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Canadian Rail 222 1970

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Canadian Rail 222 1970

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~<>. 222
JU1VE 1970

COMMUTING
I
TO THE
LAKESHORE
The Commuter Services of the Canadian Pacific Railway
F.F.Angus
introduct ion of ne,~ passenger­
carryin~ equipment on CP RAILs
trains bet…leen } Rigaud,Que., is the latest in­
novation in a service which
goes back nore than 75 years.
Hhile tl1e spectacular develop­
ment of the Lakeshore and the
western end of the Island of
Montreal as a residential area
has taken place in more or less
recent times,largely since Hor­
ld Har II, there has been some
comlTIutertraffic in to and out
of !l1ontreal since well before
the turn of the century,
In the 1850 s, the Grand T run!( Ra ilway Company of Canada
laS busy build ing its main line between Hontreal and Toronto and it
was this line that first traversed the western extremity of
treals Island,following the shore of Lake st. Louis,along the
sent Canad ian Nat ional Ra ilways I right -of -way to the village
Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue,Nhere it crossed the eastern mouth of the
} pre­
of
ot-
tala River by means of a tubular bridge,leaving the Island of Mon­
treal.
In these days and for some years aftenmrds, most of the
trains on the line ran at least as far as Kingston,Ontario and
there was little suburban local traffic,apart from the milk trains,
which daily brought supplies of milk to the metropOliS. The villages
of Dorval,Pointe Claire and Ste-Anne were completely rural and few
•••
COMMUTERS ALONG MONTREALS LAKESHORE ARE N~d ENJOYING THE MODERN COMFORTS
of CP RAILs new bilevel cars. Here is a head-end picture of control car
no. 900,complete with air-horns,bell and offset oscillating light.
Photo courtesy of CP RAIL.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAYS FIRST LOCATION IN MONTREAL-PLACE VIGER STATION
Yards-about 1937,showing the many wooden commuter cars, In this era, the
commuter operation to Ste-Therese,~uB. was based on Place Viger and the
cars used were similar to those used on the Lakeshore service.
Photo courtesy of CP RAIL.
CANADIAN 180
R A I L
of their residents had any reason to travel regularly to l-10ntreal •
However, as time went on, the Lakeshore became more and more a place
for summer residents and, in the 1870s,the Grand Trunk Railway put
on trains which stopped at some of the suburban villages, By the
1880s, some people were actually living in the Lakeshore villages
and coming to wrk daily in Hontreal and the commuter traffic had
begun.
In this same decade,the Canadian pacific RaHway Vias com­
pleted to Canadas ,.,est coast and the company was soon construct ing
a number of feeder lines in the east. The line from 110ntreal to
Smiths Falls was completed in 1888 and this single track parallel­
ed the Grand Trunk all the way from Lachine to Vaudrellil. Stations
,.,ere established at Lachine Bank,Dorval,Valois,Beaconsfield, Ste-
Anne and Vaudreuil, but at first no local service las offered and
trains still departed from Dalhousie Square Station (later Place
Viger),running via Hochelaga,Hile End,to Montreal Junction, just
west of the present Montreal Hest station. Here the line turned west
along the Lakeshore,continuing to Vaudrellil,Smiths Falls,Peterboro
and Toronto.
The following year,Windsor Station,Hontreal,was opened
and the distance to the C .P.R.s main station las shortened by five
miles by means of the new access line through Westmount. In this
way,the present line from Montreal to Vaudreuil ,.,as completed,essen­
tially. By the nineties, suburban development on the Lakeshore was
becoming considerable and this extended to the areas along the ot­
tawa River between Vaudreuil and the Ontario border. Accordingly,in
1893, the Canadian Pacific constructed a new line, leaving the main
line to Smiths Falls at Vaudreuil and running through Como, Hudson
and Rigaud to Point Fortune on the Ottawa River. Passenger service
on this new line consisted of one train a day in each direction,ex-
cept Sundays,betNeen Montreal and Point Fortune,makine; all inter-
mediate stops. The introduction of this train in 1893 marks the
birth of the Canadian Pacific Raillays Lakeshore Commuter service.
To operate this train,a small suburban h-6-4 tank engine,
No. 624,vlas built in Delorimier Shops in 1893 and this engine,haul­
ing a train of second-class coaches, departed from Hindsor Station
at 5:20 p.m., returning at 8:45 a.m. the following morning. Running
time to Rigaud Nas about tvlO hours and to Point Fortune,an addition­
al 25 minutes. This was the direct ancestor of Trains 271 and 27
L
r,
which today leave Windsor Street at 5:15 p.m.(1715 hours) and ar-
rive at 8:45 a.m. (0845 hOu,rs) respectively,although the time to
Rigaud is nowadays 40 minutes less.
Engine 624 later became No. 5990 and survived until 1924,
although latterly the commuter trains Iere hauled by larger· and
heavier locomotives, including some tank locomotives constructed in
1910-12. In 1897, the line through Rigaud was extended towards .ot­
tawa,our Nations capital and service via the Short Line (not to
be confused with the Montreal-Saint John,N.B. route) began the fol­
lowing year. This left the section betleen Rigaud and Point Fortune
t
BOARDING CAR 404590 PHGTOGRAPHED IN 1936 dAS BUILT AROUT 1880 PROBABLY
for the Credit Valley-Railway. It was a second-class coach in the 1890s
and represented the type used on the suburban runs before the special
cars were built in 1904.
• ••
as a dead-end stub, which continued to be serviced by the daily sub­
urban train from I,lontreal until the branch was abandoned in 1935.
Soon after the turn of the century, it became apparent that
the C.P.R.s suburban service ~as assuming more and more importance.
In those days, the automobile was still impractical for daily travel
to and from the Lalceshore and the trains carried all the commuters.
At this time,the Canadian Pacific had double-tracked the line be­
tween Hontreal-Hindsor street and Vaudreuil. In 1904,the C .P.R.con­
structed its first passenger coaches designed primarily for sub­
urban use. These 1Iere the 300s (soon renumbered into the 100 ser­
ies ),of vlhich more than 200 -Iere built between 1904 and 1913 and
used on many parts of the C.P.R. system. For nearly half a century,
these open-platform, wooden, gas-l it cars lle re the ma instay of the
suburban trains and the number of passengers carried and miles run
by them -,as astronomical. Throughout this era, the Grand Trunk and
its successor,the Canadian National Raih-Iays,operated a parallel
service,Nith trains running at about the same times and stoppine; at
the same stations. Many exciting stories have been told of the
races behleen the commuter trains of the rival companies .Often, when
the race l1as close, the conunuters barely had time to get on or off
the train and sometimes the dilatory ones llere carried on to the
next station or Naited for the next train. Regrettably,no factual
accounts of these exciting competitions seem to have survived.
As the years passed and more and more families settled in
the vlestern area of the Island, the suburban t rains became longer
and service became more frequent. As additional stations were open­
ed,schedules Iere modified to include trains which 1-lould omit cer­
tain stops, followed by other trains ,1111ch stopped at the stations
that the first train had omitted. This resuHed in a faster service

t
-. .
THE THIRD GENE~ATION OF CANADIAN PACIFIC COMMUTER CARS, NO. 1441, WAS
built as a First-class coach and was photographed as new in 1924. After
46 years in service in Canada,this car is beginning a new career in Peru.
Photo courtesy of CP RAIL.
CAR NO. 128 WAS A SUBURBAN CAR BUILT AT ANGUS SHoPS,MoNTREAL IN 1906.
Representing the Second Generation of commuter cars,this type wer8 used
in regular service on the Lakeshore until 1953.
Photo courtesy of J.A.Shields Collection.
THE FOURTH GENERATION -ONE OF CANADIAN PACIFICS 80o-SERIES CARS -ONE
of 40 lightweight commuter cars nos. eOo-839,built by CAN-CAR, Montreal,
in 1953. All of these cars are still in service.Photo courtesy F. Angus.
• • •
t
–..
CP RAILS DAYLINER NO. 9100,A TYPICAL R.D.C.2 UNIT,CAN BE OTHERWISE
described as the Fifth Generation of Lakeshore commuter cars.
Photo courtesy of CP RAIL.

~ AN ASSEMBLY OF TIMETABLES FOR CANADIAN PACIFICS LAKESHORE COMMUTER
service from 1896,1906 and 1921. These timetables are dated pre-
cisely on the back of esch timetable. Courtesy collection F. Angus.

A CANADIAN PACIFIC COMMUTER TRAIN,HEADED BY ENGINE NO. 1992,A 4-6-4T,
stands in the station at Pointe Fortune,Que. about 1910. The engine
was scrapped in 1934 and the line between Rigaud and Pointe Fortune
was abandoned about 1936. Photo courtesy collection Roger Boisvert •
. . ..
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t
ONE OF c,<: ,!IDrr~1 prCIFICS FIWiT SUBURIJAN C[J(CIIES,CAR NO. 302 ~!J.lS SOON
renumbered to 102. This car WRS built at Hochelaga Shops in 1904.
Photo courtesy J.A.Shields ColI.
~ iJHEN THE 800-CL(S5 COMf1UTER CARS ~~ERE NElu,CAN(DIAN FA CIFIC ENGINE NO.
2459 powered a train of them up the hill From Windsor Station to West-
mount about 1955. Photo courtesy of CP RAIL.
. .. .
rhile still covering all tile statiO!; stops. In 1935,the Point For­
tur:e orancll ;Ias aoar:doned,but Ilttle else changed,desplte the ir:­
cleas:Lng automobile traffic and the cor:struction of a divj.ded htgh­
·ray along ~he Lakeshore,noN identified as Route 2-20,parallel to
tile main lir.es of both the Canadian Iacific and Canadiar. Natior.al •
T;,e
trair.s of 1950 differed (JLrc little from tllOse of forty years be­
fore altllOugll steel cars,displaced from other runs,gradually joined
the COnUlll1ter train consists.
The f ilSt b if;; chant{e came ir. 1953, Hher. !j·o !leN l03-seat ,
lightNeiLilt sllburoan coaches Jere adcled to the companys roster.Be­
ine; nlmbered ~)OO to J39,tllej arc all still in Llse,altilough they are
r.ml paintec1 in CP iiAILs silver and red livery. HUh the coming of
the GOOs,the old Iooden cars Ilere finally 11ichdlaWn and although
a
few survive as boarding cars,the JlIajority have long since been
scrapped.
The parallel commuter service,operated by Canadian Nation­
al Raihrays,Hith their distinctive vintage-191L~ tank locomotives, was
cut back to Dorval in 1955 and ~as d iscont inued ent ire ly in 1961. In
the same year,tcl.e Canadian Pacific built a new roadbed just to the
north of its original aligr.ment behleen Ballantyne Tower (approxi-
mately Lachine) and Dorval. This enabled the Canad ian National to
t
…..
A REI1ARflABLE 4-6-4T ,no. 624 ~JAS QUILT BY Ci
JAOIAN rACIFIC~a …… ~
in 1893 for commuter train service. Photo courtesy Railway & Locomotive
Historical Society.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY ENGINE NO. 2816 ROLLS DOdN THE GRADE WEST OF
Grand Boulevard to Montreal West with a train of BOO-class and heavy­
weight coaches at the close of the steam-power era on Montreals Lake­
shore commuter trains. Photo collection p. Murphy.
OFFICIAL DIAGRAM OF CANADIAN PACIFIC RAIUlJAY LOCfJr~oTIVE NO. 524 (LATER
no. 5990),the first ~uburban engine on the Lakesore. Ouilt by Can8dian
Pacific in 1893,she was scrapped in 1924.
-…
4-6-4 SUBURBAN TANK LOCO.
. -..
1——–IW-tr——-j
CLASS T 1.
8U8 0U.88 Tl&.
O~AOfTY IOOL
b-_______ ~.~ To~1 Wheel f.<>&o 0; ~—–I
1-_______ 4!>,~·to Lenqth OVISr f…,no Qnd Il~r ld •• ———1

t
CANADIAN PACIFIC Rf.IL;~AY ENGINE NO. 2811 LEAVES WESH101lNT ON A ~JUNNY
June afternoon in 1960 with a load of homeward-bounrl commuters. Note
the old New York Central coaches in the background. A week later,the
stea~ers were retired and the diesel-electric era began.
Photo courtesy of P. Murphy.
CP RAIL COMMUTER CAR NO. 819 InDES ON THE REAR OF THE 5.15 OVER THE
Glen overpass on a warm summer day in 1969. Photo courtesy F. Angus.
CANADIAN 191 ~ R A I L
relocate its main line west from Turcot Yard along the original 1856
Grand Trunk right-of-way,thus avoiding the slow passage over the
many road crossings in Lachine. After 1955,the Canadian Pacific was
the sole proprietor of Lakeshore connnuter service,apart from the
ever-increas ing private car and bus traffic. The year 1957 sa>1 the
introduction of self-propelled BUDD R.D.C.Dayliners and these ve-
hicles have continued to play an ever-increasing role in the sub-
urban traffic picture. About this time, the mtlk trains ,.,hich had
provided an essential service for so long finally succumbed to the
tank-truck competition. steam locomotives continued to haul prac-
tically all the non-R.D.C. commuter trains until 19Go and by the
spring of tbat year, the Montreal-Lakeshore connnuter trains were the
last st;ror.gbold of steam on the entire Canadian Pacific system. For
a time that spr ing, the steame rs disappeared, but they reappeared br­
iefly tl1ereafter.However,in June,1960,the diesels took over for
good and the commuter trains assumed the appearance they retained
until 1910.
The roster of Canadian Pacifics suburban passenger coa­
ches in the 19Gos included forty BOO-class cars,>/ith about thirty
heavyweight steel coaches of the 1920s and 30s,as well as the
R.D.C • s used on some of the traj,ns. Car 1700, a 1938 st reamlined
coach was rebuilt in 1968 and joined the fleet and the following
year,it and all the 1300s were repainted in the new CP RAIL colours.
Then,on April 2-(,1970,the new gallery cars, 900-901 and 920-926 made
the ir appearance and the schedules and cons ists of the commuter tr­
ains ,ere greatly changed. All of the old heavy>le igllt cars ,ere re­
tired and the 800s were grouped into three trains of 13 cars each,
leaving one 300 and no. 1700,as spares. T,he gallery cars .run as
one train and there are two trains of R.D.C.s,for a total of six
trains.
The modern streamlined trains of 1970,which carry thou-
sands of passengers daily from their homes to their offices in l~on­
treal and back agair. in the evening,ln all kinds of weather, are a
far cry from old engine No. 62
L
f and its >Iooden coaches,or even from
the commuter trains of 20 years ago. As the highways get more and
more cloGBed with autos,the saturation point of the roads comes ever
nearer and the construction of ne1 expressways,at astronomical cost,
only serves to postpone the inevitable for a short interval, >Ihile
increasing tlle contribution to air pollution,already intolerably hi­
gh.
The commuter train,meanwhile,continues to occupy a very
important position in the suburban area picture and, by making the
commuter trains so attractive,CP RAIL has done much to get the com-
muters off the high>lays and on (or back on) the rails. In this
automobile-consc ious age, the prov ieion of fast, eff ic ient suburban
trains is a major factor in convincing the travelling public that
the automobile is not necessarily the best way to go and,as the
number of suburban homes increases and parking spaces in the city
decrease, the importance of CP RAILs Lakeshore commuter service is
ind isputably assured for many years in the future.
0
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*
NEW LOOK ON
THE LAKESHORE
F. Angus
JEi!idaY,APril 24,1970,was the last day
of operation of the old con-
sists of the commuter trains
from CP RAILs v!indsor Street
Station in lvlontreal. That mor­
ning, these trains were made up
of their usual equipment as
they came in to Windsor Street
from the Lakeshore.
During the day hovlever,considerable switching ~as done to make up
the ne1 trains of 13 cars each of the 800 class coaches. Since the
nel! gallery cars Vlere not yet in service,some of the old heavy­
weight cars l-Tere marshalled together for one last run and the last
regular train of the old heavyweight passenger cars left Viindsor
Station at 5 :27 p.m. (1727 hours) on April 24.
The consist of this train,with the construction dates of
the cars,is of interest:
Diesel electric locomotive No. 4069
Cars 1441 (blt.1924) lL~33 (blt.1923) 1335 (blt.1931)
1469 (blt.1928) 1486 (blt.1926) 1303 (blt.1929)
1476 (b It • 1928) 1350 (b It. 1929) 1700 (b It • 1938)
It is interesting to note that all but the last car were heavy­
weights and the first three cars had been used recently on the Can­
adian Railroad Historical Associations excursion to Drummondville,
and were maJdng their first run since that trip.
At 1727 hours, this last train departed from vlindsor Sta­
tion,Montreal, in a pouring rainstorm. Despite the load of 8 heavy­
1eight coaches, the schedule ~Tas maintained, although few passengers
were riding beyond Pointe Claire and therefore subsequent station
stops were short. Hhen the train reached the end of its run at Vau­
dreuil,it marked the end of an era in Lakeshore con~uter service.The
next day,the old cars were deadl~aded back to the Glen Yards and
placed in storage alaiting disposition.
The subsequent disposition of tl~se cars is of interest.
Twenty-four of these old heavY~eights have been acquired by the Per­
uvian Corporation and 1111 be shipped to Peru in South America, in
the near future. The cars involved are: 1335, 1336, 13~·5, 1347, 1348,
1349
,1350, 1)56,1360,1361, 1433, lL~41, lL~55, 1458,1459, 1~60, 1465, 1467,
1469,1476,14(9,1480,1486 and 1054. This will Horite finis to the
….
.. ~lap of the t-:ontreal urban· and GuburbBn area sholJJing the commuter routes
oper-Jted by Canadian Pacific Raill~ay-CP RAIL. Courtesy CP r~/-IL.
CANADIAN
194
R A I L
1400s and 1800s and the only heavyweight coaches remaining on
system will be 1301,1302,1303,1305,1307,1310,1322,1324,1328 and
in Montreal and 1334 and 133T on the Dominion Atlantic Raihlay
Nova Scotia, On May 12,1970, cars llf33 and 1441 were moved to
wharf for load ing, preparatory to the sea voyage to Pe ru,
the
1331
in
the
Saturday,April 25,before the annual spring change of time,
the ne,l gallery cars left Montreal at 1610 as Train 283 and carried
passengers for the first time, HOVlever,the first offiCial run of
the new cars llaS the folloVling Honday,April 2l,~/i1en diesel units
4075 and 8765 hauled cars 901,926,925,924,923,922,921,920 and 900,
in that order. leaving Rigaud,Q,ue, ,at the western extremlty of the
commuter service zone, for Montreal at 064[3 as Train 2(2,
At 0815. the inaugural train arrived at Hindsor Station and
the first commuters to enjoy this nel! facility disembarked from the
nel cars, The long-a~laited changeover had taken place and the new
look had come to Montreals Lakeshore,
t
REPRODUCTIlJN OF THE COMjvlUTER TICKET
recently introduced for commuter pas­
senger service on Montreals Lakeshore,
• THE LAST LAKESHorlE COMilUTER TRAIN OF
heavyweight coaches stops at Dorval
Station in the afternoon of Friday,
April 14,1970. The car in the fore­
ground is no. 1441, Contrast this
picture with that of the same car
when new on page 183,Photo by F, Angus.
THE FRIDAY AFTERNOON TRAIN OF APRIL 14,
1970,dischargBs passengers at Beacons­
field,~uebefore completing the last
few miles of its run into retirement.
All of the cars in this train are going
to Peru,except nos. 1303 and 1700.
Photo by F. Angus.
THE
GALLERY
CARS
Bernard Wilkinson.
INTRODUCTION
The spring timetable came out on April 26,1970,
and with it,CP RAIL introduced a new suburban
train of nine gleaming, space-age, stainless­
steel, gallery-type coaches. The new train oper­
ates between Windsor Station,Montreal and poi­
nts along Montreals Lakeshore.
The diesel-electric locomotive is on the west end of the train and
will pull it on its westward runs and push it back on the eastward
trips. This method of operatior. obviates the necessity of turning
the train around at each end of its run. In operating terminology,
this is known as a push-pull ope.r:ation.To make this kind of oper­
ation possible, two of the new cars are control cars and have an
operators cab at one end.
During the push phase of the operation,the driver is in
the control-car cab and lines running through the train to the loco­
motive carry the comn~nds that control the train.
Gallery-type passenger cars are not new to the North Amer­
ican continent, since several roads operate similar cars in the Chi­
cago commutation zone. Their new Canadian cousins however,have sev­
eral notable differences and innovations. Before deciding to build
gallery cars,CP RAIL conducted an intensive study to determine what
type of equipment would be best suited to the needs of modern com­
muter service. It was decided that the gallery-type car would meet
all of the requirements and,at the same time,would provide the pas­
senge rs with a comfortable and eff ic ient se rv ice.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The most imp8rtant feature in the new cars is
that they each have four upper gallery seating
areas. Each gallery has its own spiral stair­
case located ad jacent to the cent ral vest ibu le .
. . –
FLOOR PLAN AND SIDE ELEVATION OF ONE OF CP RAILS GALLERY CARS – A CON­
trol car,showing the seating arrangement and facilities.Courtesy CP RAIL.
–~-
CANADIAN
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CANADIAN 197
OIJTROL CAR
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CANADIAN R A I L
Wide electrically-operated sliding doors allow rapid loading and
unloading of passengers. There are two types of cars. Seven are ca~
led trailer cars and two are called control cars. In addition to
the drivers cab,the control cars are also equipped with a toilet
and water-cooler.
The passenger capacity of the new cars is as follows:
Control cars -upper level

seated 60
Control cars

lower level

seated
94
Control cars -standees -approximately 30
Control cars -total pas senge rs .•.••••••• lBIf
Trailer cars -upper level -seated 72
Trailer cars

lowe r leve 1 -seated 96
Trailer cars

standees -approximately 30
Trailer cars -total passengers •••••••••• 198
Estimated Total passengers per train ••••• 1,800
The control cars carry fewer passengers because of the space occu­
pied by the drivers compartment on the upper level and because of
the toilet on the lower level. The control cars are numbered 900 &
901 and weigh 113,000 lbs.,while the trailer cars are numbered 920
to 926 inclusive and weigh 110,000 lbs.
This light we ight, compared to convent ional equ ipment, is
a direct result of stainless-steel construction. For example, the
present single-deck commuter coach weighs 105,000 pounds,which is al­
most as much as the new cars which have approximately double the
passenger-carrying capability.
Stainless steel being much stronger than ordinary carbon
structural steels, its use permits a significant weight reduction in
each car. This reduced weight results in a saving in the cost of
fuel for the diesel locomotives. Based on the experience gained th­
rough the use of stainless steel cars on the Canadian, the advan­
tages of its use were obvious. stainless steel is durable and per­
manent and will last for the lifespan of these cars.
Stainless steel, as its name implies,is corrosion-resista­
nt and -an aspect which is of particular importance in commuter
cars -is highly resistant to grime, soot and the corrosive vapors
found in urban areas. Stainless steel eliminates the necessity of
repainting routinely and cleans easily. Its soft lustre presents an
attractive appearance to the passengers.
CONSlRUCTION
CP RAILs gallery cars ,,,ere built by Canadian Vickers,Ltd.
in Montreal,in the same shop where the cars for Montreals METRO,the
citys subway,were built.
The underframes,side-walls,end-walls and roof structures
were all assembled by welding on specially designed jigs. When the
first body shell was completed, it was subjected to rigid structural
testing, in accordance with Association of American Railroads exact-
t THE GALLERY CAR ENDS ARE ASSEMBLED HJ
a jig at Canadian Vickers Limited,prio
to the welding stage.Photo by CP ~AIL.
+ THE MAIN lJNDERFRA~1E HAS BEE~J COrlPLETED
and is now ready for the next step in
the construction process.Photo CP RAIL
THE GALLERY CAR SIDES ARE PUT TOGETHER
in the same manner as the main frame
and car ends -tightened up in a jig
before being welded. Photo by CP RAIL.
CANADIAN
200
R A I L
ing requIrements. These tests ~ere conducted to confirm that the
completed structure conformed to the engineering strength calcula­
tions. Thus,this sertes of tests confirmed the soundness of the de­
sign. There were several tests conducted,but perhaps the most in­
teresting and most important was the squeeze test. In this test,
the car shell was placed in a huge steel squeeze frame and. the
couplers and draft gear at each end were removed and replaced by
large diameter steel bars,which were inserted into the centre sill,
until they contacted the draft-gear stops. One of these bars was
connected to a large hyd raulic jack. During the squeeze operation
the jack applied a force of 800,000 pounds to the car structure.The
strain gauges at various locations on the structure transmitted rea­
dings to electronic equipment to m!asure the stresses produced in
the car body. The upward deflection was measured to determine that
it was within the prescribed limits. The compression of the struc­
ture,under this pressure,was also measured.
Visual evidence of stressed areas was provided by paint­
ing the structure with a stress-coat of paint,whereupon it could
be easily seen whether or not these highly-stressed areas were
acting normally.
After the tests were completed, it … ras essential that no
permanent deformation of the structure should remain; otherwise, it
is a reason for rejection of the design.
Much to the credit of CP HAIL and Canadian Vickers en­
gineers,the car structure passed all these compression tests with
flying colours.
INTERIOR FINISH
I-Ihen the structural test program was completed,the fin­
ishing of the interiors began in earnest.
The interior decor of the cars had been tastefully chosen
to provide a bright,airy and colourful atmosphere. Materials were
selected not only for reasons of appearance but also for durability
and ease of maintenance. For example,the floor-covering chosen was
Flexiflor. In the centre of the floor, it is red and at each side,
under the seats,it is black. CP RAILs decision to use this mater­
ial was based on experience. Flexiflor has seen 18 years of use
in some passenger cars and it has never needed repair or replace-
ment.
The very comfortable seats are covered in green, breathe­
able nylon and the hardware is chrome-plated. Some of the seats are
the throw-overtype,for proper directional ortentation of the pas­
sengers on the return trips •
.. . .
I … THE FINAL COMPONENT OF THE GAllERY CAR IS THE ROOF STflLJCTUfE. THE PIECES
for this element of the car are shnwn here bolted in the jig nrior to
Idelding. Photo courtflsy of CP r,rlIl.

AT CANADIAN VICKERS LIMITED,THE UNDERFRAMES FOR THE NEW CP RAIL GALLERY
cars are being assembled in a jig before being welded.Photo by CP RAIL.
AN INTERIOR VIE!~ OF THE Cm1PLETED GALLERY CAR 5THUCTURE-STAGE B IN
the construction proces~,followed by a picture of the first car
structure in the squeeze frame. The white areas are Stress-
coated to show the areas affected during the test.Photos CP RAIL.

AN INTERIOR VIE~ OF THE LOb~
er level of the passenger
compartment of one of the new
gallery cars. The accompany­
ing photo shows the gallery
arrangement. Photos CP RAIL.
CANADIAN 205 R A I L
The s ide-wall panels are Formica in a terracotta and
cream combination. The windows are SOlex tinted glass on the out­
side panes and safety plate-glass on the inner panes, which are grad­
ually tinted,being darker at the top. The side-v/indow panes are one­
quarter inch thick. All other glass panels in the car are untinted.
Tinting helps to reduce the bothersome glare of the sun and is also
important in preventing thermal transmission on hot summer days when
tne air-conditioning system is in operation.
The glass in the end-doors of the control cars,at the cab
end and also the cab windshield are safety plate-glass 9/16th. inch
thick.
It is also interesting to note that the vestibule at the
centre of the car is completely stainless-steel lined and the spir­
al stairways to the galleries are also of stainless steel. Another
innovation in this pollution-conscious age is the installation of
chemical-type toilets in the control cars. This eliminates the dis­
charge of effluent onto the right-of-way.
LIGHTING, HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING
The interior of· the new cars is lighted with fluorescent
fixtures and operates on 110 volts A/C. There is also an emergency
lighting system that operates off the batteries on 32 volts D/C.
Each car has two separate a ir-cond it ion ing sys terns, -one
for each end. These are mechanical refrigeration units and have a
capacity of 8 tons each and operate on 220 volts A/C.
The heat ing system, essent ial for cold-weathe r comfort, is
electric. The heaters are installed at the junction of the side-wall
and the floor and are c6ntinuous for the full length of the passen­
ger compartment. A 1000-watt electric heater has been installed
under the bottom step at the side door, in the vestibule. This helps
to keep the step free of ice and snow in wintertime layover periods
and also keeps the door pocket clear of ice and snow which could
soon foul the proper operation of the doors.
Each car is equipped lith its own electrical generating
system. A Cummins diesel engine drives a generator which has an out­
put of 75 kilo~atts. The electricity developed is used for the heat­
ing and air-conditioning systems and also for the lights. In the
event of the failure of the diesel engine in one car,poler is sup­
plied from an adjacent car, since the cars are trainlined in sets of
two. This arrangement permits full lighting and air-conditioning,in
seasons of summer temperatures and partial heating during the cold
~eather. However,the electrically-operated sliding doors, as well
as the control car headlights, gyrolites ,marker lamps, chemical
tOilets,etc.,are arranged to operate on the 32-volt D/C system. In
the case of a total power failure, all cars could be brou~lt back
for maintenance without operational difficulties.
Exhaust gases from these diesel engines on each car,after
passing from the engine through the muffler,are piped up one end of
the car to roof level. This provision has been made so that pas­
sengers on station platforms Iill not be bothered by the fumes. For
the engine cooling system,a special shroud has been designed to en-

t
THE REAR END OF THE G.f1LLt:IW CAR IS FITTED I.:ITH ,:IN EXI~i1IJ:JT PIPE iJllICH
conveys the fumes from the diesel motor to the car roof l8vel, a~8y
from the passengers on the platform. Photo cDurt8sv CP RAIL.
A S
IDE VIE! OF THE NEI,J GALLERY CARS -IJSED FI~E:UErHLY IN PURUCITY
releases by CP RAIL -shows the impressive size of the car.
ON THE FIRST DAY OF REGULAR SERVICE,THE NE~ GALLERY CARS FIT NEATLY
under the canopy of the platform at CP RAILs IJind30r 5tation,Montreal.
AT THE END OF ITS FIRST RUN IN REGUI.AR SERVICE,THE COMPLETE TRAIN OF
CP RAIL gallery cars poses at Hudson,~ue.,on April 29,1970. F. Angus.
-. ..
close the radiator and fans in the winter. The resulting heat that
is trapped is utilized in preventing a build-up of ice or: certain
components.
PERFORMANCE IN SERVICE
The ne,~ gallery cars have been equipped lith the latest
design of truck,incorporating soft long-travel springs and roller
bearings. CP RAIL conducted ride tests on the ne~ cars and, utiliz­
ing impact ride recorders, determined that these cars are among the
best for ride quality in the fleet.
For those of us who are not fortUnate er.ougll to live in
Jvlontreals Lakeshore district,an afternoor. trip to )3te-Anne-de-Bel­
levue and Hudson would be a refreshing and enlightening experier:ce
and might even convince some city buffs to move to the suburbs.
Train 265 leaves Montreal Windsor Station for Hudson at
1610 with 5 or 6 cars and arrives back at Hindsor Station at H3)0 J
as Train 264. Train 273 with all nine of the r.ew cars leaves Mor.­
treal at 1845 for Rigaud,at the end of the corunuter district, where
it remains overnight. Next morning as Train 272, it head s bacl< into
Windsor Station,where it arrives at OS]i_
CP RAIL is to be congratulated for having prOduced this
fine train. It has brought a new and vital experience to those who
travel daily from the Lakeshore. It is a fitting tribute to the Com­
pany whose motto is :/lServing You in So Hany I·Jays.
A COMPLETE TRAIN OF GALLERY CARS,HEADED BY CONTROL CAR NO. 900.JUST
Visible at the rear of the train is the diesel unit supplying the
power. Photo courtesy of R. Ian Stronach.
CP RAILS FORM 19-Y FOR APRIL 24,1970 INTRODUCES THE NEW OPERATING
Timetable 44 (Eastern Region) heralding the advent of the new Gal-
lery Car Commuter Trains. Collection F. Angus.
.
.
0
OBSERVATIONS
VVITH F.A.KEMF
•••••
The concept of carrying passengers
ir. vehicles with toJO or more levels
is not recent or new. In fact, it
antedates the railways,as we knml
them.
In the latter years of the 18th. century, roads were improved
to permit the passage of heavier vehicles and IIstage-coaches
ll
be­
gan to provide more or less regular service between towns and ci­
ties in Great Britain,Europe and eastern North America, carryir.g
passengers, mail and small parcels.
In Great Britain, an elaborate system developed at about the
same time as the postal service,with which it was closely allied.
Four-wheeled coaches,hauled by four or six horses,generally car­
ried six passengers ir.side and from two to six lIoutsidell.The lat­
ter rode on top of the stage-coach,along with the driver and the
guard. These passengers usually paid lower fares and enjoyed an
excellent view of the landscape on fine days,but were,of course,
exposed to the weather in inclement periods and were expected to
get out and push if the coach should become mired in a mud-hole ,
~Ihich ~las not an unusual occurrence I In North America, roads were
worse and lighter vehicles were used,so that lIoutside
ll
passengers
were not always carried.
As the railways developed in England during the 1830s, they
were provided,almost from the beginning,Vlith IIcarriage trucks
ll
as
well as IIhorse-boxesll,which were used to transport privately-owned
carriages and horses,but soon came also to be used to transport
mail coaches and freight wagons,which completed their jourr.eys by
road,after reaching the end of the railway line. This practice so­
on ceased after the rail lines ~lere completed betoJeen the prin­
cipal centres,but the carrying of private carriages and horses at
special rates cor.tinued for many years.
Today,in the latter half of the 20th. century,we are constar.­
tly reminded of these early days by the names still given to some
•••
.. UNDOUBTEDLY A VERY EARLY EXAMPLE OF A BILEVEL CAR,CANADIAN PACIFICS
Observation Car No. 517 was built in 1902,probably for use on trans­
continental trains through the Canadian Rockies. Photo courtesy CP RAIL.
r
I
r
I
CANADIAN 212 R A I L
members of the raihTay operating tIades in the United Kingdom: He
speak of the driver (engineer),the guard (conductor) and in
common parlance, passenger cars are st ill carriages there but
coaches in North America.
In the early days,occupants of pri-
vate carriages orten remained in
them,rather than transferring to
the passenger space available on the
train. It is not known,however, whe­
ther or not mail-coach passengers did
likewise,-probably not. The restric­
ted clearances of British rail ~Tays
effectively precluded the adoption
of the bi-level principle and al­
though the compartments of early
Britisl1 raihTaY carriages were sty­
led to look like stage-coach bodies,
passengers did not,as a rule, ride
outside!
Early North American railroads VTere built /lith more generous
clearances and passenger cars of the early 1830s were often fit-
,ted with seats on their tops. A description of the first eight-wh-
eeled passenger car.the Columbus,built for the Baltimore and
Ohio Railroad in 1831 by Ross lJinans. states that it had seats on
the top,like other cars previously used,reached by a ladder at one
corner of the car.
Roof -top seat ing was found to be uncomfol:tab le, impract ical and
unnecessary and soon was abandoned by the railways,although a num­
ber of double-deck horse-cars were built for urban trans it lines.
These were more common in Great Britain and led to the almost uni­
versal adoption of the double-deck vehicle when tram lines Here
electrified. Very few Guch vehicles operated in North America, wh­
ere road clearances were more restricted.
The improved visibility potential of a roof-top position be­
came apparent to a freight train conductor on the Chicago and Nor­
th Hestern Railway in 1864. Following an accident 1111icll made a
large hole in the roof of his I·my-car caboose,he installed an ele­
vated seat and later persuaded the car foreman to construct an
enclosure or cupola, This feature vias adopted on the C, & N ,11,
and gradually spread to many lines throughout North America. A de­
sign for a passenger observation car was published in 1889,but the
idea was not adopted unt il 1892 when the Canad ian Pac if ic Ra ilway
built three parlor-observation cars of its own design,with not one
but two cupolas! They were used in Rocky Mountain service, but had
definite disadvantages in the days of coal smoke and no air-con­
ditioning,which influenced the Company to revert to the use of the
single-deck open observation cars,
After 1900,double-deck trams and motor buses came into gener­
al use in Great Britain and many British colonies throughout the
world, Double-deck buses were used in NeVI York and Chicago, but low
CANADIAN 213
R A I L
clearances of wires and underpasses limited their use in other
North American and European cities to a fe>1 experimental vehicles.
The upper decks of the earlier cars and buses were open,but it
soon became apparent that an enclosed upper level made for a more
useful all-,~eather unit,so thellopen-topslldisappeared,along with
their North American counterparts,-the open-bench street car.
By the late 1930s, the Long Island
Railroad,with restricted clearances
in its East River tunnels and North
Americas heaviest commuter traffic
attempted to resolve some of the
concurrent problems by designing a
h
igb-capac ity coach, in wh ich alte r­
nate groups of four seats were rai­
sed above the others, giving a stag­
gered effect similar to that of the
IIduplex roomette
ll
sleeping cars lh­
ich lere built after World Tar II.
The first cars were produced in 1937 and a later group came
out about ten years later. They ,~ere not popular ,dth the passen­
gers,who objected to the compartmentization which,while quite
usual and acceptable in Europe,las not so in the United States. In
addition,this arrangement obliged half the passengers to ride back­
ward. These cars are still in service. At about the same time, the
Pennsylvania Railroad introduced sleeping cars with duplex single
rooms staggered in the same manner, the beds being crosswise of
the car. These cars are also st ill used on the liB roadway Limited.
The IIneed to see and the tourists provided the incentive for
the re-introduction of the cupola in passenger car design in 1945.
Re-entitled. the Vista Dome, it derived from the suggestion of a
design engineer of General Motors Electro-Motive Division, ,ho,
suitably impressed lith the view from the cab of a newly-delivered
GM diesel locomotive on the Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad,
sketched out a passenger car lith an elevated, glassed-in obser­
vat ion room.
The first Vista-Dome was constructed on an existing coach of
the Chicago,Burlington & Quincy Railroad, but the IIdome boom did
not begin until 1947,lhen the General Motors IITrain of Tomorrow
toured North America. This train, hauled by a 2000 hp. E-JA diesel
unit,consisted of a dome coach,parlor and sleeping car. The domes
of these and most subsequent dome cars seated 26 persons. The floor
under the dome ias 10~ered slightly and the space was generally oc­
cupied by vlashrooms and closets but, in later years, cars ,~ere built
with kitchens,dining rooms and lounges, under the domes.
The Union Pacific Railroad ,~hich purchased the original Train
of Tomorrowll,later built several dining cars in which meals ,~ere
served in the dome. The Mihlaukee Road boasted the first passenger
cars built in ~hich the dome extended for almost the full length of
the car. The lower level contained a lounge for refreshments, wash­
rooms and a considerable amount of air-conditioning equipment. Six
CANADIAN 214 R A I L
of these cars are now owned by Canad ian National RaihTays. The San­
ta Fe and Great Northern railroads also purGhased full-length dome
cars,mounted on siX-wheel trucks,but the Southern Pac1fic,Tith many
miles of tunnels too low for regular dome cars, converted several
coaches into low profile dome cars with a glass roof covering a
low-level lounge and a high-level observation section. The space
under the observation section was not accessible to passengers and
contained only air-conditioning equipment.
Dome observation cars are not in
olidespread use in Europe,but the
French National Railways (SNCF )
operate a number of dome-equip –
ped autorails or self-propel –
led railcars, mainly on services
in the south of France,while the
Rheingold express of the Ger-
man Federal Railways (DB) has
featured a dome car since the
mid-1950
I
s. This same raihmy
system also operates true bi-lev­
el or double-deck coaches, in
which revenue passenger space is
on both levels.The history and
interior arrangements are not
known to the lriter and they may
indeed antedate the introductlon
of bi-level equipment in North
American service in 1954.
The principal railroads operating suburban commuter service
in the Chicago, Ill. area are the Chicago & North Hestern, the Chi­
cago,Mll~laukee,St. Paul & Pacific (the Mllwaul~ee Road), the Bur­
lington Northern (formerly the Chicago,Burlington & Quincy, known
as the Burlington Route),the Chicago,Rock Island & Pacific (Rock
Island),the Illinois Central (electric) and the Chicago, South
Shore & South Bend (South Shore Line; electric). A limited service
is also operated by the Penn Central (former Pennsylvania Railroad).
Hhile most of these lines operate throughout the day, they
experience heavy traffic peaks in the morning and evening rush hours.
In 1950,most of their suburban equipment las from 24 to 30 years old,
of heavYTeight design and construction and limited in capacity. The
Rock Island was the first to begin modernization; it received some
single-level lightweight suburban coaches in 1951. These cars had
two mid-car entranceways,dividing the cars into three parts. Doors
were mechanically operated and steps enclosed. l-1ost of them are nOVl
retired.
The Chicago & North Western Raihlay introduced its gallery
cars in 1954. Decorated in the bright lemon yellow and apple green
of the 400 Fleet,they introduced their commuters to bright lights,
stainless steel and air conditioning,-a decided contrast to the
rattan seats, bare bulbs and open windows formerly enjoyed. The un­
precedented seating capacity of these new cars (154 passengers) now
CANADIAN 215 R A I L
meant shorter trains and mO.re seats. The gallery arrangement per­
mitted all fares to be collected from the lower level. The Company
introduced them to main line serv ices between Chicago, Green Bay,
Ishpeming and Ashland in 1959, includ ing even b i-level parlor cars.
They continued to operate to these cities,mixed in .>lith single-level
dining and lounge cars. Subsequent ur:its for conmlUter service sea­
ted 169 passengers. Control-cab cars and train-lines to permit push­
pull operation were introduced by the C. & N.Hbut soon spread to
other Chicago lines, the Burlington, the Milwaukee and the Rock Isla­
nd,which also adopted bl-levels,but still operate single-level coa­
ches 1n rush hours. The Illinois Central,whose large fleet of mul­
tiple-unit electric cars dates from about 1925,has ordered units of
a untque design of bi-1evel electric,cut dom at one end to allo1
enough room for a roof-top pantograph. None of these is yet in op­
eration,but their arrival is expected soon. Similar units could pro­
bably be used on the South Shore,but this last interurban,although
serving the Chicago suburban area,operates mainly in the state of
Indiana and has been unable to persuade the Indianapolis-based State
government to set up the necessary authority to qualify it for Fed­
eral government aid for the construct ion of r.ew passenger cars. Its
equipment is nov, about lj·4 years old,but has been considerably mo­
dernized ar.d air-conditioned. HOlfever,maii:tenar.ce and operating cos­
ts are increasing and the road recently petitioned to terminate mar.y
of its off-peak-hour runs. It fould be a shame if this valuable fa­
cility should be lost through indifference and inaction,as Here its
colleagues,the Chicago,Aurora & Elgin (1959) and the Chicago, North
Shore & Milvraul Central is to get b i-levels for its tlO commuter trains!
San Francisco,California, is the or.ly other U,S, city to be
served by a double-deck suburban train service,bllt this is quite
logical and appropriate,since this is the only remai.ning rail com­
muter service Hest of Chicago! t·10reover,the z.eal of many San Fran­
ciscar.s to avoid the freellay fanaticism of neighbouring Los An­
geles is >lell-lmovrn. The Southern Pacific trains run dOHn the per.­
insula to San Jose. The cars are similar to those in Chicago ar.d a
fel, aged Harriman arch-roof coaches appear in r.ush hours.
HOlJeVer,tI1e motive pOHer differs. 11hile Chicago Bi-levels are
pOl,erecl by a generally reliable if age ing collect ion of GM E-7a s ,
E-BAs,FP-7A
s
and even a few E-9As,displaced by the attrition of
main 11.ne passenger trains,the San Fmr.cisco locomotive maintenance
staff, creHS and passengers have to suffer tile vagaries of a large
fleet of Fairban{s-Horse TrainMasters,~hich have been relegated
to that small corner of tl1e vast EsPee system.
Ehe best examples of the bi-level to high-leveltransi Glon
were the pomierous lJetlicles opera-ced by tne 0tlntGl Fe on ttle El Cap
San lnmci <;co Chief and lexas Chief, rhese monsters represented
the last order ot main-line passenger cars and the El Cap,wnen it
is run separate from the Chip-f still me.kes an impressive Sight,
with its huge cars rocking ever so slighclY,the southwestern sun-
set glinting brilliantly trom tneir stainles<;-steel si.des, If the
passenger train has to go,it snould go lOOKing just liKe this!
FROM THE ASSOCIATION S ARCHIVES
CANADIAN RAIL
published by t.he
CANADIAN RAILROAD mSTOFJCAl ASSOCIATION ~~~~~QU~~uuu °B
Assooiat.e Membership inoluding 11 Issues of
rCa.na.dia.n Ra.il 8.00 a.nnua.lly.
EDITOR S. VlTort.hen PRODUCTION . P. Murphy
EDITORIAL ASSOCIATE F.A Kemp
DISTRIBUTION J.A.Beat.t.y & F.F.Angus
VISIT THE
Canal,lian Railway Museum
VI SITEZ t.. E
Musee Ferroviaire Canadien
OPEN MAY SEPT. OUVERT MAl· SE·PT.
DIRECTOR OF BRANCHES
C…I.K.Heard. 74 Southern Drive, Otta …. ·D. 1, Canada
DIRECTOR OF MEMBERSHIP SERVICES
Mr. J.A.Beatty. 4982 Queen Mary Road, Montreal 248. Quebec, Canada.
ASSOCIATION BRANCHES
OTTAWA
Mr.M.lveson I Seoty P.O.Box J52, Terminal All Ottawa Onto
ROCKY MOUNTAIN Mr .. Donald W.Scafe 12407 Lansdowne Drive, Apt. 101, Edmonton Alta.
ASSOCIATION REPRESENTATIVES
OTTAlJA VALLEY
SASKATCHEWAN
PACIFIC COAST
FAR EAST
BRITISH ISLES
MANITOBA
ALBERTA
K.F.Chlvers, Apt. J .. 67 Somerset St. J,.. •• ottawa, Ontario.
J .S.N1choloson, 2J06 Arnold St .. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
Peter Cox, 609 Co t tonwood Ave.. Coqul tlam I Sri tl sh Columbia.
W.O.McKeown, 6-7. 4-chome, Yamate-cho,Sulta City. Osaka, Japan.
J.H.Sanders. 67 Willow Way, Ampthill, Beds .. England.
}(.G.Younger, 267 Vernon Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Hr. Donald W.Scafe,12407 Lansdowne Drive. Apt. IOLEdmonton Alta.
Copyright 1970 Printed in Canada on Canadian paper.

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