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Canadian Rail 342 1980

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Canadian Rail 342 1980

Canadian Rail ;:
1
No.342
JULY 1980

CAN-~ IAN
Published monthly by The Canadian Railroad Hi
storical Association
P.O. Box 22, Station B Montreal
Quebec Canada H3B 3J5
EDITOR Fred F. Angus
CO-EDITOR M. Peter Murphy
BUSINESS CAR Dave J. Scott
OFFICIAL CARTOGRAPHER: Willian A.
Germa ni uk
LAYOUT: Michel Paulet
FRONT COVER:
A CANADIAN NATIONAL PASSENGER TRAIN
of heavyweight steel cars, hauled
by Northern type steam locomotive
6245, running on the main line from
Montreal to Toronto in 1949. Double­tracking of
this line was begun in
1884 but was not completed until
1903. Locomotive 6245 was built in
1943 and scrapped in 1961. C.
N. Photo X-31549).
OPPOSI TE:
THE S.S. NELSON and a train of the
Nelson and Fort Shepard Railway
at Five Mile Point near Proctor,
B.C. The N. & F .S., subsidiary
of the Grea t Northern, ended at
Five Mile Point on Kootenay Lake. Steamers connected with the companys
sis ter ra il way, the Kaslo and Sl ocan ,
at Kaslo, halfway up the lake. (Provincial Archives
of British
Columbia, A-285).
A4IL
ISSN 0008 -4875
CA LGARY & SOUTH HESTERN
l. M. Um~i n, Secretary 60-6100 4th
Ave. NE
Calgary, Al berta TZA 5Z8
OTTAHA
By town Ra il way Soc i ety ,
Mr. Bruce Kerr, Secretary
P.O. Box 141, Station A
OttaWCl, Ontario K1N 8Vl
New Brunswick Division c/o
Mr. John Pollard 2 Maliseet Drive,
Sagamore Poi n t
Fairvale, N.B. EOG lSO
PACIFIC COAST
R. Keillor, Secretary
P. O. Box 1006, Station A. Vancouver
British Columbia V6C 2Pl
ROCKY MOUNTAIN
C. K. Hatcher, Secretary
P. O. Box 6102, Station C, Edmonton
Alberta T5B2NO
HINDSOR-ESSEX DIVISION
R. Ballard, Sr., Secretary
300 Cabana Road East, Hindsor Ontario
N9G lA2
TORONTO & YORK DIVISION
~1r. Ho 11 i e Lowry, Secretary
P.O. Box 5849, Terminal A, Toronto Ontario
M5H1P3
NIAGARA DIVISION
Peter Warwick, Secretary
P.O. Box 593
St. Catharines, Ontario
L2R 6W8
ST. LAHRENCE VALLEY DIVISION
J. P. Chartrand, Secretary P. 0.,
Box99
Ste. Dorothee, Quebec H7X 2T4
A Historical
Railway and
Canal Atlas of
Canada By C.A. Andreae
Why write a railway and canal atlas of Canada? What will
this atlas have in it? Why include canals with railways?
When I began re3e~rch on this atlas five years ago, the
motivating reason to write the book was for the fun of it. There
was also the challange to see if one could find construction
information on all of the railways in Canada. In addition, I
realized that there was no adequate source of basic railway data
or accurate maps that could be considered a reference work for
the history of railways in Canada. I imagine that most of the
readers have been confronted with the frustration of wondering
when a stretch of railway was built and by whom. Canals were
included in the atlas because they indicate inland navigation
routes and compliment the early railway history of the country.
Often, early railways only ran to the edge of navigable water
and boats were used to continue the transportation system.
Together, railways and canals give an overview of the nineteenth
century transportation system in Canada.
The information in the atlas includes:
-date of construction of all rail lines
-date of all railway abandonments
-gQuge of all railways, and when convereted
-corporate owner of each railway
-dates of operation of all train ferries
-routes and dates of major running rights
-date of construction of all canals
-date of all canal abandonments
-dimensions of the smallest look in each canal
Presenting this information required 44 small scale maps of
Canada, 14 large scale urban maps and over 300 pages of text and
tables. More than 800 railway companies and thirty canals are
CANADIAN 197 R A I L
BARRINGTON STREET HALIFAX ABOUT 1890 showing two horse cars. The stre~t
railway in Halifax opened in 1866 but closed in 1875. Rebuilt and re­
opened in 1886, it was not electrified until 1896, and it continued in
operation until 1949.
(Public Archives of Nova Scotia).
CANADIAN
198
R A I L
THE FIRST EIGHT LOCKS ON THE RIDEAU CANAL photographed in 1912, showing
a Canadian Pacific train about to enter Ottawas newly-built union
station, having just crossed the 1901 Interprovincial bridge. The
Rideau Canal was completed in 1832 and is still in use. The track was
abandoned in 1966.
(Public Archives of Canada PA8508).
CANADIAN 199 R A I L
described. Handling all of this information required a rigorous
methodalogy to describe the data in a clear and logical manner.
Perhaps the best example of a methodological problem is the
decision of a railway actually is. The answer is obvious for 99
percent of the railway lines in Canada. But to be a complete
atlas should one include wooden railways, such as the Quebec and
Gasford, cable hauled railways such as the iron ore hauling line
in Bell Island, Newfoundland, mono-rails like the Ontario ..
Southern, incline railways, street railways and mining railways?
Some would say to include them all; others would say only steam
and electric lines. In general I used a technological bases for
deciding what to include: if the cars were locomotive hauled ar
self propelled over parallel metal rails, they have been included.
This street railways appe·ar in the atlas but incline railways
dont.
What about mapping information that indicates the capacity
of the railway? Does one include the location of d00ble track
(I did) and signalling (I didnt) to name only two variables.
The information of capacity that I did include was determined by
its availability in historical records. I could determine the
construction history of double··t-rack but I couldnt locate histo­
rical data on all of the railway signaling in Canada.
Railway companies are not static organizations. They are
leased and sold to other companies, some go out of business, and
many change their name from time to time to reflect changes in
the ambitions of the company. The Algoma Central Railway, for
example, began under that name, later changed it to the Algoma
Central and Hudson Bay Railway when the company had plans to extend
the line northward and then finally reverted to its original name, Algoma
Central Railway, when it gave up the idea of reaching
Hudson Bay. Corporate family trees were prepared for all of the
railway companies in Canada to account for these changes in the
companies histories.
The text of the atlas includes information that could not be
mapped. One will be able to find the location of the longest
straight track on the CN and CP, when and where the last spike
was driven on the Grand Trunk Pacific and why the St.Louis,
Richibucto and Buctouche Railway was abandoned.
Approximately 100 photographs of construction and operating
aspects of railwaysand canals have been selected for the atlas.
These photos illustrate types of equipment, railway structures
and operational problems such as accidents and winter storms.
Most of these photos have not been published before and were
selected from archives, railway companies and from a number of
railway enthusiasts collections.
Hundreds of sources were consulted in the preparation of
the atlas. In addition to the Associations s Canadian Rail, one
of the single most useful sources was the Canad~an Ra~lway and
Marine World, a monthly magazine that began ~n 1898 and ~s st~ll
publ~shed as the Canadian Trans ortation and Distribution Mana ement.
In its heyday as a arge, ~n ormat~ve magaz~ne, e Journa pu­
blished numerous feature and news items on railways and canals.
CANADIAN
200
R A I L
MOREAU STREET STATION IN MONTREAL, THE FORMER CANADIAN NORTHERN RY.
station. Because this station was located far to the East of the Citys
business district the Ca. Nor. Ry. built the Mount Royal tunnel to
gain a direct entrance to the city. Before the tunnel was completed
the railway had become part of Canadian National Railways.
(C.N. Photo, 43859-1).
CANADIAN R A I L
ALBERTA RESOURCES RAILWAY FREIGHT TRAIN ON THE MASON CREEK BRIDGE
near Grande Cache Alberta. This line was constructed by the govern­
ment of Alberta, and is operated by Canadian National.
(Alberta Dept. of tourism, 6901606).
CANADIAN
202
R A I L
In general, the most difficult periods from which to collect
data were prior to the 1860 s, before government agencies and
private journals, such as Poors Manual of the Railroads, began
to be published, and after the late 1950 s. Surprisingly, the
closer one researches towards the present day, the harder it
becomes to find construction information about railways, Until
World War Two the most trivial bits of information were published
in trade journals. Since the war only major construction activity
~s reported and the details are usually sketchy.
I cant say why this should be the case. I suspect that it
is due to the demise of the small railways and the development
of railways into modern, big business. Much of the early cons­
truction history was provided by project correspondents. There
seems to have been a sence of identification with the work and
therefore a tendency to report all details. Since the 1940 s
projects have become less personal and hence lack interested
contirbuters. As well, I imagine that readers of journals are
only interested in hearing about large, exciting projects and not,
for example a description of the work on double tracking ~he CN
from Winnipeg to Portage-la-Prairie a few years ago.
Readers of the atlas will probably not discover any surprises
in the major companies trunk and branch line systems although
there are numerous regional lines that may be unknown to indivi­
dual readers. The real benefit of the atlas will not be the
location of the railways but rather the construction information.
More surprises may be found in the information about train ferries
and, particularly, canals. Two Ontario canals, the Long Point
Canal and the Grand River Canal, are almost onknown to canal
historians, although both have been described in historical
journals. Their obscurity may be due to the regional nature of
the canals and the short life of the Grand River Canal. The Long
Point Canal was actually in operation for over sixty years.
Having outlined the research and content of the atlas, readers
will have to be patient to see the final result. The atlas will
not appear for another year. The preparation of the manuscript
was easy: negotiations for publication have proven almost, but
not quite, impossible. Unfortunately market place economics
indicated that a large format, two colour atlas with a limited
market would cost in excess of $70.00 per copy. Few, if anyone,
could afford the book at that price. I am presently negotiating
with a publisher to find ways of reducing this cost.
I had always thought that the research would be the hardest
part of the operation. In fact publishing has turned out to be
much harder. If I had known the difficulties involved before I
started, I might not have begun the research. As a word of advice,
if you are undertaking a major research project, dont think
about how to publish it -you may never start:
CANADIAN
203
R A I L
H.V. FREDERICK CARTER AT NORTH SYDNEY N.S. IN APRIL 1969. This
vessel was delivered to C.N. in 1968 for its North Sydn~y ~ Port
Aux Basques transfer service. This service started in 1968 and
transports standard-gouge cars to Newfoundland where they are
placed on narrow-gouge trucks. The Frederick Corter has a capac­
ity of 39 cars.
(C.N. Photo 69192).
CANADIAN R A I L
CANADIAN PACIFIC ABANDONED TRACK ~EAR SHARBOT L~KE 9ntari9 in.1972~
This was part of the former Ontarlo & Quebec maln llne bUllt ln 1804 and
rendered redundant by improved operation on C.P.s 1913 line near
the ·shore of Lake Ontario. The section of the O. & Q. between Glen
Tay and Tweed Ontario was abandoned in 1971.
(Photo by C.A. Andreae).
WHOOP~UP COUNTRY
AND ITS
FIRST THREE~FOOTER
By Patrick Webb
A brief look at the North Western Coal and Navigation
Companys original narrow guage line. 1885 -1893. For a more
complete history of the four Galt Lines. see June, 1974 and
October. 1974 editions of Canadian ~a.i:l.
The only sound to break ihe interminable silenGe that
summer afternoon in the late eighties would have been the worryipg
whine of a fly except for the occasional • rifle shots, ··the·
~~pansions of the two miniscule steel rails that meandered to
either horizon. The prairie of southern Albertas Whoop-Up
country would likely have been ·parched. brown and still. and an
onlooker could have been forgiven if he forever swore off the stuff.
Here. miles from any civilization, appeared the strange apparition
of five. weaving. grunting, sweat-stained. bicyclists. each with
a school bag slung over his back. each carefully picking his
One of the few American class engines the coal company
owned. she poses here probably in the Lethbridge Yard.
Neither the cab nor tender gave much protection to the
crew. (Authors Collection)
CANADIAN
206 R A I L
own way a long the dungplastered trail beside the track. Labori~usly
they pedalled eastward, pursuing the little Baldwin and its train
that had pompously puffed by some hours earlier. Minutes later
the marathoners were lost in the dusk of early evening. Just
before 8 a.m. the next morning, they were to be found grime
covered and exhausted, steadily pumping into the Medicine Hat
Station moments before the eastbound Canadian Pacific train
arrived.
That feat -Lethbridge to Medicine Hat, 105 miles by
bicycle received no publicity perhaps because at that moment,
though born of necessity, it was better forgotten. However this
is only to recall the happy conclusion of what began as a near
disaster and which might have ended under a hanging tree: At
that time the tri-weekly eastbound was timetabled to leove
Lethbridge at high noon, making its connection for eastern Canada
at Dunmore Junction near Medicine Hat. This in turn precipitated
Lethbridges first noon rush hour each train day at the post
office drug store. Eventually the inevitable happened; an impatient
conductor took the train out without the mail. As it would be two
days before the next train departed and since the wrath of the
The A.R. & C. Co. track near Lethbridge, Oct. 1,1890.
There is some grading under the track, however, just
behind the right hand figure, it is on the virgin
prairie. The furrow in the foreground acted as a
sometimes ditch, and at· first, until overgrown, a
firebreak from the periodic grass fires which ravaged
the area. (Authors Collection)
CANADIAN
207 R A I L
Baldwin build Number 4 seen here in 1885 with coach
Number 2. The engine does not yet carry a winter
tarp at the back of the cab. (Authors Collection)
The NWC & N Co. gondolas are seen on the upper
track, capacity 9 tons, with Canadian Pacific cars
on lower track. The shutes underneath indicate a
center unloading capability, thus the picture was
probably taken after the 1890 arrival of the Crossen
Hoppe rs. (Aut hor s Collection)
This Mogul is believed to be one from the first order from the
Kingston Works bought for the Great Falls line. It is pictured
here at Lethbridge soon after its arrival from the East in the
Fall of 1890. Despite the pilot plough the engines light weight
was to be no match for the snow conditions it would occasionaly
encounter.
(E; Hay and Sir Alexander Galt
Archives).

CANADIAN 210
R A I L
department would only be surpassed by the anger of the miners, the
postal clerk, J. Higinbotham, did the only thing possible.
Quickly summoning five willing members of the fledgling Lethbridge
Bicycle Club, he dispatched them eastward with the Royal Mail.
Its believed that the Turkey Trail was so named by a
disgruntled out of work stage driver. Whatever its origin the
name stuck and was eventually loosely applied to all four narrow
gauge lines of the Galt Companies. Nevertheless the original
three-footer, shortcoming and all, proved a capable successor to
the boats and barges which had unsuccessfully attempted the nearby
tricky Belly River. The railway in many ways resembloothe Colorado
three-footers because Baldwins predominated although they would
later be joined by Kingston products. Trailing them were the
inevitable strings of wooden gondolas, box cars, a caboose, and
often an open-vestibuled passenger car. Unlike Colorado however,
the Rockies here lay low on the western horizon, the Turkey Trail
trains instead treading a gently rolling line, their progress
marked only by the frequent stops at the windmill powered watertanks,
singular landmarks in the otherwise vast grasslands. And though
it received a land grant, it was built for but a single reason
to get coal out to the Canadian Pacific at Dunmore and bring mine
supplies in.
Born in st~ife, it died in its sleep while still an infant,
yet in its just less than eight years it probably carried as
much color as any 109 miles anywhere, indelibly carving its place
in western Canadian history. Kootenai Brown, wanderer, naturalist,
and first superintendent of Waterton Park, rode the trains as did
Window Pane Chief, rancher and monocle wearing Lionel Brooke,
whom the Indians had named in their own peculiar way. Cochrane
Ranch cattle grazed near it, while the Mounted Police transported
the convi~ted over it to Manitobas Stony Mountain Penitentiary.
In 1885 the roads construction gang was guarded by the members
of the Ninth Battalion of Rifles of Quebec ·who inspired unabashedly
shameless poetry in the Lethbridge News upon their return to the
East. No sooner were trains operating than one returned the
entire H Troop -horses, wagons, baggage, and men -of the Mounted
Police after the subjugation of Riel. That same austere passenger
equipment at various times ferried Vice Regal parties, madames
and their girls, cowboys, occasionally Bloods and Peigans, the
Rocky Mountain Rangers, mail order maidens, tramps, drummers,
booze -legal and otherwise -and, in its boxcars everything
that a pioneering country needed including an inordinate number
of pianos. Seven years and ten months later Canadian Pacific
trains were operating over its roadbed, the three-footer having
succumbed without a whimper to its own shortcomings. But it hadnt
started out that way.
If there was a Golden Spike Ceremony, it paled in the spectacle
at Lethbridge where on September 24th, 1885, the station must
have been a sight to make Victoria proud. Surrounded by fluttering
Union Jacks, Lord Landsdowne, the then Governo~ General of Canada,
addressed a Father of Confederation -Sir Alexander Galt, his son,
coal company officials and members of the North West Mounted
Police appropriately scarleted for the occasion, as well as
the locals dressed in whatever finery a coal mining wage earner
of $2.00 a day could muster. The rawness of the wooden station
building and platform was tempered by a carpet brought in for the
CANADIAN 211 R A I L
Note the square-cut ties, this is likely the
A.R. & C. Co. line near Lethbridge. The subsid­
iary was built south to Coutts while the Great Falls
and Canada built north from Shelby, the second three
footer being completed in October, 1890.
(Authors Collection)
~vent and upon which some of the citizens were presented to his
Excellency. That same postal clerk was there and recorded the
HIGHLIGHT of the day for posterity:
While the bowing and scraping was in progress,
a cowboy rode up to the edge of the platform, and
without dismounting called to his Lordship, Hello,
Governor, come here: Lord Lansdowne, looking the
picture of neatness and aristocratic suavity,
smiled, and walking over to the puncher, extended
his small, delicate hand, which was instantly enclotied
in the rough, weather-beaten grip or the cowboy, who
said, Put it thar, Governor, for forty days, then,
with a wave of his hat turned his horse, dug in his
spurs, shouted, So long, Governor, and disappeared
in a cloud of dust.
No record however exists of what inevi tably must have
followed in Lethbridges 18 saloons.
Where life was at best difficult any occasion was reason
for celebration in the little community and so, on October 16,
1889, the mines were closed early. Another Governor General was
expected and a large crowd had customarily gathered for his 4:30
p.m. arrival after carefully decorating arches along the streets
with red, white, and blue bunting. By 5:15 when the four car
special arrived, a chinook had much of the bunting in tatters,
the rest no doubt on its airborne way to Medicine Hat. The wind
notwithstanding, the Baldwin pulled into the station sprouting
flowers, evergreens, and flags, prompting the colliery band to
strike up its long-rehearsed version of God Save the Queen.
Simultaneously the police presented arms as Lord and Lady Stanley
stepped down and after brief greetings the Vice Regal Party was
CANADIAN
212
R A I L
Engine Number 6 is seen near Winnifred just west of the station
locked in by snow in 1887, probably in February.
(Glen bow Archives)
Dunmore Junction was not
location built as it was
The coal dock appears at
centre, the freight shed
the most hospitable
on the treeless prairie.
left, the engine shed
at right.
(Sir Alexander Galt Museum)
CANADIAN
213
R A I L
presented with the traditional tedious and interminable petitions
as was the custom of late Victorian times. The following day
was at least more interesting when they met the Blood chiefs on
the reserve.
Nor was the Governor Generals train the only special the
Turkey Track operated. Holiday extras were run to Dunmore (where
a Canadian Pacific extra connected to Medicine Hat) and later, when
the Great Falls line was completed, holiday specials (akin to later
Grey Cup trains of another period) were run south. Briefly, a
race track existed some three miles east of Lethbridge and during
the meet an advertised shuttle ran back and forth for the sporting
element.
Prohibition was a darker part of the history of Whoop-Up
Country, the name itself describing the earliest and worst concoction
known to the regions inhabitants. Alcohol was illegally carried
in every conceivable way and outsmarting the Mounted Police became
a profitable way of life to some. On their part the Police did
everything they could to administer impossible legislation including
the careful surveillance of station platforms such as Dunmores.
Here, an overzealous constable became as much a nuisance as a
hazard to passengers who appeared to bulge or in any way look
suspicious. Ultimately he stopped just about everyone and only
vanished from the station after being laughed out of a Medicine
Hat courtroom. Alcohol could be purchased in limited quantities
under the permit system but that only seemed to induce the railways
shippers to order more baled hay, casks of sugar, firkins of butter,
kegs of pickles, cans of fruit, crates of eggs, bibles and coffins,
or anything else which might conceal the contraband.
J. Higinbotham, the druggist cum recorder of the period,
attributes the following story to his brother:
One day a large keg of vinegar was unloaded
on the platform of the old freight warehouse of
the Turkey Trail. Before the consignee had time
to call for the keg, the Mounted Police became
suspicious and assigned a constable to guard the
shipment and arrest anyone trying to remove it
the consignees were quick to note the situation
and devised other means for obtaining it. The
freight shed and platform were built on piles five
feet above the ground and as night fell the only
figure to be seen was the Rider of the Plains
pacing restlessly up and down. The conspirators,
carefully surveying the kegs exact location, dis­
appeared beneath the platform with a washtub and
auger and removed the vinegar to a more convenient
locality. The next afternoon one of the knowing
arrived and asked the constable if he was spending
his vacation there, to which the Policeman replied
that he was doing his duty watching the cask. At
this point the resident gave the cask a kick, send­
ing it rooling down the platform with a dry and
hollow sound and exposing the neatly aligned hole
in cask and platform.
Apparently alcohol was still causing concern to company
officials in January 1892 because they issued strict instructions
CANADIAN
214
R A I L
One of the Roads Baldwins, the engine being in
pristine condition while the tender appears the
worse for wear. (Glenbow Archives)
CANADIAN
215
R A I L
to the employees to avoid indulgence in intoxicating liquors
an the penalty of discharge.
With the opening of the line, trains quickly settled into
a routine shuttle service across the tableland, the first winter
being relatively free of interruption. But the following year
proved entirely different. This was the infamous winter of 1886-
1887, one that all but wiped out the fledgling cattle industry.
It struck the area north of the Belt Mountains in central Montana
hardest and raged along the foothills north to Edmonton, spilling
out over the plains to the east and dealing death to the longhorns
with deep snow and abnormally low temperatures. The railway
reeled from its first blockade late in 1886 but was able to reopen
briefly. The second major storm struck at the end of January,
1882. On February 1, an eastbound freight was blockaded and had
to be abandoned, the wild sweep of wind-driven snow all but
burying the entire train. It wasnt until March 17 that it was
freed; arriving in Dunmore, it turned around and started back
but was again stalled, finally limping into Lethbridge March 22,
50 days after leaving for the 210 miles round trip!
Again, exactly three years later March 18, 1890, the Line
was in trouble. The Lethbridge News reported the problems under
the heading, A Chapter of Accidents, the account painting an
accurate picture of the light equipments problems.
No less than three accidents have occurred on the
railway within the last few days. Owing to the snow
blockade the train which left here on Thursday morning
last was preceded by an engine and snow plough. Every­
thing went smoothly until Grassy Lake was reached when
it ~6s found thal a storm had been raging east of there
and the road was blocked along there as bad as anytime
this winter. During the process of bucking the snow,
the coupling between the engine and plough became un­
fastened and a brakeman named Samuel Marvin (better
known as (Sam Slick) was sent forward to replace the
coupling pin. He had just done so and was about to
return when the snow, which owing to the cut being narrow,
was packed up against its sides, fell down jamming the
brakeman up against the plough, bruising his left leg.
We understand thdt although his injuries are painful,
they are not serious, and no bones have been broken.
On the return trip nothing of importance happened until
Grassy Lake was reached. This is about as far east as
the chinook wind had reached and the melted snow had run
down on the track covering the rails where it froze
making it impossible for the train to keep the track.
Before this was discovered however, the snow plough and
engine were ditched and E~gineer McNabb slightly scalded.
Supt. Bailey, who was in the caboose at the time, was
thrown down by the jar, and, we understand, sustained
slight injuries in the back. Another train and plough
and gang of men accompanied by Dr. Mewb~rn left here at
5 0 clock last evening, but on arriving within nine miles
of the scene of the wreck the plough and engine of this
train were also derailed causing a slight delay. An engine
and caboose were sent out this morning and it is now on its
way back with the mail and passengers and is expected to
arrive about five oclock.
CANADIAN 216 R A I L
The small engines and wedge plough/ proved no match for
the drifts. Later in the year the railway would announce the
acquisition of a pilot mounted model from the Canadian Pacific/
nevertheless the crews must have dreaded making highspeed runs at
drifts with a pair of engines/ some no heavier than 60 tons.
Thomas McNabb was the lines Master Mechanic and was somethin~
of a public relations man as well as an active citizen in the
community. In 1890 almost every edition of the news had an item on
the Turkey Trail, usually something from Mr. McNabb/ who obviously
had his hands full. The March 25 edition noted that mine production
was slowed due to a lack of railway cars and that two trains a
day were working each way to catch up on coal orders and general
merchandise. Also/ the wrecked engines from the snow blockade
were brought in/ their cabs badly smashed. One of these was probably
#5 because the September 24/ 1890/ edition noted that she was going
back into service with a new 21/000 gallon tender while new engines
had 25/000 gallon tenders. Consequently because of the height of
No. Fives rebuild/ Sj1e looks bob-tailed beside the lower Kingston
engine tenders. In that same issue a report was carried that
certain of the passenger cars were to be modified to have two
comfortable beds to be made up in each car with curtain screens-.
Other September editions were also fUll of railway happen­
ings/ particularly about the new Kingston (Locomotive) engines
for the Great Falls and Canada Line which by now had almost been
completed to Lethbridge. Meanwhile Mr. McNabbs shop forces had
constructed two auxilliary water cars although only one was available/
enabling a train to run through from Dunmore non-stop. Obviously
this wasnt to be his only solution to the water problem as the
same issue carried the announcement of a steam pump feeding the
new 70/000 gallon tank at Woodpecker twenty-five miles east of
Lethbridge/ a 20/000 gallon improvement. Just after the beginning
of the month/ the line had taken delivery of new center-dump
cars/ the first/ from the Crossen Car Works of Cobourg/ Ontario.
the hoppers having a 13 ton capacity/ a four ton improvement over
I p~n ~nd i~kik~ich (which-appeared in Western
World) / it was taken from a photograph. The
sheds were used to stockpile coal for the
Canadian Pacific/ the cars obviously being the
hand shoveled type. (Glenbow Archives)
CANADIAN
217
R A I L
the old Armstrong gondolas. This brought the total coal cars
in use to between 255 and 260. The prosperous year of 1890 had
been ushered in with the announcement of planned construction of
a new 20 stall roundhouse and machine shops–the Coal Company and
its railway appeared to be enjoying a boom.
But it was more apparent than real, prosperity glossing
over the problems. In a summer 1890 edition of the News, an
insignificant item appeared stating that Canadian Pacific surveyors
were in the Crowsnest Pass eight years as it would turn out, ahead
of the track gangs, portending what lay ahead. At Dunmore a nagging
bottleneck grew worse as increased orders continued to plug the
crude transfer bins and the cost and inefficiency of transferring
all freight became apparent. To the south, Jim Hills Great Northern
was a very real threat to Canadian Pacific ambitions, the News at
various times carrying rumors of G.N., N.P. and or C.B. and Q.
proposed extensions into the Crownest and Canmore regions. Rumor
or not, C.P. s Van Horne didnt wait and successfully negotiated
the takeover of the three-footer by the fall of 1892. Meanwhile
the little newspaper printed the negotiations almost word by word,
sketching the imminent inevitable end of the Line. Waiting until
the peak traffic season passed, track gangs the following spring
briefly closed down the line to allow for its standard gauging.
The News didnt disappoint its readers. In a short article
which touted both the prosperity of the mines and the standard
gouging, it flatly noted that all but a few of the laid-off
employees of the exhausted river valley mine and its inclined railway
The first mine was located on the river flats 300 feet below
the prairie. The incline was built in 1885 to reach the narrow
gauge when boats and barges were found impractical. Located
almost along the centre line of C.P. Rails bridge, it carried
down everything needed by the mine while coming up with coal.
E. Hay and Sir Alexander Galt Archives.
CANADIAN
218
R A I L
would be employed in putting in the wide gauge ties. In the
general celebrations of Canadian Pacifics arrival no lament appeared,
perhaps because the three-footers surviving subsidiary continued
to generate traffic to the south-east for another few years.
Whatever the reason, that initial line would forever bless itself
and its connections with the strange sobriquet of the Turkey Trail.
The author is indebted to a number of sources for the
foregoing material. The republication of J.D. Hi~inbothams
recollections, When the West Was Young, was an inva­
luable source as were the microfilms of the earliest
copies of the Lethbridge News. James H. Grays Booze
and Red Lights On The Prairies covered facinating
aspects of the period while the late Ken Liddells
volume, Ill take the Train provided insight into
the operating problems. The assistance of the Sir
Alexander Galt Museum (Lethbridge), the University of
Lethbridge, The Glenbow Archives (Calgary), and K.M. Clark
were greatly appreciated.
The. .. ….. ~
t)USlness car
rHE LRT CLAREVIEW EXTENSION IS ON SCHEDULE SAYS TRANSIT NEWS. THE
roadbed is ready for ballast from 129 Avenue to Clareview town
centre, bases are in for poles, and the substation will be
complete in March. The three new LRT cars are in service and older
ones are being modified. The Clareview temporary station Old
parking lot will be built next summer (1980? 1981?) and will be
iotemporary for 10 to 15 years depending on the development of the
Town Centre. Other LRT construction on this end of the line
beginning in 1981 will be two grade separations at a realigned 137
Avenue and 50 Street. The only anticipated deloy is a possible
difficulty in receiving the signaleauipment coming from Germany.
APRA MARKER
CANADIAN
219
R A I L
SHADES OF STREET CAR DAYS LONG GONE, BUT EDMONTON TRANSIT HAS TAKEN
delivery of an ALCO/GE (Alco #51069 or #51071, GE #3808)
steeple cab electric locomotive. Built in 1912 for the Oregon
Electric Railway as number 21, it was sold in 1946 to BC Electric
and became their number 961. The locomotive arrived in Edmonton March 15 on a eN
freight train (on a flat car), ready in be modi fied
for its third career. The pole will be replaced with a pantograph,
and the air tanks will be moved to conform to the relatively tight
clearances imposed by station platforms. (Certain details about the
locomotive from Un-named Edmontonian) The locomotive will pull
one of two four car trainsets of former NAR cars which will be ext­
ensively reworked (retaining only the underframes and trucks) into
hydraulically-operated dump cars. The contents of the cars will
be the excavated material from the extension westward under Jasper
Avenue, most or all of which is being bored by the mole. While
construction has already started west of Central Station (the
holding area where trains were stored during the off-peak hours is
no longer available), the work train operation wont get underway
until this fall. Un-named Edmontian reports that round trips from
work-site to the dump-site at Clareview will each take four hours,
and that the trains will operate for 18 months. It also seems
that the work will no be confined to the wee-hours of the morning
as previously thought, although this is yet to be confirmed. One
cannot help but speculate that the locomotive could end up with a plow
for heavy snow, and who knows what other interesting appliances
ove r the year, since this is the first piece of work eO uipment
other 1;han wonder-truck and an adapted Edmonton Power truck which
occasionally functions as the line car. Now who will operate the
locomotive? With Westinghouse Airbrakes and a 1912 style controller,
it doesnt really handle like a push-button multi-dialed and instru­
mented LRT train -it doesnt even have a High Performance Vehicle
-Hold Tight at all Times sign! It all proves that electric vehicles
are still young after only 68 years. Maybe Edmonton Transit should
have kept the Brills after all -they were only a little over 30
years when they were prematurely retired!
APRA MARKER
CN HAS ANNOUNCED THE BEST RESULTS IN THE COMPANYS HISTORY, REPORTING
a net income of $208.2 million for 1979, $72.1 million higher
than in the previous year.
A dividend of $41.6 million, representing 20 per cent of the
profit, is being paid to the federal government, with the rest of
the profit being reinvested in the plant.
Net income for the fourth nuarter of 1979 was $36.8 million,
compared with $24.1 million in the corresponding period of 1978.
Revenues for the year increased by 13.6 per cent to $3.3 billion,
resulting from rate increases and increased volume of business in
most divisions.
The companys largest division, CN Rail, earned income of
$234.6 million, an increase of $10.2 million over 1978. CN Tele­
communications had income of $25.5 million, up from $19 million in
1978. CN Marine showed income of $8.8 million compared to a slight
loss in 1978.
CANADIAN
220
R A I L
CN Passenger reported a lo.ss of $9.1 million, an improvement of
$46.1 million ov~r 1978, reflecting completion of the transfer of
inter-city passenger services to VIA Rail Canada Inc. on April 1,
19790
CN Express showed a loss of $47.2 million for 1979, compared to
$33.1 million in 1978.
The Miscellaneous category showed a loss of $7.6 million, an
improvement of $16.7 million resulting mainly from higher passenger
and branch line subsidy payments for prior years.
KEEPING TRACK
CN RAILS SECOND NARROWS BRIDGE WAS RETURNED TO SERVICE LAST MONTH,
144 days after it was struck by a Japanese freighter attempting
to leave Burrard Inlet in dense fog the night of October 12th.
When a train of 84 loads of phosphate rock, a caboose, and four
locomotives began moving south over the bridge at 07:25 PST on March
4, it marked the completion of a mammoth repair job by a group of
dedicated man using the most advonced tools and technology availa­
ble in an around-the-clock battle against tides, winds and weather.
The Japan Erica struck the 250-foot fixed north span of the
bridge, the sole rail link to Vancouvers North Shore, knocking one
end into the water, twisting the north tower and locking the 500-
foot lift span in the up position for the duration of the repair
job.
Bridge rep~irs and the alternate routing of as much traffic as
possible were g1ven top priority. Canron Engineering and Fenco Con­
sultants were awarded contracts to restore the bridge.
Some coal was diverted to Roberts Bank; a barge service was
established to move potash and phosphate rock; sUlphur went to Port
Moody; the South Shore elevators took more grain; and grain, coal
and mixed freight moved over the British Columbia Railway south from
Prince George to North Vancouver.
It did not help matters that the BCR went on strike for a month
in mid-December.
Despite the adversity, grain handling through Vancouver at the
end of January was 14 per cent ahead of last years figures.
With traffic on the m6ve across the Second Narrows again, CN
Rail is adding up the costs of the 144-day ordeal.
The repair bill has now exceeded $7 million; extra expenses
incurred in the re-routing of traffic amount to more than $7 million;
and the loss of revenues is also estimated at another $7 million.
S 0 m e ide a 0 f the d i ff i cuI t Y CN fa c e sin r e c 0 v e r i n g the sec 0 s t s
is evident in the recent decision of the Federal Court of Canada
authorizing the owners of the Japan Erica to establish a compens­
ation pool of about $1.4 million. That will be the limit of the
owners liability unless the owners are found to have been negligent.
CN Rail is one of about 10 different organizations suing the ships
pilot, the captain, the vessel and its owners.
CANADIAN
221
R A I L
Mountain Region vice-president Ross Walker said: I would like
to thank all those who had a part in the magnificent effort it took
to restore the bridge and who worked with us in re-routing our traffic.
There can be no nuestion that the story of CN Rails Second Narrows
bridge, 12 October, 1979, to 4 March, 1980, with all of its ramifi­
cations, deserves a prominent place in the annals of Canadian
railroading.
KEEPING TRACK
CN MARINE WILL HAVE A NEW ADDITION TO ITS FLEET BY MID-1981, A
$50 million ferry being built here by Saint John Shipbuilding
and Dry Dock.
The ship will replace the 32-year-old Abegweit on the nine-mile
run between Cape Tormentine, N.B., and Borden, P.E.I. It is the
first ship built for CN Marine since the companys acauisition of
east coast ferries and facilities from the federal government in
early 1979.
The new ship will be capable of carrying 900 passengers and 250
automobiles, or 40 tractor trailers or 20 rail cars and 20 tractor
trailers or any combination of these vehicles.
It will also have 50 per cent more power than the Abegweit and
the most advanced ice-breaking technology in the world, success-
fully tested in simulated Northumberland Strait conditions by captains
from the P.E.I. service, has been incorporated in the new ships
design.
The ferry will also be capable of burning heavy fuel oils in
recognition of the trends in fuel prices and availability.
The ship will be capable of loading or unloading 250 automo­
biles in 20 minutes and, since it can dock from either end, drivers
will find no need for extensive manoeuvring on board.
Escalators and an elevator lead to the passenger deck where
there are five lounges, a games room, vending machine areas, a first
aid station and even a dance floor. Provision has also been made to
block off one area for use as a convention centre for groups of
up to 200 people. The needs of the handicapped were also incorpor­
ated into the ships design.
A new safety feature on the ferry is the marine escape system.
It consists of four inflatable escape slides linked to inflatable
platforms and a series of liferafts, each capable of carrying 42
persons.
In an emergency, passengers slide down the chutes (similar to
those used on aircraft) from the passenger deck to the loading
platform at water level and board the liferafts. The entire system
deploys and inflates automatically to help clear the ship of
passengers within 15 minutes.
KEEPING TRACK
CRAIG TERMINUS: END OF THE LINE. A famous landmark of the tramway
era in Montreal has slowly disappeared under the wreckers
hammer. Members will remember Peter Murphys excellent article
on this famous structure which appeared in Canadian Rail in September
1973. At that time the future of the building was very doubtful, but
now, seven years later, time has caught up with the venerable structure.
However, Craig Terminus will not entirely disappear, for the facade,
with its arched portals and impressive pillars, has been carefully
disassembled and the stones numbered. In due time, the arches will be
rebuilt as entrances to a new park to be created on the site as a
part of Montreals new convention centre scheduled to open in 1983.
These archways will be the last reminder of the days when thousands
of Montrealers used the terminus in their daily travel on the Montreal
tramway system.
QUIET OPERATION IS ONE OF THE MAJOR REQUIREMENTS for the inter­
mediate capacity transit system under development by the Urban
TransportatJon Development Corporation Ltd. Steerable-axle trucks
to reduce noise have been developed and tested on vehicles: at, the
corporations Transit Development Centre near Kingston Ontario. .
Noise levels for these trucks were measured at 68 DbA at a distance
of 15 metres.


A FAIR AMOUNT OF NON-FARE REVENUE HELPS GO TRANSIT OFFSET ITS
operating costs -to the tune of over 11,4 million, in fact,
over the last two years.
The sale of advertising space in GO roil cors and slotions, the
renting of spare laco~otives on weekends, the leasing of surplus
singl~-level roil cors ond the renting of co~~ercial space in Union
Stotion are 011 significant sources of revenue, a fact which is not
widely know or appreciated.
Advertising spoce in the form of display ad plocards on roil
cars ond backlit signs ond illuminated digitol clocks in GO roil
slotions and bu~ terminals generates about S100,000 annually; this
revenue is expected to increose as oth~r forms of advertising being
plonned now orA put into eff~ct.
The renting of spore locomotives on weekends only to CP Roil,
CN and VIA hos produced ov~r $350,000 in the last 15 months, with
CP accounting for olmost all of this r~venue in over 409,000 kilo­
_etres of rreight service. The locomotives are used in southern
Ontario only and the numbRr rented out from GOs fleet of 25 is
as high as 10 on some weekends.
T
he lease of 60 single-level cooches to the Massachusetts Boy
Transportotion Authority in 60S ton has generated U.S. 1625,000 fro~
the stort of the lease in Scpte~ber, 1978, to the end of 1979. The
cor~, which are original enuipmcnt doting bock to thR beginning of
GO Transit in 1967, become surplus when the 80 n~w bi-Ievels wont
into service and will retvrn to GO use when thp. Streetsville/Milton
line opens in late 1981.
The newest source of non_fore revenues is the 8,000 s~uare
feet of co~~ercial spoce in GOs new Union station concourse, which
opRned 105t AUgU5t. Netting over S125,OOO annually in minin:um rdnt
olone, this spoce is now occupied by nine retoil outlets (onging
fro~ a confectionery, 0 newsstand ond a dry cleaner to a jeweller,
a 5~oke shop and a r~stourant-lounge _ called Chao Chao 5, naturally.
GO NEWS APRIL 1980
AS A PART Of CANADIAN PACIFICS MULTI-MILLION DOLLAR RENOVATION of
Windsor Stotion in Montreal, two fomous ~echanicol devices have
gone out of service. The old hydraulic elevators, well known for
more thon si~ty years, have now been teploced by new electric types
of a ~uch mote efficient jesign, Better known to thousonds of commuters we
re the electric-eye doors at the Lagoucheti~re 5treet entrance to
Wind~or Stotian, These were considered 01 mechanical and electronic wande
rs when first install~d in the early 1940 s, but ti~e has caught
up with them too, ond the lost one was remov~d from service early in
1980. The new doors ace beautiful examples of heavy oak croftmonship,
but com~.uters must still miss the convenience of the Mogic Eye as
it mysteriously opened the door without any viloble help,
Bock Cover,
Tn 1893, cor No. 316 of the Toronto Railway Co. hod just been fitted
with 0 new tyoe of lif~soving fender, ond is here shown undergoing a
field test of the new device. No. 316 was built in the T.R,Co. $
own shops in 1893, wos converted to 0 trailer in 1903, and was dest­
roy~d in the disasterous fire at the King cor born on Decembor 28,
1916. The cor being hauled by No. 316 is a former horse cor which
hod b~en converted to a troilet ond ron until about 1904.
Public Archives of Connda, PA55048.

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