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Canadian Rail 244 1972

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Canadian Rail 244 1972


1938·1978
40l.h annlvertlary
::Iil <>. 2;..::1. -4
Dl.A.V 1972

Bernard. ViTilkinson lB. Se.
!r
~ WENTY -FIVE YEARS – A QUARTER-CENTURY –
is not a long time 1n the total history
~ of the raihtays of North America. Since
the first Canadian freight train puf-
fed out of Laprairie,heading for St.
Johns, Quebec, late in 1836,almost six
quarter-centuries have elapsed, each one
notable for some phase of railway tech­
nological development.
Quite logically, the last quarter-century has produced
more dynamic and dramatic changes in freight car design than any
such previous period. These years have produced such a massive and
revolutionary change that it makes all previous progress in freight
car design pale in comparison.
THenty-five years ago, the railways of North America offered po­
tential shippers four basic types of car for carrying freight. These
were the box car, the flat car, the gondola car and the open hopper
car. The box car vias the general ,iOrkhorse of the railway and was
used for all types of commodities that required protection from the
weather. Its place in the economic life of North American transpor­
tation is legendary. In the middle 1940s,not much thought was given
to making a particular car for the use of a particular shipper. The
railways were vastly overworked and -Iere relatively unable to build
anything other than the four basic types, since these cars could car­
ry such a great variety of products. Consequently, there was little
or no sense in expending precious time and money on unnecessary con­
struction.
There were some semi-specialized cars, such as tank and refrig­
erator types, but these formed only a small part of the total fleet.
During World War II, as might have been anticipated, the raih,ays
-Iatched their freight car fleets deteriorate badly, because of the
magnitude of the wartime emergency traffic offered and the lack of
AS A DEMONSTRATION OF WHAT A MODERN RAILWAY CAN DO WITH A NEW FREIGHT
car design,the cover picture shows a CP RAIL freight with trilevel
after trilevel of automobiles,in the valley of the Kicking Horse Ri­
ver,British Columbia (1959). Photo courtesy Canadian Pacific.
The 40-ton,4o-foot general purpose boxcar,shown on the inside of the
front ~over,was built by the National Steel Car Corporation fo~ the
Ontario Northland Railway in 1947. This was one of the basic car types
twenty-fivB years ago. Photo courtesy National Steel Car Corporation.
CANADIAN
144
R A I L
time fOl esser.tial mainter.ar.ce. The term:i.nati.on of the Hal found
mar.y raihray companies Hi tl1 badly vforn-out fleets of rolling stock
and a great period of car rebuilding and neH car building follo>/ed.
Except for a minot bUSiness recession in the 50s,thc t;er.erally pre­
vailing economic cOl:ditions proviciec1 a more favouraolc climate fOl
,:ailway freii::J1t business. Coupled viith this, railway r.1:magement began
to adopt a more aggressive freight sales policy.
In order to regain lost business and to capture
r.el· opportur.ities,this dynamic freight sales
policy necessitated a customer-oriented se.rvi.ce
and -more important to tile freight car c1esigoer –
it demanded customer-relevant cars, Out 0:( this
r.c;f sales and desigr. cr.vilor.mer.t developed the
hiC;llly speciali;;:ed frei[1ht cars that Ie Bee today
on illoderr. NO .. ~tll Americar. 13.i bm.ys.
T,·;er.ty-iive years ago, ti1l~ trar.sportatior. of automobiles from
assembly plar.t to disti.ibutior. c the (ligru3.Y ca;:riE.i.s. TI)is <1S or.e in,star.ce ;]lO.re tile nc! mcDagcffl(:~r.t
concepts could be applied ar.c1 a .;~eolutior.ary development thereupon
occurred. Tl!e standard raih:ay automobl1e car at that time ser.tially a box car, but 1:1ith li(10 doors,and carried four automo­
bllcs. As time lent bY,Canadiar: National Raill-Iays developed a semi­
specia.li2.eJ box car automobile carrier that 1/aS basically a super­
box cal,havir.g t/o decks ar.d earryir.g eight automobiles -four or.
the 10Her cleck ar.d four or. the upper.
Pollm·lir.G continuing researcll, the oper.-sided trilevel car ·IaS
p!oducecl. The disappearance of tIle steam locomotive made an open car
possi ble, because cir.dcrs and soot, Hhich could dan12.ge the finish of
the automobiles, HaS no longer a p.roblem. The trilevel car can cany
fifteen automobiles on three rJecks,lith extremely simple tie-dOllO
devices.
Even though the trilevel is a highly specialized car,Vlhich must
travel empty :(or the xcturn portion of its journey, the raihrays have
found that they car. quote rates attractive to the shipper -and still
make a pi.ofit -because of thc leduced trar.spo.r.tation costs of oper­
ating such cars. As a result, the railways have recaptured the lions
share of the automobile transportation busir.ess. SoUd trains of
loaded trilevels are a common sight or; railways in tile 1970.8.
And sO,a nCI! era in transportation histo.i.y came
to the railways. There lias a profound lesson to
be learned from this profit.-sllaring concept •
Raill1ay management learned that if tllcre Has suf-
ficient incentive and the right type of equip-
ment, the railways got the business. Rail lays thus
could fight their competitors in a very dran~tic
fashior.. It was clear that one Nay to cut costs
and reduce fLeig/lt rates las to build larger cars
of specialized tYPcs,specifically designed to any
industrys particular needs.
I,
CANADIAN
145
R A I L
Thus,in the last fifteen years, there has been a virtual
flood of highly specialized, customer oriented,BIG cars.
As a result, the raihlays have been able to recapture many
former clients and secure their rightful share of new
ones.
A classic example of how the raihlays out -manoeuvered the com­
petition vias seen in the introduction of the piggyback flat car.Ili th
the advent of this service -made possible by the perfection of the
design and construction of these cars -the railways literally took
the highway semi-trailers right off the roads and transported them
to their destinations by rail,at a substantial saving in time and
money
to the truckers and at a profit to the railway companies.
Included in the multiplicity of special­
ized railway cars Vias the mechanical re­
frigerator car, \lhich was developed to
supercede outmoded ice-and-salt refriger­
ator cars. The new vehicle ca:n carry
frozen foods,fresh garden produce, fruit
and dressed, hung meat at any desired tem­
perature,maintained by thermostatic con­
trols,regardless of exterior weather con­
ditions.
Dressed meat traffic is becoming more and more important to the
rail vlays of North America,as the kill houses -formerly knOm as
slaughterhouses -move westward,closer to the ranches where the
cattle are fattened. Sides of dressed beef nowada.ys originate in
the western cities of Lethbridge, Edmonton, Moose Jaw and }linnipeg.For
the time being,this traffic is of primary importance, but the ques­
tion has already been raised as to why the ltlhole meat packaging pro­
cess should not be carried out at the kill house and the meat sh­
ipped to centres of consumption in neat,hermetically-sealed consum­
er packages. If such a procedure were adopted, the mechanical re­
frigerator car could still be used, but without the internal meat­
suspension system lith llhich they are presently fitted.
The mechanical refrigerator car of today has an
equipment compartment at one end, in llhich a
diesel motor drives a generator to produce elec­
tricity. The electricity is used to pOler elec­
trical heaters, which maintain normal temperature
in the cars interior in winter, or to pO~er a re­
frigerator unit which keeps the cars contents
cool in summer.
Forr~rly,refrigerator cars were cooled by a mixture of ice and
salt or by adding ice to overhead tanks containing water, the cold
ail so generated settling to the bottom of the car and COOling the
contents in the process.
In the linter, the interiors of these primitive cars was heated
either by portable charcoal-fired heaters, placed in the loaded cars
or by a permanent undercar charcoal h.eater connected to a heater
pipe located in the floor of th.e car. The difficulties of control­
ling the temperature accurately with these devices can be imagined.
The potential fire-hazard -laS obvious and inescapable.
CANADIAN
146 R A I L
CP RAILs neNly-designed mechanical refrigerator cars can
carry whole sides of beef, suspended by a monorail ll)eat­
rack system, fastened to the car ceiling, which facilitates
loading and unloading of sides of dressed meat. rhe sides
of meat are rolled out of the packing house cooler to the
refrigerator car door, where tlley are transferred to hooks
attached to four-wheel trolle;{s, which run in the ceiling­
suspended tracks. These trolleys can be manoeuvered into
the proper position in the refrigerator car and then lock­
ed in place,so that there is no accidental movement
of the meat during transport.
This mechanism represents a total systemsdesign
concept, since no single element of the system was
improved by redesign at the expense of anotller
element of the system.
These neVi cars can transport 70,000 pounds of dressed meat, whereas
the old ice-refrigerated cars could only handle 30,000 pounds in
quarters -not in halves. Much of the interior space of the old cars
VIas occupied lith ice-tanks, essential for cooling. Once again, the
larger specialized cars pernutted savings in transportation costs,
through incentive freight rates and also through significant re­
ductions in the companys operating costs.
Pressure-unloading, covered hopper cars
for cement,sugar,flour,salt and other
pOlldered and granulated bull<. commodi­
ties can be completely and automatic­
ally unloaded by compressed air into
or out of customers storage silos.
The bulk commodity is kept clean and
free from contafiUnation by other ma­
terials and the day of SlOVl gravity
unloading for these products is a
thing of the past!
Canadian raihlays pioneered the development of
insulated and heated box cars for transporting
products such as canned and bottled beer, gen­
eral canned goods, liquid packaged detergents
and many food products ~Ihich require protect­
ion from freezing during the rigors of sub­
zero temperatures, during the long, hard Canad­
ian winter. These cars have a thermostatically
controlled heating system,using alcohol-fired
pot-burner heaters,vlith perimeter-finned tu­
binB,rCCEssed in the car floor.
Modern :fr~igl1t cars, like tile mecl1anical refrigerator and the insul­
ated box cal, have the added advantage of foamed-in-place insula­
tion. Tl1e ir:sulating mater:i.al is pressure-foarrlcd into the cavities
bet~iCen the ir:ner ami outer car Halls and, Vlnen this material Golid­
ifies and eUles,it adheres permanently to all slvfaces Vlith wi1icfl
it comes in conGact. Tlms,the nccessaity of fasteninG or pacl~ing
the insulating watei.ial j.s eliminated and the car structure is con­
siderably strenGthened by the insulating matelial itself.
CANADIAN
147 R A I L
An innovation of the 60s was the ex­
tra-high, 50-foot, SO-ton, large-cube
r;clIsprir;t box car, pioneered by CP
RAIL. TIle additional heigllt of these
cars allows double-stacking of news­
prir;t rolls, thus makir;g possible a
full load of 80 tor;s pCr car, I-lith
no wastage of space. To prever;t ir;­
transit cargo damage from end -shocl~
which may occur during startir.g, st­
oppir.g ar.d switchir.g,th£sc cars are
fitted with long-travel cushior.ed
ur.derfralllGS, WllicD act as admirable
shock-absorbers.
The neiGst idGa ir; :cail-liate, transportatlor; is tile cor;­
tainer. The container-carrying car -contair.er cal -de­
veloped to transport these useful and versatile boxes ,
promlses to achieve a ptOlitLner;t place on the rail trans­
portatior. scene. Because cor.tainerlzatior. offers so many
advantages to the sllipper, its success is cert8,in ar.d j_tS
grO.Tth
has been and 1iill cor.tir.ue to be pher.omenal.
Contair.ers and contair;erization requir.e r.ot only specialized rail
cars, but also r.ew,specialized cor.tair.er-ships and radical,r;ew cor.­
tair.er po.,ts and accessory equipmer:t. The nell cor.tair.er flats 1ill
playa most important part in the proposal to utilize North America
as a land-bridge betl-Ieen Europe and Asia,ir. a tr.uly intermodal
trar.sportatior; concept, employing rails, ships and trucks.
This is yet another example of how the raihlays havG ir.novated
and specialized,to participate in an expanding transportation mar­
ket. Tne growth potential here is fantastic and it is possible to
envisIon solid cor.tair.er unit-trains racing across the prairies to
the Pacific Coast,in the r.ot-too-distant future.
The foregoing is a brief description
of a few of the nml, specialized types
of freight car, but there are -alto­
gether -so many and the variety is
increasing so rapidly that to de-
scribe them all would require an
encyclopedia!
Cars such as these would have been impractical and impossible
twenty-fi ve years ago and it Hould be V-lorth.rDile, at this point, to
cor.sider some of the char::ges in car engineerir;g that have permitted
their-development.
HERE ARE TI~O TYPES OF CARS 8UIL T A QLI,RTER OF A CENTURY AGO. THE 50-
ton,twin hopper car was built by the {astern Car Company for the Old
Sydney
Colleries,Limited,in 1945. The photo is courte~y Hawker Sid­
deley Canada Limited.
The 48-foot,drop-end gondola was built in 1947 by National Steel Car
for the Algoma Central Railway. Photo courtesy National Steel Car Corp.

CANADIAN 150 R A I L
.+. CSTERN CHR CO~1PfNY LHHTED GUILT THIS 41-FOOT ,5[]-TON FLATCAR FOR THE
C~nBdian Tube and Steel Products Limited in 1948. It was then a basic
type. Photo courtesy Hawker Siddeley Canada Limited.
lit CN 5899137 uJas the. First of three generations .of automobile carriers.
, 8uil·t in 1349 by Nati·onal Steel Car,it had a capacity of 4 automobiles.
Photo courtesy National Steel Car Corporation.
By 1959, a second generation of automobile transporters had appeared •
.
~ This 40-ton car,built by Canadian Car & Foundry Company in that year
. carried B automobiles,4 on the lowe] ~Ll 4 on the upper.
Photo courtesy Canadian National Railways.

CA NAD I AN
155
R A I L
Char:ging desi€:.11 conceptI} in freight
cars,over the last t:Jenty-five ~rears,
have been ITIaJ,y and varied, but tlley
can be natrolled dmm to certain sp­
ecific areas.
The first and most important governing factor was the
clearance dlac;ram for the equipment. In tj-Ie early part of the last
quarter-century,most freight cars 1Tere desj_gned to fit within the
Association of American Railroads Equlpment Diagram, knmID as Plate
B. This clearance diagram desc.cibed the H18.ximuJU structural dimen­
sions to Thich a xailuay car could be built,if it Tere intended to
operate over all of the major North American railvrays having the
traditional 4 feet 8} inches -or ,stephenson gauge -between their
rails. Plate B permitted a maximum Ileight for a car of 15 feet
1 inch above the running rail and a width of 10 feet 8 inches, pro­
vided that the ell stance bet~Teen the trucl(-centres of the car did
not exceed 41 feet) inches. -Iben this latter distance exceeded the
limit, the car Hidth hacl to be reduced proportionately, to remain
within the limits of the diagram and thus cleax all tracl(side str­
uctures,especially on curves.
l1hile Plate B restricted -in one sense
car size on railways originally built to a
larger track dimension -such as todays Elie­
Lackawanna and the eastcrn.portions of Canadian
National Railways main 15.r.e -it assmed that
every car so constructed could operate on the
raihiaYs ir:: most of North America Hithout dan­
ger of striking structures and the sides and
tops of tunnels.
In 196), a nell diagram fJas inJcrocluced. This ;i3:s Plate C. It
pelmittec1 a ITidth of 10 feet 8 ir.ches,a. height of 15 feet 6 inches,
lith t:cuck centres h6 feet,) inches apart. This nC1! diagram er.­
couraged the car desisner to bu1.1d ca.ls larsei than those alloHed
accord1.ng to the old Plate nil.
~ THE THHlD GCNEflATION. rJ. ~ ~built this 09-foot trilevel auto carrier for CP RAIL. This car carries
15 automobiles,which are secured on the car by an extremely simplified
tie-do~ln system. Photo courtesy CP RIUl.
A trilevel automobile unit-train rolls through rocky country near Port
Coldwell,Dntario,on a sunny day in 1954. Photo courtesy CP RAIL.
Off the highluay and on the railway I A unit-train of piggyback flat­
cars rolls along the shores of a lake in Ontario with CP RAIL unit
Number 4001 -displaying the beaver emblem -on the point.
Photo courtesy CP RAIL.
Load-restraining,moveable bulkheads and air ventilators are some of
the specialized features of this 50-foot,2C-ton insulated and heat­
er-rquipped CP RAIL IH car. These highly specialized cars are most
useful in the transport of freezable commodities during the long,cold
Cnadian ,,,inters. Photo courtesy CP RAIL.
A.A.K.
t-LATE
8

,,0
I
[ I
1°00
00

I
IV
LIGHT
CAR
I
CONDITIONS
I
CARS MAY BE CONSTRUCTED
TO
AN EXTREME WIDTH
OF
10-
8
AND
TO
THE
OTHER
LIMITS
OF
THIS DIAGRAM WHEN
TRUCK
CENTERS
DO
NOT
EXCEED
41-3
AND
WHEN,
WITH
TRUCK
CENTERS
OF
41-3,
THE SWINGOUT AT ENDS
OF
CAR DOES
NOT
EXCEED
THE SWINGOUT
AT
CENTER
OF
CAR
ON
A
13
CURVE;
A CAR
TO
THESE
DIMENSIONS IS DEFINED
AS
THE
BASE
CAR.
WHEN .TRUCK CENTERS
EXCEED
41-3,
CAR
WiDTH
FOR ENTIRE CLEARANCE OUTLINE
SHALL
BE
REDUCED
TO
COMPENSATE FOR THE INCREASED SWINGOUT AT
CENTER
AND
l
OR
ENDS
OF
CAR
ON
A
13
CURVE
SO
THAT THE
WIDTH
OF
CAR
SHALL
NOT
PROJECT BEYOND
THE
CENTER
OF
TRACK
MORE
THAN
THE BASE
CAR.
I~
j
.
,

!
I I
1~·+
I~i
rill
~I~o;o~.o.
,
y-
I.I,~

10-S.

z
~
~
I
en
~
~
I
I
A.A.R.
PLATE
e
[
I
10
0
000
I
l
P–
,OO

I
V
I I
,~l
LIGHT CAR CONDITIONS
CARS
MAY
BE
CONSTRUCTED
TO
AN EXTREME WIDTH
OF
10

-8
AND
TO
THE
OTHER
LIMITS
OF THIS DIAGRAM WHEN TRUCK
CENTERS
DO
NOT
EXCEED
46-3
AND
WHEN,
WITH
TRUC
CENTERS
OF
46-3,
THE SWINGOUT
AT
ENDS
OF
CAR
DOES
NOT
EXCEED
THE SWINGOUT AT CENTER
OF
CAR
ON
A
13
CURVE;
A CAR
TO
THESE
DIMENSIONS
IS
DEFINED AS
THE
BASE
CAR.
WHEN TRUCK CENTERS EXCEED
46-
3,
CAR
WIDTH
FOR ENTIRE CLEARANCE OUTLINE
SHALL
BE
REDUCED
TO
COMPENSATE FOR
THE
INCREASED SWINGOUT
AT
CENTER
AND/OR
ENDS
OF
CAR
ON
A
13
CURvE
SO
THAT THE
WIDTH
OF
CAR
SHALL
NOT PROJECT BEYOND
THE
CENTER
OF
TRACK MORE
THAN
THE BASE
CAR.
I
:~
~
,
!:

h
I
Ali
II
;r-

II
:
II!
-~
!-~i
y;
I
.
_
~
L
·~·
I[

I~·;oo,
~
I
II
I
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IO-8~
CANADIAN R A I L
b
I I
( )1 ()
!! ~
0[0
c d
e
9
h
.iS3l]CIITIor~ IlF IIMEIHC{S·j fFIL~O;:;0S ?LiUES IV /.H.JD B -THE ~RCFILES
~ lilich 8stablish the dimensions to loJhich a railway freight car for
intp.rchange must be constructed.
Live-load distribution requiremants: a car designer,designing a
boxc t enou;)h to c3rrv the percentage of the load-limit imp8sed by these
diaorams. Three diagrams courtesy ~ssociation of American Railroads •
… Whole SirJ8S OF dress?d bp.ef can be moved in and out of th8se 50-foot,
20-tnn,~ech~nic31Iy-r8frigeraterl cars on a special monorail system.
The car interinr can be maintained at any desired temperature setting
from 1n
o
helow to 25° above, regardlass of the outside weather con­
ditions,by t~ermostatic temperature controls. Photo courtesy CP RAIL.
I
.
.
..
,
..
. ~
. .

.
.
-.
.
– -r-
~
i r.JENTY-FIVE YEARS AGO, DRESSED BEEF IllAS rfJORE OFTEN SHIPPED IN QUARTERS
~ than in halves or sides. Today, a customer can ship sides of beef in
a specially-designed car. This shows sides of dressed beef arriving at
Modern Packers Limited,Montr~al,in a mechanical reefer car (1965).
Photo courtesy Canadian Pacific.
The second factor in the alteration in design concept related
to load distribution patterns. Once again,the A.A.R. -in order to
achieve uniformity among the many North American raihlays -specified
definite loading requirements for certain types of cars.For example,
a general-purpose box car had to carqr 100% of its permissible load
on the floor area betHeen its truck centres. From the truck centre
to the end-Viall, it had to be able to carry 25% of the total load
CANADIAN
161
R A I L
limit. Over the last tTenty-five years, these requirements have been
altered in certain cases to increase the load-carrying capabilities
of the car s. This 11as been a challenge to the ingenuity of the car
designer, because he has been forced to increase the strengtll of the
car, lhile attempting to maintain the l€ight of the empt,Y car at a
minimum.
fI. third factm favouring a change in design concepts is
the necessity for modification in the structural design
of the car. The engineering calculations associated v/ith
freight car deGign fall /ithin the discipline of struct­
u~al engineering. A flat car, 101 example,leSembles a
small brid~c,Gupported on tHO abutments -which are the
trucks -and able to carr,) loads, due to the support pro­
vided by longitudinal members -the underframe .But there,
the sinli.larity ends.
The car designer must all011 for and contend 11ith vertical­
impact shocks from the car wheel contacts lith rail jOints,in addi­
tion to the horizontal end-compression and traction loads, widcll
occur !Then the blakes are applied or I aCCelelate the train. Every car design approved for interchange lith
othel railroads by the A.A.R. must conform to rigid strength. re-
quirements. It must be able to stand a compressive end-squeeze of
1.25 MILLION pounds!
Car engineering calculations ilave become a .highly-sophisticated
computation during the last twenty-five years. One particularly im­
portant derivative developement has been the Do-called sllear-plate
car deSign, Hhere the loads from end-shocks are transmitted from the
car couplers to the side-walls of the car, instead of to the under­
frame. This innovation has enabled the design of the neVI tank-type,
covered hopper cars and gondolas, such as CP RAILs IIBathtub type,
I/ilich have no conventional underframes. The new design has reduced
the tare ;leight of these cars Gigr;ificantly.
Perhaps the most logical area for change in car design
has been discove.ced as a result of the development of
better matelials for car const.ruction. Among tl1ese ne,
construction materials, perhaps the roost spectacular
progress haG been made in tl1erealm of exotic, high­
strength steels. Tlienty-five years ago,ordinary struc-
tural carbon steels allm~ed engineers to Hork to a
yield-stress of 32,000 pounds per square inch. The
yield-stress of a piece of metal is described as the
mechanical force that the sGeel can withstand Hi thout
being deformed permanently. 3ince Horld Har II -and
probably largely as a result of advances in metal te­
CMololt…Y made in the war peiiod -metallurgists have
been able to produce high-strength steels, some of which
have a design ~/ield-stress of 50,000 pounds per square
inch. In more recent yearsJimproved steels lith a yield­
stress of 70,000 pounds have been produced quite eco­
nomically and are today being used in freight car con­
struction.

Hlsnc:
THO:
t~OJE:
R
r~
:j
E
::5
PRI
ili
T BOX
CAi1,%UBlE-TI
::ED
.lellS
of
ned
spr
in
t
~a~er
are
ready
f
or
unloading
a a
cus­
tomer
s
printing
plant
,aFt
er
a
cushion?d
r
de
from
the
point
of
origin
.
From
the
outside,here
is
a
50-f
o
ot
OO
-ton,cu
shicned­
underframe
boxcar,oarticularly
d8S qned
for
doubls­
stackinQ
of
newsprint
ro
lls.
T
~o
p
otos
cou
rte
sy
CP
r
~J
~
IL.

CANADIAN
165
R A I L
The use of these greater strength steels has resulted in the pro­
duction of a much lighter freight car. Since the car trucks are
built to support a specified design load, ~ith a maximum load-lirai t
on the rail, the car body must be as light as possible to achieve a
maximwll
load-limit capacity. Thus,the advantage of using high-stren­
gth steel is obvious. TIle metallurgical engineers in the steel in­
dustry have,in this way, made a significant contribution to the de­
velopment of stlong,high.-capacity,lightweight cars.
In the past quarter-century, many new freight
car construction techniques have been intro­
duced. One of the most important advances
has been the change-over from cars of rivet­
ted joints to cars formed by Helding the
parts together ~ In ri vetted construction, the
car was assembled using commercially-avail­
able structural rolled-steel shapes, such as
angles,channels,I-beams,etc.,and these l.vere
joined with hot rivets. This was not neces­
sarily the most economical procedure, because
it Ilas often necessary to use too much steel
in certain areas where it 1IlaS not essential.
By USing plate and sheet steel and Helding
it together in unitarytt construction, the
designer is now able to use the right amount
of steel -,Jhere it is needed. Helding of these
ne.,r components results in nel! car configur­
ations which are much lighter in ,reight.
A quarter-century ago, the mechanical engineering depart­
ments of the raihlays strove to produce a freight car
with the lowest pOSsible initial cost. Often, the subse­
quent effect on maintenance costs was overlooked or ne­
glected. Today,there is a new philosophy in railway me­
char:ical departments. It is now recognized that it is
more prudent to spend a little more money initially, in
order to rrinimize subsequent routine maintenance charges.
The use of roller bearings on freight car trucks -once
considered an unnecessary extravagance -has today all
but eliminated the dangerous hot_bOX problem, 1hich for
years vras a chronic operating hazard •
… I~HEN A CUSTOr~ER RECEIVES A BULK PRODUCT IN ONE OF CP RAILS PRESSURE­
unloading cars,he simply couples up his discharge piping to the con­
nection on the underside of the car and 100 tons of cement flow smo­
othly into the~orage silo,without the necessity of costly manual
labour. Photo courtesy CP RAIL.
~~olten steel -the material from whish all railway cars are made.
~1etallurgists have indirectly made great contributions to railway
car design over the last quarter-century, by providing high-strength,
corrosion-resistant steels for fabrication.Photo courtesy Steel Com­
panV of Canada.
Electric welding has superceded rivetting as a means of joining to­
gether structural members, Here is a welder working on a box-section
underframe centre-sills in the shops of Marine Industries,Limited,
Sorel,quebec. Photo courtesy Marine Industries,Limited.

CANADIAN 168 R A I L
Automatic slack adjustors have eliminated the necessity for frequent
delays in car maintenance yards,while essential adjustments in the
brake rigging Here made. Composition brakeshoes have lOHered the
rate of brakeshoe replacement, have reduced ~Iheel lear and have in­
creased braking efficiency.
In the 1970s,railway mechanical departments are working
as hard as possible to keep freight cars off the repair
tracks and in continuous service -where they quite
properly belong. This is being achieved through the
provision of better equipped cars.
The interval since 1945 has been an exciting and extremely challen­
ging one for the railway car designer. Of course,there are those
doubting Thomases Tho would have us believe that the future of the
railways is limited and finite. Fortunately,this is not so. The
great potential of unit-trains for bulk materials and the encoura­
ging prospects for containerization completely dissipate such pes­
simism. Even more important is the progress and experience realized
during th.e last quarter-century. That era conclusively demonstrated
that the railways can and Hill fulfill and surpass the mass trans­
portation requirements of present and future years.
There is one conclusion that can surely be dra,m
from all of this recent experience. The next
twenty-five year period of progress in rail
transportation Hill once again make all such
previous periods seem pale, by comparison.
i llmT-TRAHJ OF B.HHTU8 GO~Ii)OUS,LOA!)ED UITH CR[)ldS~IEST COAL,RUI-:SLES
over Stoney Creek Bridgs,on the long climb from Beavermouth to the
Connaught Tunnel in central British Columbia. The successful operation
of such unit-trains for bulk commodities assures a successful future
for railways as carriers of raw matRrials and finished products.
Photo courtesy CP RAIL
W ESPECIALLY SUITED TO THE TRflNSPORT OF PllCKfGED LUMBER, THIS 70-TON
,
bulkhead flatcar has chain tie-dowils and is of Lt1elded construction.
This car could not have been built twenty-five ye~rs ago.
Photo courtesy Marine Industries Limited.

_IIIILL8
Editorial Staff
May, 1972.
~hris Andreae -author of THE GENESIS
OF A RAILWAY MUSEUM in the February,
1972 issue of CANADIAN RAIL -asks
that readers note that it is ex-L&PS
motor L-2 (not L-3) which is being
held for preservation in the Museum
of SCience and Transportation,London,
Ontario.
CANADIAN RAIL
The follol>,ing summary of ROBOT cars used on CP RAIL coal
unit-trains between Golden and Revelstoke,British Colum­
bia,was kindly provided by Roger Boisvert:
Previous Equipment ROBOT Numbers
& Number Ist.No. 2nd. No. Present No.
Baggage
~465 C-4465 R-IOOO 1001
Baggage
4L~72 c-L~472 R-IOOl 1002
Baggage
4473 R-I002 1003
Baggage 4478 1004
Baggage
!j-475 1005
D-E Uni t 4L~54 1006
D-E Uni t 4L!49 1007
D-E Unit 4452 1008
Conversion
completed
Apr.16,1970
Oct.27,1969
Nov. 4,1969
Feb.12,1970
Feb.20,1970
Oct .15,1971
Oct.25,1971
Nov. 5,1971
On Friday,January 14,1972,CP RAIL began loading
65 covered hoppers -the first of 5 unit-trains
of first train operated January 15 and at the end
of February, 286 hoppers filled with grain had
made the trip. Eastern Region,CP RAIL,coopera­
ted by releasing about 50 covered hoppers from
the Port 1-1cNicholl-Hest Saint John service.
Walter Bedbrook,our Toronto and York Representative,tells us that
the car-ferry service ,Ihich used to operate on the St. Lawrence
River betleen the Canadian PaCific Railway at Prescott, Ontario and
the Ne,l York Central System at Ogdensburg,New York, must necessarily
have been discontinued, for the equipment has turned up at The
Prescott & Ogdensburg Fer.r.y Company, formed in 1909, as purchased
by Canadian Pacific on Deptember 1,1929 and tIhen the Neoi York Cen­
tral bought an interest on May 1,1930,this operation became a joint
venture. The tug PRESCOTONT was built at Lauzon,Quebec in 1930 and
the barge OGDENSBURG -1ith a capacity of about 21 cars on three
tracks -las built at Lorain,Ohio in the same year
Some time in the autumn of 1971, the PIillSCOTONT and OGDENSBURG
were transferred to service bet,Teen Detroit and Hindsor ,0ntario.At
the same time, registry of the PRESCOTONT was changed from Montreal
to 1-linosor.
CANADIAN 171 R A I L
Container cars are rolled onto the OGDENSBURG on the Canadian
side of the Detroit River, ~hcre all other car-fer.cy movements are
made by the Norfolk & vlestern Railllay. The OGDENSBURG is restricted
to the transport of container cars only. The PHESCOTONT moves the
barge plus cars to the Detroit Terminal DoCl~s, Hhere a ship-to-shore
crane offloads the containers only, leaving the cars on the barge.
Returning containers are loaded onto the cars on the barge by
the same crane and the whole apparatus then returns to the Canadian
side,pushed by the PRESCOTONT.
The OGDENSBURGs bridge has been removed, presumably to provide
clearance for the ship-to-shore crane on the U.S .side.
The leason for this rather peculiar operation is not known.
I-Ie vlarned youl The statisticians didnt keep up!
Roger Boisvert reports that as of January 19,1972
CP RAIL had a total of 79 leased units. By Feb­
ruary 1, two more F7As came from the Bessemer and
Lal~e Erie, vlhile on February 8,Bangor and Aroostool~
recalled one GP7 -Number 69. At that very moment
CP RAIL las making arrangements to lease 15 F7As
and 5 F7Bs from B&o-C&o numbered:
F7As FlBS
4487 4645 5 20
4499 4646 5495
i502 12L2. 5498
f575 1.Q.2£ 5529
4586 ~ 5533
4587 ~
4·622 8009
Lf630
(Underlined numbers
indicate pre-exist­
ing CP RAIL unit
numbers. )
The
first ten A units -to Number 46Lf6 -are equipped
Ii th dead-man control. All units have dynamic braking and
electric sanding. These units were assigned to vlinnipeg.
This brought the total of leased units on CP RAIL to a nice,
even ONE HUNDRED. Roger believes this must constitute some
kind of a recordl
~lr. Frank Orr, our friend from Rutland, Verroont,tells us that the
Green Mountain Railroad of BelloHs Falls, Vermont, has put up for sale
their three steam locomotives, Numbers 1246 & 1239 -ex Canadian Pa­
cific Railway -and Number 89 -ex-Canadian National Railways. Num­
ber 1246 is in top-notch condition, her cab having been repaired
after being burned out last summer. Number 1293 has not been used
since 1965 and has ·long run out of tube-time. Other repairs would
be needed to get her in running shape, since she has sat outside the
ex-Boston & Maine roundhouse at North Vlalpole,Nevl Hampshire -site
of the Green Mountains backshops -for six long years, The 89 has
a leak in her boiler up under tlle frame and her tube-time is just
about expired, GMRH would like to arrange a package deal for all
CANADIAN
172
R A I L
three locomotives and while to date some enthusiastic customers have
expressed interest in the engines, the most enthusiasm -and money –
has been directed to Number 1246.
M!. Orr thinks that with all of this activity, it is pretty cer­
tain that STE~lTOHN U.S.A. will operate their olm tourist train in
1972,using ex-Canadian Pacific Number 1278,renumbered No. 127 -and
t.he 10 passenger cars purchased from the GMRR. These cars are ex-Cen­
tral Railroad of New Jersey and ere part of the GJ.VlRR 700-series .By
the Hay,one of them was sold to a purchaser from the State of New
Hampshire.
GMRRs desire to withdraw from the tourist-train excursion bus­
iness is due prin~rily to the excessive cost of insurance to cover
the operation, plus the uncertainty of the firm application date for
the State of Vermonts anti-pollution legislation. These factors, to­
gether Iiith the ever-mounting operating and maintenance costs, make
this operation less and less attractive.
As part of the overall Iii thdraVlill plan, GMRR is offering for
sale its tHO vl8.tertOllers and the coal tipple at North Halpole. GJvlRR
might adapt the North vlalpole backshop facilities to accommodate
paying viSitors, since most enthusiasts call briefly at this location
before moving on to the attractions of STEAMTOWN U.S.A.,at Riverside,
Vermont, just across the Connecticut River.
vlhat the railways in Great Britain touched off as early as
January 1,1923 continues to generate considerable 1,1armth
and comfort as far away as North America. In the year men­
tioned,small,medium and large-sized railways in the Brit­
ish Isles were grouped together to form four major main
lines and some railway enthusiasts had the foresight to
preserve memorabilia from these extinct organizations.
Tl1enty-five years later,in 1948,railways in the United King­
dom were nationalized and a fevl years later, economy being
the ll8.tchTord, Dr. Beeching set about making the railv1ays of
the U.K. a paying proposition. This process involved the
~lholesale closing of unprofitable lines and the demolition
of accessory structures. Tickets,wickets,trucks and benches
Here only a few of the items that became available. lmen
steam locomotives were retired, enthusiasts went into ecs­
tacies over number plates,name plates, whistles and steam
gauges.
And that is why in 1972 the enthusiast collector can nip
around the corner from Euston Station,London,to Carding­
ton Street,where he Iill find thousands of articles and
artifacts associated with t.he raih1ays of Britain all
.. OUTSHOPPED IN FEBflUARY,1972,CARTIER RAILWAYS I~Uf~BER 72 rOSES GLE,~rHNG
in the winter sunshine for a portrait at ~LW Industries,Montreal,Que.
Photo courtesy MLW-Industries.

) ,,;

, :
I, •
, ,.
f
• I
1(
,~. .
CANADIAN
174
R A I L
readily available -for a price,of course,which is some­
times measured in new pence, sometimes in old pounds and
not infrequently in venerable guineas! There are uniform
buttons and locomotive headlamps;fire-buckets and mahog­
any waiting-room clocks. And locomotive name plates,1lhich
when available, will bring as much as $ 300 each.
It is a profitable business.
Later than many -earlier than some -The Canadian Pacific Railway
Company reached similar conclusions early in 1970. A decision was
prompted by otherwise-useless Victorian fittings recovered from
country stations -made redundant by the customer service centre II
concept -and the Royal Alexandra Hotel of Hinnipeg – a veritable
treasure-trove of early 19th. century decorative paraphernalia.All
of these miscellaneous articles were dutifully gathered together
for liquidation through the medium of CP BYGONES – a new corporate
entity especially established for the purpose.
Before you could say Kicking Horse Pass , CP BYGONES ilaS off
and running a mail-order business, subsequent to the publication of
a catalogue and numerous announcements in railway trade journals •
By this time, 1971 was well under ~lay and so were the celebrations
associated with the centenary of the Province of British Columbia.
Capitalizing on the triple opportunity,CP BYGONES assembled a three
car train -two of which contained items for liquidation -which
made a very successful trip to Vancouver and return. In addition to
providing Company participation in the centennial celebrations,more
artifacts were discovered in British Colwnbia,which required the
addition of another car for the return trip. The clincher: it is es­
timated that during the year of operation,CP BYGONES grossed some­
thing like $ 30; 000 on the operation. Not bad!
Early in 1972,Penn Central in the United States took the
decision to enter the I1second-hand railroadiana business
by auctioning off more than 100,000 items -the contents
of the former Pennsylvania Railroad I s museum and llbrary
collectlon. To be conducted by the Samuel T. Freen~n Com­
pan.y of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on March 20,21 & 22
and 23,if necessary -the list of items to be offered was
certainly impressive:Official Guides from 1870 on; coins
and medals from the 1876 Centennial and the 1893 Columbian
Exposition;old photographs and glass negatives;locomotive
number and registry plates.Catalogue $ 1.50. Admission to
the sale $ 2.00. Hhile it is a pity to break up such an
historic collection, it is equally certain that this sale
JQuld attract wide interest.
After much careful planning, late in 1971 Canadian National Railways
decided to consolidate is many activities in the selling and dispos­
ition of varlous raihmy memorabilia into one l1e1 function. To be
known as the Historical Projects Section,it ,ould report administra­
tively to the Vice-President, Transportation and Maintenance and fun­
ctionally to a committee composed of represen.tatives from Transpor­
tation & I-1aintenance, Purchases & Stoles,Hea.dquarters I Public Rela­
tions Departments. It 1,olaS thereafter announced in CN I s publication
KEEPING TRACK that hundreds of items would soon be offered for sale
CANADIAN 175
R A I L.
through this office. The newJ.,y-named Historical Projects Officer,
Mr. J. Norman Lowe, .18S hopeful that a catalogue could be ready by
spring. Items offered for sale ,,:ould first be ar.r.ounced to Can­
adian Hatior.al employees and thereafter to the general public.}~.
Lowe said that the lOO:3t di!ficult part of the programme )faa the
pricing of the articles to be offered for sale. Without doubt, some
indication of current pricing practice for railway memorabilia in
Canada could be obtained from the catalogue of CP BYGONES~q.v.
S.S.lIorthen.
OUR MEMBER IN OSAKA, JAPAN ••••••••••••••••••••
Bill McKeo·,m, writes to say that Mr. Sochiro Hirota of Kawasa.k:1
Heavy Industries Limited was the prime_mover in the negotiations
leading up to the construction of the JOHN KlLSOlf of 1971.Without
Mr. HirotaB continuing interest and tenacity, this remarkable pro­
ject ,Iould not have been completed .Bill also asked that CANADIAN
RAIL correct the record to show that the JOHN MOLSON of 1971 was
built by Kyosan KOgyo Company of Fukushima,which city is as remott
from Kobe -location of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Limited _ as
Windsor, Ontario is from Montreal. At no time Ias the JOHN MOLSON
of 1971 closer than 300 miles to Kobe,and that was when the loco­motive
.~as shipped from Yokohama.
Mr. Hirota was assigned -together with other personnel -by Kawa­
saki to }(yosan Kogyo. The tlorklng drawings for the engine were dor.e
in Tokyo under the supervision of Hr. Takakuwa,the former
C
hief Engineer and principle locomotive designer for the Japanese
National Railways.
Kyosan Kogyo Company is a small concern among Japanese rolling
stock manufacturers and is noted primarily for the production of
small in
dustrial diesel locomotives and specialized rolling stock
such as snowplows and track-laying machinery, Their staff, which numbers
perhaps less than 1,OOO,considered the JOHN MOLSON of 1971
as a real challenge and most of them -including the office staff
turned up in hard hats for the test run.
In swnmary,I·t1tsui provided the paper work, a Montreal contact and
the essential telex. Kyosan Kogyo provided the shop space and the
able work force -and a geisha party for Mr. Jones of CP SHIPS and
Bill after the first successful test run.
Bill hopes to write a book some day on the negotiations for
JOHN lOLSON of 1971, as they were fascinating and provided
ordinary insights into Japanese business practice and rere
gether an enlightening social study,
the
extra­
alto-
The
Canadian Railroad Historical Association canr.ot presently suf­
ficiently acknowledge Bill l~cKeowr. s contribution to the successful
achievement of this remarkable project.
~ ALTHOOGH THEY OOTNlJIBEREO THEIR HORE FAM(lJS 1.-8-4 BROTHERS r.:OS. )100
I~ & )101, CP RAILs class W certainly were Dnn of the l06st photograph-
ed classe!!. Here ill 0-10-0 rhr,ber 6952,89 she hU!IUee around the yard
in Wlnnipag,Henitaba.ln the spring of 1949. Gall. of Hr. Garl rosy.
CANADIAN RAIL
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