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Canadian Rail 352 1981

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Canadian Rail 352 1981

Canadian Rail …
No.3a2
MAY 1981
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Published r:lOnthly by The Canadian Railroad
Historical Association P.
O. Box 22, Station B
Montreal ,Quebec,Canada H3B 3J5
EDITOR: Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR: M. Peter Murphy
BUSINESS CAR: Dave J. Scott
OFFICIAL CARTOGRAPHER: William A.
Germani uk
LAYOUT: Michel Paulet
COV ER:
WHI LE IT tlA Y NOT SE 1}1 THAT long
to most enthusiasts, it is now
ten years since Canadian Nation­
al steam locomotive 6218 was
retired, to be replaced later by
6060. Back in March 1971. time
was running out for the famous
4-8-4. and that was the time
when Robin Russell took this
nostalgic photo.
OPPOSITE:
A MOST UNUSUAL LASH-UP IS SEEN
AT LONDON ONTARIO on November
22,1980. A westbound freight
showed up with a C.P.Rail C-424
No. 4212. a C.&O. GP-30 No.
3029. and a GO Transit F40PH
No. 513. This is a rare set used
on a leased-power lash-up. The
GO unit is being dropped here
whi 1 e the res t of the power
continues on to the Windsor area.
The GO unit was returned to Toronto
on the next eastbound
freight. Gordon R. Taylor.
-~IAN
ISSN 0008-4875
CALGARY & SOOTH WESTERN DIVISION
60-6100 4th Ave. NE
Calgary, Al berta T2A 5Z8
OTTAWA
BYTOWN RAILWAY SOCIETY
P.O. Box 141, Station A Ottawa, Ontario
K1N 8Vl
NEW BRUNSWICK DIVISIOtI
P.O. Box 1162
Saint John.
New Brunswick E2L 4G7
CROWSNEST AND KETTLE-VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 400
Cranbrook, British Columbia
V1C 4H9
PACIFIC COAST DIVISION
P.O. Box 1006, Station A, Vancouver
British Columbia V6C 2Pl
ROCKY MOUNTAIN DIVISION
P.O. Box 6102, Station C,Edmonton
Alberta T5B 2NO
WINDSOR-ESSEX DIVISION
300 Cabana Road East, Windsor
Ontario N9G lA2
TORONTO & YORK DIVIS ION
P:O. Box 5849, Terminal A, Toronto Ontario
M5W lP3
NIAGARA DIVISION
P.O. Box 593
St.Catharines, Ontario
L2R 6W8
ST. LAWRENCE VALLEY DIVISION
P.O. Box 99
Ste. Dorothee, Quebec H7X 2T4
Interurban
from EdInonton to
St.Albert
As a follow-up to the article on the Edmonton interurban
which was published in the June 1980 issue of Canadian Rail,
we are very pleased to publish these two interesting photos
of car No. 1 of the Edmonton-to-St. Albert interurban line.
Both photos were taken in 1912, and depict this extremely
rare piece of rolling stock – a gas-electric interurban car.
The view of the left-hand side of the car is from the
photograph collection of the Provincial Archives of Alberta,
while that showing the left-hand side is from negative number
NA-1328-1885 of the Glenbow -Alberta Institute, originally
photographed be McDermid Studios in Edmonton. Both photos were
supplied by Lon Marsh.
The railway fell on hard times soon after the start of
World War I (1914), and was abandoned shortly afterward. The
cars were green coloured, and were powered by a gasoline engine.
There seem to be no photos known of the railway or its equip­
ment other than these and the ones that were published in the
June 1980 Canadian Rail. Why the name St. Albert is not shown on
the car is somewhat of a mystery.

The 1981
Canadian Silver Dollar
The Royal Canadian Mint is striking a special commemorative
silver dollar depicting a locomotive. The purpose of this coin
is to mark the 100th anniversary of The approval by the Cana­
dian government to build the Trans-Canada Railway. While the
name of the railway is not mentioned in the official news rel­
ease, it is, of course, the Canadian Pacific which celebrated
its centennial on February 16.
The quality of this coin is the best ever seen on a silver
dollar in Canada, since it is being offered in both uncirculated
and proof. The proof coins are struck on a special press using
special dies that show the raised areas in a frosted finish
against a highly-polished background. The uncirculated ones are
struck with a uniformly polished finish, and although the relief
is not quite as high as on the proofs, the overall effects is
also pleasing. Both varieties of coins come in plastic cases to
protect them from tarnish and scratches.
The locomotive depicted appears to be a class SA 4-4-0
of the C.P.R., a type that was built in fairly considerable
numbers in the 1880 s, thus it is very appropriate for the coin.
Two engines of this class that still exist (although very much
altered) are 29 an~144 at the Canadian Railway Museum. No. 374,
now at Vancouver, was also of that type.
In addition to the silver dollar, the regular-issue nickel
dollar of the canoe design is also being struck in 1981, and
these are the ones that will be available at banks for $1.00.
However the Locomotive dollar is only struck in an alloy of
50% silver which accounts for its relatively high price. Both
uncirculated and proof silver dollars are available from the
mint until October, the price of the former being $14.00 while
the latter costs $18.00. Since this is the first official Can­
adian coin to depict a railway subject, and even unofficial
ones (eg. the Montreal & Lachine token of 1847) are rare, this
issue is of great interest to rail historians. Also, since it
is the first Canadian proof coin issued to the public other than
high denomination ones (eg. Olympic issues) it will be in demand
for coin collectors. The 1981 Canadian silver dollar is bound
to become a collectors item in years to come.
Locomotive Trials
with Pictou CoaI-1869
Christopher Andreae
By the 1850s the technical feasibility of burning
coal in locomotives had been demonstrated in North
America.
Wood had fueled locomotive fireboxes until
this time, and would continue to be used for several
more decades, but fuel costs and operating efficiencies
force locomotive designers to consider coal as an
alternative. Never-the-less, individual railway managers
were
not converted wholesale by the apparent advantages
of coal: many believed that important questions were
still unanswered regarding the new fuel. Could coal of
suitable quality be found? What were the actual economic
advantages in the conversion to coal? Until these, and
other questions could be satisfactorily answered, railway
managers took a very conservative approach in switchin~
their locomotives from wood to coal fuel.
The following article, excerpted from a study entitled
Report on Pictou Coals and Iron Ores was prepared by the
Geological Survey of Canada to answer these questions. As
a government agency, this report was probably less biased
than privately produced studies. The report, incidently,
provides the modern reader with a glimpse of the state of
the art of locomotive performance in the mid 1800s.
Coal was rarely used as a locomotive fuel in North Ame­
rica prior to the 1860s. Few coal deposits were mined and
hence
the fuel was neither cheap nor widely available. As
well, several technological problems with the design of
locomotives prevented coal from being successfully burned.
Wood was by far, the preferred locomotive fuel until
the 1370s due to its cheapness and availability. Vast
forests provided a seemingly inexhaustable supply of wood
close to the rail lines. But against these advantages, wood
had a lower heat value than coal and a greater quantity of
wood was necessary to produce the same amount of heat. Wood
was considerably more bulky than coal. Frequent stops which
were
required to wood up reduced the average speed of train.
And, by mid-century, forest reserves were becoming depleted and
wood was nO longer as easy or cheap to purchase as formerly.
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CANADIAN
136
R A I L
Despi te the use of coal in locomotives in Bri tain and
coal mining areas of North America, early experiments in
North America with coal fired locomotives were not successful.
Fire boxes were too small to burn coal effectively. In the
cases where coal could be burnt, the life of the firebox
and flues were greatly reduced. (1) Never-the-less, these
problems were solved in the 1850s and coal became recognized
as the best locomotive fuel.
Throughout the 1860s and 1870s many railway comp­
anies converted their locomotives to coal. Canadian railways
were generally slower to adopt coal than their American
counterparts. In Ontario and Quebec much of the countryside
was still covered with dense forests and the nearest coal
fields were located in Pennsylvania. Thus, although the
Great Western Railway experimented with coal in the 1850s,
NOVA SCOTIA RAILWAY.
MILER nUN,
RUNNINC.
CONROMPTION OF t4TORKS ANn WAOKA.
THIS TABLE OF MILEAGE and consumption of stores of the Nova
Scotia Railway locomotives covers the period from Oct. 1 1864
to Sep. 30 1865, just a few years before the tests of Pictou
coal were made. Locomotives 7 and 19 were used in the tests.
Note that No.7 was mostly confined to switching duties.
CANADIAN 137 R A I L
the fuel was too expensive to be used. 30th the Great
Western and the Grand Trunk gradually converted their locom­
otives to coal during the 1870s and the Grand Trunk even
stretched the conversion program into the 1880s.(2)
Coal had been mined on a commercial scale in Nova
Scotia since the 1820s. Railways associated with the
coal mines burned the fuel from the start of mining operations.
However, main line railways of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
were
not connected to the coal fields and thus continued to
use wood. The Pictou coal fields, containing the most
active mines, did not obtain a rail link to the trunk network
until 1867. The Nova Scotia Railway immediaLely began a
trial use of coal in the locomotives on one of the companys
branch lines. Apart from this one example, railways in
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick continued to burn wood well
into the 1870s despite the close proximity of coal deposits.
Although the advantages of coal over wood were well
known by the 1850s, the best coal to burn was still subject
to argument. In fact, early experiments with coal fired
locomotives had larp,ely failed because anthracite coal was
too difficult to burn. (3) With only limited knowledge about
the qualities of various coals the only way to determine the
steaming characteristics of coal deposits was to undertake
practical studies. The following trial of coal from the
Pictou area of Nova Sxotia was performed not only to study
its effectiveness as a locomotive fuel but also to offer a
practical demonstration of the superiority of coal over wood.
The
following report was one of the first studies under­
taken by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) in the maritime
provinces. The Survey had been established in the 1850s to
serve the colonies of Canada East and Canada West (Today
Quebec and
Ontario). After Canada was created in 1867, the
GSC expanded into New Brunswick and Nova ScQtia. For political
reasons it was advantageous for the GSC to offer a high profile
in the maritimes. Hence, the Survey undertook to study economic
minerals in Nova Scotia.(4) Pictou was the site of a large
coal field, promising iron deposits and a large industrial
community. Research undertaken in this area was sure to be
given prominent coverage in the province. The report on
Pictou coals and iron ores was prepared from field work under­
taken in 1868 and 1869 and published in 1870.
CANADIAN 138
R A I L
The report was divided into several sections of which
only part of the second section, Practical Trials of Pictou
Coals is reproduced here. Edward Hartney, among the first
geologists hired by the esc to study the maritime provinces
resources, researched this section of the report. His first
season of field work was in 1868 and he continued to study
the coal fields of Nova Scotia until his untimely death in
November 1870.(5) The practical trials of Pictou coal consisted
of burning coal from several mines in a number of locomotives
under controlled conditions. In addition to locomotive
tests, a trial was also made with a steam boat. This is
referred to as Trial Number Two in the report but has not
been reproduced in this article. Two companies were selected
to provide the coal. The Acadian Coal Company had been mining
coal since 1866 while the Intercolonial Coal Company had only
shipped its first coal in 1868.(6)
The main line of the Nova Scotia Railway between Pictou
Landing and Halifax was the location of most of the testing.
Track from Halifax to Truro had been constructed in 1858 and
was one of the oldest sections of rail in the maritime
provinces. The Truro to Pictou Landing route had only been
completed
in 1867.(7) Additional test runs were made on the
railway of the Intercolonial Coal Companys 6.75 mile track
opened in 1868 from its mine to a shipping pier.(8)
An interesting aspect of the following experiments is
the technical descriptions and performance characteristics of
the locomotives. The experiments provide an insight into loco­
motive technology of the 1860s. Since the tests on the Nova
Scotia Railway were designed to compare coal and wood, every
attempt was made to have the locomotives as technically similar
as possible. The locomotives chosen were virtually identical
American types with l6X21 cylinders, 60 drivers, 25 ton weight,
and built by Neilson of Glasgow, Scotland. Number 7 had been
built in 1857 and converted to coal fuel about 1869. Number
19 was wood burning and had been built in 1859. (9) Locomotive
number 3
of the Intercolonial Coal Company was a 0-6-0 tank
locomotive built by Dubs and Company of Gla::.gow with 60
drivers and l4X22 cylinders. The locomotive had been constructed
as a coal burner, probably in 1868.(10)
Thus the trials of Pictonian coal Were undertaken with
equipment and track in relatively new condition. The locomotives
were 12, 10 and 1 years old. The oldest section of track was
11 years old but the rest was one and two years old. The tests
were conducted in as close to optimal conditions as possible.
Only the weather could not be controlled. As described in the
report, winter sleet storms ruined many of the proposed tests.
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CANADIAN 140 R A I L
Never-the-less, the trials proved the points the GSC set
out to establish. The report was overwhelmingly in favour of
coal over wood as a locomotive fuel. Coal had lower labour
costs, fewer fuel in£; stops, and requi red 1 ess fuel than wood·
to perform the same work. All this led to reduced operating
costs and faster travel time. The tests with Acadian and
Intercolonial coal indicated that both were high quality steam
coals. The quality of Pictonian coal as a locomotive fuel
withstood the test of time and the area continued to supply
coal to railways in the maritime provinces until dieselization
ended that market for coal.
Notes
1. White, J.II. Jr., American Locomotives, An Engineering
IIistory 1830-1880 (Baltimore, 1968), 78.87.
2. Currie, A.W., The Grand Trunk Railway ofCanuda
(Toronto, 1957), 157, 175, 207.
3. Jhite, American Locomotives, 87.
4. ZaslOW, M., Reading the Rocks (Ottawa, 1975), 116.
5. ~., 96, 118.
6. Cameron, J.M., The Pictonian Colliers (Kentville,
Nova Scotia, 1974) 34-35, 48-49.
7. Stevens, C.R., Canadian National Railways volume 1
(Toronto, 1960) 162, 184.
8. Cumaron, Pictonian Colliers, 34
9. Brown, R.R., Early Canadian Rolling Stock, Bulletin
Railway and Locomotive Historical Society, October,
1941, 52.
10. Cameron, Pictonian Colliers, 35
The following article is excerpted from the Geologican
Survey of Canada Report of Progress, 1866-1869, Report on
Pictou Coals and Iron Ores, pages 365-442.
Aerial Photog}–aph
Interpretation
in Railway History
J. Derek Booth
Historical geographers and archaeologists have long recognized
the value of aerial photographs in studying those remnant features
of past landscapes which frenuently have little or no visible
expression when seen from ground level. The several series of
Canadian government and other air photographs which have been
systematically compiled for southern settled Canada since the 1930s
and which are readily available from the National Air Photo Library
of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources
r
similarly provide
valuable information to the railway historian on the location of
abandoned railway lines and other elements of railway infrastructure.
Despi te the fact that much of Canadas railway network is less
than a century old, historical information on lines that were
abandoned prior to the beginnings of the National Topographic Map
series in the early 1900s is sometimes very scanty. Published maps
often fail to show early ephemeral branch lines, of which there were
many, and here the aerial photograph can be of great use in precisely
locating these railways.
Air photos provide the same perspective on a landscape as do maps
as they make it possible to see patterns and distributions
from above, but they go far beyond maps for while these are abs­
tractions of reality and show only selected aspects of the country­
side by means of symbols, the aerial photograph is literally a
picture of everything that is visible from the air at the time the
photograph is made. The shapes of fields, the distribution of
forest, even the types of trees and crops growing are all discern­
able from aerial photography.
Any disturbance of the earths surface leaves a scar that re­
mains visible. The severity of the disturbance and the nature of the
physical environment will determine the duration and scale of the
impact. The building of railway embankments or the excavation of
cuttings constitute rather major impacts on the land surface and
not surprisingly the traces of such activities are still visible in
some cases after over a century has elapsed.
Railway alignments can be discerned on aerial photographs in
several ways, in the first instance by shape. Few other man-made or
natural phenomena exhibit the same type of gentle sinuosity as do
railways in uneven terrain. While roads may take almost any conceiv­
able configuration in response to local topographic conditions, the
constraints of grade and curvature impose limitations on the shape
of the pathways of railways. A tenuous line, devoid of the kind of
irregularities that roads or rivers can have is often the first ind­
ication on an aerial photograph of the presence of an abandoned
railway and it is only from a vertical perspective that even this
slender thread is apparent.
CANADIAN 142 R A I L
The clarity and continuity of the line of the railway as seen
on the aerial photo is directly related to the amount of disturbance
that an area has experienced since the abandonment of the line. It
is clearly very difficult (but not always impossible) to follow
railway lines through urban areas where the traces are largely
obliterated. In rural regions, even ones of considerable agricultural
activity, the problem is much less severe.
Where there are embankments, abutments or cuttings still visible
on the ground, the line on the aerial photograph is very clear even
though individual disconnected segments on the surface might not
give a clue as to their origin. But even where embankments were low
and cuttings shallow indirect evidence remains. The most valuable
such type of indirect indicator for the presence of an old rail
line is the vegetation pattern in the area.
As railway historians know, the best time of the year for field
work is that period of early spring when the snow cover has melted
but before the leaves are out on the vegetation. At that time any
topographical irregularities associated with railways are most
clearly visible. While most of the aerial photographic coverage
flown in Canada has been done during the summer months when foliage
and crop cover are at their maximum density, most remnant features
are still readily discernable and in many ways the vegetative cover
can provide additional evidence of surficial disturbances caused by
railway structures.
Because of the fact that the growing conditions for natural
vegetation on the disturbed soils of railway rights of way differ
from those on adjacent sites it is not uncommon, even after many
years, to find markedly different species of plant growth on such
sites. These variations are, in turn, readily visible on the aerial
photograph although often imperceptible as a pattern at ground level.
Even here rights of way have been levelled and the land cultivated
for decades, crop marks reflecting soil variations can still betray
the location of the line.
There are several railways in southern Quebec, long abandoned,
whose routes and very existence are confirmed by air phorointerpret­
ation.
One such line is that of the New Rockland ~uarry Railway. This
narrow gauge railway of approximately four miles in length operated
in the 1890s to haul slate from the large quarries at New Rockland,
Quebec to Corris, an operating point on the grand Trunk Railway
between Windsor Mills and Richmond. Despite the fact that the slate
mining industry in this region was the most important source of slate
in Canada at the time, only scanty mention is made in the literature
about the railway serving the quarries and its route did not appear
on any contemporary maps. The author has been able to discover only
two photographs of the operation, one of the narrow gauge locomotive
used on the line and the other of the rather substantial bridge
built to carry the raiLway across the St.Francis river. Beyond
these fragmentary pieces of information even the precise location of
the line remained obscure.
The Orford Mountain railway was extended from Kingsbury to
Windsor Mills in the period 1903 to 1905 and its appearance rendered
the New Rockland Quarry Railway redundant, for henceforth slate
was shipped on the OMR which passed close to the quarries, and the
narrow gauge railway was abandoned.
CANADIAN
143
R A I L
Since its abandonment approximately eighty years ogo, the line
of the New Rockland Quarry Railway has in part reverted to forest and
~n part been incorporated into cultivated farm acreage. Nevertheless
it is possible to trace the entire route of this line on the 1945 air
photographs and to verify its position in relation to the Orford
Mountain Railways line, now also abandoned.
The same air photos which show the Orford Mountain and New
Rockland lines also reveal the existence of an even older and more
obscure bit of the railway history of the region.
In 1870 the Missisquoi and Black Rivers Valley Railway was
incorporated to build a line from Melbourne on the Grand Trunk
Railway South to the vicinity of Mansonville there to join the South
Eastern Railway. Construction of the grade began in three sections
in fue fall of 1874 including the northern part from Melbourne south
towards Kingsbury. The M&BRV during its corporate existence only
succeeded in completing ten miles of operating railway from Dillonton
near Eastman south to Potton Township and this in 1877. For lack
of funds rails were never laid on the remainder of the completed
grade and the intervening sections were not finished.
When the Orford Mountain Railway was incorporated in 1888 to
build a railway along essentially the same route as the M&BRV, the
OMR in fact used the completed sections of M&BRV roadbed from
Eastman north through Lawrenceville and Kingsbury. From Kingsbury
on to the St. Francis River the OMR, instead of heading north towards
Melbourne as the M&BRV had planned to do, turned south in the dir­
ection of Windsor Mills and so diverged from the graded line of the
M&BRV.
Despite the fact that the M&BRV embankment was built over one
hundred years ago and never carried rails, it remains visible on ae
rial photographs in the region east of Kingsbury and along the
St. Francis River towards Melbourne.
So in the pass leading down to the west bank of the St. Francis
River near Golden Bay are no fewer than three separate railway
alignments, those of the Orford Mountain, New Rockland Quarry and
Missisquoi and Black Rivers Valley railways -all clearly visible
from the birds eye view of the aerial camera.
Another topic of contention which can be resolved today by reference
to air photos is the exact route of the Waterloo and Magog Railway
between Magog and Sherbrooke. While some published maps show this
railway crossing the Magog River in the town of Magog and then
following the south bank of the river to Little Lake Magog, air
photos corroborated by field checking, reveal that in fact the line
followed the north bank of the Magog River crossing over only
slightly upstream of Little Lake Magog.
Although urbanization normally obliterates all traces of any
previous railway structures, again in the case of the Waterloo and
Magog Railway, indirect evidence exists to show the route of the
railway through what subsequently became part of the city of Magog.
It is auite common for railway embankments to be turned into roads
in rural areas but such was also the case within the town of Magog.
After the W&M was abandoned by the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1888
St.Joseph Street in Magog was laid out along the former roadbed.
While certainly not apparent from street level nor even from a

WHILE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IS VERY USEFUL in tracing long-abandoned
railway lines, it can also be used for depicting contemporary
events that will soon become history. It would be difficult to
find a better example of the latter than this classic photo~
The scene is the West-Island (Lakeshore) of Montreal, and the
event is a race between C. P. and C. N. trains, both steam-hauled
of course. While at the moment the C.P. train (complete with
wooden baggage cor and open-platform commuter cars) is winning,
this could rapidly change at the next station~ The date of the I
photo is probably the late 1930s before the highway was built
alongside the tracks. The railway lines are still there, but
the locomotives, wooden cars, fields, trees, and cows are long
gone, and the area is now part of Montreals suburbia.
Public Archives of Canada. No. PA 37487.
CANADIAN 146 R A I L
contemporary street map of the city, St.Joseph Street while not con­
forming to the pattern of neighbouring streets clearly aligns with
the remainder of the W&M line leading out of Magog.
One of the most ephemeral of all southern Quebec railways
was the Montreal Portland and Boston Railway s line leading south
from Frelighsburg over the international boundary to a point on the
Missisquoi Railroad near Sheldon Junction. Completed by the MP&B
on September 9, 1882 it was abandoned only six months later on
March 1, 1883. Railway legend holds that only one train was operated
over the line and some doubts have been expressed as to whether it
was even in fact built. This latter question is resolved by the
early air photos of the region for they clearly show the railways
right of way crossing the border.
Historical mpps, timetables, statistics, photographs and
railway documents have traditionally formed the basis for much
research into railway history in Canada. The purpose of this
brief report is to point out the value of the aerial photograph
as a tool in certain types of research. Because of their visual
perspective aerial photographs can reveal through a variety of
interpretive techninues both direct and indirect, phenomena and
patterns from earlier landscapes which are often no onger apparent
to the ground observer.
. .. .
The …… .. ~. ~-
business
car
A NEW TYPE OF METRO SERVICE IS BEING BUILT FOR COMMUTERS IN
the Greater Montrfial area. Runing mainly above ground,
it will make use of existing railway lines, and will
initiall~ serve the central, northern, and northeastern
sectors of the Island of MontrEal. This transportation mode
has already been proven elsewhere, and will provide service
comparable to the present underground metro syste!n. For
the initial period of operation, trains will run every six
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CANADIAN 147 R A I L
minutes during rush hour, and many motorists will find it
useful to take advantage of this quick and comfortable trans­
portation system.
The first section to be put into service will start
from the Du Coll~ge Metro Station, located on the western
leg of Metro Line 2, and will run east on the present Canadian
National railway line, passing through Ville Saint-Laurent,
Ahuntsic, Saint-Michel, Montreal-Nord, Riviare-des-Prairies,
and PoiL.u-aux-L·,i;;bles. It could also be extended to Re­
pentigny. Plans call for 14 stations of which at least 3 will
be transfer points to other metro lines.
Another Surface Metro line will start from Central
Station and run north and northwest, passing through Ville
Mont-Royal, Ville Saint-Laurent, the municipalities located
on the northwestern part of the Island of Montreal, and the
western part of Laval, terminating at Deux-i-1ontagnes. This
line will replace the present commuter train service, and
will have 10 stations of which 2 will connect with other
metro lines.
The construction of these two lines has already been
approved and entrusted to the Montreal Urban Community for
completion.
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THESE TWO UNITS are used by C.P. Roil to trim bushes along the
right-of-way. One man drives the unit, another operates the
cutters, while another protects crossings and keeps onlookers
bock. The photo was token at Lakeside Ontario on March 23 1980.
Gordon R. Taylor.
CANADIAN
148 R A I L
IN THE SUMMER OF 1980 C.P. Rail unit 8142 with a short freight,
known locally as the peanut special returning after a trip
up the St. Marys branch. The main freight hauled is inbound
paper rolls and outbound cement. It runs anytime with no set
schedule, and the consist averages about ten or twelve cars.
Gordon R. Taylor.
A third Surface Metro line has been proposed and
will eventually link central Laval with ~ontreal. It will
start from the Vimont area and travel over the Canadian
Pacific railway line. It could also be extended to Mirabel
via Sainte-Therese and Blainville.
The extension of Metro Line 2 to Ville Saint-Laurent,
which is presently under construction near Decarie Boulevard
and Victoria Avenue, will be completed and put into·service
gradually between now and 1984.
Metro
Line 5 will also be completed. It will start
from the Snowdon Station in the west end and serve C6te-des­
Neiges, the campus of the University of Montreal, and Outremont.
From there, it will run east from lAcadie Boulevard under Jean­
Talon, to Saint-L60nard and Ville DAnjou. There will be at
least 3 transfer points to other metro lines.
The Central Station-Deux-Montagnes commuter train
service will be replaced by a Surface Metro line as described
above. The two remaining commuter lines will be modernized.
The first starts from Windsor Station and goes to Rigaud,
while the second leaves from Central Station and extends
to Saint-Hilaire, serving Saint-Lalllbcrt, Saint-Hubert,
Saint-Bruno, and Seloeil. New cars will replace those
presently in service on the Saint-Hilaire line. On both
C.N. SNOWPLOW UNITS, seen at Stratford Ontario an December
28, 1980, between duty calls. This is not the normal way the
units are used in snow plowing, since they back into the dead
end siding when not in use. During late January 1981 the units
were sent to the Montreal area but were back a couple of weeks
later. Since the Stratford shops almost closed, the units are
now stored or held at London.
Gordon R. Taylor.
AT THE C.P. RAIL / C. & O. DIAMOND at Chatham Ontario on January
10, 1981 we see a westbound C.P. Rail freight, extra 5549, with
4553 as second unit. On the interchange track is recently re­
painted 5731, a C. & O. GP-7, waiting to pick a cut of cars off
the interchange. This is the first unit of the Canadian division
of the C. & O. to be painted in the new Chessie System colours.
Photo by Gordon R. Taylor.
CANADIAN 150 R A I L
lines, however, the service, the stations, access roads,
and parking will be improved.
The cost of this improved public transit service,
which is expected to approach $1 billion, will be assu~ed
in entirety by the gouvernement du 0uebec in accordance
with its new mass transit subsidization policy. It is
expected to make a significant contribution/to 0u6becs
economic growth and particularly to that of the Greater
Montreal area. In addition, this investmerit will greatly
assist Quebec corporations to develop their competence
in the general area of transportation, and thus better
equip them to penetrate foreign markets. An important
feature of the project is the 10,000 jobs that are expected
to be created during the course of the next six or seven
years.
Gouvernement du Quebec
~inist~re des Transports.
TilE RENEWAL OF THE ~IATCHBOARD SHEATHING ON FOR.1ER TORONTO
sweeper S-31 has been made possible by the donation
of $2,000 by John E. Amlaw, one of the founding mem­
bers of the Seashore Trolley i,1usuem. Earlier in the summer
the lumber was purchased and milled in preparation for the
fall when there would be space in Town lIouse shop for the
project to commence. Only one side and one end are being
done at a time so the car can be available for snow duty
if necessary before the entire job is done. This $2,000
donation covers the production and installation of the
matchboard sheathing. The extra labor involved to deal
with replatement of wood filler pieces along the steel
side end sills, a time consuming task, along with reinfor­
cement of the steel end frame broom supports will bring
the total estimated cost of the project to $3,000. With
unrestricted cash expected to be tight this winter, the
museum is not in a position to fund any deficits in the
project. We are appealing, therefore, to the membership
to match 50 percent of John Amlaws gellerous contribution.
Lets make this classic Russell Snow ·Seeper ornamental
as well as useful! Contributions to the S-31/P-601 Fund
may be sent and made payable to Seashore Trolley ~useum,
Box 220, Kennebunkport, Maine 04046,
The
car arriveJ from Toronto in early November 1973.
In
the fall of 1974, the Orts:;iil CANADIAN 151 R A I L
in), Bri1l27E trucks were temporarily replaced with the
Standard C60P trucks from Boston bottom dump car 3618 whose
body had gone
to the Arden Trolley Museum. A new roof
canvas was applied in the spring of 1977 which prepared the
car for its sojourn in Boston the following winter on the
MBTAs Mattapan-Ashmont line. During these years, the
faded TTC red paint weathered and peeled revealing the
rotted sheathing which was deteriorating at an accelerating
rate.
John Amlaw has been a lifelong student of the Eastern,
Mass. St. Ry. which was the first owner of our sweeper
whose original number was P-60l. His total recall of the
most minute details of the companys operations, car
liveries, and other features has served the museum well over
the years. The prospect of seeing this former EAstern, Mass.
work car restored inspired Amlaw to provide the seed money
for the project. The society acknowledges his generosity with
grateful appreciation.
The present phase of the sweeper restoration includes
removal of all the old sheathing, renewal of the wood filler
pieces which are set in the steel I-beam side and end sills
and serve as the bottom nailing strip for the sheathing, and
replacement of many large carriage bolts which go through the
C. & O. UNITS 5736 AND 5744 are stopping to pick up the cars
that 5731 brought over the interchange at Chatham Ontario on
January 10 1981.
Gordon R. Taylor.
CANADIAN
152
R A I L
steam beam and secure the filler pieces. The oU bolts wore
so
corroded that they coulJ only be removeJ with the cuttinr:
torch. Virtually all of the wooJ fra:ning above the si 11 is
Cluite sound, and rc(!uires little replaceli1ent. New windol
sash were made and installeJ while the car was in Boston.
The new matchooarJ should be on by the. time you reaJ this.
When the restoration of the 1V00d carboJy is done, the brooms
will have to b~ re-caned anJ nelV canvas curtains maJe up anJ
installed on each end. Ulti;nately the original 27E trucks
will be regaugeJ anJ placeJ unJer the car. The S-31/1-601
project is one of two specially funJeJ car restorations
which will keep a three-man crew 1V0rking in the shop right
through the winter.
Whether to finish the exterior as Toronto S-31 or
Eastern Mass, P-601 has not been decideJ, the Jecision
will be maJe when it is time to orJer the paint –next
spring.
TilE TROLLEY f1USEUM DISPATClI.
CONSTRUCTln~ IS U~UER WAY O~ A 400-FOOT RAIL TUNNEL ~EST OF
Union Station, Jesigned to help clc:lr up the Bathurst
Street bottleneck of trains approaching anJ leaving
downtown. This :narks the first phase of a $30-million
upgrading and reJevelopment scheme, scheJuleJ for completion
in 1983.
The
twin-track tunnel, or flyunJcr, IV ill penni t more
direct anJ unimpedeJ access to Union Station for trains on
C~s Weston anJ Oakville subdivisions anJ CP Rails Galt
subJivision.
Up to 100 trains a day are delayeJ currently, waiting
for signals to enter or leave the area.
The olJ Bathurst Street briJge Joes not permit any
further tr:J.ckage through tlte underpass, so another l:1ethoJ
haJ to be founJ to improve operations in this ever-increasing
western corriJor.
The project also features the construction of eight
storage tracks in the North Yard for GO Transit commuter
trains with Jirect access to Union Station unJer the SpaJina
Avenue briJge.
f
:tj
,1,
CANADIAN
153
R A I L
This saves bringing these trains over six miles from
Willowbrook Yard (Mimico)
in rush hours through Bathurst
along the Oakville subdivision. Crow quarters are also being
built in the nini-GO yard.
Almost a third of the projects costs will go into
a highly sophisticated and automated signalling system to
handle anticipated traffic through Bathurst Junction.
8ill Wanamaker, chief engineer, Toronto Terminal
Railways, in charge of the redevelopment, said the purpose
is to increase capacity for the move:nent of trains and p~rmit
Iligher operating speeds on the western approaches to Union
Station.
He said that after four years of planning, a route separation
is finally under way.
Twelve
million dollars have already been spent on
improvements
to the passenger handling facilities in Union
Station.
AN INTERESTING VIEW OF C. & O. 5744 half repainted in the new
colours. The underframe is black, and the frame and decks are
bright yellow, but the carbody is in the old scheme, since the
unit was hurriedly returned to service because of an upsurge in
traffic. It has since been fully repainted in the new colours.
Gordon R. Taylor. Chatham Ontario Jan. 10 1981.
CANADIAN 154 R A I L
The first stage of tunnel construction involves open
excavation, so near the existing main lines that retaining
walls made of soldier pillings and tie backs are needed.
Provision is being made for a third track through
the fly-under, if required at a later date. The approaches
will be quarter-mile depressions at two-per-cent grade at an
angle of only 13 degrees from the surface lines overhead.
Mr. Wanamaker said everything has been carefully
planned to impede present operations as little as possible
during the construction period.
KEEPING TRACK
IN OCTOBER 1978, CPCS WAS AWARDED A CONTRACT BY TilE COSTA
Rican government to rebuild the countrys 110 km of
narrow guage mainline. The project costs $16 million
and will see the line equipped with welded rail and concrete
ties. Its principal function is the transport of bananas to
the seaport of ~oin from the plantations.
A new contract has been awarded to CPCS to supervise
the construction of the yards at Main at a cost of $6 million.
Sydney Steel has supplied much of the track hardware for the
job.
SRS NEWS
FRQ1 SWITZERLAND CO;-IES NEWS THAT THE WINTERTHUR LOCO:-IOTIVE
Works, in co-operation with the Sulzer Corporation
is building a NEW steam locomotive for the Indonesian
Railways. This is not a research project, but a firm order
for a 42 inch guage rack and adhesion locomotive to replace
the diesels currently in use.
To accomplish this feat, the Sulzer and Winterthur
engineers have re-invented the steam locomotive using
high-technology metallurgy, solid state electronics, and a
new understanding of the thermodymamics of high-pressure
steam. Although the principal companies will not release
the details of the engine until after delivery, redimentary
specifications are available. It will be a cab-forward,
lignite fired 2-8-4 or 4-8-4. It will use a Sulzer marine
boiler operating at 800 -1000 psi, well braced to take
CANADIAN
155
R A I L
the pounding of rack operation on poor track. High
strength aluminuIll alloys will be used wherever possible,
as will carbon-epoxy composites developed by the aircraft
industry. The locomotive will be a 4 cYlinder compound
capabl e of 80 kph (50 mph) on adhesion, and 30 kph (19 mph)
on the triple-Abt-system rack.
The most notable feature will be the valve gear and
throttle system. The valve eear is of a radical design
using an electronic feedback sensing system to admit
exactly the right amount of steam into the cylinder to
assure maximum efficiency. The throttle will use a computer
to monitor the load, tarch adhesion conditions, and steam
supply, to assure maximum tractive effort or motive power
while running on or off the rack. The boiler will use
distilled water, which will be reclaimed by the condensing
tender. The condensing mechanism is a space programme
spin-off, capable of reclaiming in excess of 99% of the steam.
(Reported by Dale G. Kraus in Smoke and Cinder, newsletter
of the Tennessee Valley Railr03d ~useum, and reproduced in the
~larch 1980 issue of the Society for Industrial Archaeology
Newsletter).
SRS NEWS
IN AN EFFORT TO CO.1PLY WITH THE U.S. BUY A.1ERICA ACT,
Bombardier announced in November that it would
spend
$4 million to construct a rail transit
vehicle assembly plant in Barre, Vermont. Canadian comp­
anies such as Bombardier, who have developed considerable
expertise and experience in building various types on
rail passenger equipment, have been badly shaken by U.S.
Government
assertions that any American cities using
federal funds to purchase transit equipment, must buy
from American
manufacturers. Given the fact that the
Canadian government scarcely knows that railways exist
for carrying people, these companies had placed great
hopes that the U.S. market would provide a profitable
out! et.
SRS NEWS
C.P. RAIL IN OCTOBER ANNOUNCED ITS FIRST LOCO~OTIVE FLEET
retirement sincesteam was withdrawn. Under the
programme. 300 of the first generation diesels
CANADIAN
156
R A I L
which pushed out the Royal Hudsons and the Jubilees will
be scrapped, 400 second generation engines will be tot­
ally rebuilt, and 160 new engines will be ordered. Each
block of locomotives will be downgraded a notch -the
first generations to the scrap heap, the second generations
to the role of yard switchers, and the new power to the
heavy mainline freights.
The rebuilds will be carried out by the CPR at its
Ogden shops in Calgary, and this will involve straightening
bent frames, engine rebuilds, suspension and bogie overhauls,
and total rewiring. The crews too, will receive some of the
benefi ts of the progranune -the cabs wi 11 be equipped with
new acoustic insulation, bigger heaters and more comfortable
seats. Diehard rail fans will be able to exercise their
expertise since the rebui Ids wi 11 receive totally new ident­
ities, right down to new serial numbers.
As for the discarded first generation power, they go
to the scrap heap for the same reason as their more romantic
predecessors, they had simply become too costly to maintain
and at the same time, could not haul todays massive
freights.
SRS NEWS
AFTER HAVING HAD A LOT OF DOWN TIME with the Ex-TEE motive
power, the Ontario Northland rebuilt four of its FP7As in
its own shops. No. 1987, seen here at Gravenhurst Ontario on
September 21 1980 at 3:40 P.M., was formelly O.N.R. No. 1510.
Gordon R. Taylor.
CANADIAN
157
R A I L
Now that Rettys home, Harry is sharing the limelight
with the engine, since the two of them form an almost insep­
arable team. Im not sure I know how to cope with all of
this, he laments.
But 6060 is the real celebrity. On the Whitecourt
trip, one oldtimer, Idth tears in his eyes, told Harry that
he had travelled 450 miles to see the old engine.
ALBERTA TRANSPORTATION MAGAZINE
TIIEN THERE IVAS THE ONE ABOUT THE LITTLE ENGINE TJlAT COULD –
and
did. CNs Engine 6060, known as Bullet Nosed Betty,
has come ho;ne to Alberta at last. But she almost
didnt.
FinallY, after a week-long voyage across the country,
I~ith whistle stops in more than a dozen small towns along.
the way, Detty chugged into Edmonton August 8, hauling a 100-
car freight train and aided by three regular diesel engines.
When it was decided to retire 6060 from active service
earlier this year, the city of Stratford, Ontario, made a bid
for the engine, planning to put it on display. The deal
almost went througn, much to the delight of Ontario raillfay
bu(£s. But their dol j ght tdrllcd to chagrin ~hcn somebody
remembered
that Alberta was to get 6060 back. Thus began
tender negotiations between Transportation :,Iinister Ilenry
Kroeger and
CN to bring Betty home.
This odyssey was the start of a third life for the
old locomotive. Built by the Montreal Locomotive Works in
1944, the 300-plus ton Mountain Type steamer was among
the last of 20 steam locomotives ordered by CN. OriginGlly
a coal-fired engine, it consumed 18 tons of bituminous coal
on a 150 mile haul.
In 1955 the engine was converted to oil, which
proved more
efficient and economical according to engineer
Harry Home, who brought 6060 back to Alberta. SloJitching
to C type crude bunker oil meant an end to the shower of
cinders and dust which made rail travel uncomfortable for
early travellers.
The conversion was equal to the task in powering
Bettys 73 inch drivers and maintaining her 260 pounds
per square inch boiler pressure.
Betty was also pressed into yeoman service hauling
heavy freights up to speeds topping 90 miles per hour. She
saw thousands of miles of service before being retired in 1962
to a siding in Jasper.
Restored to service by CN, 6060 was brought out of
retirement a decade later and returned to Toronto for a
popular tourist run to Niagara Falls.
The engine is now on loan to the Alberta Pioneer
Railways Association, which used it to carry tourists to
Whitecourt, Calgary, lianna, and Drumheller this summer.
The
province has also granted the association $515,000 for
retubing 6060s boilers and building a storage facility.
It really means something to a lot of people,
engineer Harry Home smiles, referring to CNs old Engine
6060, the last great Canadian railway steam engine, which
has
returned home to Alberta.
A railway man for 31 of his 47 years, Harry, of
Jasper, Alberta, was instrumental in bringing Engine 6060,
known as Bullet Nosed Betty back to Alberta for tourist
trips by the Alberta Pioneer Railway Association. However,
Harry
says most of the credit for Bettys return belongs to
Transportation Minister Henry Kroeger, who saved the engine
from languishing on a siding in a small southern Ontario
town. He was really the one who got the ball rolling,
/-larry says.
Harry drove Betty across the Prairies 20 years ago
and
restored her when she was retired to a siding in Jasper
in 1962. CN reactivated 6060 a decade later for tourist runs
in the Toronto -Niagara Falls region of Southern Ontario.
Harry and 6060 were reunited early this summer when the
Alberta government acquired the old engine, and Harry was
in the drivers seat for the 2,200 mile trip from Toronto
to Edmonton.
People turned out in droves, sometimes in pouring
rain, to see Betty as she whistle-stopped through numerous
small towns along the way. /-Iospi tali ty was the order of the
days for the trains crew during theweek long trip. The
thoughtfulness of people was overwhelming, recounts Harry,
who brought 6060 back on his own time. It was an exhausting
journey, and Harry did routine maintenance on the engine along
the way. This included greasing her lubricators and crawling
underneath the big engine while stopped, with only nine or 10
inches clearance between ties and undercarriage. It was
tiring, but well worth it.
Harry also drove 6060 for the first of the Aloerta
Pioneer R.ai 11<.(1), Associat ion 5 four tri;ls through Alberta,
taking 1,100 people to \hitccourt and back.. If that
response was any measure, I think evl,.: gut a real lnner
here. The reaction everywhere is the same: people si::lply
love the old steamer. And !larrys 30t all sorts of ideas
for tourist trips around the province, Or. unused and little
used lines. Kith the proper care, he can see 6060 carry in!!
passengers for 20 years, anyway. Shes in &ooJ shape mechan­
ically.1I
Nonetheless, the upkeep nCcUcJ to keep ~etty runnin&
requires expertise, time. and money. Harry and other members
of the Alberta Pioneer Rail.ar Association arc spending a lot
of time keeping Betty in top shape, and a nuonbeT of retired
machinists and boi ler ~orkcrs have also volunteered their
time to work on Betty.
They provide the brains and we provide the brawn,
said lIarry. :·luch of his knowledge about steamers anJ rail
mechanics is self taught, fulfilling his lifetime desire
to work on the railway. Following in his fathers footsteps
as an engineer, he pored over engine manuals as a child,
sometimes lettinr. his school work suffer as a result of his
interest and affection for trains. 1 rC:1e::tuel from r.rade
3 on getting the strap for reading railway books and not
doing my homework, he recalls.
BACK COVER
CANADIAN NATIONAL F-7 No. 9179 at Stratford ontario while in
snow plow service on Februory 24 1980. Note the snow is quite
thin on the 9round, and bore patches are showing through. The
winter of 1979-80 was noted for the smoll amount of snowfall.
9179 was then in service on branch lines in the Stratford oreo.
Photo by Gordon R. Taylor.

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