously Dangerous & Badly Constructed Eternally
Damned & Badly Constructed
Every Day & Brings Comfort
Evilly Designed & Badly Constructed
The Easy & Noisy
The Easy & Nice
The F1 im F1 am
Get There Perhaps
The Big Suitcase
The B;g Valise
The Leaky Roof
Grand Nord
Great Now & Then
The Molasses Limited Hellish
Slow & Weary
The Fish LIne
The Highball Railway
The Muskeg Special
The Muskeg Unlimited
The Antogogae1icer
The Pawns
Tea Kettle Valley Least Possible Service
The Soo Line
Murder All Manitobans
None Too Quick
The Reid Railway
Naturally Slow & Tiresome
Never Starts On Time
The Turkey TRail
The Clay Belt Air Line
Hepburns Folly
Only Abuse & Poor Salary
The Short Line
Pat Gets Everything
Pats Greatest Effort Prince George,
Egad
Proctors Great Effort Provinces Greatest
Expense
CANADIAN
Pontiac, Pacific & Junction Rly
Port Arthur, Duluth & Western Rly
Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa & Occidental St.
John & Quebec Rly
Sidney & Louisburg Rly
Temiscouata Rly
Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Rly
White Pass & Yukon Rly
Yarmouth & Annapolis Rly
145
R A I L
Push, Pull, Jump & Run
The P and D Poverty, Desperation
& Want
The North Shore
The Valley Line
Slow and Lazy
The Sportsmens Route
Tried Hard & Busted
Wait Patiently & (Maybe) Youll Ride
The Missing Link
Such a lengthy list -and yet there are sure to be others we do not know.
If you know of any railway nicknames that are particularly amusing, or un­
usual, perhaps our editor will allow us in print again at a later date.
SOURCES
Green, Mervyn, Whats In A Name?, Canadian Rail, January 1981. pp. 14-15
Hamilton, Robert, Canadian Quotations & Phrases. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart,
1965, pp. 193-5
CANADIAN NATIONAL 5D40s Nos. 5118 and 5127 (G.M.D. 1969 and
1970 respectively) pause at Mission City to pick up a C.P.
pilotman
to continue east with an empty unit coal train from
North Vancouver
on January 18 1973. The diversion was due to
a derailment in the Fraser Canyon.
Photo:
Ron Meyer.
CANADIAN PACIFIC GP9 No. 8512 (G.M.D. 1955) at Port Moody on
January 17 1973. The Geep is painted in the 1950-1968 livery
of tuscan red and grey, hauling one of the many wood-sided cabooses once
owned by C.P. but now seen only in work trains.
Photo: Ron Meyer.
The Dreat Western
debentures of the
Dounty of Oxford
By Fred Angus.
In the year 1850 the first Canadian railway boom was getting
under way as plans were being mode for railway construction which would
see the first major part of Canodo s railway network established before
the end of the decade. Also in 1850, January 1 to be exact, the County
of Oxford in Canada West (later to become Ontario) was incorporated.
At that time the area had no railways at all, but plans were being made
for the Great Western Railway of Canada which would pass through
Oxford county and would prove of great benefit to the inhabitants.
There was one major problem; the raising of ~apital. The sale of
Great Western stock was not going as well as hoped, and without capital
the railway could not be built. The way in which Oxford county helped
in this project is a little-known but interesting story in the devel­
opment of Canadian railways in the nineteenth century. Almost as
intriguing is the sequel to the story which happened more than a
hundred years later.
The real start of this tale was the passage, on July 23 1850,
by the Parliament of the Province of Canada of An act to empower
Municipal Corporations to subscribe for stock in the Great Western
Railroad Company. The name Great Western Rail Road Company was
that used from 1845 to 1853 at which time the name was changed to
Great Western Railway. By this 1850 act, it was provided that It
shall be lawful for the Common Council of the City of Hamilton, and
for any other Municipal Corporation in this Province to subscribe
for any number of shares of the Capital Stock of the Great Western
Rail Road Company •••• .
The act also provided that such council could issue debentures,
payable at such times, and for such sums respectively, not less that
twenty-five pounds, and bearing or not bearing interest, as such Corp­
oration shall think meeL.
The final provision was that the Warden, Mayor or Town Reeve,
being the head of ony Municipal Corporation, subscribing for and
holding shares in the stock of the said company to the amount of
twenty-five thousand pounds or upwards, shall be ex-officio one of the
directors of the said company in addition to the number of directors
now authorized by law, and shall have the same rights, powers and
duties as any of the other directors of the said company..
CANADIAN
148
R A L
OXFORD COUNTY DEBENTURE No. 180 for 100 pounds currency ($400)
issued on April 1 1853. All coupons from 1856 to 1871 are intact
which suggests that the debenture was lost or hidden in 1856.
That is why it was not destroyed when the issue was redeemed.
1
I
CANADIAN
149
R A I L
Here was a seemingly golden oportunity for municipal councils.
First a chance for a good investment. Second a seat on the Board of
the G.W.R., and finally a chance to have the railway pass through
their own territory. How many municipalities took advantage of the act
is not now known, but in the county of Oxford there was at first
considerable opposition from some of the ratepayers who showed a
distinct lack of faith in the directors of the company. However the
efforts of Francis Hincks M.P.P. (1807~1885), and John Barwick,
Reeve of Blandford Township in favour of the scheme at last bore
fruit. It was pointed out that to ship a barrel of flour from Wood­
stock to Hamilton by road cost 2 shillings 7 pence, wheras by rail it
would cost only 6 pence, a saving of more that 80%. So on December 3
1850, the County of Oxford passed by-law No.8 which authorized the
County Warden to purchase 1000 shares of Great Western stock, and to
issue 250 debentures of a value of 100 pounds currency each. This
was a total of 25,000 pounds currency or .5100,000. which was the
minimum required for a seat on the Board. The term pound currency
was not the same as pound sterling, as the pound currency was equiv­
alent to 54.00, while the pound sterling was about 54.86, and was
of course (and still is) British money.· The Canadian pound currenc),,
ceased to exist in 1858 when Canada adopted the dollar unit at a ratio
of four to one.
By the end of 1850 the way seemed clear for Oxford County to
issue the debentures. It is likely that it was early in 1851 that the
250 beautifully engraved debentures arrived from the printer in New
York. They were printed by Toppan, Carpenter, Casilear and Co. one
of the companies which in 1858 formed the American Bank Note Company. They had
an engraving of Queen Victoria as well as one of a four-car
train hauled by a 4-4-0 outside-framed locomo~ive. They had 40 coupons,
suggesting that they were intended to be 20-year debentures, but as
they were eventually issued with an 18-year term the first four coupons
must have been destroyed without being issued. S~nce all dates were
filled in by hand the actual date of printing cannot be determined,
but it is known that they were finally dated and signed entirely by
hand including all coupons, on April 1 1853. The reason for the two­
year delay is puzzlihg, but it may have been that it was felt that
there would not be much market for the debentures until the railway
was at least under construction:
In 1853, however, considerable optimism abounded, and all 250
debentures were sold to the public for 100 pounds~400.) each, paying
6% interest, and due in 1871. The stock was purchased by the county,
and the railway was officially opened on January 18 1854. Oxford
County had six stations on the lin~: Canning, Princeton, Eastwood,
Woodstock, Beachville, Ingersoll. PdPulation of the county ros~ from
31,448 in 1851 to 46,185 a decade later. Sufficient income was real­
ized from the stock dividends to pay the coupons on the debentures,
so they cost the county nothing. The railway appeared to be a financial
success, and things looked very bright.
By late 1855 the County councillors began to have second thoughts
about their investment •. The railway was in operation through their
county~ so there was no longer any real need to have a seat on the
board. Furthermore the stock was selling above par value so why not
get out while things were good? Accordingly at a special council
meeting in October 1855 it was decided to sell all the 1000 shares to
the highest bidder. The total realized was 5111,125. including a
51000. dividend just declared by the railway. This meant a profit of
more that 11% on the 5100,000 investment, which profit was distrib­
uted among the local municipalities in proportion to their assesment.
CANADIAN
150
R A I L
A BEAUTIFUL ENGRAVING OF QUEEN VICTORIA fianked by lion and
unicorn and surrounded by the order of the garter complete with motto. This
is a good example of the fine engraving used
in security printing in the nineteenth century.
A VERY DETAILED ENGRAVING OF AN l850-VINTAGE PASSENGER TRAIN
was a feature of the Oxford County debenture. Most details of
the locomotive are shown inCluding valve gear, water buckets,
and the odd wheel arrangement on the tender. The coaches are
also typical of the period. Note the steamboat in the back­ground,
also the lack of a pilot on the engine. This was most
likely a standard engraving of an American train and does not
depict a Great Western locomotive.
CANADIAN 151 R A I L
IN CONTRAST TO THE FINE ENGRAVING on the main part of the
debenture, the coupons were very plain. Note that each coupon
was hand-signed; quite a job since there were 40 coupons on
each of the 250 bonds, a total of 10,000 signatures for each
of the two signers.
These amounts varied from $1372.32 for North and South Norwich down
to $416.4-3 for North Oxford. The &lIe of the stock at that time
proved to be very fortunate as the panic of 1857 was just around the
corner, and the ensuing depression was a blow from which the railways
never fully recovered. However< in October 1855 the county had $100,000
in cash (25,000 pounds currency) which was kept in the Treasurers –
personal bank account! It was decided to try to redeem as many of the
debentures as possible; advertisements to this effect were placed in
newspapers, and in late 1855 and early 1856 a total of 211 debentures,
worth 584,400 were redeemed and destroyed. The remaining 39 were held
by owners who wished to retain them until they came due in 1871.
This left $15,600 held by the county which then gave it to the munic­
ipalities, again pro-rata to their assesment, with the provision that
they would require it back in 1871 when the debentures matured. Each
year the municipalities were assesed a total of 5936.00 to pay the
interest on the outstanding 39 debentures.
Finally 1871 rolled around, and the debentures came due. The
515,600 was collected from the municipalities and the entire issue
was paid off and redeemed. Everyone was happy, the investors got
their money back, the county made a profit, and the railway was built.
This was the end of the story of the Oxford County debentures. Or was
it?
One hundred and eight years later, in March 1979, the county
treasurer received a call from a Toronto dealer in rare books saying
that he, the dealer, had acquired an 1853 bond or debenture issued
by Oxford county for 100 pounds currency, and would the county please
redeem it for 5400. plus 512.00 for each of the 31 coupons attached,
a grand total of 5772.00! A considerable discussion then ensued as
county officers looked through old records. The problem was that,
since all the debentures had been officially redeemed there was no
money to redeem it. Canadian National Railways also could not help
for, although they were heirs to the Great Western (which had been
taken over by the Grand Trunk in 1882), this was not a railway sec­
urity, so was not binding on C.N. It became obvious that this old
debenture, number 162, was worthless financially but of great hist­
orical interest. After some discussion a value of $100 was establis­
hed, the twenty councillors each gave $5.00, ond the certificate was
purchased and is now in the Oxford County courthouse on permanent
exhibition as a historical relic.
Even this was not the end of the story, for later the same year
a Woodstock resident found onother certificate with 27 coupons hidden
in the back of an old picture frame. Then in 1981, debenture No. 180,
with 31 coupons, turned up and was subsequently purchased by the author
of this article. So it seems as if three at least of the old debent­
ures escaped destruction in 1856 and 1871. The explaination could
be that they had been lost or misplaced by their owners, and at redemp­
tion time the owners made a sworn statement to that effect and were
paid the value without cancellation of the certificate. It is quite
easy to visualize someone carefully hiding this $400 security ( a
considerable sum in those days) behind a picture, and either dying in
the next twenty years, or else forgetting where he hid it. How many
still exist? Well, three are known, but quite possibly others exist,
maybe many more. Although now unredeemable, they are indeed most
interesting survivals of the first great railway age in Canada.
NOTE: Much of the information in the foregoing article came from a
publication entitled County of Oxford Historical Item No. 25
written by L.K. Coles and dated August 1979.
CALGARY COR R E C T ION
———————————–
Once again we have to apologize for a printing error in Canadian
Rail. Page 356 of the December issue omitted all the text which was
supposed to be the start of the article on the Calgary light-rail transit
system. Also on page 360, the map of that system was accidently replaced
by an advertisement reading Why LRT?. We now correct the error and print
the missing text and map, and hope we have not puzzled too many members.
Ionday, Iay
25 1981 was an historic day for the city of Calgary
Alberta, when the opening of that citys light rail transit system
marked a return to rail city transit operation after an absence of
more than thirty years. In 1950 the last of Calgarys street cars gave
way to trolleybusses, and these in turn were superceded by the diesel
variety. lIowever recent great expansion of the city has made it quite
obvious that rubber-tired traffic could not cope with the needs of the
1980s, and so a light-rail rapid transit system was planned.
The total cost of the project was about $167,300,000 of which
$94,200,000
was paid by the city of Calgary, and the remainder iJy the
Federal government and the Province of Alberta. :,Iost of the right-of­
way is on the surface, but there is a 700-metre tunnel at Cometary
lIill undor the .llcLood Trail alignment.
Rolling stock consists of 27 light-rail vehicles built by
Siemens-Duwag
of Dusseldorf, West Germany, and ordered on December
1977.
The vehicle shells were shipped to Vancouver, thence by C.P. Rail
~
~i
~~/I
A.NDEASON
—I
CA.~ADIAN RAIL UPDATE
——————–
As a follow-up to two articles which appeared in Canadian
Rail
we are printing three photos which were not included in the
original articles, but which are of considerable importance.
Mr. Roger Samson has sent this fine photo of the first steam
train on Anticosti Island to go with his article which appeared in
Canadian Rail in 1980. The locomotive was built in 1904 by the
Decauvi11e Work at Petitbourg France. It was in service at Port
~lenier from 1904 until 1910-11. It was then stored in the basement
of the club house at Port ~lenier until 1949 when it was scrapped,
and the metal shipped out by boat.
The other two photos are from the Erich Kruger collection
which was featured in Canadian Rail for December 1981, and were
submitted by Keith C. Hopkin. They show C.N.R. locomotive 5701
being hauled up the embankment after what was obviously a very
serious derailment. Unfortunately the date and place are not re­
corded, but it is obviously not later than 1945. Perhaps one of
our readers can help us out on this one.
ANTICOSTI RAlLVAY—P1nt Sta&a Tm1n on AnUcostl Island. 3u11t 1n 1904 1 Tho 1Jo.6IIv1l1e Work at Pet1toours.
Franc8. Vae 1n Service At Port Hemler frotl 1904 to 1910-11, Oluge was 29 of )0 inches. I.a stored 1n the ba8emlmt of
The Club-House at Port Monier until 1949 where she was scrapped and dlsDOlntled and _&.1. shipped by boat 1n 1949.
Jhe. ..
business car
COMPLETELY EQUIPPED WITH THE LATEST FEATURES OF LOCOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY,
the first of the new GR418 locomotives rolled out of the Point
St. Charles shops this summer headed for service on CN Rail
branch lines.
These locomotives were originally GR17s which have been com­
pletely remanufactured by our employees at the shops, said Bill
Draper, assistant chief, motive power.
HALF THE COST
This project represents a saving for CN Rail because each
remanufactured locomotive is costing us half a million dollars, wher­
eas a new one would cost over a million. We knew we had the skills
and expertise to take this on and plan to convert at least 150 of
the GR17s, which are about 25 years old and technologically obsolete.
About 30 locomotives are slated for conversion next year and
about 30 each year afte~ that until we reach 150. How many we com­
plete past that number depends on government decisions about branch
line abandonments, said Mr. Draper.
STRIPPED TO SHELL
He explained that the old locomotives are stripped down to the
shell and rebuilt incorporating a new design as well as the latest
in safety and winterization features -in fact everything that could
possibly improve operation of the locomotive in all kinds of weather.
In addition, the 1,750 h.p. engines are upgraded to 1,800 h.p.
with the latest-style engine components.
Weve cut the nose down for greater visibility and moved the
control stand to the other side to run short hood forward. The
latest in cab comfort features have also been added such as a chemical
toilet, a refrigerator and better insulation to reduce noise levels.
The GR418s are also equipped with anti-climbers self-aligning
couplers which will give the crew added protection in the event of
collision and minimize reverse movement derailment.
CANADIAN
157
R A I L
This increases the crashworthiness of the locomotive and we
have also added crash posts to give greater strength to the short
end of the locomotive, said Mr. Draper.
S NOW PROBLEM
Snow is a big problem for locomotive operations and all the new­
est winterization features have been built in, such as dry air to keep
the locomotive electrical equipment operating reliably in inclement
weather and a snow plow pilot on both the front and rear so that the
locomotive can operate in both directions in the winter.
Armor-plated glass in the cab windows is thermally heated to
prevent frosting and can also withstand a .22-calibre bullet, offering
greater protection against vandals who throw things or even shoot
at trains.
The electrical cabinet is completely removable as a unit for
maintenance and the latest in air brakes has been installed, along
with the most up-to-date engine components.
CAN BE PROUD
The employees can really be pr:oud of this locomotive, said Mr.
Draper. It was designed by headquarters employees and totally re­
manufactured by our shops employees. To distinguish it as a totally
CN project, it will be painted with gold numbers so that all employees
will be able to easily identify their proud achievement.
KEEPING TRACK
THE STATELY OLD RAILWAY STATION HERE, A LANDMARK SINCE THE TURN OF
the century, is receiving a $l-million facelift that is sym­
bolic of the regeneration affecting every phase of Terra Trans­
port operations in the province.
The massive stone building, which serves as railway headquar­
ters in Newfoundland, is the nerve centre from which the orders flow
for the various individual projects that are involved in the conversion
from conventional railcar service to containerization.
I n fact, said engineering officer Randell S parkes, one of the
busiest people around these days, well over a million dollars will
be spent by the time the historic structure has been completely refur­
bished into a modern workplace, late next year.
MAJOR CENTRES
Mr. Sparkes commented on the status of various aspects of the
conversion to containerization and pointed out that most of the major
centres on the island are undergoing major alterations and renovations
while additional facilities are either under construction or consider­
ation.
He said terminals in the capital city, Gander, Bishops Falls,
Grand Falls and Corner Brook are to be designed as consolidated
facilities in 11ne with plans to realign and adjust operations.
Plans are also being finalized for a containe~ terminal at the
Port aux Basques CN Marine headquarters, although Terra Transports
involvement has not been settled to date.
In Corner Brook, a combined facility to accommodate all major
functions is nearing completion.
The expreas terminal will soon be dismantled to make room
for completion of express offices and development of the new container
terminal.
CENTRAL AREA
At Grand Falls, in central Newfoundland, plans for consolidat ion
of activity in the existing express terminal is under review. The
project is expected to commence next year. The wo~k will include
both interior and exterior renovation, as well as modern office fac­
ilities for the various functions.
Considerable site work, such as paving, drainage and roadway
improvements, is to be undertaken in conjunction with the establish­
ment of a container terminal.
At nearby Bishops Falls, it is proposed to consolidate on-line
engineering maintenance-of-.way activities. Site selection later this
year will be followed by the construction of a facility in 1982 to
encompass a work equipment and white fleet depot, bridge and buildings
work shop, signal maintenance shop and offices for equipment, signal,
bridge and buildings and roadmaster functions.
An enclosed land area will serve as storage for roadway stock,
white fleet accommodations and work equipment machinery. Preliminary
costs are estimated at S350,OOO.
Interior renovations of the Gander facility to accommodate the
express operation have been completed and it is in operation. Exterior
refurbishment of the structure will begin later this year.
KEEPING TRACK
BOMBARDIER; TOGETHER WITH BTM INTERNATIONAL (A SUBSIDIARY OF THE
Bureau de Transport de Montreal) and B.G. Checo of Montreal, has
won a turnkey contract to engineer, equip, and provide manag­ement
services for a new metro system for Monterey, Mexic~. It will
be a rubber-tired system similar to those in Montreal and Mexico City.
Bombardier had earlier won a S150M contract to supply some of the
equipment for the third phase of the Mexico City system.
Bombardier has made two proposals to VIA Rail for replacement
of old ROC equipment. One is a vehicle to VIA specifications, the
other a technologically more advanced vehicle. Budd and Hawker
Siddeley are also interested, but VIA may instead decide to rebuild
existing ROCs.
TRANS IT NEWS
A SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS VEHICLE FOR USE AT THE SITE OF A MAJOR
derailment was unveiled recently by CN Rail.
The experimental unit was custom-built in CN Rails Point St.
Charles ahops at a cost of S250,OOO. It contains radio, telephone,
Telex and video systems and has been designed to be the command post
at the derailment site,
Half of the 45_foot trailer accoNModetes a cONmunicotions control
centre and support facilities. The other half is e conference area
in which CN Rail officers, police and fire departNents, cheMical
cOMpany specialists, environ.ent officers and other authorities can
shore inforMation and plan courses of action. The conference area
will also be used for ~edia briefings.
Ron Lawless, president of eN Rail, said, In a tlojor derailment,
particularly if dangerous cO.Modities are involved, a reliable flow
of informotLon to and frail the site is essential. We have a resp_
onsibility to keep the public and the appropriate authorities well
infor.ed. There can be great met it in drawing on specialist resources
for reMoved from the site.
And
while all this is going on, the railway has to be able to
order extra equip.ent or Manpower needed to get on with efficiently
handling the derailment. With this vehicle we can do all these things
concurrently, whereas in the past they were likely to be done one
after the other, he ,aid.
Hr. Lawless said the first comNond post, Hobile 1, with be loca­
ted in southern Ontario, where the heaviest concentration of dangerous
cam,.odity movements tokes place. Since the concept is new, it will
toke so.e tille to deterMine whether we have the optimu. combination
of cOIlMunications equipment in it, Mr. Lawless said, but we will
eventually have a ,i.ilar unit in each of our five regions across
the country.
A
key to ensuring co •• unicotion is the 45_foot telescopic radio
lIast Mounted on the rear of the trailer. Its antenna i, the link to
three separate far.s of radio COMmunication: eN Roils own Multi­
channel syste., telephone co.panies Mobile telephone syste.s and the
CB radio system. There are four portable radios for walkie-talkie
COMmunication at the site.
In addition, the COMnond post can occaM.odate up to three tele_
phone COMpany circuits and two eN Roil dispatcher telephone links.
The Telex hook-up, complete with CRT, allow. comMunication with any
location on the Telex network. It olso enable, the CO~Mand post to
access eN Roils TRACS COMputer for inforMation about the train con.ist
and the nature of the co •• odities corried, and to tap into Canadian
Notionals cOMpany-wide adMinistrative Message network.
Videotape equip~ent on Hobile 1 will provide either direct
feed to the trailer or renate toping for later playback.
The COMBand post can travel to the derailnent site by highway
if the occident happens near a rood; it can also travel by flatcar
to inaccessible points on the railway syste~.
eN MOVIN
BACt;:: COVER:
C.N. LOOONOTIVE 4514 in front of the station at Stratford Ontario
.~ seen on October 11 1981. Note the snow ploW pilot and snow
shields, a reminder that winter was not far away.
Photo by Gordon R. Taylor.

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