George A. Moore
Photographs from the collection of
and prepared by Mr. Barry Russell.
n the twenty-ninth of June, Anno Domini 1897, a
charter (60-61 Vic. Ch 5) was granted to the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company of Montreal,
authorizing the construction of a line of rail
way from Lethbridge, Alberta, via the Crow s Nest
Pass to Nelson, British Columbia, about 240 miles
to the west. The original portion of this line
from Lethbridge Junction to Macleod (Fort Macleod),
Alberta, was some 37 miles in length and was con
nected to the Town of Lethbridge by a 1t-mils long
spur track. The latter portion of the Crow s Nest
branch was constructed in 1897-98.
From the information available, it seems to have taken a very
short time for CPR management to reach the conclusion that the orig-
inal line from Lethbridge Junction to Macleod had more than a few
shortcomings. One can only conclude that the location surveys for
this section had been concluded rather hastily, or that a bridge of
the magnitude of that which would be built, one day, was impossible
to envision as a reasonable alternative in those early days.
The original line also included seven-degree curves and had a
ruling grade of 1.2%, or 63.4 feet to the mile. The main disadvantage
however seemed to reside in the fact that the line included twenty
separate bridges, all of wooden construction, with an aggregate
length of 2.8 miles~ One of these bridges was 2,933 feet in length
and some were as high as 100 feet. They crisscrossed a rugged terrain,
the geography of which included steeply banked streams and ravines,
and required constant supervision and vigilance, particularly during
periods of high water, on account of the nature of the soil in this
~ILIKE A GIANT INSECT POISED ON A TWIG OF A GREAT CREEPING VINE,
~ huge travelling crane moves slowly out over the completed bents
the Lethbridge Viaduct, towards the west bank of the-then Belly
ver in November 1908.
+THE CENTRE LINE ACROSS THE VALLEY OF THE BELLY RIVER HAS BEEN LOCATED
and the pile-driver is driving the foundation piles for the concrete
foundations for the piers. The view is taken looking west across the
valley; the date is November 27,1907.
CANADIAN 5 R A I L
Some time during 1903-04, following a brief five years of opera
tion on the original line, the Canadian Pacific discovered that the
majority of the bridges between Lethbridge Junction and Macleod were
in need of extensive rebuilding. The estimated cost of this work was
$ 1,065,000. In view of the rapidly increasing traffic, not to men
tion the added condition that the Companys charter stipulated that
the Crows Nest branch should originate in the Town of Lethbridge,
insteod of the Junction, an intensive search for a~new and improved
route between Lethbridge and Macleod began to gather momentum. Redu
ced grades and better track alignment were the ultimate goals, to
gether with the elimination of as many as possible of the original
wooden bridges. The surveys continued throughout 1904 and 1905, and
a new location for the line was finally developed. The map accompany
ing this article illustrates th~ relative locations of the original
and relocated lines.
The ruling gradient on the new line was 0.4% which was a con-
siderable reduction from the former maximum. One result was a re-
duction of 401.5 feet in the total rise and fall. The new line was
also 5.26 miles shorter and the maximum curvature was a mere three
degrees, compared to the seven degrees of the original. Some 37
curves were eliminated. The estimated cost for the relocation of the
line was S 2,048,700 and in the light of an anticipated 20% increase
in traffic over the Crows Nest branch, the cost of the new line was
considered as completely justified by CPR management.
The principle advantage of the relocated line was the subsequent
saving in maintenance costs on the bridges. There were only two bridg
es on the new line, compared to 20 on the original.
One of these was to become famous world-wide. This was the cros
sing of the-then Belly River at Lethbridge, known today as CP RAILs
Lethbridge Viaduct. In its rebuilt form, it is some 5,327 feet in
length, with a maximum height of 314 feet from the river bed to the
rail base. The east end of the mammoth trestle is a short 3,800 feet
west of the present CP RAIL station in Lethbridge. The second and
only other bridge on the new line spanned the Old Man River valley
and is 1,900 feet long and 146 feet high.
The viaduct over the-then Belly River was located at what was
considered to be the best possible location for a high-level crossing
in the im~ediate vicinity of Lethbridge. The soil at this point was
of a desirable mixture of various types of clay and gravel. Seams of
coal were intermixed with the soil and the old coal mine workings, the
remains of the mining operations conducted by Galts North West Coal
and Navigation Company from 1882 to 1895, were still in evidence on
the east side of the valley under the proposed location of bridge
piers 21, 22 and 23. The cool seam measured an average of seven feet
in thickness and was situated at about the same elevation as the
flat alongside the river. Special attention had to be paid to these
old mine workings to assure the stability and security of the bridge.
Shafts were sunk to explore the conditions of these underground work
ings and, where there was any doubt, the workings were filled with
concrete to eliminate the possibility of collapse of the foundations
of the bridge piers at a later date.
While the details of construction of t~e viaduct are admirably
illustrated in Mr. Russells photographs, aome basic facts and fig
ures deserve mention and I will attempt to provide a description of
the design and principles utilized in the ~onstruction.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY PILE DRIVER NUMBER 300022 WAS PHOTOGRAPHED
in the storage yard of the Canadian Bridge Company, east of the
bridge site near Lethbridge. The photograph was taken in 1906-07.
CANADIAN 7 R A I L
The viaduct was erected on a tangent (no curvature), with an 0.4%
ascending grade westward. Several designs were considered during the
preliminary studies to determine the most economical type of bridge.
It should be understood that, while the emphasis surprisingly was
not placed on economics by the Company, sound engineering principles
and capital costs did not suffer therefrom. As will be noted below,
safety was a prime consideration in the final selection of the bridge
type. The design which was finally selected was a steel viaduct, con
sisting of forty-four plate girder spans, each 67 feet 1 inch long,
twenty-two plate girder spans each 98 feet 10 inches in length and
one rivetted deck lattice truss span, 167 feet in length. These spans
were supported by thirty-three rigidly-braced, rivetted steel towers.
The bridge superstructure was erected on concrete pedestals which
were in turn supported by concrete piles.
Due to the severe winds experienced during the survey and con
struction periods and with additional consideration to the unusual
height of the viaduct, it was decided to use a through girder, as
opposed to the deck plate type of girder, to prevent derailed cars
from running off the bridge deck. It was reasoned that a railway car,
in falling from the rails on the viaduct, might strike and dislocate
the tower legs and bracing with diasaterous consequences, due in part
to the increasing width of the towers nearer their bases.
Consequently, this single consideration and decision increased
the overall cost of the project considerably, but, as previously no
ted, the value of human life and limb was predominant in the mind of
the Canadian Pacifics Engineer of Bridges, Mr. Charles Nicholas Mon
sarrat, when he was designing the structure.
On completion of the design work, construction was initiated and,
during the first week of December 1907, a centre-line was located
across the Belly River valley and the position of the concrete pe
destals determined. High winds continued to be a problem and hampered
the progress of engineers and transit-men working in the windswept
volley. The standard 100-foot steel tape, normally used by these men, was
totally useless in these winds. It was eventually replaced by a
100-foot wooden rod, specially prepared to counter the onslaught of
The contract for the excavation for the pedestals for the sup
porting structure was awarded to John Gunn and Sons of Winnipeg, Man
itoba. Work commenced in October 1907, with a projected completion
date of March 1, 1908. Nature had other things in mind, however,and,
due to extreme flooding by the Belly and Old Man Rivers in the early
part of 1908, as well as difficulties experienced with the founda
tions in the river valley, the substructure was not completed until
February 1909, a month before the entire structure was due to be
The flooding which occurred in June 1908, prior to the comple
tion of excavation for the river piers, included a rise in the water
level in the valley of 12 inches above the highest previous level
measured in June 1902. The 1908 flood completely inundated the cof
ferdams, deposited sufficient silt to fill them and carried away a
good portion of the contractors equipment and structures, located at
the site of the viaduct.
The contract for the fabrication and erection of the steelwork
was awarded to the Canadian Bridge Company of Walkerville, Ontario ,
in October 1906. Specifications for the erection of the steelwork in-
CANADIAN 9 R A I L
cluded the installation of a large assembly plant at the bridge site.
To facilitate the transfer of materials from the storage yard to the
bridge site, the Canadian Pacific provided the contractor with a
locomotive and ten flat cars.
The traveller-crane for erection of the steelwork was a
gigantic creation for that era, dwarfing all who worked upon
under it. It was built entirely of steel, with the exception
engineroom floor, enginehouse and various platforms.
it or of
Employees of the Canadian Bridge Company arrived at Lethbridge
in April 1908 and commenced assembly of the giant travelling crane,as
well as another, smaller traveller, for handling material in the
storage yard. The first steel member was raised into position on the
viaduct on August 15, 1908 and the steelwork was completed, with the
last span being lifted into position at the west end of the viaduct,
on June 22, 1909.
The project was not without its share of work stoppages and
labour dissention and it is reported that two weeks work was lost
in Feb r u a r y , 1 909, d u e to a s t r ike. The 10 n g est per i 0 d 0 fun i n t e r
rupted progress on the structure ocourred in March 1909, when tower
bents 37 through 46 were erected. The towers were, of course, number
ed in the direction of construction, east to west.
A GENERAL VIEW OF THE CONCRETE PEDESTALS FOR THE VIADUCT TAKEN FROM
the east side of the-then Belly River valley, about July/August,1908.
~THE FIRST HALF OF THE FIRST THROUGH GIRDER SPAN BEING RAISED
~position on the east end of the viaduct on August 15, 1908.
THE GIANT TRAVELLER-CRANE CREEPS OUT OVER THE COMPLETED SPANS OF THE
viaduct to the eastern edge of the river valley. The enginehouse has
been constructed atop the crane at this point and eleven girders have
been ass~mbled. It is now the autumn of 1908.
WITH THE PILE-DRIVER HARD AT WORK ON THE RIVER BANK, THE TRAVELLER
crane carefully lowers the steel members for another steel tower into
place, on the edge of the valley. It is now December, 1908.
THE VIADUCT HAS NOW REACHED THE WEST SIDE OF THE VALLEY AND THE END
of the mammoth task is now in sight. The date is May 27, 1909.
ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE TRAVELLER-CRANE, LOOKING DOWN INTO THE VAL
ley, the old Galt coal-mine workings are visible, as is the steam
driven pile-driver at work at the river crossing. The date is Decem
ber 17, 1908.
FROM THE WEST SIDE OF THE VALLEY OF THE-THEN BELLY RIVER, THE SMOKE
from the boiler in the assembly yard is visible on the horizon. The
configuration of the river valley which favoured construction of the
viaduct at this point is plainly visible. The date is May 27, 1909.
CANADIAN 14 R A I L
The true merit of the decision to adopt the through type of gir
der span for the bridge deck was fully and startlingly realized dur
ing construction. One of the derrick cars owned by the Canadian Br
idge Compony, accidentally overturned on the bridge, but it was pre
vented from falling to the valley floor by the side girders of the
An idea of the quantity of materials used during construction of
the viaduct can be obtained from the following summary, quoted from
the engineering paper prepared by Mr. Monsarrat, referred to in de
tail at the conclusion of this article:
Dry excavation •••..••••.•••.•
Wet excavation .•••••••••.•••.
Concrete piling .••••.•••.••••
1 8, 1 10 cu. yd s .
4,870 cu. yds.
17,090 cu. yds.
339 cu. yds.
Another interesting construction statistic resides in the fact
that it required a total of 645 railway cars to transport the steel
used in the project to the bridge site at Lethbridge. The reported
total cost of the Lethbridge Viaduct was $ 1,334, 507.09 It is noted
that the original 1905 estimate was $ 1,065,000 •
A project of this magnitude could not be expected to be comple
ted without its tragedies and so it is not surprising to learn that
four fatalities marred the construction period. Two of these deaths,
which could be classified as accidental, were a direct result of an
accumulation of poisonous gases· in the old coal-mine workings. Re
ports of the period describe how an exploratory shaft had been sunk
at Pier Number 23, to facilitate an inspection of the old underground
workings by the contractor, John Gunn & Sons. Apparently, a small boy
got into the shaft, despite warnings to the contrary and, in the res
cue operations which ensued, two of the workmen were suffocated by
the poisonous gases. The third fatality occurred when an employee of
the Canadian Bridge Company lost his footing and fell from the top
of bridge tower Number 47. The fourth death involved a stranger,as
described in official records, who, when attempting to walk across
the uncompleted bridge deck, fell through an opening in the bridge
The simplicity and symmetry of design of the viaduct are to the
credit of Mr. C. N. Monsarrat, Engineer of Bridges, Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, Montreal, while the substructure was designed and
built under the direction of Mr. J.E. Schwitzer, Assistant Chief En
gineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Winnipeg. The consulting
engineer for the project was Mr. C.C.Schneider of Philadelphia, Po.,
The Lethbridge Viaduct was officially opened for traffic on November
3, 1909 and has served the railway faithfully for 66 years.
The original portion of the Crows Nest line, from Lethbridge Junction
to Macleod was abandoned with the opening to troffic of the ~iaduct.
The unique photographs, some of which were used to illustrate
this article, were discovered and processed by Mr. Barry Russell.
They were taken by a person obviously an expert in photography, who
unfortunately remains unknown at this point in time. His work, filed
in the dark depths of corporate cupboards for decades, together with
the views of the viaduct as it appears today, provide a remarkable
glimpse of a structure well known to students of Canodas railways
and to Canadians in general. It was, and still is, the longest, high
est railway bridge of its kind in North America.
TO COMPRESS TAE MAGNITUDE OF·THE LE:rHBRIDGE
VIADUCT INTO ONE PICTURE
reduces ·th.e structure to miniature. This nearly complete view was
taken from q n.ear.by golf course in June, 1 ?75 arr:d looks south.,
TOlE TARLF. No. 15, .TllNE 21111 1007 .
WESTBOUND TRAINS i EASTBOUND TRAINS
ITHIRD fl RST CLASS FinS,,: CLASS
U CI.A.S$ CLASS
113 ? 6
o e –
..!::~ ~ ~ 6 82
Mll£D Soo·Spohnt PSG
, Daily PaUlIIlU l Vail
a DaBv (l Daily
lDaily ) (tDllily
lUx) 1.15 21.30 .ODN .. DunDlor ,Tct. WD C • 5.25 .9.00 • B.45
14.25 1.30 121.50 1.8 …. Bull~ lleRel. .
.. ! 5.10 8.41> B.25
14.50 1.44 !22.1O 15.7 D . Seven PClI!!!iOlt8 \ RO 1 4.55 8.30 1.55
15.30 2.01 !22.3U 23.3 .. … hIOu ……. .( 4.40 ~.15 7.30
16.00 2.13 122.45 30.8 DN .. . VillJlifled .. F ! !I.23 7.59 7.00 8.5
16.28 2.29 [23.02
…. Bow islAnd .. W no ! !I.03 7.41 6.20
16.50 2.41 !28.IB 46.1. 1 __ . Bnrllett __ ….. [ 3.47 7.2B 5.;;
7.13 5.30 17.17 2.55 [23.35 54.ljDN .. __ G,· •• vLRke .. __ R A 1 3.30
,-,,, IiIt-7<--< 6.6
•.••••• Doolan Pit. … W ..
10 123.52 63.1
–1 .. pnrlleBsJHIII~.
f3.10 6.57 5.00
18.16 3.28 [24.08
71.11 . . VetmOl ·1
( 2.52 0.4~ 4.30
Z-.~ ~ 18.30 3.35 524.20 ~4.B D NI — –Tn.ller .. — \ B , •
2.,12 0.34 4.10
IB.49 3.44 124.38
.. . ·I~~k. -C
[ ~.28 6.U 3.44
-_ … —-
19.19 8.57 [24.02 BSA
… C1~i: …… . I 2.10 B.W ~.O5
19.50 4.10 [ 1.10 96.5 …… COR.lclnle …. W .. f 1.52 5.54
20.25 4.26 1.30 104 5
1.3, 5.30 2.08
20.26 4.27 1.32 105 0 . JIolltnlln ,Tct. 1.32 5.38 206
Jet with A R &. I. Co
20.00 4.26 1.83 105 3 D N ….. Lethbridge Jet KN 1.31 5.37 2.05 i
6 1 66 s 6.15 106
8DN .. __ Letl,lIJidge
B ,1 23 516.00
1.55 1053 DN.
24 4;; I 20 31 6.21 430 1.57 105 8 …… DrRnoel .
5.26 10 3,;
2050 I 6 40 4 48 f 2 15 no 8 Vhoo~np ..
~I I-:-:: —-4 —-21.10 [ 7 00
600 [ 2.38 ll5 7 DN. St. Hnly8. WR Y f2L40 6.00 0[>.50
23 50 I
21.50 f 7.35 5.:20 [ 3.08
…… [24.15 4.43 fl5.20 23.10
22.26 [ 8.00 5.3.; 1 3.34 134.3 N …….. Pearce …. …. PR f2<5.60 J,28 fl4.45 2225
.23.00 • 8.20 s5.50 s 3.55 142.8 DN … … iIIncleod V Me 23.30 4.15 14.25 22.00
a Dnily a Daily
I Da;!) II Daily
? I> 6 8
Registeri.1g Points: MacLeod, Lethhridge, Dunmore Jet.
HuHetin Points: Dunmore Jet. and MacLeod.
Comparison Clock: Macleod.
Tbe position of the 81iitch.at the JUDctioD of the,Lethbridge Section with the ;Iedicine Hat Se~tion at Dun
mot&Junction is normal when set lor the ;IeJicine Hat Section.
Main ~ine Lethbridge Section at Dunmore Jet. is the ,Vest leg of Vye. Switches set accordingly
l;cthbndge yard limit extends to Lethbridge Stock Yards.
.bl.! position of the switch at Lethbridge Junction is normal when set for Lethbridge.
lunductors and Engineers of third class and extra trains must have a copy of A. R. & I. Co!s
. current time table. and keep clear of … R. & I Co.s regtllar trains i,n Lethbrido-e Yard.
fho A. R· ano 1. Cos reC[ular trains will cl!gister at Lotbbtiugc Junction. t>
:11 HI., clns tlliins ~ill apptunch and nln thlulIgh ~fltctejl(,1 yanI, yard lillli~ heLw~t-lll Lelhbl:iclgC! Jet. unci
(..f>lhblid;..:C. Ilnd DIlIIIIIOlC Jlt. Yflld l:~pccLillg to find main hack (CCllpicu 01 switC!lCS 8~t. ug1ticst;
them. nIHl Ill VItPHI(I,1 to stop lit 01111,
This page from Canadian Pacific Railway Employee Time Table No. 15 ,
dated June 2, 1907, during the period of construction of the viaduct,
shows the original location of the line between Lethbridge Junction
and Macleod, which was then a part of the Lethbridge Section.
Frrl,.1 fU,1IJ fI[I;HT
I … X.
K 0 .14.45 .24.10:
.;; b .c
c · OJ
o · ?
.. 113.12 2229
I 11200 21.06
84. D I
F K .11.42 .20.50 .22.42
· b .c
o · · 0; ] u ~
) • Da.ll;
117.40 9.00 8.
535 1020 IS
.-a Da.lly a
Bridge, mileage 70.5.
located 1,650 feet west
m m m m m
6 6 6 0
… , ….. :;
R A I L
~:; ;:;.: i: .
, … ···1-
TIME SEEMS TO STAND STILL, ALTHOUGH GRASS AND TREES HAVE TAKEN THE
place of eroded clay and a different kind of motive power has re-
placed the steam locomotive. This contemporary view looks west and
was taken in June, 1975.
CANADIAN 23 R A I L
The photographs of the Lethbridge Viaduct during the period of
its construction were the sole inspiration for the preparation of
this article and credit for the discovery and preparation of them is
due solely to Mr. Barry Russell. He spent considerable time trying
to improve the clarity of the copies of the original photographs and
also endured the frustrations associated with matching the descrip
tions of the various views with those given in old, hand-written com
pany records. He also took the time to travel to Lethbridge to take
the pictures necessary for comparison with, and evaluation of, the
original pictures of the construction period. Although it is possible
that similar photographs exist elsewhere, Mr. Russell must be commended
for his initiative in preserving these pictures. While it may be
assumed that these pictures were taken at the request of the Canad
ian Pacific Railway Company, it is unfortunate that the identity of
the photographer has apparently been lost.
The sincere thanks of the Author are also extended to Mr. W. A.
Dill, Manager of Technical Services, The Engineering Institute of
Canada, for his kind permission to make use of a professional engin
eering paper prepared by Mr. C.N.Monsarrat, detailing construction of
the Lethbridge Viaduct and published in Transactions, the-then of
ficial journal of the Canadian Society of CLvLI EngLneers. Specific
reference is made to Volume XXIII, Part II, October to December, 1909.
The detail reproduced in my article could not have been presented
without the assistance of this most comprehensive report by the late
Mr. Dill very kindly provided me with some background on Mr.
Monsarrat and a brief biographical sketch is presented herewith. He
was born in Montreal, Quebec on July 2, 1871 and first entered the
service of the Canadian Pacific in November 1889, when he worked as
a draughtsman until February 1895. He then held various engineering
positions with the Dominion Bridge Company, the Tilsonburg, Lake Erie
and Pacific Railway Company and the Royal Electric Company. He re-
turned to the Canadian Pacific as Engineer of Bridges in 1903 and was
in charge of all bridgework across the system when the Lethbridge Via
duct was built. He was awarded the Gzowski Medal of the Engineering
Institute of Canada in 1910 for his paper on the Lethbridge Viaduct.
He was elected President of the Engineering Institute in 1917.
John D. Welsh.
c. .. adl,nP..;Inc
_c. … P~iliql>e ..
c::1 …….. ~~.1
the first joint Canadian National-CP RAIL system timetable:
October 31, 1976 to April 23, 1977.
he fine, fat, flamboyant folder which
bears Number 219 in the Canadian Na
tional Railways series is indeed a
remarkable and quite unanticipated ef
fort by Canadas two major railways.
An introductory message, describing this
fall-winter edition of the VIA 1976-1977
public folder as a symbol of closer
co-ordination and co-operation between
our two companies, is signed by Garth
C. Campbell, Vice-President, Passenger
Marketing, VIA CN and A.R.Campbell, Gen
eral Manager, Passenger Services, VIA CP
Inside the colourful cover, a combined station index shows few
er than forty centres served ,by both railways. The first four pages
of schedules provide condensed tables, two for each railway. With
transcontinental schedules on facing pages -CN printed blue on white
and CP RAIL printed red on white -making for easy comparison, the
deterioration of the Super Continental service is obvious. And its
still faster to travel from Edmonton and Calgary to Vancouver by CP
RAIL than by the direct Edmonton-Vancouver service of CN. However,
this is not true in the eastward direction.
G. C. Campbell
25 R A I L
A. R. Campbell
VIA CP Rail
VIA CP Rail
A three-colour, stylized mop, basically the some as the one in
the previous CN folder, but with CP RAIL lines superimposed in red,
shows CN service from Montreal to Trois-Rivieres and Quebec paral-
lelling that of CP RAIL: that is, on the north shore of the St.
In Newfoundland, the Clarenville-Bonavista flyer now runs Wed
nesdays only instead of tri-weekly. The Badger-Deer Lake service con-
tinues to operate doily over the 128 miles of the main line of the
former Newfoundland Railway.
Canadian Notionals Montreal-Ottowa services are generally slow
er in the new timetable. All four RAPIDOs are allowed from two to ten
minutes more than in the previous schedule. The eastbound Super
Continental is five minutes foster between these two points.
On the Montreal-Toronto corridor run, the afternoon RAPIDOs
and TURBOs have switched places (no pun intended), with these TURBOs
now running non-stop Dorval-Guildwood in both directions. So, the
RAPIDOs have been given another five minutes for the Kingston stop
and the TURBOs have been accelerated by the same amount. The Belle
ville-Kingston bus feeder to and from the morning TURBOs has been
dropped; this is not surprising. The Montreal-Brockville shuttle tr
ain, connecting with the Ottowa-Toronto Capitol and L Exec is
now op·erating with conventional equipment instead of RDC Railiner
cars and is on a faster timing for three of the four runs. In addi
tion, these trains have been christened Lakeshore and Bonaven
ture, which names were used when the trains operated in the Mon
A flat two hours is allowed for the 125.6 miles, Brockville to
Montreal; for Train 56 (the Montreal portion), for example, this re
sults in a Cornwall-Dorval dash at 80.3 mph, with a hood unit (Num
ber 4104 on several runs), a steam-generator car, two or more coaches
and a head-end car. The diesel and the steam-generator car are st
andard equipment for this service, while some of the coaches and the
baggage cor are switched to or from the Ottowa-Toronto trains (Trains
43, 44, 45 and 46) at Brockville, as required.
By the way, depending on which table you consult on the some
page (30), the distance between Montreal and Dorval VIA CN is either
CANADIAN 26 R A I L
eleven mlles or twelve miles~
CNs Ottawa-Toronto service is improved by highway bus links to
and from Kingston from and to Ottawa, to connect with the morning
TURBOs (Toronto-Montreal). Best Toronto-Ottawa time is now eastbound
in four hours and thirty-five minutes. Weekdays, five runs in -each
direction are now offered, with three on Saturdays and four on Sun
Toronto-London-Windsor/Sarnia services are basically unchanged,
except for the addition of a non-stop TEMPO Special, Toronto to Lon
don, on Fridays and Sundays, in one hour and fifty-five minutes for
the 185 km (115 mi.).
With the closure of Quebecs Palais Station at the end of Augu~t
1976, CNs Montreal-Quebec schedules reflect the use of Ste-Foy ~n
its place, except for one train, noted below. For the Ste-Foy to Cler
mont run along the north shore of the St. Lawrence east of Quebec,
thirty minutes have been added in both directions, with forty min
utes allowed for the Ste-Foy to Limoilou stretch of twelve miles.
Mileage Ste-Foy to Clermont is shown as 114, compared to 92 previous
ly. Cap Rouge is now served only by Trains 174 and 175, Ste-Foy to
Cochrane, Ontario, via the old National Transcontinental main line.
For Chicoutimi, weekenders use Ste-Foy and bypass Limoilou, leaving
Saturday and returning Monday. There is now a Limoilou-Riviere a
Pierre run, outwards on Tuesday and Thursday and back on Wednesday
and Friday. Mileage Limoilou to Loretteville is shown as eighteen, as
compared with the previous seven miles. On the bright side, Train 275,
Tuesday and Thursday, Limoilou to Riviere a Pierre, is allowed eight
een minutes for the eighteen miles from Limoilou to Loretteville~
CP RAIL Montreal-Quebec services, using the new St-Sacrement st
ation some three miles west of the majestic Gore du Palais, are now
ten minutes faster on all runs, with frequency of service remaining
unchanged. The direction of travel of this service is now Quebec
Montreal (east to west in the corridor); a similar rearrangement has
been made on CP RAILs Maritime page, now Saint John-Montreal in~
stead of Montreal-Saint John.
Canadian Nationals Montreal-Chicoutimi service, Train 171, is
now 45 minutes faster for some inexplicable reason, delivering the
sleepy passenger in the heart of Chicoutimi at 05 50, daily except
Sunday. On Sunday, arrival time is 06 50. There is no assurance that
sleeping car passengers may delay disembarkation.
CNs Toronto-North Bay schedule page (38) repeats its upside
down mop, showing Toronto north of Washago; it was printed correctly
in the 1975 folder. RDC Railiner service, Toronto to North Bay,pre
viously Saturday and Sunday, is now Sunday only. It will probably be
reduced further when Ontario Northlands train-sets arrive from
Switzerland in 1977.
The Algoma Central Railway makes the new VIA joint timetable on
page 37, where the northbound Friday, Saturday and Sunday train from
Sault St. Marie to Hearst is shown, with its counterpart returning
Saturday, Sunday and Monday, southbound.
CP RAILs RDC Dayliner Trains 417 and 418, Sudbury to White
River, Ontario, now run thrice weekly instead of daily except
Tuesday (~). The Havelock-Peterboro-Toronto table shows Train 381
originating at Havelock, mile 93.7 on the S/D of the same name, in
stead of Norwood (mile 99.8), as printed in the previous folder. In
the Montreal-Mont Laurier table, station altitudes are no longer sh
own but di~tances are given in both miles and kilometers. Calgary-
CANADIAN 27 R A I L
South Edmonton schedules have been altered to provide possengers with
more time to feed the vending machines in Red Deer station. This stop
has been lengthened from three minutes to 16 minutes northbound and
11 minutes southbound, with the time being made up on the Red Deer
Calgary stretch, so that the overall time is unchanged and meets oc
cur at Red Deer station rather than a few miles down the line.
CP RAIL pages in the new joint VIA folder no longer carry ad
vertisements for CP HOTELS in various cities across Canada. At the
bottom of the Saint John-Montreal schedule, we find a stylized trans-
Canada map, matching a similar Canadian National map on the facing
page and showing ma jor cities served, including a place named Hudson
Bay on the CP RAIL map, somewhere between Sudbury and Winnipeg.
At various places in the new combined VIA folder, mileages are
shown in metric units only, for example, for rail services in New
foundland and for the CNs Saskatoon-Melfort-The Pas service (Table
50). It might be reasoned that the CN rail service in Newfoundland
was always different enough from that in the rest of Canada, but
there is no readily apparent explanation for metric distances to
Melfort, Crooked River and Porcupine Plain~
Separate pages showing fares on CN/CP RAIL invite comparisons.
Here are a few examples of what the rail passenger in Canada can get
for his/her money in 1976/77:
Mon t rea 1-0 u e bec
CN has made some modifications in its Red, White and Bluefare
structure but, in general, Red days are off-peak, off-season days,
when travel is cheapest. Conversely, Blue days are peak, in-season
travel times. often in holiday periods. Good planning can save the
railway passenger money, as the above table shows.
In a gesture of good fellowship, AMTRAK schedules to and from
points in Canada appear on two pages of the new VIA folder. First
mention of ConRail appears in CP RAILs Table 32 for the Welland-
Buffalo portion of the Toronto-Hamilton-Buffalo daily service. On
the same page, a stylized map of Corridor shows the New York-Albany
Buffalo water-level route terminating at Hamilton, Ontario.
In AMTRAK Table 78, page 45, Detroit-Windsor-Albany-New York,no
mention is made of the stops at St. Thomas and Fort Erie, although
these appear in AMTRAKs own national public timetable of October 31,
1976, as they did in the AMTRAK folder of June 15, 1976.
And, if the reader becomes stifled with schedules, he can always
turn to the solid half-page of reference symbols or the solid two-and
a-half pages of reference marks and notes. Here he will find all kinds
of esoteric information, such as the fact that train tickets (CN) are
not good on ONR buses; taxi service is provided between Vernon and
Armstrong, B.C., and that, after April 23, 1977, Biggar and Unity, Sa
skatchewan will observe Mountain Daylight Time.
Copies of this fascinating new joint VIA public folder may be
obtained at your local CN or CP RAIL station, or from Passenger
Marketing, VIA CN, Montreal H3C 3N4 or Passenger Services, VIA CP
RAIL, Montreal H3C 3E4. It will provide the arm-chair traveller with
many hours of interesting reading.
HALF-WAY THROUGH 1976, THE FINANCIAL RECESSION IN CANADA MIGHT HAVE
been estimated by the number of diesel-electric units in
storage at various points across Canada.
For example, on 27 June 1976, Stephen Wray reported that
there were 79 units stored serviceable at CP RAILs St-Luc Yard, Mon
treal. Curiously enough, all of these units were MLW Industries made and were
all equipped with 244-series prime movers, except for the
S-3 and S-ll units, which have 539-type diesel engines.
Here are the n~mbers and classes:
4016, 4019, 4025
4082, 4084, 4085, 4086 4087, 4088, 4089, 4090 4091, 4092, 4093, 4094
4404, 4405, 4406, 4407 4408, 4409, 4410, 4416
4463, 4464, 4465, 4466 4468, 4469, 4470
8430, 8431 8432, 8433, 8436, 8437 8438, 8439,
8440, 8441 8442, 8444,
8451, 8457 8459, 8460
8466, 8467, 8468, 8476
8582, 8583, 8588, 8590 8591,
8593, 8598, 8599
CANADIAN 29 R A I L
KEN GANSELS PERAMBULATIONS IN 1975 TOOK HIM FROM CANADAS MARITIME
provinces to southern Ontario, in which locations he was
able to photograph trains of Canadas railways, large and
small. Kens first photo recorded CP RAILs Train 42, the Atlantic
Limited, at McAdam, New Brunswick, on a snowy 10 March 1975. On the
point was one of CP RAILs remaining two E 8 units, Number 1802.
Later on, on 28 April 1975, Dominion Atlantic Railways
Train 2, in fact RDC Dayliner Number 9062, scurried over the Moose
River bridge en route to Halifax.
CANADIAN 30 R A I L
On a summer day, ConRail Train WX-2 (Windsor to St. Thomas,
Ontario) rattled by the attractive stone station at Essex, Ontario.
Ken noted that this station is now leased by the Windsor-Essex Divis
ion of the CRHA. ConRail unit Number 7436 was painted blue and is a
GP 9, built by Diesel Division, General Motors of Canada Limited.
The last photograph, taken on 15 November 1975, shows Can
adian National Railways Train 41, the Ottawa-Brockville connection
for the CNs Montreal-Toronto train, crossing the Rideau River and
Canal at Smith Falls, Ontario, on CP RAIL trackage.
CANADIAN 31 R A I L
THE INTERIM REPORT FOR THE NINE MONTHS ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1976 FROM
SPAR Aerospace Products Limited to its stockholders noted
that the first gearbo~es for the Toronto Transit Commis_
sians Canodian Light Roil Vehicle were delivered on schedule in Oc
tober, while work COlllmenced on the linear induction motor (LIM) pro
pulsion system for the Inter~ediote Capacity Transit Syste~ vehicles
being developed by the Government of Ontarios Urban Transportation
Development Corporation. SPAR was also awarded a S 100,000 contract
by the Government of Canadas Transportation Development Agency to
corry out a study of on alternating_current motor propulsion system.
WITH THE ADVENT OF CONRAIL IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES, THE INFANT
freight roil transportation system found itself with a
serious shortage of Illative power. To satisfy motive power
requirements until additional units can be purchased, ConRail has
leased 100 units frOIl Canadian Notional Railways. These units are av
ailable because of the diminution of trarfic on CN as a result of
the economic recession in 1976. The 1I0de
ls and numbers of the leased units are as follows,
according to SRS NEWS of the Scotian Railroad Society of Halifo~, N.
4000-01 (eNs only GP 35 units); 4
THE CALL BOARD, Mohawk & Hudson Chapter, NRHS, says that
all EMDs (sic) will be maintained at Collinwood and MLW s at DeWitt.
The Editor then queries,One wonders what CN is using to power its
own trains with in the meant ill. . Perhaps someone will write and
SPAR AEROSPACE PRODUCTS LIMITED OF TORONTO HAVE BEEN AWARDED A CON
tract by Canadas federal government (Transportation De
velopment Agency) for S 99,458, to undertake a market
evaluation and development program definition for on AC (alternating
current) Motor Propulsion System for tronsit applications. Spar
lola, responsible for the technical aspects of the
study and, as prime contractor, was also to direct and coordinate the
work of the two subcontractors, N.D.Lea & Associates, Ookville and
the Urban Transportation DevelopRent Corporation of Toronto.
N.D:Leo & Associates, transportation consultants, were to
toke the.lead 1n areas concerned with markets and applications; UTDC,
on Ontar1o crown corporation, were to lead in the deMonstration and
evaluation ospects of the study.
The primary objective of the study was to deterRine if the
applicotion of the latest research would enable AC drives to be tech_
nically and economically attractive to the transit market. A further
objective was to estimate the size of that Market and then to define
on appropriate demonstration and evalvotion progrOR.
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS SLOPED-TENDER SWITCHER, 0-6-0 NUMBER 7308,
… as photographed by Association member Mr. A.W.Leggett of St. Lambert,
Quebec, at the eost end of Pointe-St_Chorles Yard, Montreal, in the
SURIIIII! of 1950. The then_electrified line from Central Station to the
electric shop at the Pointe is visible on the extreme right.
tSSN 0008 -4815
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