Robert A. Loat
the deepening shadows of the main range
of the Canadian Rockies,it is a late
winters evening and the village is qui
et. The few lights glitter on the spark
ling snow,sometimes silhouetting the
cars in the railway yard.Dominating the
sounds carried by the chilly breeze from
the towering mountains is the occasional
subdued chant of a GM 567,as the diesel
unit idles on the siding.
To the south,another sound,intermittant at first,but becoming
constant,heralds the approach of the westbound freight,with a lash
up of F-M opposed piston units on the head-end.Growing louder and
louder,it suddenly diminishes,just out of town. The glow of the
headlight anticipates the load rumble as units and train traverse
the bridge and grind to a stop in the yard. Against the rhythmic,
background rumble of the diesels,the snow squeaks and scrunches
under the head-end brakemans boots,as he walks over to the sta
tion. Minutes later,he returns to throw the switch for the yard
lead. His lantern describes graceful arcs in the darkness and then
follows a crooked path through the rails and switch-stands.
With a preliminary,mounting roar,the F-M o-ps grumble into
action,roaring into the fourth and fifth notch before the heavy
train be gins to move. Swinging through the switch, the lead units
headlight sweeps the station briefly, catching the name Golden
the station board ,momentarily. Behind the three units, a dozen box
cars of lurnber,cars of lead ingots from th.e smelters of Trail and
an endless string of hoppers follow,-coming and coming, all full
to capacity with Crowsnest coal. The caboose clears the main-line
switch and,with the screech of protesting brake shoes,the train
stops .vJith the bang of parting air-hoses, the units cut off from
the head of the train.
c :xc :xc >
The photograph on the cover is CP RAILs extra north 8717,twinned with
no. 8723,FM H-16-44s growling along Bull River,B.C.,5 miles west of Col
valli,on a gravel train on the Windermere Sub. Photographed September 20,
1968 by W.R.Linley,Ottawa,Canada.
~ Extra north 8723 plus 4439 plus 4062 of CP RAIL,one mile south of Wasa,
B.C.,Windermere Subdivision, on August 24,1968. Photo courtesy R.A.Loat.
R A I L
suddenly,there is the intense whine of heavy dynamic braking
superimposed on all other night sounds,as four sD-40s,led by no.
5558,rumble out of the canyons mouth to the east,around the lo
oping curve of the Kicking Horse River,with a long westbound man
ifest freight. Car after car of prairie grain,potash,natural gas
and bulk sulphur dominate the consist. About half-way in the len
gth of the truin are four more SD-40s and ROBOT II,no. 1001.
It is with this kind of power that CP RAIL will be moving Canada s I
natural resources from the Prairies and the Rockies to Pacific
Up and down the length of North Alrerica s west coast, the usu-
ally balmy ocean slopes are separated from the harsh climate of
the great central plain by a system of mountain ranges known as
the western Cordillera. The easternmost range of this system is
called the Rocky Mountains which in Alberta and southern British
Columbia form the boundary between the two Provinces and also re
present the Continental Divide. West of the Rockies lie three oth
er major ranges: the Selkirk,Monashee and Coast Ranges. The latter
C !2g :::jC :a
CP RAIL Train 72 , units nos. 4061 & 4471 at the east switch beside
Creek near Michel,B.C. R.A.Loat captured the train on film on April
Extra south CP RAIL 8676 and Extra north 8653 at the north switch at Ed
gewater,B.C. on August 24,1968. Photo courtesy R.A.Loat,Calgary,Alta.
:: :::, C :s:: ::::x
two are separated by the high and rugged Cariboo Plateau. Along
the International Boundary to the south,mountain ranges and river
valleys make east-west railroading very difficult.
This southern region has always been rich in mineral deposits.
Indeed,gold and silver have periodically produced mass papulation
migrations from other areas of the two Provinces,as well as some
neighbouring areas of the United states. Today,the Sullivan Mine
at Kimberley supplies lead-zinc ore for COMINCOs refinery complex
at Trail and Tadanac. vast coal deposits from Fernie,B.C. to Blair
more,Alta.,have heated homes,fed coking furnaces and fuelled steam.
locomotives and ocean-going ships for more than half a century.The
coal mining industry in the Crowsnest pass region is presently poi-
sed on the brink of a boom which will see a quadrupling of coal
production in 1970.
Rail transportation from the prairies to the Pacific became a
reality in November 1885 and began in earnest in 1886,when the Can
adian Pacifics line from Montreal to Port Moody was open for bus-
·–·–:i:ne-sS-;–Howeve-r.,–s-ottthe-rn–Br1:t-±str-e·OIumb-±a-wa-s-wtttrout–a–Ta i Ill a y at
that time and trade moved up and down the rivers,which led to the
neighbouring United states. Some 13 years later,in the fall of 1898
the Canadian pacific opened a line from Medicine Hat,Alta.,via Leth
bridge to Crofsnest pass and Kootenay Land ing,B.C. Later ,a branch
railway was built from this line at Colvalli,to Golden,B.C. on the
main line of the canad ian pacific and. today,CP RAIL moves fifty to
R A I L
one hundred hoppers of coal daily from the Crowsnest pass area to
Port Moody,near Vancouver, on the shores of Burrard Inlet where it
is loaded on ships destined for the steel mills of Japan. Hopper
cars permanently assigned to this back and forth service are
prominently lettered COIEMIN-PORT MOODY Coal Service. Additional
cars from the general pool of open bottom-dump hoppers are similar
ly labelled and supplied as required.
Most of the loaded coal hoppers from the Crowsnest are picked
up by the subdivision way-freight and set out at Colvalli in the
early hours of the morning. Later the same day,a train originating
on the main line at Cranbrook,some distance west,pickS up these
loads and takes them north over the Windemere sub to Golden. From
Golden west,over the magnificent stretches of the upper Columbia
River and Beaver Creek valleys, the coal moves over Rogers and
Eagle passes to Port Moody in main-line freights.
The process of filling out westbound tonnage and assigning
the required power requires a considerable amount of yard and ser
vice trackage.On occasions when main-line tonnage is exceptional
ly heavy, coal hoppers may accumulate in the Golden yard to the
point where a solid coal train may be made up and operated as far
west as Kamloops. With the anticipated 1970 volume of coal traf
fic through Golden,CP RAIL is presently seeking permission from
Goldens municipal authorities to enlarge the existing yard,which
is located in the towns centre. Although CP RAIL and its associa-
ted activities are the life-blood of the community, civic offi-
cials are resisting this expansion, preferring instead that the
new yard be located north along the Columbia,in a rather marshy
area, which will evidently be more expensive to drain and fill.The
area immediately south of the town is even more marshy and has
been excluded from further consideration.
The current traffic in coking coal is being shipped to NIPPON
KOKAN,a consortium of Japanese coal companies and coal users, by
Coleman Colleries Limited,of Coleman,Alta. This contract is now in
the second year of a 15-year period, supplying a total of 13 mil
lion long tons. Kaiser Coal Limited of Natal,B.C.,just west of the
Crowsnest,is also supplying coal to Japan from its Michel mines,at
the rate of 400;000 tons per ~ear. In addition to production for
Japanese customers, Kaiser also sells 400,000 tons of coal and
200,000 tons of coke annually to Canadian customers. Thus,there is
already considerable traffic by rail from the mines in this area.
New power and new cars for CP RAIL will be for a completely new
of traffic,not just an upgrading of facilities to handle
On March 1,1968,Kaiser Coal Limited,a wholly-owned subsidiary
of Kaiser Steel Corporation of oakland,California,purchased the
mineral rights on vast stretches of land,to the north of Crowsnest
pass,from Crowsnest Industries Limited. These rights included the
land in most of the Elk River valley and the tributaries of Elk
River,plus the presently-operating mines of Crowsnest Industries.
Kaiser proposes to strip-mine these vast areas to satisfy the con-
Two FM Trainmasters,nos. 8719 & 8716 on the shop track at Golden, B.C.
with nos. 8813 and 8685,captured August 24,1968 by Bob Loat of Calgary.
C :::::a c:
tract requirements,which will be 3.2 million tons per year, as of
other-than-mining operations associated with the coal delivery
project employ l~OO Canadians,about 200 working at the Roberts Bank
superport on the Straits of Georgia and 200 at Natal in the Crows
nest,surveying and constructing.l,Hthin sight of the B.C. govern
ments Tsawwassen Ferry Terminal for the vancouver-Victoria run,
huge dredges are at work two miles from the shore line buildlng up
land from the shallows for the Superport,while at the same time,de-
epening the approaches to provide 65 feet of water to float the
Japanese supercarriers to dockside. At the extreme opposite side of
the Province near Natal,eighty-foot wide roads criss-cross Harmer
Ridge,under which lles most of Kaisers coal.
The scope of this mammoth mining operation overwhelms the
imagination. USing drag-line and power shovels of the largest kind
the excavated coal tTill be transported from one interior valley to
the breaker (sorter and washer) on the Natal side. Auxiliary tr
ansportation will be accomplished through the use of 100-ton dump
trucks, whose nine-foot wheels are powered by individually-mounted
electric motors,which take their power from an independent diesel-·
electrlc generator set.At the loading point of Sparwood,coal hop
pers will be loaded while moving at a speed of 1 to 2 miles per
R A I L
lVith these super-production methods, it might be concluded th
at the underground deposits would soon be exhausted,but the unbe
lievable fact is that Number Ten Seam alone is fifty to seventy
five feet thick,for a distance of at least seventymiles!Estimates
have been made that at a mining rate of 4 million tons a year, the
deposits of black diamonds will last at least ONE THOUSAND YEARS 1
Geologists believe that there are six thousand million ( in figures
6,000,000,000) tons of good metallurgical coking coal in the Hum
ber Ten Seam. Kaiser has signed an agreement with the Japanese in
terests to provide 3.2 million tons annually for 15 years.
Not to be outdone,Canadian Pacific Oil and Gas Limited,a cor-
porate brother of CP RAIL,have suggested that the results of a
recent geological survey conducted in the area in the Elk River
valley north of the Kaiser holdings,indicate that there may be a
further deposit of coal of the order of TEN TIMES that which Kai
ser will start working in 1970. True or false,CP RAIL has applied
for and received a charter to build a branch line 34 miles north
from Sparwood,the Kaiser Coal loading terminal. The cost of the
new branch is estimated at $lO-million, but it will not take long
to pay back this capital investment.
In addition to the Japanese contract,Kaiser is hoping to sell
coking coal to Hamilton,Ontario steel plants,if east-bound unit –
train operation can lower freight costs enough to make this econ
omically feasable. Other marketing possibilities exist in the
neighbouring state of Idaho,which is now supplied frOm coking ov
ens in the neighbouring state of Utah. Kaisers own steel mill in
Fontana,California might be a potential customer and there are
good possibilities in the steel mills of southeast Asia,
Kaisers current 800,000 tons is rather a small portion of
the total current export coal trade to Japan. Existing contracts
now total more than seven million tons annually to the country a
cross the pacific. Luscar Limited,with mines in the Luscar-Foot
hills district of Alberta,are producing on a 15 year,50-million
ton contract. They are shipping through CP RAILs bulk terminal
at Port Moody,B.C. Presently negotiating in Japan are other CP
subsidiaries,in view of the apparently extensive reserves in the
Crowsnest region,in the upper reaches of the Elk Creek valley.
Aside from the four railways (CP,CN,BC Hydro and Great Nor
thern) presently negotiating problems of CP RAIL access to the new
Roberts Bank superport,the only other potential difficulty could
be with the conservationists and tourist bureaux. Courtesy of the
conservationists,a good deal of propaganda and opposition from the
public to the strip-mining scheme has been generated. Historically
strip-mining operations have laid waste large areas in the Appal-
On a visit to the Crowsnest area on September 20,1968,Bill Linley
Ottawa caught CP RAILs FM Trainmaster no. 8608 switching hopper
at the coal washing plant et Natal,B.C. Nearby at Sparwood,Kaiser
will load unit-trains For export to Japan,via Roberts Bank.
CP RAILs FM Trainmaster no. 8608 shuffles coal hoppers in the yard at
Natal,B.C. on September 20,1968. Photo courtesy W.R.Linley,Ottawa,Ont.
c :at !2C ::::x
achian Region of the eastern United states. More rec~ntly, in Nov
ember,1968,the main Crowsnest highway, No. 3,was suddenly covered
to a depth of i5 feet for nearly a half-a-mile,when excessive rain,
an underground stream and natural fluidity combined to turn loose
a mountain of mine waste. Fortunately this slide caused no property
damage or loss of life. But it did obliterate the highvJay.
To move Crowsnest coal by CP RAIL, several motive power cycles
have been suggested. Four IIpacesetter
diesel units with IIcreep
control II will power the train through the load ing chutes and the nce
to Colvalli and Golden. At Golden,the four IIpacesetters would hand
over the train to other power, themselves returning south to Spar
wood with a train of empty hoppers. The loads would go west with
four new units leading,augmented by a ROBar and four IIrepeater or
slave units about two-thirds of the way back in the train. At Bea
vermouth,a three-unit lash-up (pusher) would be added about half
way back and together the 11 units would move the tratn up the 22-
mile climb to Glacier,B.Cat the western entrance to the Con-
naught Tunnel. This run is in fact a helper district, one of the
few left on CP RAIL, in the days of the d iese 1.
The four-unit pusher would come out of the train at Glacier
and the eight remaining units and ROBar would slide down the Ille
cillavlaet River to Revelstoke and on to Eagle pass. At Canoe,B.C.,
the ~ine tops the ridge,on the other side of which lies Kamloops
and the fairly level stretches of the North Thompson-Fraser River
system.Logically,ROBar and the four slaves will be dropped at ei-
CA NAD I AN
R A I L
ther Canoe or Kamloops. The four lead units can then take the whole
train on to Roberts Bank,with no trouble. ROBOT and slave units can
probably pay their .,ay back to Golden on eastbound tonnage trains,
by providing essential brake control, although the power component
is unnecessary. Judging from power requirements,it is probable that
there will be at least four ROBOTs, -three of which will be in ser
vice at anyone time,vlith the fourth in reserve. Final power com
binations will likely be decided after actual road-testing with
the new units to be delivered in 1970 by MLW-Worthington,not for
getting the experimental single unit included in the batch of
At the western end of the Crowsnest-Roberts Bank run, a route
must be selected from the main line of CP RAIL to Roberts Bank.The
Prime Minister of British Columbia, the Honorable H.A.C .Bennett,al
ways on the lookout for revenue for his Province is advocating the
operation of this link by Provinclally-owned BC Hydro Railway. CP
RAIL would obviously prefer to do it themselves, since they handle
t he trains for the 600-mile lion I s -share of the movement. CN, not
to be left out of the competition,avers that since the Superport
operation will be federal-government built and controlled, they
will,of course, supply the railway service to the facility. Great
C ;:xc :Ie :::c
CP RAIL extra north 8712,aided by 8556,4471 and 4065,one mile north of
Colvalli,B.C. on the Windermere Sub. This is along the route of CP RAILs
unit-train operation. Photo June 30,1968 by D.E.Wingfield.
This is the sort of open hopper which will be doing a lot of moving to
and from the Roberts Bank Superport, early in 1970. The multimark and in
scription CP RAIL identify it beyond question. Photo courtesy CP RAIL.
C :c !Ie ::
Northern Railroad from the neighbouring state of Washington, having
an historic interest in railway entrances to Vancouver,are also on
the alert for transportation opportunities. Regardless of the out
come of these negotiations,CP RAIL has already sought and obtained
operating rights over about 40 miles of track between Mission and
the approaches to Roberts Bank,presently owned by canadian Nation
al,BC Hydro and Great Northern.
Three routes from CP RAIL at Mission,B.C.,have been proposed.
Route I outlines the extension of an existing CN branch line, with
appropriate upgrading. Number 2 suggests the use of BC Hydro right
of-way from a connection with CP RAIL, south of Mission and thence
over a new line around Boundary Bay. Proposal 3 describes a new
line from CP RAIL, across the Fraser River at Fort Langley,over the
BC Hydro (ex BC Electric Railway) line and west on a new line, ap
proximately parallel to BC Highway 10,the Ladner Trunk Road. Sug
gestions I and 2 are not totally acceptable to the ubiquitous con
servationists,as they involve construction along river banks and
seashores and are thus anticipated to interfere with wildlife in
Latterly,ROBars I and II of CP RAIL, being tested in the ex
acting conditions of Rogers pass, seem to have proved out satisfac
torily. Bugs were not absent however,on occasion,as several de
railmnets were ascribed to the vagaries of radio-controlled slave
units.Nonetheless,when preliminary trials terminated in midsummer
(19691.,both the LOCarROL and WABCO systems were declared to have
been satisfactory. From this neutral evaluation, it is difficult
to say how successful they were,or which system will be selected.
Final details of the project are expected to become public
piecemeal in the latter part of 69 and early 70. One thing is
certain: 1970 will be a very interesting year for the Rocky Moun
tain railfan! Yes, very interesting!
% 2: :::::xc ::x
CP RAILs station at Natal,B.C.,the east end of the unit-train operation
for Coal to Japan. Photograph September 20,1968 by W.R.Linley,Ottawa.
THE REASON WHYo
A ny person not interested in railways
and some who are,lould have a number
of mighty big questions to ask, when
they discovered the two,genuine,live
Shay locomotives,working around Van
couver vlharves,Limited in North Van
couver,B.C. vlhy in the world,in this
modern day of diesels, should two Shay
locomotives be considered practical?
Well, there are reasons.
Ten years ago, when Vancouver vlharves Limited opened, their
first units of motive power were two small six-wheeled jack-shaft
drive diesels, built in England ten years previously.Since a good
deal of the traffic was potash, sulphur and copper concentrates,it
was not long before these diminutive dlesels were proven to be in
adequate for the task of movj.ng the cars and, tonnages anticj.pated
They might have been satisfactory for use in England,where cars
and loads are smaller and perhaps for small jobs in Canada, but
they were not the answer to the challenge of heavy work •
c >: :::xc ::a
•••• continued on page 51
Pacific Coast Terminals three-cylinder PC Shay no. ·115 st North Vancou
var,S.C. When Vancouver Wharves Limited first opened in North Vsn in
1959,they owned two small English jsckshsfted six-wheeled diesels of du
bious power. In February,1962,no. 115 arrived on the scene from Canadian
Forest Products,where it was also numbered 115.
Does anyone remember the day when the photographer came to Chalk River,
Ont.? Yes,the roundhouse crew does,for they posed together with C.P.R.
engine no. 39 on that sunlit day in 1905 and this is the result I
Photograph courtesy of the Leach Collection.
In the dear departed days of the splendour of steam,the station of the
Canadian Pacific Railway at Ste-Agathe,Qu8. rejoiced in not one,not two,
but five (5) southbound steam-hauled ski trains. Some ingenious photo
grapher took the time to preserve on film this truly epic scene.
Photograph courtesy of the Leach Collection.
R A I. L
At this appropriate juncture,Mr. Robert E. Swanson, owner
of Vancouvers RaihTaY Appliance Research, Limited, purchased a
Pacific Coast Shay locomotive,no. 115,from Canadian Forest Produc
ts on Vancouver ISland and concluded an agreement with Vancouver
Wharves for its use there. Several years later,a similar Shay
locomotive was purchased from Western Forest Industries and be
came number 114.
A word about the pacific Coast type of Shay locomotive
might be of interest. This modification incorporated a number of
improvements over the ordinary Shay. Some of these had been in
use and some were new. The pacific Coast was the first to incor
porate all of these improvements and some were later adopted on
non-P.C. Shays. Although most operators succeeded in individualiz
ing these locomotives, the P.C. was a standard model of about 91
tons, classed as a 3-PC-13 In LJMAs stock-books. It had a new SH
AY truck, new glrder frame, piston valves,a new thlrd-truck cou
pling method and a better method of mounting the cylinders. Of
the many changes,thj.s was considered the most important?-the
cylinders,formerly mounted on the boiler, were now bolted to the
frame. Of equal importance to some authorities was the new gir
der frame with Hs open side, permitting easy access to the fire
box staybolts. The cab was also set further back on the frame
and is very roomy. Moreover,there were dozens of minor detail ch-
anges and the result was something like the transition from a
Mini-minor to a Rolls Royce!
agreement between Mr. Slans on and Vancouver Wharve s
obviously an aimable one. Vancouver Wharves needed powerand
the Shays prooved equal to the challenge. Switching in the area
of the car-dumper, the ever-present dust is not exactly the health.
iest thing in the world for diesels. Considerable trouble is often
encountered wHh keeping relays and other electrical parts clean,
not to mention obvious problems of air filtration,to prevent in
gestion of chemical dust.
The two Shays proved to be very efficient machines for the
work involved. The dust,rising from the dumper and settling on lu
br icated surfaces can be quickly and eas ily neutralized by a wip
ing and the application of more oil on the motion.The easy acces
sability of the Shays motion helps considerably. A rubdown or
wash of the superstructure removes all of the chemical dust and
there are no engine air-intake filters to ,lorry about. With their
tremendous starting power, the Shays are ideal swHchers, develop
ing plenty of power at low speeds and capable of shoving long
trains of heavily loaded hoppers, both open and covered,with com
parati ve ease.
In 1964, I spent some time firing the 115 before the 114
appeared on the scene. No. 115 was not long from an overhaul at
:: ::;a C :xc: ::::x
~Railway Appliance Research Uimiteds PC Shay no. 115,working for Van-
couver Wharves,limited,North Vancouver,B.C. on January 22,1963.The Shay,
with its tremendous starting tractive effort is an ideal switcher.
Photo kindness D.E.Cummings,Vancouver, B.C.
R A I L
the time and liaS a very good steamer. The 114 was purchased to
protect the 115 and to provide a second locomotive for those times
when it was necessary to operate two Shays at once. The tonnages
handled through Vancouver vJharves have tncreased steadily and
whereas no. 115 at first only operated as required to unload a
ship, perhaps only every few weeks, many times since it has 1lorked
round-the-cloCk and day-in, day-out . Hith two locomotlves available
maintenance can be scheduled better and the second Shay fired up
the first comes due for minor work or a wash-out. This means
that between-shift repairs do not have to be rushed and loading
of a ship is not delayed while emergency repairs are made.
Vancouver Wharves has since bought an 80-ton G.E. diesel,
and more recently,an S-3 Mlil,both from Canadian National. In the
last ten years, the growth of Vancouver Vlharves has been utterly
phenomenal,-a re~l success story,from gravel beach to a bustling
bulk terminal,with several miles of trackage. None the less, the
Shays continue to perform the heavy work.
This summer or next,when you visit Vancouver,be sure to
look across Burrard Inlet to North Vancouver. If you see a faint
haze of smoke or hear an old, familiar sound,you can be certain
that it is a genuine,pacific Coast Shay in operation and thats
not bad for 19691
C ::::Ie :xc :::x
Railway Appliance Research Limited 3-cylinder PC Shay no. 114 was for
merly Western Forest Industriee Limiteds no. 5. RARL is the property of
Mr. Robert E. Swaneon,developer and marketer of railway locomotive accae
ories,principally air-horns and whistles. No. 114 waa photographed at No
rth Vancouver,S.C.,August 17,1968. Photo courtesy D.E.Cumminge,Vancouver.
I TII16 or BIIUTY
Canadas DorchesterModelled in 3~ Gauge.
Dorchester -Canadas first steam locomotive for
a public railwaY,the Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad,is alive
and well and will soon be living at the Ontario Science Centre in
Toronto. When the Centre opens in September,1969,visitors will be
treated to the remarkable sight of Canadas first tiny steam lo
comotive alongside a Canadian National Northern – a giant of
the last days of steam. Both locomotives are models tn 3~-gauge.
The exquisite model of the Dorchester
is the work of
Mr. Harry Allin,well-known Canadian locomotive modeller of Bowman
ville, Ontario. Mr. Allin has designed and built the model to op··
erate on a few pounds of compressed air.
Construction of the model occupied about ten months of
Mr. Allins on-and-off time. The on time was 50% devoted to the
essential research and sketchtng and the off time was spent in
making rolling stock for his 7t-gauge locomotive,as a relief fr
om the minute and exacting work required in the building of the
Harry had only recently finished his IICentennial 411 mo
del,-a personal Centennial Project,in the form of a 7t
4-4-0,the prototype of which had been built in Toronto and oper
ated between Toronto.and Aurora at the time of Canadas Confed
eration (1867). He had then rebuilt a 7tll-gauge Great Western
Railway (England) single (2-2-2) that had been modelled by an
English engineer, resident in India about 1884. This included a
boiler to replace the soft-soldered original. This rebuilt
locomotive has s.ince been run on several 7t
-gauge tracks in On
A reproduction of an artists painting in a history of
Canadian railways gave Harry the idea of adding the Dorchester
to his list of accomplishments. He began the search for struc
tural details,a very difficult task,by itself.
As most students of Canadian raihlay history are aware,
it is only in recent years that some very important pOints about
s history have been fully explained. Harry was
confronted with a succession of Similar voids in the mechanical
story of the 10comotive.It was very fortunate that Harrys many
friends at the Ontario Science Centre could provide a consider
able amount of information about the locomotive. This information
was amplified and authenticated by Mr. Omer S. Lavallee of Can
adian Paciflc Railways in Montreal. Mr. Edward Phipps-Walker of
K1ngston,Ont.,a long-time friend of Harrys and a dedicated st
eam-locomotive enthusiast,came up with a real IIgem in the form
of an article on the Dorchesters Planet-type valve gear from
a 1915 issue of the modellers bible,the English magazine,MODEL
Builders records from Robert Stephenson and Company of
Newcastle-on-Tyne,England,proved succinct in the extreme. The lo
comotive was no. 127 in their production schedule,was of the Pl
anet type,weighed six tons and was delivered in Canada in 1836,
this information being hardly the equivalent of a workS erection
r :::xc :::rc :::x
Concentration plus precision I Down to the lest thou,and Harrys drivers
are.turning as smooth as silkl
Boiler tubes,guard rails,all precisely machined.Now for a trial assembly.
An exploded view of the Dorchesters components,prior to assembly.
R A I L
However.when all of the available information was at
hand. this. coupled with Harrys broad knowledge of the history of
locomotive design.added up to a reliable basis from which to st
art. Sone of the available drawings. whose originals had been pub
lished in 1838.a considerable time before the days of photoengra
ving,provided an interesting challenge in interpretation. They
reflected more the artistic abilities of the engraver,than the
discipline of an engineering draughtsman and had to be re-drawn
to bring the machinery into workable associations.
In the course of his contacts with his engineering fr
iends at the Science Centre,Harry was introduced to a new con
cept. How would he like to produce a model of a locomotive for
the Science Centre? Well now,thiS was a matter for some reflec~
tion. To build a working model of a steam locomotive was one
thing. To build an authentic model,correct to the last detail ,
capable of operation on a few pounds of compressed air,with the
right number and correct size of every item,was quite anotherL
The final decision to build the model to museum stan
dards was largely influenced by H&rrys conviction that,once the
first experimental model was built and working,a second steam
version would be relativelylstraightforward to construct. And so
working sketches in 3~~gauge were started and the outlines of
the Dorchester began to take shape.
For the first model, the relative strength of scale-
s ized parts was now of red uced consequence. If the working con
ditions presup~osed the use of high-pressure steam,this was now
no longer a consideration. The principle metal used,therefore,was
brass, including the bOiler,tubes,plates,firebox and smokebox.Many
of the complex iron castings of the original locomotive were fab
ricated in pieces and silver-soldered together. Hours of repeti –
tive work were involved in making rivets and bolts. The several
hundred rivets needed could not be found commercially in the cor
rect size and so they had to be shaped in the lathe. The hexagon
headed bolt,for which model stock is readily available today, had
limited use in the 1830s and was not used on the Dorchester.
HarryS answer to this particular problem was to mill square-sec
tion strips of steel to size,turn,thread and part off.
Among model engineers, there is a saying that if you
than one,make a jigL So it was with the four driving
wheels. Each has 16 separate parts. The 48 spokes required, are
round where they fit the wheel-hub and tapering-oval in cross
section at the rim. This is a considerable exercise in neat lathe
work. All of the parts of each ,heel were carefully assembled in
a jig and silver-soldered into a solid unit.
The connecting rods are attached to their cranks thr
ough split bearings and locked in place by slotted straps,secured
to the rods by keys and wedges. Crossheads slide in guides and
A view of the Dorchesters works From below; pistons,connecting
and piston rods all clearly defined. The firebox,flues and amokebox
ate aseembly is pictured on the left.
::: ::::xc 2: ::x
are used to drive the twin boiler feed-pumps. Pistons are 9/1611in
iamete r with a 111 stroke.
Slide valves are used, driven by rocker-arms on cross
shafts,mounted in front of the cylinders. The eccentric rods have
yokes,formed at the rocker-arm end and may be engaged or disenga
ged from the rocker-arms by rod and lever arrangements, operated
by the engine driver. Eccentrics are free to move on the driving
axle and may be engaged with studs to the left or right by a trea
dle arrangement on the footplate,to pick up the timing, for either
forward or backward motion. Eccentrics are split and held in pla
ce by bolted-on side plates.
Two levers, mounted on the boiler backhead,connect thr-
ough long rods to the valve rocker arms. When the engtneer, or
more correctly,the driver,was ready to move the locomottve, he
first disengage the eccentrics with the foot-treadle. Then
he lould lift the eccentric rods from the valve rocker-arms, crack
the throttle (regulator) and move the valves manually,by means of
R A I L
the boiler-backhead levers to admit steam to the correct ends of
the cylinders, so that the piston rods would IIcrankll the driving
wheels in the desired direction.
After the locomotive was moving, the driver would engage
the eccentrics with the appropriate axle stud,by stamping on the
foot-treadle, then lower the eccentric-rod yokes onto the valve
rocker-arms. Speed control was obtained through the regulator or
throttle on the boiler backhead. The backhead valve levers, which
would continue to move in time with the valve mechanism, must have
provided the driver with an interesting occupational hazard.
The story of the original IIDorchester has been well
chronicled in the pages of CANADIAN RAIL. The locomotive arrived
in Canada from Newcastle-on-Tyne in the spring of 1836 and, due to
the accidental burning of Some of the boiler tubes, limped through
its inaugural run in July of that year. It was lOrked between La
Prairie and St.Johns,Quebec,during the summer seasons, until 1849,
when it was sold to the Industry Village Railway on the North Sh
ore of the St. Lawrence,some distance east of Montreal. It con
tinued to haul trains on this line until l864,when a boiler ex
plosion caused so much damage that the veteran engine was scrap –
Harry Allins mode 1 of the famous Dorchester II, complete
with 4-wheeled tender, will be exhibited at the Science Centre on
length of track similar to that used on Canadas first public
railway in 1836. This was constructed of longitudinal square tim
bers,topped by long iron strips,which were held in place by spi
kes. Although wild stories are told of the unpleasant circumstan
ce where one of these rails peeled
off the timber base, with ac
Cidental penetration of the carriage floors,only one fatality, due
to this cause,has ever been recorded. Obviously, the repeated pas
sa08 of the engine and train caused the spikes to work loose, but
good preventive maintenance kept these primitive rails in a con
dition to carry the light-weight trains of the time.
Visitors to the Ontario SCience Centre will be able to
visualize the very beginnings of steam-locomotive transportation
on Canadas railways. This was the power that did so much to unify
the nationS vast land mass.
Meanwhile,it is fairly safe to say that Harry Allins
modelling friends will see, some day soon,a second model of the
, probably in 7t
-gauge, performing under steam on the
thousand-foot-long track which he is planning to build at his new home.
c :we .,c :::x
The Thing of Beauty! Harry Allins completed 3/4 inch-to-the-foot scale
model of Canadas first locomotive on a public railway. The model oper
ates on compressed air. Photo courtesy Ontario Science Centre.
1970: A NEW YEAR – A NEW DECADE -AND A NEW CN TIME! ABLE.
Canadian National Railways has taken the unprecedented
step of issuing a new system passenger timetable,taking effect Jan
uary 7,1970,apparently intended to cover the full year. There are
substantial service changes, especially in the Maritime Provinces
and western Canada, mainly due to the elimination of some trains
and the re-routing of others. The PANORAMA, Trains 5 & 6, between
Winnipeg and Vancouver and the CHALEUR, Trains 16 & 17, between
Montreal and Moncton,N.B.,were the principal trains discontinued,
but service cuts also affected the Halifax-TrurO,Saskatoon-Regina,
Saskatoon-Prince Albert and Quebec-Chicoutimi lines,as Trains 601-
602 (old numbers),680-683 (Saskatoon-Regina portion) and 681-682
(Saskatoon-prince Albert,Sask.portion) were discontinued and 176-
177 was again reduced from tri-weekly to once-weekly operation un
til April 26,although the Quebec-Riviere a Pierre line now is ser
ved by miXed trains 275-276 on the other two days.
The removal of the CHALEUR has resulted in the OCEAN ,
Trains 14 & l7,resuming the original route via Campbellton,N.B.in
stead of the Edmunston route,on which it replaced the CABOT late
in 1967. The Matapedia-Gaspe portion of the CHALEUR,Trains 118-119
continues to operate, but through cars run from Montreal and Levis
on Train l2,the SCOTIAN,returning on Train l5,the OCEAN. ThiS, in
turn, required rescheduling of the Halifax-Truro-Sydney services,as
through cars formerly carried from Sydney to Montreal on Trains 19
are now run on Train 11 from Truro.
RAILINER 603 has reverted to its early departure time
from Sydney,N.S.,in order to connect with Train 15 at Truro.RAILIN
ER 605-606 was renumbered 601-604 and retimed 40 minutes earlier
to connect with Train 12 at Truro. The Halifax-Sydney service for
merly provided by RAILINERs,connecting at Truro With Trains 18 and
is now supplied by connections between Trains 15 & 18 and be
tween 19 & l2,the latter allowing 2 hours and 15 minutes for a
leisurely dinner in Trurol
The Edmunston shortcut, so suddenly bereft of its fir
st-class service after only three years, now is supplied with daily
RAILINER services to Montreal and Moncton. The cars of Trains 616-
617 are handled at the rear of Trains l22-l23,between Montreal and
R A I L
Charny,Que. Trains 6l8-6l9,between Edmunston and Moncton,NJB.,have
a similar schedule to the tri-weekly services which existed before
the CABOT began operation, but the connections of Train 618 leave
much to be desired. Regular S.M.T. bus service between Frederic
ton and Newcastle,N.B. has replaced the CN charter service to and
and the lengthy connection times only serve to point
out the exasperation of passengers trying to make train-bus con
nections at most pOints in Canada. Fredericton,the capital of New
Brunswick,is getting a raw deal,as usuall No wonder people drive
The matter of connections,-or lack of them,is also ev
ident in other portions of the new schedule. In Newfoundland, Tr
ains 203 & 204 are shown as carrying passengers between Deer Lake
Badger. While Train 203 has a fairly conven.ient connection fr
om ROADCRUlSER 511 at Badger,passengers leaving it at Deer Lake
wait 2 hours and 23 minutes for ROADCRUlSER 507 to come a
long. Train 204 is somewhat less convenient, as its departure time
from Deer Lake is 14 hours and 30 minutes after ROADCRUlSER 512
disappears into the swirling snow, while passengers detraining at
Badger have only 3 hours 30 minutes to await the welcome headli
ghts of ROADCRUISm 5181
reduction in service between Saskatoon, Regina and
Prince Albert, Sask.,has made a continuous rail journey between Re
gina and Prince Albert impossible and passengers must either spend
all day in Saskatoon or continue their journey by bus, utilizing an
optional ticket-honouring privilege which is now available. This
may not be so easy however,as the station in Saskatoon is more than
five (5) miles from downtown and the bus terminal. Another snag
in. connections will surely arise during the period when Daylight
Saving Time is in effect in other parts of Canada (but not in Sask
atche,lan or Alberta). This will cause Train 1 (westbound SUPERCON
TINENTAL) to arrive at Saskatoon at 0810 and leave at 0835, but
Train 680 does not arrive until 0910 and Train 681 not until 0905.
No alternative schedules are shown, although this has been done in
the case of Trains 1 & 2 and the Winnipeg-The Pas,Toronto-Chicago
Detroit-Chicago services, also for Jasper-Prince Rupert Trains
9 & 10,lhich resume daily operation June 19 to September 12, 1970.
A separate Toronto-Vancouver section of the SupmCONTINENTAL (Tr
ains 3 & 4) will operate June l7-September 9 westbound and June
19-5eptember 11, eastbound. This train will feature Scenaramic
cars betleen Toronto and Vancouver, the first time they have been
run through to the east in regular service. All of the six avail
able cars will be required for this run and Trains 1 & 2 will be
without them during the summer of 1970. For the remainder of the
year, they will run from Edmonton to Vancouver on Trains 1 & 2.The
ISkyvie,l lounge-sleepers ,lill run in Montreal-Gaspe service,while
the CHALEUR is in operation next summer (June 24 to September 9),
but their assignment during the rest of the year is not shown in
the equipment tables.
R A I L
CP RAIL GErS THEm GALLERY CARS. The first two of the nine
galleryll cars, -otherwise suburban coaches,on order from Canadian
Vickers L1mited,were delivered late in December, 1969 (for the sec
ond t1me),but were not placed in service immediately. CP RAIL has
stored them at Glen Yard, Montreal and is testing the heating and
air-conditioning systems, while awaiting delivery of enough additi
onal units for a complete train of four or five, including a con
trol car. The first two cars, numbered 920 & 921,are of the tradi
tional design first introduced on the Chicago and North western
Railroad in 1954. They are of stainless-steel construction, with
an action red
stripe below the upper windows. They ride on two
four-wheel, cast-steel trucks of orthodox design, which should pro
vide a comfortable ride. Electrica11y-operated sliding doors en
close the roomy centre entrances. Other doors permit entry into
the passenger compartments at either end.
Double reversible seats are on the lower deck,which slopes up
ward at the ends of the car,-the floor being slightly depressed to
allow sufficient headroom on both levels. Spiral stairways permit
access to the galleries on each side of the car, just inside the en
trance doors. The gallery seats are single reversible except at
the ends,where inward-facing bench seats are provided. Windows are
positioned for each pair of seats on each level; they are double
glazed and sealed, with rounded ends. POier for lighting, heating
and air-conditioning is furnished by a diesel engine and 220-volt
generator on each car, making steam-heating unnecessary.
After several days of indoor testing, one set of United
Aircraft Companys TURBOTRAIN made a trial run from Montreal to
Cornwall and return on January 8,1970. No details of this test run
with the re-engineered train set were 1mmediately available, but it
is reasonable to suppose that the results are being carefully stud
ied,partic~larly with regard to the effects of low temperatures on
the fresh water and compressed air systems,main causes of the or
iginal failure in revenue service.UAC i8 hopeful that TURBO may be
re-introduced in service in the spring of 1970. The TURBOTRAIN de
parted from CNs Central station,Montrea1,about 1800 and was ob
served at Dorval,Que. at about 1830,passing at speed (60 mph) much
to the surprise of passengers aiTaiting regular CN trains. The orig
inal TURBOTRAIN service was cancelled almost exactly a year ago ,
on January 6,1969.
UAC engineers have, in the interval, made many design mod-
1fications,inc1uding complete insulation of the fresh water system,
changes in valves to stop freeze ups and much rewiring. The interior
noise level was also reduced.CN officials confirm that cold-weather
tests will extend to pOints well beyond the Montrea1-Cornwal1 run,
certainly as far as Toronto and possibly as far north as North Bay.
CN officials are careful to point out that TURBOTRAINs are com
pletely under the control of United Aircraft Company at the moment
with CN providing facilities for the tests as well as information
pertinent to their role in rail transportation.
R A I L
The TURBO trainset which has been re-engineered and is being used
in the current test programme is that with power car numbers P-lOl
P-20l (old nurnbering),presently numbered CN 126 & 151.
New England rail carrier, the Boston and Maine Railroad, con
tinues to be plagued w1th a rash of Trecks in their freight-train
operation. Most recent derailment on January 7,1970,occurred in
the Deerfield Valley of western Massachusetts,between the communi
ties of Charlemont and Zoar,Mass.,just east of the famous Hoosac
Tunnel. 29 cars of a 9l-car freight were derailed,-five of the
former containing flammable liquids, such as propane. There was no
fire subsequently and examination of the cars showed that they had
not been cracked or perforated.
Nearer to Montr~al,Canadian Nationals TEMPO Train 151,-1710 from
Toronto to Sarnia,Ont.,travelling at approximately 50 mph th
rough the suburbs of Toronto,split the switch of an industrial si
ding,resulting in the derailment of the last cars of the train. It
was fortunate that there were no fatalities. The diesel engine and
the first car stayed on the main line, but the second passenger car
led the remaining cars into the siding of the Dominion Cellulose
Company, overturning a propane gas tank in the process. There were
passengers on Train 151. The derailment occurred about three
miles east of the point where,on April 20,1969,Sarnia-bound TEMPO
ran through an open switch to an industrial siding and derailed
with 30 injuries and 2 fatalities. Mr. John Noel of CNs PubliC
Relations Department said that the cause of the derailment was not
immediately known, but it could have been that the switch was split
by the 1heels of the leading truck of the second passenger car.
Good Old 1969 was in the final expiration process when
things started happening on the railways around Montreal. North
bound Delaware & Hudsons Ne,T York-Montreal night sleeping car tr
ain was derailed at V111sboro,N.Y.,on the morning of December 26 and
passengers /ere bussed northward to Plattsburgh and thence by
train to Montreal. Contrary to Montreal newspaper reports, the de
ra ilment of the front truck of the lea.d PA-l on Tra in 9 did not re
suIt in the loss of the engines wheelsl
In the middle of January and in the face of passenger
train power shortage, D. & H. leased 4 EMD E-8s from Erie-lacka
wanna Railroad,since the cold, snowy conditions required operation
of both the PA-lls and E-8
s in pairs, in order to maintain sched
ules and keep the trains heated. Although D. & H. has 4-4000-ser
ies RS-2s equipped with steam generators,their use on regular New
York-Montreal passenger trains would have left these same trains
~ithout motive power protection at ,.,rhitehall and Rouses Point and
an engine failure would have subjected passengers to a luke-warm
if not cold ride either way. The E-L E-8
s ran in pairs, numbers
& 822 and 814 & 816 twinning for the service.
eo :::e ,c .,
Intercolonial Railway Companys sleeping car Connauqht: Lot 169
Canadian Car & Foundrys Turcot WDrks,February 5,1913.
FROM THE ASSOCIATION S ARCHIVES
published by the
Associa.te Membership inoluding 11 issues of
Canadian Rail e. 00 annually.
EDITOR S. VlTorthen PRODUCTION P.Murphy
EDITORIAL ASSOCIATE F.A Kemp
DISTRIEUTION J. A. Eeatty &; F.F.Angus
VISIT THE VISITEZ L E
Canadian Railway Musewll !Uusee Ferroviaile Canadien
OUVERT MAI· SEPT, OPEN MAY SEPT,
DIRECTOR OF MEMEERSHIP AND ERANCHES
Mr. J .A.Beatty. 4982 Queen Mary Road, Montreal 248, Quebec, Canada.
OTTAWA Mr.M.lveson , Secty •• P.D.Box .352, Term1nal A ottawa Onto
ROCKY MOUNTAIN Mr. Donald W.Scafe 12407 Lansdowne Dr1ve, Apt. 101, Edmonton Alta.
K.F.Chivers, Apt. ),67 Somerset St. W.o Ottawa. Ontario.
J .S.Nlcholoson. 2)06 Arnold St .. Saskatoon. Saskatchewan.
Peter Cox, 609 Cottonwood Ave., Coqultlam, BrItIsh Columbia.
W.D.McKeown, 6-7. 4-chome. Yamate-cho,Sulta CIty. Osaka, Japan.
J.H.Sanders, 67 Willow Way, Ampthill, Beds., England.
K.G.Younger, 267 Vernon Road, WInnIpeg, M.anitoba.
Mr. Donald W. Scare .. 12407 LanadoWl1e Dri ve, Apt, 101. Edmon ton Al ta.
Copyr1gh t 1970 Printed in Canada on Canadian paper.