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Canadian Rail 283 1975

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Canadian Rail 283 1975

No. 283
August 197
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John Todd
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orty-odd years later, some of the citizens
r
t:Of Rockwood, Ontario were surely surprised
when they learned that James Jerome Hill
had become general manager of the St. Paul,
Minneapolis and Manitoba Railroad at St.
Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. They never would
have thought that this young man, born in
this small Upper Canadian community, a lit­
tle north of Toronto, would achieve such a
position.
Jim Hill entered railway service in the United States in 1865
and his advancement was rapid. After less than a year as general man­
ager of the StPM&M, he added vice-president to his title and, from
1883 to October 1891, he was president of the road. After September
11, 1889, he was also president of the Great Northern Railway of the
United States, a position of considerably greater importance.
While he was a young man, working in St. Paul, Jim Hill read
voraciously and, with his phenomenal memory, he soon amassed an en­
cyclopedic knowledge. His specialty was the formation and location
of various types of coal deposits. He also learned something about
rail transportation, with special emphasis on a local weed-grown un­
dertaking called the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, which wandered
northwest from St. Paul towards the International Boundary and the
town of Winnipeg, in Canada.
Donald Smith and Norman Kittson were both employed by the Hud­
sons Bay Company, the former in Labrador and the latter in Minne­
sota. By 1870, Kittson had recognized the limitations of his steam­
boat line in the Minnesota-Red River waterway and, in 1873-74, he
and Donald Smith were also looking at the bankrupt St. Paul and Pa­
cific.
WHAT IS AS RARE AS A DAY IN JUNE? THE ANSWER IS ON THIS MONTHS COVER:
A day in November 1955, the 26th., when Canadian Pacific Railways Tr­
ain 357, composed of Jubilee-class Number 3004, on RDC-3, on RDC-1 and
a lightweight 2200-series coach, acceleratea smoothly out of Louise­
ville, Quebec, across the Maskinonge River and off to Lanoraie, the
next corded stop, at something better than 90 mph ~ Jim Shaughnessy
was there at the start, but not when she arrived at Lanoraie~
THE STEAM SHOVEL EXCAVATES AND THE HORSE-DRAWN DUMP-CARS HAUL AWAY
the fill on the bench on the south side of the Souris River volley
about 1905. Photo Gilford Copeland
CANADIAN 232 R A I L
To summarize the events which followed, Kittson, Smith, Hill
and New York banker John S. Kennedy bought the moribund St. Paul and
Padfic, togethei with its land-grants, which were considerable. In
May 1880, the company was reorganized as the St. Paul, Minneapolis &
Manitoba Railroad. And this partially explains why James Jerome Hill
was a member of the syndicate who signed the agreement with Sir
John A. Macdonalds government in Canada on September 14, 1880, to
build the Canadian Pacific Railway. It also explains how W.C. Van
Horne brought materials and supplies to start the construction of
the CPR west from Winnipeg in the spring of 1882.
Some railway historians believe that even the collusus which
was the Canadian Pacific Railway Company could not have contained
Jim Hills ambitions. Certainly, it would have had great difficulty
later on in containing both Hill and Van Horne. As plans went for­
ward in 1882, it became increasingly evident that Ilacdonalds Con­
servative government in Canada would insist on an all-Canadian route
north of Lake Superior, which was squarely opposite Jim Hills in­
tention to run the line south to St. Paul and then back north to
Winnipeg over his St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba, there to rejoin
the Canadian Pacific.
,ej{T his ;d iff ere n c e in 0 pin ion res u 1 ted in the res i g nat ion s 0 f Jim
HiH;-_arld;~o on I1:OY,3;/:1;883. But Jim Hill did not consider this an admission of
def~~t. ;t~~i;fmmediately set about expanding theStPM&M and, in 1889,
he incorp~iated the Great Northern Railway Company, which grew into
a vast railway system of nearly 8,000 miles. The Great Northern,un­
der Jim Hills direction, was the only railroad company with a line
from the mid-west United States to the Pacific Ocean that never went
bankrupt and never defaulted on a dividend.
One of the conditions in the contract between the Government of
Canada and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company was that no other ra­
ilway would be allowed to build a line south of the CPRs main line
for a period of 20 years. This prevented United States railroads
from building branch lines north across the International Boundary,
or any Canadian companies from building south to join lines in the
US. But the connection with the STPM&M at Pembina-Emerson Junction,
predated this agreement and considerable traffic moved east over
this line before the Canadian Pacifics eastern main line was com­
pleted in May 1885.
James Jerome Hill deserved the title of Empire Builder and
his railroad was rightly known as the Jim Hill Line. Whatever his
reasons, he planned to build a comprehensive network of branch li­
nes in western Canada, to complement his main line to the west
coast. But he had to wait until the Canadian Pacifics Monopoly
Clause was repealed in 1888. In the years following the turn of
the century, Jim Hill planned two north-south lines through Brandon,
Manitoba and Regina, Saskatchewan, as well as an east-west line
from Winnipeg to the Pacific. In a sense, he anticipated Mackenzie
and Mann and the Canadian Northern. Hills plans kept the Canadian
Pacific on guard continuously, as they were vulnerable to competi­
tion which was ardently advocated by politicians and formers in
Canadas developing prairie provinces.
In the early 1900s, Jim Hill did build three branch lines in
Manitoba and running rights were secured over the Canadian Northern
from Emerson Junction to Winnipeg. In the ensuing years, about a
dozen other branch lines were built from the Great Northerns main
CANADIAN 233 R A I L
line to the International Boundary, between Winnipeg and Vancouver.
In British Columbia, Hill incorporated the Vancouver, Victoria and
Eastern Railway and Navigation Company and constructed railways on
Vancouver Island and in southern British Columbia. He built a total
of 607.26 miles of railway in Manitoba and British Columbia, all of
it without a government subsidy of any kind.
When construction on the Canadian Northern Pacific and
Grand Trunk Pacific Railways was commenced, the reasons for
Hills planned Canadian railroad to the Pacific disappeared.
with typical ingenuity, Hill did not abandon the project; he
postponed construction indefinitely.
the
Jim
But
just
The Brandon, Saskatchewan and Hudson Bay Railway Company, in­
corporated in 1903, was one of Jim Hills first attempts to estab­
lish a north-south trunk line in Canada. It proposed to build a
railway from a point on the International Boundary in Range 16-18,
(Bannerman), to Brandon and thence north and west to The Pas, Man­
itoba. Two years later, the charter was expanded slightly to per­
mit a second connection to Morden, from the GN s main line at La­
kota, North Dakota.
Work on the Brandon line began in 1905. The railway was built
from the GN end-of-steel at St. John, North Dakota, 3.55 miles to
the southeast of the International Boundary. The portion in Canada
continued to Brandon for a distance of 69.5 miles.
The most difficult section of the BS&HB to construct was the
long fill and two-span bridge across the Souris River at Bunclody,
Manitoba, about 26 miles south of Brandon. Three large construction
camps were established near Bunclody, one on each side of the river
valley and the third at the Pete Eamer Ravine, a mile-and-a-half
southeast of the village. Each camp was assigned a large steam-
shovel and teams of horses, mules and four-drivered donkey engines
were used to haul the dump-cors full of earth from the cuts and ben­
ches to the bridge approaches.
If you suspect that the name Bunclody has an Irish ring to
it, then you are quite correct. Mr. George McGill, who settled Ln
this area with Mr. James Copeland in 1881, afterwards became Sec­
retary-Treasurer of School District 383, formed in 1884. Mr. McGill
was given the privilege of naming the school and he chose Bunclody,
the name of the district in Ireland from which he had emigrated.
At Bunclody, the Souris River valley is considerably below the
level of the prairie and is quite wide. It was therefore necessary
to bring the railway grade down the south side of the valley on a
bench and carry the single-track line across the valley and river
A 65-TON STEAM SHOVEL EXCAVATES A CUT AT THE TOP OF THE GRADE OUT
of the Souris River valley near Bunclody, Manitoba, in 1905. The
train of dump-cars is hauled by a saddle-tonk engine.
Photo Gilford Copeland
THE BIG FILL AND THE BRIDGE OVER THE SOURIS RIVER, NEAR BUNCLODY,
Manitoba, anout 1905. The two tracks on the fill allowed the train
of loaded dump-cars to proceed to the dumping position, while the
empties returned on the other track to be refilled.
Photo Gilford Copeland

i
953 ed.
100
0
revised.
——————
.. .. ,_.i._ …
St. John, North Dakota
To Churchs FerrYL N.D.
CANADIAN 237 R A I L
on a high fill and a two-span, box-girder bridge. As Jim Hill was
very anxious to complete the railway to Brandon rapidly, men and
materials in quantity were brought to the construction site.
High timber trestles were erected on both sides of the river
and thousands upon thousands of cubic yards of earth, from the cut­
tings and the approach grades along the sides of the valley, were
dumped off these trestles, to build up the permanent fill and keep
the gradient of the railway constant.
The timber for the trestles came from Carroll, Manitoba, about
six miles to the northeast, on the Canadian Pacific Railways branch
line from Winnipeg to Souris. Some of the cedar pilings were almost
90 feet long. The two-span bridge over the Souris River was 430
feet long and 85 feet high. At the same time, a bridge was built
over the adjacent highway. The Pete Eamer Ravine was filled in to
the level of the railway grade, with conduit pipes in the stream-bed
to carry the spring run-off. Within a couple of years these conduit
pipes began to collapse and the Great Northern replaced them by a
7-foot square, arched-roof concrete tunnel. A quarter-of-a-mile north
of the bridge, a water-tank was built, the water being pumped up
from the Souris River.
Scottish-born John Fraser, who had worked for the Canadian Nor­
thern Railway at Belmont and nearby Wakopa, Manitoba, hired on to
lay rails on the BS&HBs new grade in 1905. He later became section
foreman at Minto, before moving to Bunclody. The 8-mile section at
Bunclody was a difficult one to maintain. The track ran down the
side of the Souris River valley and across the river and was all
curves, cuts and fills. The rails were 60 pounds to the yard, with
no tie-plates or gravel ballast. When it rained, the roadbed became
very soft and muddy. Mr. Fraser also looked after the water-tank.
The first train over the BS&HBs new line made the trip ~n
June 1906. From then on, there were two passenger trains, dai~y
except Sunday, one south in the morning and one north in the even~ng.
There was also a daily-except-Sunday freight, which ran south one day
and north the next.
Snow on the prairies was the railways worst enemy. In the fir­
st year of operation, there was a heavy snowfall and one train was
snowbound in Hebron Cut from late November to March. Luckily it was a
work-train and the crew, with their own cook-car, were able to
live there all winter. Hebron Cut was on Mr. Rogers farm and he
hauled water every day to the train during the winter. Other sup-
plies were obtained from the newly-opened general store at Hayfield,
four miles towards Brandon.
The winter of 1915-16 was one of thw worst ever experienced in
this district. Cuts were full of snow, 15 feet deep in some places.
Trains did not run for six weeks. In the spring, the melting snow
produced a heavy run-off and culverts and conduits could not drain
off the water rapidly enough. At Bunclody, much of the water went
down the highway and through the railway underpass, on its way to
the turbulent, muddy Souris River. The railroad grade was saved,but
the highway was nearly completely washed out, with holes 10-12 feet
deep in many places.
In the middle of February 1923, a severe blizzard blocked the
BS&HBs line from Minto to Brandon for three weeks. Local men were
hired to help shovel out the line and to erect snow-fences. A rotary
snowplow was brought in from the Great Northerns main line and it
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CANADIAN 239 R A I L
cleared a path about 10 feet wide. The crew would take the plow as
far forward as possible, until it began to clog, and then backed it
out of the cut, while the men shovelled off the top four or five
feet of the cut. The rotary was then brought forward again to blow
this snow out of the cut. But it also blew down some of the snow­
fence that the men had worked so hard to erect. The worst drifts had
formed at Wilson Cut, a mile-and-a-half north of Heaslip and three
miles south of the Souris River crossing.
That was not the end of the snow that winter. On March 20,there
was another big snowfall. The passenger train went through on Fri­
day morning, with two engines and a wedge-plow. About half-an-hour
later, Mr. Fraser got word that the train was stuck in Wilson Cut.
Hurriedly he called his men together and they walked down the track
to the snowbound train. When they found it, the engines, plow and
coaches were drifted in solidly, with snow half-way up on the coach
windows. The conductor and the engine crews tried to loosen up the
frozen drivers on the locomotives with the steam hose, but to no
avail. Then, the engine crews got out the jacks and managed to force
the two engines apart far enough so that the second engine could
bump the first engine free. By 2.00 a.m., the train was ready to
travel, but the water in the tender of one of the engines was so
low that the crew had to reverse into the cut again, so that snow
from the top of the cut could be shovelled into the tender tank, to
be melted into water for the boiler. This was the wrong decision, as
one of the engines became stuck all over again~
The lady passengers managed to find some bread and coffee in
the baggage car and someone brought other supplies from the general
store at Heaslip. A midnight lunch was then served. With great
effort, the train was thereafter liberated from the snowdrifts and
the whole outfit staggered into Minto, 35 miles south of Brandon,at
5.00 a.m. on Saturday. The crew had to let one engine die and the
second one was also low on coal and water. The conductor wired St.
John, North Dakota, for a replacement engine, which arrived about
noon and the run was resumed the following day.
On Monday, the passenger train returned from St. John with two
engines and an extra water-car and snowplow. The passenger part of
the train spent the night at Bunclody, while the two engines and the
plow went ahead to clear the line, returning to the station for the
night. Next morning, the whole train went on its way, but the plow
jumped the rails, due to the ice which hod formed at the place where
it had stopped the night before. The Bunclody men were called out
again to help re-rail the plow and, before long, the line was opened
and the passenger train departed on its way to Brandon.
Episodes like this one prove beyond any doubt that the problems
caused by weather to railway operation in Canada were not confined
to the railways in the Rocky Mountains, those along the bleak shore
of Lake Superior or those that ran through eastern Quebec and New
Brunswick to Nova Scotia~
The bridge over the Souris River was entirely rebuilt in 1929-
30 and service was never interrupted during this reconstruction. Mr.
Fraser was joined on the section-gang by his two sons, Murray and
Ernie and, in time, together they accumulated a total of 147 years
of service on the Great Northern Railway. They held many positions
in Manitoba, North Dakota and Minnesota.
The BS&HB entered Brandon from the west, between the Canadian
Pacific and Canadian Northern tracks. A large brick-and-stone sta-
.. ~~ … BUILDING THE SINGLE-TRACK, TWO-SPAN, BOX-GIRDER, WOODEN BRIDGE OVER
l the Souris River near Bunclody, Manitoba, on June 19, 1906.
Photo Gilford Copeland
tion was built one block west of the Canadian Pacific station and
five blocks from that of the Canadian Northern. A large brick fr-
eight shed was built farther to the west. The BS&HB yard ran paral­
lel ta the CPR and most of the switching between the CP and Can­
adian Northern was done by the BS&HB. They also had tracks serving
most wholesale and other warehouses in Brandon.
As noted previously, engine crews on the BS&HB ran out of St.
John, North Dakota. Here, there was a roundhouse and a turntable,
the latter being of the armstrong variety. When extra manpower was
necessary to turn a heavy engine, volunteers were recruited from
the local pool-hall. St. John was also the United States port of
entry, while Bannerman, Manitoba, was the Canadian equivalent.McCabe
Elevator Company built grain elevators at all stations on the Great
Northern Railways lines in Manitoba and a large groin traffic was
handled to Duluth, Minnesota. This was what Jim Hill had planned,
all along.
From the fall of 1907 to the spring of 1911, the Great Northern
hauled grain south from Winnipeg, Brandon and Portage La Prairie to
Duluth, on Lake Superior, for the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, then
under construction. The GTPs Lake Superior line to Fort William,
Ontario, could not be used yet, as the Winnipeg-Superior Junction
section of the National Transcontinental Railway, which was to form
the connecting link, was not completed until April 1911.
After Brandon, the largest town on the BS&HB was Boissevain,48
miles to the south. There was a good-sized station and freight yard
here. On its way north from St. John, the BS&HB encountered several
CANADIAN 241 R A I L
railways, all af which it crossed at grade. At Bannerman, there was
the Greenway-Adelpha branch of the Canadian Northern Railway, which
had been opened for traffic on May 31, 1905. At Boissevain, there
was the Manitoba and South Western Colonization Railway, or the
Pembina Branch, as it was called. It had been completed to De-
loraine in 1886 and was generally called the Deloraine Line by
the old-timers.
The Northern Pacific & Manitobas track from Winnipeg, through
Carman to Hartney Junction, was bisected by the BS&HB at Minto, Man­
itoba. This railway had been completed in 1898, being built by the
Northern Pacific Railway of the United States. It was first leased
to the Government of Manitoba in 1901 and then re-leased to the
Canadian Northern Railway in the same year.
The Souris branch of the Canadian Pacific crossed the BS&HB
near Carroll, Manitoba. This railway pursued a curious route from
Winnipeg, through Souris to Arcola, Saskatchewan, terminating at
Saskatchewans capital city of Regina.
Just west of Brandon, there was a crossing with the Canadian
Northerns line from Winnipeg to Regina, {:ompleted in 1905. The
Canadian Pacific, of course, was the first railway in Brandon, the
first official passenger train having arrived on October 11, 1881.
The BS&HB had a 30-year contract with the Government of Canada
to transport the mails. This put a little revenue in the Company
treasury. By far the most important event, each year, for the chil­
dren, that is, was the appearance of the Midway Train, on its
way to Brandon. This was the train that carried all the amusement
rides from one Provincial Exhibition to another, in Regina, Calgary,
Edmonton and Saskatoon. It was the highlight of the year for the
THE ~TATION, YARD, HIGH FILL AND BRIDGE OF THE BRANDON, SASKATCHEWAN
and Hudsons Bay Railway at Bunclody, Manitoba, about 1910, after the
railway was in operation. Photo Gilford Copeland
THE BS&HBS WOODEN BRIDGE OVER THE SOURIS RIVER WAS REBUILT TO A
steel box-girder structure in 1929-30. The spring run-off remained
substantially the same and the ice-cakes battered the central pier
each spring. Photo Gilford Copeland
AS THE TRAFFIC ON THE BRANDON, SASKATCHEWAN AND HUDSONS BAY RAILWAY
diminished, so did the size of the station at Bunclody. In the final
years, it had dwindled to this size. Photo Gilford Copeland
ONE OF THE ORIGINAL STRUCTURES ON THE BS&HB WAS THE WATER-TANK AT
Bunclody, Manitoba. Mr. John Fraser looked after the tank.
Photo Gilford Copeland
THE STATION OF THE GN/BS&HBRy IN BRANDON, MANITOBA. THE FREIGHT TR­
ain, headed by a small-drivered GN consolidation, faces west, ready
to depart for Boissevain, Manitoba and St. John, North Dakota.
Photograph courtesy Assiniboine Historical Society.
1895-1912
1912-1914
1921-1936
1936-1967
Courtesy Minnesota Historical Society.
I,
CANADIAN 245 R A I L
people under 12 along the BS&HB~ The railway also operated many
excursions on special occasions, such as Brandon Fair, and on hol­
idays. These excursions were well patronized. Freight business was
reasanably good, with import shipments coming in from the United
States and grain going south. Passenger service was excellent and
very, very friendly.
The international passenger train which ran daily except Sun­
day from Brandon to Churchs Ferry and Devils Lake, North Dakota and
return, consisted of a small Great Northern 4-4-0 locomotive, a com­
bination baggage/express/mail car, followed by two coaches, one re­
served for ladies and non-smokers. The passenger was a name-train,
too. Everybody called it Charley Bryant, or just Charley.
Charley Bryant was the conductor on this train for almost 40
years, so it was no wonder that passengers and others got into the
habit of thinking that it was really Charlies train. When young
passengers grew up, they were surprised to learn that Charley re­
ally belonged to the Great Northern Railway of the United States.
Meeting the evening passenger train was a must for all the train­
lovers of the district. Whenever it was late, everyone would ask:
Whats keeping Charley?
The daily-except-Sunday passenger train for Devils Lake left
Brandon early in the morning and soon it was rattling along the
track down the side of the valley and across the high fill and the
bridge over the Souris River. Further south, the train ran through
the eastern foothills of the Turtle Mountains, where the beautiful
International Peace Gardens are located today.
A ten-minute stop was made at St. John, North Dakota, the div­
isional point and United States customs and immigration inspection
point. Two hours and a half and 55 miles later, Train 210 arrived
at Churchs Ferry, where a connection was made with the main line
for Devils Lake, 20 miles to the east.
The afternoon passenger, Train 209, departed Churchs Ferry
at 3.15 p.m. and arrived at Brandon at 9.30 p.m., in the late even­
ing. Passengers returning from Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota,
were described as coming back from down below.
Conductor Bryant of the BS&HB was also a farmer and his farm
was located just south of the International Boundary at St. John.
He was a very good neighbour and helped his neighbour-farmers fre­
quently. In the autumn, he would stop the passenger train at various
forms between regular station stops to disembark Indian harvest wor­
kers from the nearby Turtle Mountain Reservation. Chorley sometimes
did not pay too much attention to the schedule, but the services he
did provide were appreciated by patrons of the Great Northern, all
along the line.
The opening years of the economic depression of the 1930s were
not good ones for the Brandon, Saskatchewan and Hudsons Bay Railway,
or its parent Great Northern, for that matter. The lower freight
rotes on grain, resulting from the famous Crows Nest Pass agreement
of June 29, 1897, made it cheaper to ship groin to the Canadian ports
GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY 4-4-0 NUMBER 208 IS READY TO LEAVE
Manitoba, with the daily passenger train for St. John and
Lake, North Dakota. The crews posed for a group photograph.
BRANDON,
Devils
Photo L.S. Stuckey.

CANADIAN 247 R A I L
on the Gre-ot-1akes. Higher customs duties on United States goods re­
duced imports into Canada and the advent of the private automobile
resulted in a significant reduction in passenger traffic. As the de­
pression worsened, the BS&HB sank further and further into the red.
Mr. Fraser, the section-foreman at Bunclody, took his wife and
his bousehold goods and moved to Manville, North Dakota. While Mr.
and Mrs. Fraser rode in the passenger coach, their carload of
household effects was the last car on the last passenger train on
the Brandon, Saskatchewan and Hudsons Bay Railway. That was on
June 17,1936. From that day on, the passenger train from Devils
Lake terminated at St. John, North Dakota, remaining there over
night before returning to Devils Lake, the following day. So ended
30 years of international passenger service via the Great Northern
and the Brandon, Saskatchewan and Hudsons Bay Railway.
The Board of Railway Commissioners for Canada, in Order 53231
dated May 14, 1936, authorized the GN/BS&HB to abandon the railway
from Brandon to the International Boundary and the Great Northern
took up the 3.55 miles of line from the boundary to St. John.
But not all of the Brandon, Saskatchewan and Hudsons Bay Rail­
way was removed. According to the terms of the abandonment order,
the terminal facilities of the BS&HB in the city of Brandon were
to be taken over by one of the other railways in the city. In 1936,
both Canadian Pacific and Canadian National had lines in Brandon,
but becav.se of the proximity of the BS&HB to the Canadian Pacifics
yards, this latter company took over the BS&HBs terminal facilities.
Thirty-eight years after most of the Brandon, Saskatchewan and
Hudsons Bay Railway was taken up, there are still numerous visible
remains for the railway archeologist to discover. The cuts, and
some of the fills, can still be discovered and the location of the
railway in and out of the Souris River valley is still evident. And
although the two-span bridge over the river has disappeared, you
can still trace the old right-of-way all the way south to the In­
ternational Boundary. The BS&HB may never have reached Hudson Bay,
but it left its mark on the landscape of southern Manitoba.
Other research notes.
1. The rails of the BS&HB from St. John, North Dakota to Brandon,
Manitoba, were taken up in 1937. Those from the Canadian portion
of the line were shipped to British Columbia.
2. The two-span bridge over the Souris River at Bunclody, Manitoba,
was dismantled later on by a Brandon contractor and the useable
timber salvaged. Snow-fences, grain doors and other materials
were removed for use on other lines. Buildings and structures
were sold; some were demolished on the spot; others were moved
away.
3. The Brandon terminal and transfer yard of the BS&HB were taken
over by the Canadian Pacific Railway. The station was converted
into a merchandise distribution centre and was finally torn down
in 1973. The large brick freight shed is still being used by a
Brandon lumber company.
CANADIAN 248 R A I L
4. The spur and elevator track at Boissevain were taken over by the
Canadian Pacific and are still in use. The station was bought by
the Department of Highways of Manitoba and is presently used as
a district headquarters building.
5. The station at Bannerman was sold and moved to Lena, Manitoba
where it became a general store.
6. Irregular freight service is still offered by the Burlington Nor­
thern Railroad from Churchs Ferry to St. John, North Dakota.
7. Other branch lines, built by the Great Northern Railway in Man­
itoba, included:
a. The Midland Railway Company of Manitoba, a joint venture
of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railways, was
incorporated in 1903 and was built from Walhalla, North
Dakota to Morden, Manitoba, in 1906. There were 15 miles
in Canada. This company was purchased by the Manitoba
Great Northern Railway Company on July 1, 1909. The line
was abandoned in 1936. The elevator and spur tracks at
Morden were taken over and are still used by CPR/CP RAIL.
b. The Midland Railway Company of Manitoba was in­
corporated in 1903 to build a line from Neche,
North Dakota to Gretna, Plum Coulee, Carman and
Portage La Prairie, Manitoba. It was built in
1906, with 77 miles in Canada. It was purchased
on July 1, 1909, by the Manitoba Great Northern
Railway Company. That part of the line from Gr­
etna to Plum Coulee (16 miles) and Carman to
Portage La Prairie (36 miles) was abandoned and
removed in 1928. At the some time, the Canadian
Pacific Railway purchased the portion from Plum
Coulee to Carman (25 miles) and this portion is
still operated today by CP RAIL.
8. The Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railways obtained track­
age rights in 1912 for 65.7 miles over the Northern Pacific and
Manitoba Railway from Pembina, North Dakota/ Emerson Junction,
Manitoba, to Winnipeg. This connection was originally built by
the Northern Pacific and Manitoba, who leased it to the Govern­
ment of Manitoba in 1901. The Government of Manitoba, in turn,
subleased the line to the Canadian Northern Railway, who granted
trackage rights to the GN-NP. In addition, the GN had a 1.7-mile
connect1~~ between Emerson Junction and West Lynn, while the
Manitoba Great Northern Railway Company still owns six or seven
miles of terminal line and sidings in the City of Winnipeg. This
trackage is today operated by the Burlington Northern.
9. The following items from the Brandon, Manitoba SUN, are presen­
ted through the kindness of Messrs G.A.Fowell and F.A.McGuiness of
Bra~don, Manitoba:
A TYPICAL PRE-WORLD WAR I SCENE IN SOUTHERN MANITOBA. THE BS&HBS
doily passenger Train 210, consisting of a 4-4-0, a combination mail/
express/baggage car and two coaches, pauses at Hayfield, Manitoba, 14
miles south of Brandon, at 8.04 a.m.
Photograph courtesy Assiniboine Historical Society.

CANADIAN 250 R A I L
June 7, 1906: Plans (have been made) for building a
depot for the Great Northern Railroad,
coming in from the south.
November 3, 1906:The Great Narthern track (Brandon,
atchewan and Hudsons Bay Railway)
been laid a short distance west of
Street in Brandon.
Sask­
has
18th.
December 1, 1906:The first coal train arrived in Brandon
from the south (Great Northern Railway)
after being stuck and held up for 2
weeks, the results of a bad storm and
an acute fuel shortage in Brandon.
April 24, 1907: The first passenger coach, in a mixed
train, arrived in Brandon on April 24th.,
1907, coming from Devils Lake, North
Dakota.
Acknowledgements.
The author would like to thank the following persons and or­
ganizations for assistance in the preparation of this article:
Mrs. E. Duncan
Mrs. Allan Rose Mr.
Gilford Copeland
Mr. Gordon H. Fowell
Mr. Murray L. Fraser
Mr. Jack Gillings
Mr. Rodger Letourneau
Mr. Fred McGuiness, The
Mr. T.K.Roberts
Mr. Roy, Postmaster
Mr. P.P.Striemer
Mr. L.A.Stuckey
Mr. S.S.Worthen
Brandon, Manitoba
Bunclody, Manitoba
Bunclody, Manitoba
Brandon, Manitoba
Woodburn, Oregon, USA
Boissevain, Manitoba
Winnipeg, Manitoba
Brandon Sun Brandon, Manitoba
Brandon, Manitoba
St. John, North Dakota, USA
Winkler, Manitoba
Brandon, Manitoba
Montreal, Quebec
The Boissevain Historical Museum The
Brandon Historical Society
Boissevain, Manitoba
Brandon, Manitoba
The Pembina Times Morden, Manitoba
Bibliography
-Statutory History of Steam and Electric Railways of Canada
1836-1937 Dorman, R. 1937
-The Railway Interrelations of the United States and Canada
A History of Transportation
-Steel of Empire
-The Life of James J. Hill
Wilgus, W.J. 1937
in Canada
Glazebrook, G.P.
Gibbon, J.M.
Pyle, J.G.
1938
1935
1917
THE
HEAVY
SNOWFALL
OF
THE
WINTER
OF
1923 FILLED
THE
CUTS
FOR
THREE
miles
south
of
Bunclody.
A
Great
Northern
2-8-0
pushed
the
rotary
snow-plow
into
the
deep
drifts,
while
Mr.
Fraser,
the
section
fore­
man
and
his
two
sons,Murray
and
Ernie,
helped
shovel
off
the
top
of
the
drifts.
Photo
Gilford
Copeland.
S.S.Worthen
{l
ver the past several months, four new books
have arrived on this reviewers desk. Three
are in the English language; the fourth is
in German. This latter characteristic might
be considered as a restriction of interest in
the case of the Anglophone reader, but this is
by no means so, since the picture captions are
in every case easily understood.
Let us deal with first things first. By far the first in this
unusual quartet is Mr. Arthur D. Dubins new book MORE CLASSIC TRAINS
published in 1974 by Kalmbach of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA and bear­
ing a price-tag of $ 30.00 U.S.
What can one say about this most impressive volume? There are
pictures, pictures and more pictures, of every name passenger tr­
ain in North America that you have ever heard of, and a few that you
havent. Not content with illustrating ad infinitum the important
passenger trains of North America, Mr. Dubin indulges in a little
whimsy by introducing some of the more exotic and unsuccessful pas­
senger trains of this continent (X-Plorer, Jet-Rocket, Train X plus
assorted Uni-Levels, Bi-Levels and Hi-Levels), by taking a quick
look at AMTRAK, followed by a final, furtive glance at the turn-of­
the-century trains de grand luxe organized by La Compagnie Inter­
nationale des Wagons-Lits et de Grands Express Europeens. Perhaps be-
cause the glance must of necessity be brief, one must admit that
George Behrends Grand European Expresses is a better source of
information and unique illustrations of this international European
enterprise.
The manner in which Mr. Dubins information and pictures is
presented is a source of constant irritation to this reviewer. Com­
paratively little information is found in the narrative portionimost
of it is contained in the picture captions. Since there is a multi­
tude of pictures, there is equally a multitude of captions. Trains
in motion, trains stopped, train interiors, motive power, cars of all
kinds and interior arrangements, public timetables special and reg­
ular, advertising brochures, diagrams and decorations proliferate in
a marvellous bouilliabaisse which will overwhelm the readers sen-
ses, defy his powers of analysis and strain his int~llectual
digestion.
Canadian Pacific, Grand Trunk, Canada Atlantic, Canadian North­
ern, Intercolonial, Grand Trunk Pacific, the Newfoundland Railway and
Canadian National are all awarded their quota of illustrations. There
are a few new and notable views, but the majority presented are re­
presentative of the famous trains and the Photographic Departments of
Canadas two ma jor railways and car-builders archives. The Ontario
Northland is awarded but small mention and the Pacific Great Eastern,
Algoma Central and White Pass & Yukon none at all.
Well, while one might expect quite a lot for $ 30 U.S., it is
only fair to recognize that there is a limit to what one author can
put between two covers without complete failure of the binding.
I f you have Mr. Dubins SOME CLASSIC TRAINS (Kalmbach-1964) in
your library, you will certainly want to have MORE CLASSIC TRAINS as
CANADIAN 253 R A I L
well, which is a natural and admirably researched sequel and compan­
ion piec~. If you do not have the former, then you should by all
meons procure the latter~
In mid-1974, Mr. LA.McGavin, Editor of The New Zealand Rail­
way Observer of the New Zealand Railway and Locomotive Society pub­
lished two soft-cover booklets, through the cooperation of that So­
ciety, located in Wellington, New Zealand.
The first is a new work entitled A CENTURY OF RAILWAYS AT AUK­
LAND 1873-1973, which records the railway history of this New Zea­
land metropolis. In reading this account, it is quite extraordinary
to realize that, while the gouge of New Zealands rai lways today is
3 feet 6 inches, the early initiatives around Aukland contemplated
gouges as various as 4 feet 8t inches and 5 feet 3 inches.
The price of A CENTURY OF RAILWAYS AT AUKLAND 1873-1973 is $ 1 NZ.
Mr. McGavin has also written another soft-cover booklet entit-
led NZR LOCOMOTIVES AND RAILCARS, FIFTH EDITION -1973, which ap-
peared in 1974. This publication will be of great satisfaction to
readers who are interested in the development of motive power and
self-propelled cars on New Zealand Railways. It is a useful 60-page
booklet, giving locomotive and rail-car classes, types, road numbers,
builders, allocations and principal dim~nsions, with selected illus­
trations and a number of scale diagrams.
NZR LOCOMOTIVES
AND RAILCARS
Compiled by T. A. McGavin
Fifth Edition, 1973
CANADIAN
254
R A I L
Of particular interest ta Canadian readers will be the informa­
tion on the fifteen General Motors Diesel Limited model G-12 units,
built in 1955 in London, Ontario and classed Da by New Zealand
Railways.
The price of NZR LOCOMOTIVES AND RAILCARS, FIFTH EDITION -1973,
l.S $ 1.80 NZ.
The title of the new book by Jean-Michel Hartmann and published
by Franckh sche Verlagshandlung of Stuttgart, German Federal Repub­
lic, will be easily understood in any country and in any language by
the steam locomotive enthusiast. It is DAMPFLOKOMOTIVEN IN DEUTSCH­
LAND and, when you know that dampf is steam, you can follow the
pictorial account of the Authors travels (10,000 km) on the German
Federal Railways in 1971-1974 in search of this vanishing type of
railway motive power. There are some 116 large and esthetically sa­
tisfying photographs in the book, with explanatory captions, which
beyond any doubt capture the basic ambiance of steam locomotive opera­
tion in western and southwestern regions of the German Federal Repub­
lic. One suspects that Mr. Hartmann is Alsacien; therefore, he knew
the locations of the best spots for railway photography.
The present reviewer finds the rectangular shape of Mr. Hartmanns
book awkward; moreover, the picture captions are inconveniently loca­
ted with the first part of the text. Hawever, it may be contended that
the former treatment allows the production of full-sized 8×10 rectan­
gular phatographs without cropping, while the latter practice elimin­
ates caption text on the some page as the photograph, thus avoiding
distracting copy with or on the photograph.
Mr. Hartmanns photographs are of the highest technical excel­
lence and the printer has preserved this admirable characteristic in
every picture. The winter scenes on these portions of the DB are most
striking and the inclusion of line-side signals and notice-boards, so
often missing in conventional railway photographs, makes them conspic­
uous, strange and intriguing; in addition, they enhance the realism
of the scenes of freight and passenger trains hauled by tank engines,
racing pacifies and mammoth consolidations of vast proportions.
Altogether, DAMPFLOCOMOTIVEN IN DEUTSCHLAND by Jean-Michel Hart­
mann, priced at DM 34, is a book which every steam locomotive enthus­
iast should have in his library.
CANADIAN 255 R A I L
CREDIT VALLEY RAILWAY: THE THIRD GIANT.
H.D.MORRISON.
f
n 1871, the Government of the Province of Ontario granted
George Laidlaw of Toronto and eight associates a charter
to build a railway from Toronto to St. Thomas, Ontario ,
with branch lines to Orangeville and Elora.
The railway was formally opened by the Governor General of Can­
ada, the Marquis of Lorne, in 1879, operated more or less successful­
ly for four years as an independent railway, then in 1883 passed
into the hands of what is now Canadian Pacific Limited. These are
the bare bones of the story told by James Filby in a new book called
Credit Valley Railway.
The second half of the Nineteenth Century witnessed a scramble
on the part of entrepreneurs to get in on the ground floor of a new
industry and to profit from the desire of every small town to be on a
railway. Even towns and cities already served by a railway offered
cash banuses to attract a second railway, on the principle that
competition would drive down freight-rates. It was a ~eriod in Can­
adian history that reminds one of the mushrooming of small airlines
in the years following World War rI, many of them encouraged by
small cities bearing gifts of cash and municipally-financed airports.
How many of these airlines survive today?
George Laidlaw attracted a very able team of young men to help
him build his railway: James Ross, later to build himself a great
reputatian and fortune in the field of public utilities; William Mac­
kenzie, later to achieve fame with Donald Mann as a great Canadian
railway builder; Herbert Holt, later chief engineer for the Canadian
Pacific RailwayS prairie and mountain sections and, later still,
Sir Herbert Holt of the Montreal Light, Heat and Power Company and
the Royal Bank of Canada; and H.E.Suckling, later treasurer of the
Canadian Pucific Railway Company. With men like these, it is obvious
that the Credit Valley Railway was a great farm-team for the big
league and that George Laidlaw was a better-than-average coach.
Mr. Filbys history is an interesting mixture of chapters, some
telling a chronological story, others avoiding chronology and cover­
ing a particular topic. Perhaps a list of chapter headings would be
best for the prospective reader, to give him an idea of the arrange­
ment of the book:
Early Canada West Transportation
The Coming of the Railway Era
Railway Acts of the 1800s
George Laidlaw, the Prince of the Bonus Hunters
Charter, Promotion and Financing
Work Begins
Bridges on the Credit Valley Railway
Difficulties and Controversies
Legal Entanglements and the Toronto Entry
Opening the Line
Riding the Train
Cars and Track
Railway People
End of Track
CANADIAN 256 R A I L
The fact that these chapter headings are not listed in a table
of contents is, I think, a weakness.
The book, Credit Valle~ Railway, is copiously illustrated with
photographs of the 1870s an 1880s, some, as one might expect, of
poor quality. The reviewer approves of including these poor photos
because of their obvious historic interest, but he does not condone
their production without captions. On page 78, there is an interest­
ing roster of Credit Valley Railway locomotives and what became of
them. An appendix lists all the features of the 185 miles of main
line, togeth~r with their elevations. The lack of a clear, large-
scale map is to be deplored. There is an 1875 map of southern Ontario
inside the covers of the book, but the choice of black print on dark
red, and the lack of clarity in the printing, often had this reviewer
scurrying for a modern, large-scale map of that part of Ontario.
How useful is Mr. Filbys book for the serious railway historian?
That is a hard question to answer. There is a complete bibliography
on page 106, but nowhere in the book is the reader referred by foot­
note or other device to a particular page in a particular volume. In
the opinion of this reviewer, it is not sufficient to make a state­
ment, such as the one on page 89, without a reference:
A series of reports from the Brampton Conservator
an extremely clear picture of the events which took
from the fall of 1381 until the fall of 1883 …
provide
place
A history, as this book claims to be, should give chapter and
verse to help the historian who follows on. Until the appearance of
Stevens history of the Canadian National Railway Company and Bertons
history of the construction of the Canadian P~cific Railway, this
lack of references was a major failing of works on the history of
the railways of Canada.
Furthermore, the bibliography in Credit Valley Railwa* is very
difficult to read because of the lack of lndentation and 0 any al­
phabetical arrangement. Incidentally, the railway buff might try to
spot what appears to be an error in arithmetic on page 76~ Or could
it be a simple typographical error?
To sum up, then: this reviewer is not certain of the value of
this history of the Credit Valley Railway as a piece of historical
research, but there is no doubt that it is a very readable, interest­
ing book, one that any person interested in Canadian railways might
well add to his library.
Credit Valle~ Railway: The Third Giant Filby, James
The Boston Mliis Press, Boston Mills, Ontario. 1974
107 pp.; soft cover; black-and-white photographs $ 3.95
:<;-~,;.
CANADIAN 257 R A I L
A LOOK INSIDE
VANCOUVER ISLAND RAILROADS
John E. Hoffmeister
t7; he railway scene throughout North America has been
~ documented adequately, in most areas, during the
last decade, with many fine hard-cover volumes on
major roil systems, short lines and logging roods,
not to mention electric lines. Books of regional in-
terest, too, have popped up, literally covering every­
thing that ever ran on and off rails in a particular
locale. So it is withVancouver Island Railroads, a
book written by Robert D. Turner, a planner with the
Government of British Columbia, resident in Victoria,
and a long-time devotee of Pacific Northwest railroads.
The volume is a well-balanced blend of both past and present
operations on Vancouver Island, where it has been estimated that, for
every mile of common-carrier trackage, well over 20 miles of logging
and mining railway were laid. Presently, Vancouver Island boosts the
extensive CP RAIL subsidiary, the Esquimalt and Nanaimoi a partially
dismembered branch of the Canadian National and three railways asso­
ciated with the lumber industry: the gigantic Canadian Forest Pro­
ducts complex at the northern end of the Island, and lesser o~era­
tions of Crown-Zellerbach and Western Forest Industries.
Several other industrial lines, entirely within the confines of
a mill yard, captivate the locomotive enthusiast. In recent years,
the distinction of operating the last steam-powered logging railroad
in North America belonged to MacMillan-Bloedel at Nanaimo River Camp. The
logger bowed out to trucks on December 1, 1969 and, more recently,
came the end of steam in regular switching service when, on October
9, 1973, the two-truck LIMA Shay Number 1 at the Crown-Zellerbach Elk
Falls Division relinquished her duties to a diesel.
Historically, Vancouver Island enjoyed the traditional versions
of Canadian branch-line operations and the international influence of
the west coast logging railroad, along with a single electric inter­
urban and streetcar system in and out of the capital city of Victoria.
Turner divides the volume into five sections, dealing with the
mining railroads, the Esquimalt & Nanaimo, the Canadian National, the
Saanich Peninsula railroads and the diverse loggers. Each section is
prefaced by an accurate map, with an abundance of good to excellent
photographs spacing the thoroughly researched text. Turners prose
is easy to read and will entice the interested reader to consult more
specialized sources of historical information. Extensive coverage of
the larger logging lines of Comox Logging and Railway Company, Cana­
dian Forest Products, British Columbia Forest Products and MacMillan­
Bloedel accent the general logging section. Many of the renowned Leo­
nard Frank photographs lend an historic touch to the book. Inside
and on the dust-jacket are reproductions of paintings by artist Har­
lan Hiney of California, inspired by a photograph by David Wilkie:
the subject, Canadian Notional Railways 2-8-0 Number 2141, with a
log train on Holt Creek trestle, west of Deerholme. Today, this en­
gine is preserved at Kamloops, British Columbia.
f
I
CANADIAN 258 R A I L
Throughout the book, one can read of the antique wanderings of
the long-defunct Victoria and Sidney Railway whose classic 2-6-0,Num­
ber 1, resembled something conjured up by the Virginia and Truckee,
in Nevada; the dimensions of the classic streetcar system which was
to become part of the British Columbia Electric Railway are detailed.
The battered and untidy (iron) workhorses of the Nanaimo and Cumber­
land coalfields are exposed, in addition to more 2-6-2s, 2-8-2s, Cli­
maxes, Shays and Heislers than you can shake a stick at.
The shortcomings of the book are minor. A roster of the regular
engines working the Esquimalt & Nanaimo and the Canadian Nationals
Island subdivision, with those of the major loggers, and a list of
the preserved equipment which, at one time, ran on the Island, would
enhance an otherwise complete and accurate first-time effort by a
promising young author. Mr. Turners future plans include the wri­
ting of an extensive volume on the steamship services of the Cana­
dian Pacific Railway Company on Canadas west coast.
VANCOUVER ISLAND RAILROADS Turner, R.D. 170 pp. 253 illus.
Golden West Books, San Marino, CA U.S.A. 1973 $ 14.95
The accompanying illustration was kindly supplied by Mr. Hoffmeister.
The year is 1903, as Train 4 of the Victoria & Sidney Railway, the
daily mixed which also worked the local business over the 16 miles,
arrives at Blanshard Street in Victorias north end. The engine,
Number 1, a 2-6-0, was built by CLC, Kingston,Ontario in 1893 (BIN
445). Number 1 was the main-stay of the motive power on the V&S,
being used more frequently than the three V&S 4-4-0s, which were
supplemented in later years by Number 290, a 4-4-0 leased from the
Great Northern Railway (USA), whose creature the V&S was until
the line was abandoned in 1919.
LORNE PERRY MADE THIS DRAWING FROH A PHOTOGRAPH OF CANADIAN NATIONAl
Rail …. ays Train 11, leaving St. Lombert, Quebec for Montreal, on 0
winters day oQout 1951. On the head_end …. as eN steall1 locomotive Num_
ber 6020. Larne mode the drawing in January 1973.
OELAWARE & HUDSON RAILWAY U-23-B NUMBER 1776, EX_NUMBER 2312, IN THE
second version of its Red, White and Blue point sche~e. as it emer_
ged from Colonie Shops on 31 March 1975. When this unit headed the
Preamble Express in the summer of 74, the point scheme was quite
different. Jim Shaughnossy took the photo on the date ~entianed.
..

Canadan Rail
is p.bIistIed monttiy by the
CMadian Raimad Historical Association
ROo Boa 22.StIItlon B,MontraaI.Oueboe.~HJ8 3J5
Editor; s.s.Worthen Production; p. MLwphy
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CAlCARY & SOUTH WESTERN
L..U .. i~, Socretary 1727 23rd. Aven … N.W. Colony. AIt,T2H
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