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Canadian Rail 271 1974

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Canadian Rail 271 1974

Canadian Rail
N
No.
Augu.st
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CP RAIJL9§
CONNAUGHT
J.A.Beatty
A
lthough the original line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway through Canadas Rocky Mountoins was pro­
bably best known for its precipitous 4.4% grade
eastbound from Field to Stephen, British Columbia,
the fabled Big Hill, no less arduous was the high
line originally built through Rogers Pass, between
Donald and Revelstoke, or Farwell as the latter
was originally called. Today, the climb up the west
side of the Beaver River valley, from Beavermouth to
Bear Creek is extremely difficult and the ascent on
the west slope between Revelstoke and Glacier lS not
much easier.
After a series of disasterous avalanches in Rogers Pass in
the early years of this century, which caused great property damage
and considerable loss of life, the Canadian Pacific determined to
eliminate the vulnerable portion of the railway through Rogers Pass.
From information since published in various journals, the
reader will already be aware of the means by which this hazardous
portion of railway was eliminated. It was decided to construct a
tunnel under the pass and the basic specifications for the bore which
was completed from Glacier to Bear Creek have been previously des­
cribed. The advantages gained over the Rogers Pass route included
.••• the climb was cut in hal f, the distance was shortened by four
and a third miles and curves, equal to seven circles, were done away
with.
During the period of construction of the tunnel, progress
reports were published in Canadian Pacific Railway Passenger Depart­
ment Bulletins of the day and these provide considerable detail not
elsewhere published.
At the outset, in May 1913, the proposed tunnel was de-
scribed in the above-mentioned publication as being a part of •• the
double-track work between Calgary and Vancouver. The contract for
NOT LONG AFTER THE CONNAUGHT TUNNEL WAS OPENED IN 1916, A PHOTOGRAPH­
er took this view of the west portal, near the new operating point of
Glacier. The view is shown on this months cover. The old high line
through Rogers Pass is visible on the mountain side at the right of
the picture, which is presented courtesy of Canadian Pacific Limited.
~ THE EAST PORTAL OF THE CONNAUGHT TUNNEL SHORTLY AFTER ITS OPENING
was no less impressive. Here, a double-headed passenger train from
the east climbs up the grade from Bear Creek, working towards the
summit near the westportal. Photo courtesy Canadian Pacific Limited.
CANADIAN 228 R A I L
the new tunnel was awarded in July 1913 and was expected to require
42 months for completion. At the same time, it was stated that ••••
trains will be operated through the tunnel by electricity instead of
by steam. Concepts of the latter half of the Twentieth Century were
thereby almost anticipated.
It was reported in January 1914 that the work was proceed­
ing as rapidly as possible, also that as the height of the mountain
through which the tunnel will pass precludes the sinking of vertical
shafts and so working simultaneously at various points, it has been
decided to bore a pioneer tunnel, 7 feet by 8, parallel to the route
of the main tunnel and to cross-cut at short intervals, so as to
enable several headings to be worked at once, and this pioneer tun­
nel will also assist ventilation of the main tunnel during construc­
tion. The main tunnel forms a very important part of the Companys
programme of double-tracking between Calgary and Vancouver.
During September 1914, the tunnel was described officially
as The Rogers Pass Tunnel, a name convenient rather than permanent.
By this time, the pioneer tunnel had been driven 3,440 feet from the
eastern portal (Bear Creek) and 380 feet from the western end (Gla­
cier). One wonders how machinery and supplies were lowered to the
tunnel adits from the railway, which, on both the east and west si­
des of Rogers Pass, ran some several hundred feet above the workings
on the mountainside.
Notwithstanding the rigors of weather and construction,
progress in May 1915 was described as splendid, the pioneer tunnel
having been completed 8,087 feet from the east entrance and 6,250
feet from the west. The east main heading was completed for 6,766
feet and the west main heading for 4,981 f~et. The ends of the pion­
eer tunnels were then only two miles apart~
At 11.30 a.m., on December 19, 1915, the pioneer tunnel
was completed through Mount Macdonald, the holing-through taking pl­
ace at a point 13,818 feet from the east portal and 12,582 feet
from the west portal. It was reported that the ceremony of firing
the connective shot was performed in the presence of a number of prom­
inent railway and business men, civil engineers and four intrepid la­
dies, two and one-half miles from either exit and 6,000 feet below
the surface. The climactic conditions in and under Rogers Pass at
this time of year can well be imagined and the attendants at this
historic ceremony are congratulated on their courage and determina­
tion.
On the same date, the shovels enlarging the tunnel to its
full size had advanced from the east 8,502 feet and from the west
7,500 feet, leaving only 10,398 feet of enlargement to be finished.
The decision to operate trains through the new tunnel with
steam power instead of electric engines required the installation of
a high-power ventilating plant to remove smoke and gases from the
tunnel. Steam locomotive exhaust removal would certainly be necessary
since the top of the 2% grade westbound was only a few hundred feet
inside the tunnel from the western portal. The ventilating machinery
was therefore provided at the up-grade or west portal, not to suck
air out of the tunnel, but to force air into it against the ascen­
ding trains, thereby blowing the exhaust gases back over the train.
This benefitted the engine crew but was a hardship for the train
crew. The ventilating fans were not used when eastbound or down-
grade trains entered the tunnel.
A duplicate plant was provided, consisting of two multi-
t
THIRTY FOUR YEARS LATER, THE WEST PORTAL HAD NOT CHANGED VERY MUCH.
The section-mens houses had been relocated, the arched entrance had ac
cumulated a little more soot and the semaphore signals were about
to give way to colour-light signals. The tank car which supplied oil
to power the McIntosh & Seymour engines was on the siding when this
picture ~~} taken on 9 August 1950. Photo CRHA E.A.Toohey Collection.
blade fans furnished by B.F.Sturdivant Company of Galt, Ontario.These
fans were 12 feet 3 inches in diameter by 8 feet 3 inches wide, capa­
ble of delivering together 700,000 cubic feet of free air per minute,
at a temperature of 70
0
F • They had 7/8-inch housings and two ring­
oiled, self-aligning bearings. The fans were powered by two 4-cylin­
der, 4-cycle, 500 hp. diesel engines manufactured by McIntosh and
Seymour of Auburn, New York, U.S.A. Each engine weighed 156,000 pou­
nds and operated at 190 rpm. McIntosh and Seymour of Auburn grew to
greater importance with the advent of the diesel-electric locomotive
in the 1940s and 50s, as many readers will be aware.
The diesel engines were directly connected to the fans and
to a three-stage air compressor, compressing to 850-900 pounds per
square inch and supplying air to two receivers of 11 cubic feet ca­
pacity each. This compressed air was used to start the diesels,which
~WITH A CLEAR BOARD, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY TRAIN 4, ENGINES NUMBERS
5468 and 5925 thunder through Glacier, towards the west portal of the
five-mile-long, double-tracked Connaught Tunnel on a bright, sunny
July 15, 1951. Photo CRHA E .A. Toohey Collection.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY TRAIN 14, ENGINES NUMBERS 5467 & 5935, NINE
box-baggage cars and seven coaches and sleepers rumble by the station
and wye at Glacier, B.C., towards the Connaught Tunnel. The famous
wye at Glacier achieved a unique status because the tail was in a tun­
nel in the mountainside.July 15, 1951Photo CRHA E.A.Toohey Collection.

CA NAD I AN 234 R A I L
Revilion of C.P,A . .II Roger. P.au. with Double T • .Itk. Flvc Mile Tunnft.
Hde~ on Prt~enl line from field. B.C.
frt!>tttf lme (S;ngle Track) —–­
Ntw L,ne (A>Jbft Jrr:.d)
P,orltu of Old :and N~w C.P.R. Line-.It AOIilHI P..III.
At A·A .. nd 8-8 th, double r-.ell Ilnt …. 1II b on tht MUJlt location In Ih .. prf-,(nt 8inl>l~
o,ck; the ,Jltf(l~n( In ..Ii~lnn;f1i Indlratc the t.!IVln. b,
tht new nc.
operated on a cylinder compression of 460 pounds per square inch.
An auxiliary air storage bottle holding 3 cubic feet was provided for
the injector equalizer.
The McIntosh and Seymour engines burned California crude
oil at the time they were used, which was the same kind of crude oil
as was used by the oil-burning steam locomotives of the Canadian Pa­
cific, between Field and Vancouver, British Columbia.
As the work on the new tunnel neared completion early in
July 1916, the tunnel was, for a brief period, renamed the Selkirk
Tunnel, after the mountain range which it pierced. The work of en­
larging the bore to its final full size for the double track was
completed throughout on July 6.
Adequate recognition of the magnitude of this great engin­
eering feat was generally absent at the time of its completion,since
Canada,the Commonwealth and Great Britain were totally involved in
the most. critical months of World War I. The completed project was
inspected on July 17, 1916 by His Royal Highness the Duke of Con-
lATRAIN 14 WITH SIXTEEN CARS CROSSES OVER TO THE EASTBOUND MAIN LINE –
~Iavoiding a work train on the westbound main, in the process -and
prepares to make the five-mile trip through the Connaught Tunnel on 15
July 1951. Photo CRHA E.A.Toohey Collection.
EXTRA WEST 5907 EMERGES INTO THE SUNLIGHT OF JULY 15, 1951 AT THE
west end (Glacier, B.C.) of the Connaught Tunnel. The freight used
the eastbound main line because a work train was occupying the west-
bound main. Photo CRHA E.A.Toohey Collection.
t
CANADIAN 235 R A I L
ON THE REAR END OF EXTRA 5907 WAS PUSHER ENGINE NUMBER 5901,EQUIPPED
with a pilot snowplow as late as 15 July 1951. The freight could not
have been a very long one, if it only required two 5900s to boost it
up the hill from Beavermouth, B.C. Photo CRHA E.A.Toohey Collection.
naught, Governor-General of Canada, on the occasion of his
to British Columbia.
journey
The Passenger Department Bulletins reported on September 1,
1916 that the Rogers Pass/Selkirk Tunnel had definitely been named
The Connaught Tunnel, with the kind permission of His Royal High­
ness.
Official operation of trains through the five-mile-long,
double-tracked Connaught Tunnel under Rogers Pass began on December
9, 1916. Four years later, the lining of the Big Hole was commen­
ced. Steel reinforced concrete in 22-foot-long sections was installed
at the rate of 132 feet in six days, using six sets of forms.
With the completion of the tunnel, the problems and hazards
of operation over the High Line through Rogers Pass, particularly
during the long, cold months of the Rocky Mountain winter, finally
were ended.
Afterword
To provide greater clearances for oversized boxcars and
trilevel auto transporter cars, Connaught Tunnel was single -tracked
early in November, 1958 and single-track operation began on the 11th.
of that month.
F~RTHE5T
NEIRTHI
Robert F. Legget
I
f, one day, you should chance to be perusing
a map of the very large part of the North
American continent which is identified as
Canada, you might just happen to notice that
there is a thin thread of railway line which
winds north from Edmonton in Alberta, towards
the Arctic Ocean. This thin line is intercept­
ed by a large inland body of water called
Great Slave Lake, long before it reaches the
shores of the northern ocean.
If the map is of sufficiently large scale, you will discover
that, just before the railway reaches the southern shore of Great
Slave Lake, it throws off a branch to the east, which also ter-
minates on the southern shore of the lake at the town of Pine
Point, Northwest Territories. The main line ends at Hay River.
These two points are, then, the end of standard-gauge railway
in Canadas north. Which of these two terminii is the farthest north
is difficult to say, f8r the COMINCO mine and air-strip at Pine
Point is located at 60 52 north latitude, while the town of Hay
River is described as being at 60
0
50-52 north latitude. Either
way, this is the most northerly point in North America reached by a
continuous line of standard-gauge railway but, as we shall see,this
has only been true since as recently as 1965.
Traditionally, access to this northwestern part of Canada was by
the great Mackenzie River system. The time and effort required
to transport goods to this northern region was somewhat diminished
by the construction in the Thirties of a branch of the Northern Al­
berta Railways to Waterways, Alberta, at the junction of the Clear­
water and Athabasca Rivers. Sternwheel steamboats or diesel-powered
tugs af the Hudsons Bay Company pushed loaded barges down the riv­
er to Lake Athabasca and onward to Fort Smith on the Slave River.
At Fort Smith, all of the freight for points farther north had
to be portaged around Pelican Rapids and loaded onto other barges
for the onward journey to Great Slave Lake and thence down the Mac­
Kenzie River to the Arctic coast. It is hard to realize that over
60,000 tons of freight were moved in this way during two short sum­
mer working seasons in the 1940s, for building the CANOL pipeline,
long since abandoned.
Transport to the north was improved in the 50s with the com­
pletion of an all-weather road from Grimshaw, Alberta, northward
across the 60th. parallel to Hay River at the western end of Great
Slave Lake. But the irresistable impetus for the construction of a
railway to this remote location was the discovery of a spectacular
deposit of lead-zinc ore at Pine Point, 55 miles east of Hay River.
What was urgently needed was 0 means of transport out to the re-
fineries of the south, but first, large amounts of machinery and
other materials had to be brought to the site to open the mine.
CANADIAN 237
c. N. 1<.. M .... i,., Line.
R A I L
/
/
/
?:
~
,~
)
Cle,.ro/,
;::.,r.
I
I
_L—–ri
—4 …. ::-£ OM ON TON
1IIIIIIIIIIIIilill Gt:J..F-AT SLAVE RAIL.VAY,
NOrl-h Ca..>Q..oi.:, jJaf,n … f R. … :/o.J<;JS.
o ro
~_I
NORTHWARD
TRAINS
r
CANADIAN 238 R A
d
~ ~
~t
~
.~~
::Ez
0.0
1.0
3.0
12.8
27
.1
45.3
55.3
69.1
84.1
109.7
128.3
138.0
159.0
181.0
182.9
~
E
:J
l
;.
3.0
181.0
t
Timetable No.3-April 25th, 1971
MANNING
SUBDIVISION
STATIONS
N.
A. Rly Jet.
_________ Z
————J~,. with N.A.
Rly.
1.0 ______
_______ ROMA JCT. _______ CKYZ
11.8
——.–
LEDDY
————-
14.3
DIXONVILLE
———–
~
18.2
DEADWOOD
———-.
~
10.0
– ——-
MANNING
—-.——-
13.8
0
HOTCHKISS
———–iD
15.n
1
HAWKHILLS
25.<
> KEMP RIVER
. ———
18.6
——–
KEG RIVER _____________
97
—–
PADDLE PRAIRIE
———
21.0
__________ METIS _______________
23.9
————
HIGH LEVEL _
______ BCYl
Rule I05A not applicilble.
Rules 32l to 323 ~ppli(;3ble.
~
~

.
u

0
Rear flag prolechon in accord.IIC/! with Rule 99 is nOI rcqui,ed.
Molin track commCllces at yard nor1h switch millage 1.6.
Rule lO~ applies bewelln nulcar:c5 0.0 and 1.6.
MANNING SUBDIVISION FOOTNOTES
>-
~
:i

~

~

iii
Yard
73
96
73
96
73
96
96
96
73
96
Yard
RULE MODIFICATIONS 2 SPEEDS
l.l TRAIN REGISTER MODIFICATIONS-2.1 Mileage
0.0 to 2.0 Zone 2.0
to 182.9 ZOne
L
SOUTHWARD
TRAINS
1
Miles per Hour
All
Movements
Roma
Jet.-Standard Clock and Bulletins only.
HiCh
Level-Bulletins only. 731 to 74.4 ____________________ _ 15
40
20
10
1.2 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS
APPLY­
SYSTEM 2: applicable on yard limit signs.
AREA A·I, k2 and A·3-on entire sub.
MANUAL BLOCK MS·l to MB-lS: applicable between
mileage 3.0 and mileage 181.0.
1.3 OTHER MODIFICATIONS-
SYSTEM Special Instructions 9(b), 9(e), 9(d). 9(e).
and lOeb) not applicable.
4
Sidings and Other tracks ____________ _
HOT BOX DETECTORS
Located at mileages 43.4, 76.0 and 137.1.
OTHER TRACKS
Mileage
Ballast Pit ________________ 10.0 Capac
ity
35 cars
10 cars Swanson lbr. Co. ltd. ______ 111.6
Pomts
Face
N S
S
5
To assist in the development of this orebody, the Government of
Canada decided to underwrite the cost of a railway, to be built 01-
most parallel to the highway between Grimshaw and Hoy River/Pine Po­
int. Construction of the line started in February 1962. The problems
which were encountered were unique, particularly since there was no
very large body of knowledge in Canada pertaining to railway con­
struction under these conditions and at these latitudes.
t
THE TRI-WEEKLY ORE CONCENTRATE TRAIN FROM PINE POINT MINES APPROACHES
the wye-Junction at Pine Junction, NWT., 8.2 miles south of Hoy River
on the Meander River Subdivision of the Great Slave Lake Railway. 81
covered gondola cars, mostly loaded with 100 tons of lead-zinc con­
centrates, are hauled by Canadian National Railways units Numbers
4345, 4352, 4349 and 4353. Photo courtesy R.F .Legget.
Nonetheless, the 60th. parallel of latitude was finally cros-
sed, with all due ceremony, on 29 August 1964 and the whole line
was in operation by mid-1965.
Muskeg and permafrost were the major terrain problems, but Can­
adian National Railways engineers, to whom construction of the line
had been delegated, soon become experts in overcoming such natural
di fficul ties. A CN-designed track-layer, humorously dubbed The
Pioneer, made the job of laying the ties and roils much simpler,
once the roadbed was complete. Forty-five construction contracts we­
re awarded, which included 41 river crossings requiring the building
of 34 bridges, the largest of which was one of 2,000 feet, spanning
the Meikle River volley. The totol cost of this unique 430-mile rail­
way was about $ 86 million.
Although Canadian National Railways hod been given the respon­
sibility of constructing and operating the Great Slave Lake Railway,
the question af the route to be followed was hotly debated prior to
its selection. On the one hand, the Northern Alberto Railways line
could be extended from Waterways, parallelling the Athabasca River.
On the other hand, on entirely new line connecting with the NARs
existing main track in the Peace River country, 400 miles further
west, could have been selected. Indeed, this latter route was adopt­
ed, thus avoiding the necessity of building a large bridge over the
Athabasca River. Moreover, the highway which hod already been built
in this area simplified the logistics problem. During the construc­
tion period, a small CN diesel switcher was token north by rood so
that construction could be carried on at the north and south ends of
the line, simultaneously.
. ~ :>.:; )
.-…. -…
CANADIAN 240 R A I L
The new railway turned north from a junction with the main line
of the Northern Alberta Railways to Hines Creek at Roma, a settle­ment
just to the west of the town of Peace River, Alberta. It was
located almost due north for 377 miles to the town of Hay River on
Great Slave Lake. Seven miles south of Hay River, a branchline was
built 54.3 miles eastward to the mine and settlement of Pine Point,
on the south shore of the same lake. Thus, at one and the same time,
transportation was provided for general merchandise moving north by
rail and barge and ore concentrates moving south by rail to the
smelters.
When the railway was completed, it was rather austere and pos­
sessed only those amenities essential to its efficient operation.It
was single-track throughout, except for occasional necessary passing
tracks. Although the number of timetable locations has increased
during the eight years of operotion, at first they were few, s~nce
there were no real settlements along the length of the line. Much
to the satisfaction of the citizens of these northern districts,
whenever possible, Canadian National Railways hired men living
the region and especially trained them for operating crews for
in
the new
railway.
Traffic on the Great Slave Railway
since the line was completed. Three ore
has increased considerably
trains of up to 100 cars
WESTWARD
TRAINS
I
54.3
50.3
49.0
34.3
16.6
I.B
1.4
0.0
49.0
Timetable No.3-April 25th, 1 ~71
PINE POINT
SUBDIVISION
STATIONS
_____
____ PINE POINT MINES _______ Z
4.0
jU4t 17.7
~~~ … ——Bll~.~H _____________ c
~-~ -~ -{-::::: _ ~:l~:~~~N~ _::::::::: ~~_
1.4 __ . ___ PINE JCT. __________ YZ
t Jet. wIth Meander River Sub.
Rule I05A not applicable.
Rules 321 to JZ3 apphc .
~
in
~
u
0
Rcar lIag p(o~chon In accordance wi1h Rule 99 Is nOI required.
PINE POINT SUBDIVISION FOOTNOTES
~
·iJ
~
0
~
u
2

VI
Yard
Yard
55
55
EASTWARD
TRAINS
1
RULE MODIFICATIONS 3 PUBLIC CROSSING AT GRADE
1.1 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS APPl Y­
SYSTEM 2: applicable on yard limit signs.
AREA A·l. A·2 and A·3-on entire sub.
MANUAL BLOCK MS·! to MS· IS: applicable between
mileage 1.4 and mileage 49.0.
1.2 OTHER MODIFICATION5-
2
RULE Ill-Westward trains handling are from Pine
Point Mines must stop for standing inspection at
Mellor.
SYSTEM Special I
nstructions 9{b), 9{c), 9{d), 9{e)
and lO(b) not applicable.
SPEEDS
2.1 Mileage
0.0 to 54:3 Zone Miles
per Hour
All Movements
40
Sidings and Other tracks ____________ _
10
3.1 Mileage O.S-automatically protected.
Movements over the crossing from the north leg of the
wye Pine Jet. must not obstruct the crossing until
automatic protection has been in operation tor at least
25 seconds,
4 HOT BOX DETECTOR
located at mileage 9.7.
L-______________________________________________________________ _
7
t
A MOVE, NOT WHAT IT APPEARS TO BE, ON THE GREAT SLAVE LAKE RAILWAY.
The unit Number 4147 off the main-line train is moved in reverse by
the Hay River switcher, Number 1280, pushing its caboose. The object
of the exercise is to push Number 4147 to the small engine maintenan-
ce shed at Hay River, NWT. Photo courtesy R.F.Legget.
each, carrying as much as 10,000 tons of concentrates, normally
leave Pine Point every week for the south, with trains of empties
returning north on alternate days. Motive power for these trains
is usually CN 4100 or 4300-series diesel-electric locomotives, run­
ning in multiple.
More recently, the search for oil along Canadas Arctic coast
has resulted in increased traffic on the Great Slave Lake Railway.
Moving by rail to Hay River, shipments are loaded onto large steel
barges for the journey down the Mackenzie River by the Northern Tr­
ansportation Company. Gas and petroleum finds on the Arctic coast
make the possibility of major oil pipelines almost a certainty. In
the scant four-month summer 72 navigation season on the Mackenzie,
almost 400,000 tons of freight were moved by rail and river barge,
although some of it came to Hay River by road.
An examination of the accompanying map will reveal that either
Hay River or Pine Point is the northern end of steel for the whole
North American standard-gauge system. A look at one of the accompany­
ing pictures will give the reader a closer view of the northern end
of track in the yard at Hay River, mile 380.0 from Roma Junction,
Alberta. Two tank cars were occupying this unique piece of railway
at the time the picture was taken.
When the information for this article was being collected, the
southbound ore train from Pine Point took the east-to-north leg of
the wye at Pine Junction and proceeded to the freight yard at Hay
River. Here, southbound empties from the Hay River dock were cou­
pled into the train and it departed with four units and 116 cars,80
of which were loads of ore concentrates. A diesel yard switcher was
assigned to Hay River for shunting and general service duties and

6
NORTHWARD
TRAINS
I
CANADIAN 243 R A
182.9
184.2
201.2
223.0
240.8
258.6
271.8
291.3
311.2
330.9
349.7
367.3
368.8
377.0
184.5
367.3
I
Timetable No.3-April 25th, 1971
MEANDER RIVER
SUBDIVISION
STATIONS
____________ HIGH
LEVEL _______ 8CYZ
18.3
r
——-HUTCH LAKE —-… —–
21.8 _____ MEANDER
RIVER ________ _
17.8 E ____
SLAVEY CREEK _________ _
;
—–.. —L~i~SE————
:-
::c
g
1——-STEE1~.~IVER ———–______ INDIAN CABINS __ .. ______ _
19.9
______ GRUMBLER __________ _
19.7 ____ ALEXANDRA
FALLS _______ _
18.8
.. ______ ENTERPRISE __________ _
19.1 _______ . PINE JCT
… _________ YZ
Jet. with PII,e Point Sub.
8.2
_____________ HAY RIVER __________ OZ
Rule I05A not applicable.
Rules 321 (0 323 applicable
I .
~
.>
Reilr flag protectIOn In accordance with Rule 99 is not required.
Main track ends at yard SWitch mllcilge 375.8.
nule 105 applies between mileages 375.8 and 377.0.
Yard
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
Yard
L
SOUTHWARD
TRAINS
1
r———–~————————————~———.. —
MEANDER RIVER SUBDIVISION FOOTNOTES
RULE MODIFICATIONS
1.1 TRAIN REGISTER MODIFICATIONS­
High Level-Bulletins only
Hay River-Bulletins only
1.2 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS APPLY­
SYSTEM 2: applicable on yard limit sIgns.
AREA k 1, A-2 and A·3-on entile sub.
~~~a~:ll:k~C~n~~fe~~e M3B6~~. applicable between
1.3 OTHER MODIFICATIONS-
;~~Tf~b~P~~~JaJ;;J~~~bti~ns 9(b). g(e). 9(d), gee).
2 SPEEDS
2.1 Mileage
182.9 to 377.0 Zone
Miles per Hour
All Movements
40
Sidings and Other tracks ______________ _
10
3 PUBLIC CROSSING AT GRADE
3.1 Mileage 350.2-Automatlcadly protected.
Movements over the crossing from sidinc: Enterprise
~ust not obstruct the crossing until automatic protec·
tlOn has been in
operatlon for at least 25 seconds.
Automatic protection may be started by occupying the
main track immediately south of the crossing or by
operating start key located on the instrument case.
4 HOT BOX DETECTORS
Located at Mileages 233.3, 294.3 and 350.4.
OTHER TRACKS
Points
Mileage Capacity
face
Imperial lbr. Co. Ltd. _____ 214.3 13 cars S
Ballast Pit _______________ 226.0
40 cars S
Spur ____________________ 300.0
15 cars N
REPAIRS ARE SOMETIMES MADE WITHOUT THE LUXURY OF A BACKSHOP~ UNIT
Number 4147 has the tyre on the right front wheel repaired by hand­
welding, the welder being barely visible behind the pilot. The wel­
ding generator is behind the unit, while the ore concentrate train
in the background waits for cars from Hay River to be added to the
consist. Photo courtesy R.F.Legget.
t
FARTHEST NORTH ON THE STANDARD GAUGE IN CANADA? THE REAL END OF
steel -Mile 377.0 from Northern Alberto Railways at Roma Junction,
Alberta, via the Great Slave Lake Railway. Two tank cars stand on
one of the several sidings at the north end of the railways exten­
sive yards around the loading wharves at Hay River, North West Ter­
ritories, on the south shore of Great Slave Lake. A rail tie across
the siding at the extreme right of the picture marks the actual end
of the railway in Canadas north, the true end of continuous standard-
gauge railway in North America. Photo courtesy R.F.Legget.
a one-stall shed was available for its off-duty storage and
tenance.
main-
The GSL railway 1S operated as the Great Slave Lake Branch of
the Mountain Region, Canadian National Railways. In the Employees
Operating Timetable No.3 of 25 April 1971, the Branch was divi­
ded into three subdivisions: the Manning Subdivision from N.A.Rail­
way Junction to High Level, Alberta, 182.9 miles; the Meander RIver
Subdivision from High Level to Hay River, Northwest Territories,
194.1 miles and the Pine Point Subdivision from Pine Junction to
Pine Point Mines, NWT, 54.3 miles.
Maximum train speed on all subdivisions was 40 mph. and hot-box
detectors were installed at mileages 43.4, 76.0, 137.1, 233.3, 294.3
and 350.4 on the main line and mile 9.7 on the Pine Point Subdivis­
ion.
A small amount of freight is still moved through Waterways, for
developments on Lake Athabasca, but its one-time importance as a main
route north has been completely pre-empted by the Great Slave Lake
Branch. This change of route to the north is accentuated by the new
$ 10 million synchronously-operated drydock system, recently com­
pleted by the Northern Transportation Company at Hay River, in an­
ticipation of the future potential of this inland port.
When gas and petroleum pipelines are built, it is inevitable
that a large part of the necessary materiel will come down north
on the Great Slave Lake Railway. Prospecting for mineral deposits,
proceeding simultaneously with oil and gas exploration, will pos­
sibly discover additional mineral resources around and to the north
of Great Slave Lake. If this happens, the GSLR might one day be ex­
tended, but only to aid such major mining developments, since it is
entirely improbable that any other industrial developments will
ever be established in the valley of the mighty Mackenzie, seventh
long~st river of the world.
HIGH LEVEL, ALBERTA, ON THE WAY NORTH TO HAY RIVER AND PINE POINT,
North West Territories, is a thriving centre, with a saw mill and
three grain elevatois. Photo courtesy Canadian National Railways.
WHENEVER POSSIBLE, OPERATING PERSONNEL FOR THE GREAT SLAVE LAKE RAIL­
way were chosen from among Canadians resident in the areas through
which the railway passes. UHF radio plays an important part in daily
train operation. Photo courtesy Canadian National Railways.
BOOK REVIEW
reviewed by
Christopher A. Andreae
A
mong the books about railway::; recently
published in England is RAILWAYS OF
CANADA, written by Hr. O.S.Nock, a ra­
ilway enthusiast and author familiar
to many of us as one of the best known
writers on the railways of the United
Kin g d 0 man d , in dee d , the w 0 r 1 d. __
The title, RAILWAYS OF CANADA, the size of the work -335 pag-
es -and the price in the U.K. (£ 7) would lead one to think that
this is a comprehensive survey of the Canadian railway network.
Alas, this is not quite true. The book is based, apparently, on the
author 5 one railway only trip to Canada, with information obtain­
ed from books on the subject, and some personal interviews, liberal­
ly interpolated.
One might draw the obvious comparison of a Canadian writer
about railways who travelled to the United Kingdom, rode the former
Great Western main line to Bristol, managed a trip in the cab of
the locomotive on the Flying Scotsman to Edinburgh -with a side­
trip to Oban -visited the railway museum at York and, on his return
to London, made a diversion to visit the Festiniog Railway -and then
came home to write a book on the railways of Great Britain.
In reality, Hr. Nocks new book is very like one of the Rail­
way Iioliday ••• series published in England several years ago. ~ir.
Nock describes most of the railways in Canada that a tourist might
plan to see. Considering the readership at which the book is aimed,
this is a correct approach. The railways~ history, however, has
been reported minimally, as has any railway in Canada that Mr. Nock
did not personally inspect.
Among the subjects -in the reviewers opinion most notable
which Mr. Nocks book does not describe, are the Newfoundland rail­
ways; most of the railways in Ontario, including the Toronto, Ham­
ilton and Buffalo and the bridge-lines from the United States;rail-
ways of the Maritime Provinces -except for a brief glance at the
Intercolonial Railway -and the White Pass and Yukon Raute, the
pride and joy of narrow-gauge enthusiasts everywhere.
What Mr. Nock does describe, quite disproportionately to its
importance, 1s the Canadian Pacific Railway. Surely this is a fail­
ing shared by all overseas enthusiasts, who are completely transport­
ed, as it were -justifiably perhaps~ by the romance of the CPR, but
are thereby blinded to the fact that there are other equally if not
more important aspects and representatives of the Canadian railway
CANADIAN 247 R A I L
scene. The splendid history and world-wide renown of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, a result of the Companys many achievements
and a hard-working Public Relations Department, naturally have made
CPR Canadas best known railway. But the writers on railways and the
enthusiast visitors are regretfully depriving themselves of interest­
ing experiences and information by concentrating so closely on a
single aspect of a complex subject.
As previously noted, there is very little about the history of
Canadas railways in Mr. Nocks book. Perhaps this aspect was beyond
the scope of the work, but its inclusion would have rounded and com­
pleted the story.
Sad to relate, what history is included has been presented in a
most haphazard manner, making it difficult to grasp the historical
development of Canadian rail lines. The story of the Canadian Nor­
thern Railway and the National Transcontinental-Grand Trunk Pacific
Railway are discussed simultaneously in three pages (pp. 37-39) ,
with numerous references and comparisons with the Canadian Pacific,
producing a,most confusing impression in the mind of the reader.
This is the reviewers first reading of a book by Mr. O.S.Nock.
The style, to him, is disappointing. It is a rambling dialogue con­
taining large portions of unnecessary text. The following passage,
written as a post-scriptum to a cab-ride in a CPR locomotive on the
Canadian, might well have been deleted:
For the next three hours I enjoyed the luxury
of the train, watching the fascinating country­
side roll by from the privacy of my sitting
room; sampling what another railway scribe once
called the grosser pleasures of the dining car;
and then, after lunch, up to the dome at the rear
where I found that many of the sightseers had
dozed off~ (p.207)
The axioms about citing passages out of context of course apply.
A very English propensity in which Mr. Nock indulges is that of
train-timing and discussion of gradients and their effects on speed.
To a limited extent, the North American reader will be interested in
accounts of the speeds at which trains travel at various points in
Canada, but he must assimilate example after example of:
I saw Whitemouth and Molson, and noted that the
15 3/4 miles between them took only 13 minutes
and that the 87 3/4 miles from Kenora had taken
only 96 minutes fro~ the restart. (p. 213)
As for the grades, Mr. Nock certainly did his homework. Appar­
ently there was not a single section of track of which he could not
say, as in the case of the Quebec, North Shore and Labrador Railway:
I was to see for myself how the rugged country
had favoured the laying out of a route that had
a gradient of no more than 1:250 against loaded
southbound trains. (p. 121)
But as with train speeds, the importance of such statements tends
to elude the reader, whose mind is replete with mental images of much
vaster proportions.
For the edification of English readers, Mr. Nock indulges in
continuous comparisons of Canadian landscapes, ~eography and rolling
CANADIAN 248 R A I L
stock with their British counterparts. To most Canadian readers,
such comparisons have no meaning:
We were nearing Jack Fish Bay, and here the railway
performs a perfect horseshoe convolution. Imagine
the famous Horseshoe Bend of the West Highland
Railway, beneath Beinn Dorain, in Argyllshire, but
instead of making a circuit of an almost waterless
glen, to encircle on three sides a blue, mirror-like
inlet of the sea, running for much of the circuit
on rocky ledges cut in iron cliffs descending
sheer into the water.
Then, there are a few amusing -albeit strained -comparisons
between British and Canadian steam locomotives. There is no real
reason to commingle Canadian National Railways Number 6000 – a
4-8-2 of 275 tons weight -with Number 6000, a 4-6-0 ex-GWR of Bri-
tish Railways, weighing but 135 tons, except that they bore the
same number~
Having now been unmercifully critical, the reviewer ought to
admit that there are several very praiseworthy aspects of Mr. Nocks
book. The readers eye will be caught at once by the excellent
paintings of Mr. Jack Hill, whose reputation and experience is un­
fortunately not described either on the dust-jacket or in the intro­
duction. Mr. Hills paintings are well-done and accurate represen­
tations of scenes on Canadas railways, yesterday and today, and
one can only hope that they may be made available at a later date .
as individual -and perhaps larger -colour reproductions.
Mr. Nocks text is well illustrated by an additional 108 black­
and-white photographs and about 17 maps and plans.
Although there may not be a wealth of new material for the well­
informed Canadian railway enthusiast in ~lr. Nocks RAILWAYS OF CAN­
ADA -apart from the descriptions of the Quebec, North Shore and
Labrador Railway and the Carol Lake automated project -he may en­
joy the recitation of known information from an alternate point of
view. However, neither of the two railways referred to above have
been adequately treated in Canadian enthusiast publications and Mr.
Nocks first-hand account of their operation is quite fascinating.
Mr. Nocks career in business in England has been that of a
railway signalling engineer and it is therefore not surprising that
he consecrates more than a few pages of his book to this subject.
His appreciation of Canadian railway signalling equipment and its
operation is very informative and factual and should be required
reading for anyone not familiar with this subject.
To the gratification of the various railway museums in Canada,
Mr. Nock is very generous in his praise of those that he was able
to visit. The Canadian Railway Museum at Saint Constant, Qu~bec, and
the Prairie Dog Central Railway of the Vintage Locomotive Society of
Winnipeg, Manitoba, ought to be eternally grateful.
If an adjustment of the price of Mr. Nocks book for the Can­
adian market can be effected, it will ~ake RAILWAYS OF CANADA a val-
usble addition to ones library. Despite the alleged omissions in
RAILWAYS OF CANADA, what the author does say about Canadas railways
is generally correct and generously laudable.
RAILWAYS OF CANADA
Adam & Charles Black
Nock, O.S. 335 pp.; colour plates,108 photos
London, England 1973 £ 7.0.0
August 1974
CP RAIL AND CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS, LONGTIME COMPETITORS FOR THE
lucrative newsprint traffic from Canadian paper mills to
customers in the United States, are at it again~ A few
years ago, INCAN Marine Limited was jointly established by CP RAIL
and Inchcape and Company Limited, the latter a United Kingdom com­
pany with worldwide marine interests. Early in 1974, INCAN proposed
to inaugurate a rail-barge service for freight cars and truck trail­
ers on Lake Superior, between Thunder Bay, Ontario and Superior, Wis­
consin. The vessel to be used in this service is being built by Bur­
rard Dry Dock Limited of Vancouver, B.C., and will have a capacity of
31 railway cars or about 45 truck trailers, or a combination of both,
and can cruise at 14 knots.
The purpose of this new service is to reduce CP RAILs dis­
advantage in moving pulp and paper products from the Thunder Bay
area to the central United States. CP RAIL hitherto has had to route
its newsprint traffic via Emerson, Manitoba, 115 more miles than CN s
route via Fort Francis, Ontario and the Duluth, Winnipeg & Pacific
to Duluth Minnesota.
In Quebec, INCAN has a similar project under consideration,
by which it will ferry boxcars of paper from Baie Comeau to Quebec
City starting in 1975. The Quebec North Shore Paper Company at Baie
Comeau produced over 510,000 tons of newsprint in 1973, all of which
moved to the New York market by ship. The proposed INCAN ferry would
handle about 26 boxcars per trip.
Canadian National, without doubt considering a similar op-
eration, could dock car-ferries at Rimouski and reach their main
line at Matane, over the Canada and Gulf Terminal Railway.
Who knows? Maybe newsprint unit-trains will be running on
the Canada & Gulf Terminal and the CNR -and CP RAIL -before the end
of 1975.
John D. Welsh.
-CLIMAX 2T GEARED LOCOMOTIVE NUMBER 2, FORMERLY SHAWNIGAN LAKE LUM­
ber Company Number 2, owned until recently by Mr. Gran­
ger Taylor of Duncan, Vancouver Island, British Columbia,
has been purchased by the Government of British Columbia and may be
transferred to the Provincial Museum, Victoria, to join British Col­
umbia Electric Railway Birney Car 400 (see CANADIAN RAIL, February,
1974, page 53).
Number 2 was built in 1910 (BIN 1057) as Number 1 of
the Channel Logging Company, Cowichan, V.I., B.C. Later, she was owned by
the Sahtlam Lake Lumber Company and was purchased from the
Shawnigan Lake Lumber Company by Mr. Taylor in 1969.
A TRIO OF COMINGS AND GOINGS: PIERRE PATENAUDE SENDS US THREE PIC-
tures of late 73 aspects of the railway scene in La Belle
Province. In Number 1, Canadian National Railways GP 9 Number 4287
in the old paint-scheme doubles with Precision National
CA NAD IAN 250 R A I L
Corporations GP 10 Number 3445 at Montreal Yard, 17 November 1973.
In Number 2, CN Troin 419 comes west from Gorneau, Quebec,
with C-424 No. 3208, C&O GP 9 No. 6054 and R5 18 No. 3101 on the
point. On the right, CN Train 428 is heading for Garneau with CN R5
18 No. 3658, C&O GP 9 No. 6178 ond eN R5 18 No. 3728. The picture
wos taken at Pointe-oux-Trembles, Quebec, on 3 November 1973.
Pierres third photograph is of eN transfer freight Train
7091 with eN GP 38-2 Number 5517, C-424 Number 3232 and idling 5-4
Number 8078 ot Pointe-oux-Trembles, Quebec.
CANADIAN 2 5 1 R A I L
-CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS FREIGHT SERVICE FROM COWICHAN BAY TO
Youbou on Vancouver Island was suspended late in January
1974, when the car-barge slip at Cowichan Bay was closed
for rebuilding. CN G-12 class unit Number 991 departed via car-barge
for the Point Ellice yard at Victoria, where sister unit Number 992
was working. The British Columbia Forest Products mill at Youbou managed
to function without rail transportation until about May 1,
when the car-ferry slip was repaired and Number 991 was brought back
from Victoria.
There is the possibility that a log-hauling operation
may be resumed south of Deerholm, as CNs new superintendent in Van­
couver thinks that CN can re-open discontinued operations on Vancou­
ver Island and thereby realize an operating profit.
John E. Hoffmeister.
-ANOTHER OF CP RAILS VANCOUVER ISLAND BALDWINS WAS DAMAGED ON FEB­
ruary 20, 1974, when Train 52, with heavy tonnage, pow­
ered by units Numbers 8531, 8613 and 8005, went on the
ground at Mile 66.8 of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo, not far south of the
location of the accident of June 1973. Trailing unit Number 8005
suffered moderate damage, was re-railed and subsequently sent to
Ogden Shops, Calgary, Alberta, for repairs. Here, she joined Number
8003, being examined for crankshaft problems.
Number 8003 was repaired using the prime mover from
Number 8005 and was again in service by May 10. Number 8005 was
scrapped in May 1974 at Ogden Shops, Calgary.
Units Numbers 8006, 8007, 8008 and 8011, involved in the
wreck of June 12, 1973, were sold in May 1974 to John Gorosh, a Na-
naimo scrap-dealer.
This, alas~ leaves the score seven units still in ser-
vice (Numbers 8000, 8001, 8002, 8003, 8004, 8009 amd 8010) versus
six units scrapped (Numbers 8005, 8006, 8007, 8008, 8011 and 8012).
John Hoffmeister, who sends this information, also in­
cluded two photos. In the first, Extra 8000 south slows to 10 mph on
Jayem Hill at Superior Road, Mile 83. The Hill is the ruling grade
southbound between Parksville and Nanaimo.(May 23, 1973)
In the second scene, Extra 8661 north to Port Alberni
charges past Extra 8000 south at Wellington. The Port Man is a ra­
ther light 17 cars; it is usually about 30 cars in length.
-GORDON TAYLOR OF LAKESIDE, ONTARIO, HAS BEEN TRAIN-WATCHING RECENT­
ly and writes to say that CP RAIL M-640 Number 4744 has
been running regularly (May 20) in the area, mainly as
a trailing unit. PRENCO leased unit Number 900 continues to appear
in a somewhat untidy condition, with ALCO painted out and PNC added
CANADIAN 252 R A I L
on sides and front, the overall colour scheme being block.
Gordon says that at Komoka, the crossing-at-grade be-
tween CN and CP RAIL 10 miles west of London, Ontaria, all kinds of
power can be seen, including CN RDC Railiners and GO TRANSIT GP
40-2 units, the latter running in a power pool with CN.
In the first photo, CNR RDC Railiners polish the double
track on the eastbound passenger Train 158 from Sarnia, Ontario.
GO TRANSIT Number 9810 is the third unit on a CN freight
westbound on the double-track, in Gordons second picture.
In CP RAILs diesel servicing area at London, Ontario,
hood Number 4040 and low-nose Number 5537 await assignment.
In Gordons fourth picture, CP RAIL RS 10 Number 8589
leads an unidentified RS 3 and on FB 2 down the single track with
eighty-odd cars.
By way of contrast, CN Number 4535 brings home a box
car and a high-end wood flat -and the van -on a local freight.
CANADIAN 253 R A I L
-FROM MONCTON, NEW BRUNSWICK, OUR MEMBER MR. WENDELL LEMON, SENDS
us a selection of photographs of railway doings in Monc­
ton and central New Brunswick. At Moncton on December
8,1973, Canadian National Railways Train 14, the Ocean, with
units Numbers 6521, 6628 and 6760 on the head-end, paused for pas-
sengers. The total mileage run up by these units on this date was
8.4 million miles. A couple of months before, Mr. Lemon photographed
CN Mr-14a class, Number 1803, at the Moncton Diesel Shop on October
19, 1973.
On May 26, 1972, Mr. Lemon discovered CN Train 726, Cen­
treville to Saint John, New Brunswick, operating by trackage rights
on CP RAIL at Burtts Corners, N.B., with units Numbers 1704, 1712 and
1713 on the point. CN Trains 726-725, Saint John-Centreville and
return, use CP RAIL trackage between South Devon and Valley, 1.9 miles
south of Woodstock, a distance of 65.1 miles. The CP RAIL multimarked
caboose was on CP RAIL Train 79, which had stopped to register at
CANADIAN 254 R A I L
Southampton, junction with the Southampton Subdivision, Mile 22.0 of
the Gibson Subdivision.
-THE SUMMERTIME TOURIST LINE, VICTORIA PACIFIC RAILWAY, OF VICTORIA,
British Columbia, was negotiating with CP RAIL in May
1974 for trackage rights over CP RAILs Victoria-Shaw­
nigan Lake line on Vancouver Island. For the past two summers, repor­
ted the Victoria EXPRESS, the Victoria Pacific Railway has used part
of Canadian Notionals Victoria Shawnigan Lake line, but CN wanted to
terminate the arrangement.
If on agreement with CP RAIl can be concluded, the Vic-
CA NADIA,~
55 R A I L.
torio Pacific would gain 0 ter~inol in Victoria and would benefit fro~
the highly scenic Halo hot Route of CP RAIL, north to Shownigon Lake,
which offers spectacular views of Arbutus Canyon and Niagora Canyon
in Goldstream Provincial Pork.
The accoMpanying picture of Victoria Pacific s Nu~ber
2, a 2_8_2, is reproduced with the kind perMission of the EXPRESS.
THE ICE CAPADES SPECIAL FROH HONTREAL TO HECHANICVILLE, NEW YORK,
on April 2, 1974, via the Oelaware &. Hudson Railway frail
Rouses Point, NY, came south powered by Providence and W
orcester Railroads two new H_420R MLW Industries units Numbers 2001
&. 2002. The two units, classed as HRS-200 by the P&W, took
Boston &. Maine freight Train TC 100 east to Gardiner, Massachusetts.
Jim Shaughnessy photographed the two Canadian-built units at Mechanic­
ville yard anid a sprinkling of B&M power.
~ WHEN YOU TURN THE PAGE, YOU WILL SEE WENDELL LEHONS PHOTOGRAPH OF
Conodion Pacific Railways unit Number 22, a side_rodded class HS_5d, a Model
DT2 built by the Canadian Locomotive COMpany, Kingston, On­
tario, in Hoy 1960. Nu~ber 22 was used as the locol CP RAIL switcher
in Chipman, New Brunswick, on Hoy 21, 1972. While CP RAIL crews COMe
aver frail Hinto every second dar to work the yard, all tonnage leaves
and arrives by Canadian Nationa roils, since the CP RAIL bridge into
Chipman hal been condellned. NUMber 22 arrived at Chipman in Horch
1972 and is still doing local work there.
Canadian Rail
is ptbIished monthly by the
Ca-ladian Railroad Historical Association
p.o. Boo: 22,Stat1on B.MontINII,Quebec,c…wH38 3J5
Editor;S.S.Worthen Production; P. Murphy
AssociatiOn B~hes
CALGARy & SOUTH WESTERN
L.I1.Unwin, Secretary 1727 23rd. Avenue N.W. Co10ly, Alto, T2tI
OTTAWA
W.R.Lnl.y,S.er.tory P.O.llox 14I,Station
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Ottowa,Conado

PACIFIC COAST
M,H.l1ey,, Seer.tory P.D.llo)( lOO6,Stot!Q
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Voneouvor,B.C.V6C

ROCKY I1OUNU.I~
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TORONTO 4 YORI< DIVISION
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Taronto,Ont.H5W

Association Representatiyes
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