C. Warren Anderson
Before the Year of Our Lord 1869, the
city of Fredericton,capital of the
Province of New Brunswick, Canada
had to be content with steamboat
service on the St. John River for
transportation to the thriving sea
port of Saint John,on the Bay of
Fundy. Horse-drawn stagecoaches on
such roads as were to be found,joi
ned Fredericton with other parts
of the Province. This was hardly a
sufficient or suitable means of
transportation for the day and it
was not long before agitation ensu
ed to provide a railway from the
Provincial capital city to the
not-too-distant western extension
of the European and North American
The Fredericton Branch Railway,as it was commonly called, was
constructed between the years 1867 and 1869 and provided Frederic
ton with its first rail connection with the coastal portions of
the Province and so, this year, we are observing the one -hundredth
anniversary of its completion.
C !)C :c ::;a:
A UNIQUE EXAMPLE of the ubiquitous 0-10 class of the Canadian Pacific Ra
ilway graces our cover. Class 0-10-j no. 986 was built by Montreal Loco
motive Works in 1912 (C/n 51120). Pictured at Fredericton,N.B. on April
8,1960,she was the last steam locomotive in the area as of April 12 of
that year. Photo collection of C.W.Anderson.
NEW BRUNSWICK RAILWAY no. 28,bu1lt by the Portland Locomotive Works in
1877 (c/n 343). Enginesr W.B.Smith stood in the gang~ay at Fredericton,
in 1886,when the picture was taken. No. 28 became C.P.R.no. 505 and was
scrapped in October,1895. Photo collection C.W.Anderson.
R A I L
The surveys for the new line were made in the months of Nov
December,1864 and January,1865. The survey began
at the main line of the western extension of the European &
North American Railway (under construction), at the crossing
of the northwe st branch of the Oromocto Stream. The line was
to skirt along between the high ground and the stream-fresh
et level, until,after passing the Rusagonis River ten and a
half miles from Hartts Mills (the junction point),it was lo
cated through a very easy and level countryside, coming . to
Mill Stream. Following on from this little river, on nearly a
straight line and with no severe grades, the location approa
ched the southeast bank of the St. John River,near Morrisons
Mill and entered the town of Fredericton at the rear of the
principal streets,thus doing very little damage to property.
By making the terminus near the ODell Grove,the whole dis
tance of the line was 21~ miles from Hartts Mills (the jun
ction with the E. & N.A.) to Fredericton,the nearest thing
to an air-line II that could be found practicable.
A c.ompany vIas duly organized in 1866, under the provisions of an
Act of the General Assembly of the Province of New Brunswick, made
and passed in the 29th. Year of Her Majestys reign,entitled An
Act to Inc.orporate the Fredericton Railway Company and further to
choose a Board of Directors and a President.
After choosing the Directors and the President, the next im
portant thing was money. Stock to the amount of $ 28,560 was
subscribed by seventeen stockholders and the Company obtain
ed from the City of Fredericton a sum of $ 50,000 and from
the County of York $ 30,000,as well as a grant from the Pro
vincial Government under an Act in Aid of the Survey & Con
struction of the Line. A pet;l.tion was sent to the Govern
ment under date of June 14,1867,requesting that the neces
sary consent be given to the building of the railway without
undue delay,between Freoericton and some point on the wes
tern extension of the European and North American RailwaY,at
that time building between Fairville,N.B. and the United Sta
tes border. The actual point selected was Hartts Mills,men
tioned above,nowadays known as Fredericton Junction,N.B.
It should be mentioned that the first officers of the newly-formed
railway were as follows:
Mr. John Richards
John James Fraser
E .R .Burpee, C .E.
The first earth was turned for the ne~1 road (with much ceremony as
FREDERIOTON BRANCH RAILWAYS 4-4-0 no. 2,the ~Frederictonn (1875)poses
at Fredericton (Westmoreland Street) on October 18,1875. Built by Rogers
in 1869,her pilot is fitt,d with the patented flanger. The building
in the background is the .£xhibition Building in Fredericton,which was
built in 1864 and burned in 1877. Photo collection of C.W:Anderson~
.: .. : .. : .. : .. : .. : .. : .. : .. : .. :.
vas then customary) at Rose Valley near the present culvert just
north of Salamanca,N.B.,on November 4th., 1867. Thomas Temple,Esq.
President of the railway, cut the sod and Mrs. William H. Needham
wife of the Mayor of Fredericton,put it in a wheelbarrow. Then
Colonel Hardj.ng wheeled it over the run and dwnped it. Everyone
applauded. Of course,these ceremonies had been preceded by an ap
propriate prayer by the Reverend John M. Brooks of st. Pauls
Presbyterian Church,Fredericton. Colonel Hardj.ng was the command
officer of the last Imperial troops stationed in Fredericton
(1866-1869),the 2nd. Foot, later the Royal Cheshire RegiIrent. In
passing,it is noted that the wheelbarrow and spade used on this
memorable occasion were the same barrOVI and spade used at saint
John,N.B.,on the occasion of the sod-turning ceremony for the
European and North American Railway, in 1853. These items were il
lustrated in the January, 1969, issue of CANADIAN RAIL (page 6) and
are now displayed at the University of New Brunswick,Fredericton,
and are used on occasion.
The original plan Vias to have the lille run along the south
bank of the st. John River,with a terminal station near
where the York County Court House now stands. But William
Needham,the Mayor of the City, was instrumental in having
the City grant land to the Railway at the rear of the com
munity and the rails finally entered Fredericton over the
present-day right-of-way. For a short time, the rails ex-
THE LOCOMOTIVE THAT BROUGHT THE FIRST TRAIN INTO FREDERICTON,no. 3, the
William Parks of the western exteneion of the European & North American
Railway. Here,she ie drewing postal car no. 1 et Fredericton Junction,N.
B.,in 1872. Collection of C.W.Anderson.
C ::)c !)C :::x
tended beyond their present terminus and ran down >lestmor
land Street to a boat landing on the shore of the river.
Hork on the construction of the railway was begun· almost immed
iatelyand VIas completed amid a number of difficulties. One of
the most significant of these was a strike of the construction
workers, who chose this means of objecting to the withholding by
the contractor of wages due them. Troops from saint John were
hurriedly sent to the construction site,to quell the disturban
ce and, interestingly enough, the sold iers marched the 22~ miles
from the Junction to Fredericton,along the railway grade.
From the RELIGOUS INTELLlGENCER of Saint John,N.B., of sat
urday,November 26th.,1869,we read the following:
Fredericton Branch Rail Road
On Hednesday,the 17th. j.nstant,trains carrying ex
cursionists passed over the Fredericton Branch R.R.
The road is said to be in excellent condition and
in a very short time, the ballasting on the whole
line will be completed. There are five stopplng
places between Fredericton and the Junction .Trains
vlill run regularly after December 1st. Mr. C. A.
Hood will be cond uctor.
Thus,on this date,the City of Fredericton was officially
connected to the outside world by railway, but in all pro
bability,a few work,freight and mixed trains were oper
ating before this official opening date.
Mr. C.A.Hood ll9-s,in fact, Captain Hood, formerly in the st. John
CANADIAN 283 R A I L
river steamer service. Mr. lilliam Hagerman, baggage-master on
the line,had hitherto been the stagecoach driver between saint
John and Fredericton. Mr. Hagerman retj.red from railway service
in 1903 and died February bth., 1906. He was greatly respected
by all ~Iho knew him. The brakesman on the infant railway was Mr.
The first train was hauled to Fredericton by the loco
motive Vlilliam :Palks,no. 3 of the western extension of
the European and North American,which was also the first
locomotive on the south end of the latter line. Mr. Tho
mas Rand,a native of Bangor in the neighbouring state of
Maine,U.S.A.,was the engineer. The locomotive was, in all
probability,either leased or borrowed by the Fredericton
Railway for this inaugural trip.
The main water supply for the locomotives on the Branch was a
tank at Rusagonis stream. There was also an emergency tank at
the statj.on at Fredericton,,,,hich had to be filled by hand by
the section-men. Mr. Paul Mooney was foreman of the first sec
tj.on gang at Fredericton. others of the crew were Michael O
Leary and Mat Toomey. At the Junction,the first foreman was Mr.
Charles Hard. The Branch was divided into two equal portions of
a little over 11 miles each,for the purposes of maintenance.The
first agent at Fredericton was Mr. Fred B. Edgecombe who, at an
early age, decided to become a railroad man. He had been trained
in telegraphy and other matters relating to railway 110rk at
Qssekeag station (now Hampton,N.B.) on the Saint John to Shed
iac portion of the European & North American. VJhile at Ossekeag
Mr. Edgecombe Ias instructed by Mr. Lew Carvell,Mr. Allison Bar
lett and others. The first operator at Fredericton Junction was
Mr. Moses Burpee.
After some years,Mr. Henry Miller succeeded tHlliam Tower
as engineer on the north end of the line and he had,as his
fireman his brother John, who subsequently became an engin
eer. Previous to 187l.J·, all the work which today comes under
the Bridge and Building Department was performed by Mr.
John Hamllton,a young man who stood about six feet one in
his bare feet. On the few occasions when Mr. Hamilton felt
the need of assistance,he called on the section gang. Mr.
Hamilton was a very inventive sort of genius and he is
cred ited ,ith the idea of the .,orld s first engine -flanger,
for the removal of snow from the rails in winter. The
flanger ,Ias a simple arrangement, consisting of a pair of
iron blades attached to the pilot of the locomotive. They
could be raised or lowered by a lever in the cab. This in
novation was quickly pre-empted by two members of the rail
fay company and patented and it became knotTn as the Miller
Flanger. Hamilton tried to get a lawyer to fight his case
for restitution of his rights, but having no large amount of
capital for this purpose,he had to abandon the pursuit, al-
CANADIAN 284 R A I L
though some say he did get something out of it, in the end.
The flanger remained as a piece of standard engine equip
ment on the Branch locomotives for some years, but was
finally abandoned,as it scraped up all of the signal tor –
pedos from the rails. The patent Model of the device,llh
ich l1aS fitted to the pilot of the locomotive Fredericton,
and which had been built by or for Hamilton, was found in
a shed about 1953, on lestmorland street,about to be de
molished and, after being sOlllH·rhat rebuilt, is nOvr in the
collection of the author.
The Locomotives of the Branch.
During the construction period, the iHlliam parks,no. 3 of the
western extension of the European & North American Railway was
used in 1869,when the rails were being laid up from Fredericton
Junction (Hartt.s Mills) towards Fredericton,probably because
the locomotive Oromocto had not been de livered, or was working
on the Fre,dericton end of the line.
No. 3 William Parks 4-4-0 15×24 60 1869 Portland
1887 -re New Brunswick Railway no. 25
1890 -re canadian Pacific Railway no. 502
No. 1 Oromocto 4-4-0
1869 -acquired from an unknown source
1877 -disposed of,possibly to the western extension of
the European & North American Railway as part
payment for the locomotive Fredericton.
2nd. No.1 Oromocto 4-4-0 15×22 60 1877 Portland
1887 -re New Brunswick Railway no. 28
1890 -re canadian Pacific Railway no. 505
Fredericton 4-4-0 13×22 60 1869 Rogers
1875 -October;bought from the western extension of the
European & North American Railway; ex E. & N.A.
1887 -re New Brunswick Railway no. 30
1890 -re canadian pacific Raihray no. 507
1890 -re Willard Kitchen Co.No.l (contractors)
1890 -re Tobique valley Raill1ay no. 1
scrapped some time after 1901;
the bell from this engine is now preserved in
CANADIAN 285 R A I L
$J~.~. &. furpec, ~.~.
~Q.PESTS tf-lE IiON0f. OF rHECOMfANY
/4.1 HG m-;:,,,N[NO FOR 1IlA.P,fIC ,O:El
Tho Western Eltteneion 0 the European.and NorthArl1erjcan.Railwa:~,
(f~~!~(11 ,lid Hinr ~l,ini .Tuhu 11.ut :;ain!-~(r:iJix~):
fur. o~as,ro Tl~. !t WlI.l. I.UU~ rAIRVJT.Lf. 11; … uatH:fU(~r(,.~ AT /,L.-,
AN UNUSUAL ITEM is this invitation to attend the opening of the wes
tern extension of the European & North American Railway between the ri
vers Saint John and Saint Croix AND the Fredericton Rallway,on November
17,1869.Th. Favor of ~n answer is requested. ColI. C.W.Anderson.
c :sc :c
According to an insurance policy dated January Ist.,1878
to November 17th., 1878, the locomotives Oromocto and
Fredericton were insured for $ 3,500 each, while the
baggage and second-class combination cars, nos. 1 & 2 were
valued at $ 800 each. Box cars nos. 1 to 5 inclusive were
$ 500 each and platform (flat) cars were $ 200 for nos.
1 to 11. Snow-plow (unnumbered) was worth $ 600. The pol
icy was issued by the Royal Insurance Company of Liver
pool, England and the Railway was insured for the full
amount of $ 36,700 gold dollars; said locomot i ve s, ten
ders and cars are to be covered wherever they may be on
the said line of Road or any Branch road or wherever th
ey may be ..•…•. Rather ambiguous!
Apropos of the insurance,about midnight,Tuesday,December 6th.,
1881,a fire broke out in the engine house of the Fredericton Ra
ilwayat Fredericton. There were two-engines in the house at
the time; one of them was run out, but the other one could not
be moved, probably because she was not under steam. The building
burned very rapidly and completely and was soon a heap of ashes
and metal. Fortunately,there was no wind that evening;if there
had been, the station house and other buUd ings would have been
swept away. (This information from the RELIGOUS INTELLIGENCER of
Saint John,N.B.,December 9th.,188l.) The name and/or number of
the destroyed locomotive is unknown.
December,1882,the Fredericton Railway was operating 4
trains daily to and from the Junction and two through
trips between Fredericton and Saint John,over the rails
287 R A I L
of the western extension of the E. & N.A.,which,by this
date had become the New Brunswick Railway. Probably, this
through run was made without changing engines at the
Junction. The morning train left Fredericton at 7.00 a.m.
and the evening train left saint John at 7.20 p.m. By
1887, the passengers could still expect to see Mr.Jlil].iam
Hagerman,who had been promoted to conductor. Mr. James
patterson was baggage-man. Robert Donaldson was the en
gineer,Robert McMillan the brakesman and Bert Yerxa, the
fireman. James Buchanan was the agent at Fredericton Jun
Bob Donaldson,the engineer, became a legendary figure on the
Branch. He was an engineer of the old school. Born in March,
1842, he became a blacksmith on the New Brunswick Railway in
1872. TAter, in 1875,he went firing and was subsequently pro
moted to engineer in 1878. He continued his railway career un
til July 1,1907,when he was pensioned by the Canadian pacific
Railway,at the age of 65. He was accidentally killed on septem
ber 8th.,1914,as he was walking along the line of the Valley
Railway and lies buried in the Rural Cemetary,Woodstock Road,
Fredericton,N.B. On his grave-stone,carved in bas-relief, is
the outline of his favourite engine, number 517,of the Canadian
Under Dominion statute 47 Vic. cap. 75,dated 1884, the New
Brunswick Railway Company was authorized to acquire cap
ital stock in the Fredericton Railway Company and the
first locomotive to come into Fredericton after the New
Brunswick Railway took over was number 40, a Dubs engine
of 1872,originally from the Intercolonial Railway. Bob
Donaldson was the engineer. A few years after the New
Brunswick Railway had acquired the Branch , it lost its
own identity through the same methods by which it had
grown. In 1886,the Canadian Pacific Railway had comple
ted its short line from Winnipeg to Montreal, as we 11
as its main line from Winnipeg to the pacific Ocean. It
now began looking about for an eastern connection to the
Atlantic seaboard. The eastern parts of New Brunswick and
Nova Scotia were already served by the Intercolonial Ra
ilway,so the Canadian pacific began a policy of leasing
lines, rather than building them. It was of particular im
portance to the C.P.R. to have a line to the Atlantic wh
ich would offer some advantage,such as a shorter haul and
one of the first steps in the realization of such a line
was the leasing of the Saint John and Maine section of
c C :::xc :::
.. THE TooNERVILLE TRoLLEV not aa ever imagined by Fontaine Fox, was Can. –
adian Pacific Railweys oil-electric car no. 9003 and trailer 9005. The
. ,motor unit wae built by Ottawa Car Company and Weetinghouse in 1930. The two
vehicles ware hauled dead out of Fredericton on April 30,1962.
Photo courtesy C.W.Anderson. .
THE BRANCH RAILWAYS ORIGINAL STATION in Fredericton,N.B. is today a
private dwelling at the corner of Northumberland Street -number 205-207
Victoria Street. Photo courtesy C.W.Anderson.
the New Brunswick Railway. This subsequently brought the
Canadian pacific to saint John,as well as to Fredericton.
After the acquisition of the Fredericton Branch, the canadian
Pacific continued to give good service in both passenger and
freight operations and whlle the Frederlcton Railway was con-
sidered a branch line,so to speak,j_t mer-ited and received the
main line operation. But,due to the inroads of the private
automobile,the bus and finally the aeroplane,the passenger bus
iness gradually declined and all but disappeared.
In September,1941,some 52 years after the Fredertcton Ry.
had been opened for business,the places along the line
had increased from an original five, to nine .They are en
numerated in that months issue of the Canadian Official
RaHway Guide, under time table 630,Canadian pacific Rail
land,Me.,Boston and Montreal:
41 101 M Atlantic Time 105 42 102 110
a m p m p m a m a m a m p m p m
10 40 8 20 5 45 8 25 44 FREDERICTON JeT. 6 07 10 10 1 45 -5 15
f f 5f51 f 47 Three Tree Creek f f f 5f07
f f f 800 52 Rusagonis f f f f
f f 56 Haasis f 9 47 7f22 f
Ilf07 8f47 f 8f52 61 Glasier f f f
6fl5 f 62 Doak 507 907 7fl2 4f42
f f Clf57 63 Osborne f f f
8f54 f 64 Morrison f f f
6f20 9fOO 65 Salamanca 503 903 7f08 408
II 20 9 00 6 25 9 05 66 FREDERICTON Lv. 5 30 9 30 7 05 4 35
R A I L
Read d own Read up
All trains daily except Sunday.
A RARE ANNUAL PASS dated 1880,for the Fredericton Railway,good until
December 31 of that year. It was issued to M.R.Marlin,Esq.,Vice-President
Painesville and Joplin Railroad and numbered 118.Coll. C.W.Anderson.
patently,Ne1;1 Brunswicks capital City of Fredericton should not
have been left without railv,ay passenger serrice. Unquest ionably
it caused much inconvenience to a large segment of the popula
tion,both urban and rural,but notlTithstanding the excellent
conne ct ions offe re d with Canad ian pac ific s through tra ins to
Saint John and Montreal,the preference for automobile travel,ex
er~:i.3ed by the local citizenry,made any continuation economical
steam locomotive operation on the C.P .R. in the Fredericton
area had ceased some two years previously. The last steam
locomotive on the Fredericton Branch was Canadian Pacific
D-10,number 986. She made her last run in freight service
on April 12th.,1960.
Hth the passing of the steam locomotive,-the most human of
man-made machines,something went out of the once manly occu-
pation of railroading. The cycle,as far as the Fredericton Rail
way lIas concerned,had now· come full-circle and the City, insofar
as ra·ilway passenger service is concerned, is the same as it was
in the good old days, before 1869, -without a passenger-carry
ing railway. Can thiS be progress? The reader may decide for
In the twilight of steam locomotive operation on the Canadian
pacific,the last steam lo~omotive to operate,in passenger ser
vice on the Branch was Jubilee-class 4-4-4 no. 2929.For years
the engineer on this locomotive was Charles Elgee with Stillman
CANADIAN 290 R A I L
Brown as fireman. Number 2929 made her last run on Thursday,Feb
ruary 16th.,1956. On the morning of Friday,February 17th., Gas
electric car No. 9003 and trailer 9005 were put into ser.vice on
the run from the Junction to Fredericton. It was not long be
fore the nickname Toonerville Trolley was applied to this con
nRST CANADIAN PAC1FIC RAILWAY
Via Wreet Un.
COACH GOOD roil ONE PASSAGE BY CLASS DESIGH~tED
RE~redAe~ic~~: J~~l..I.CKET .
Nol Good After ……………………. ; ……………………………… 11 .•……•
tlr……………………….. GOOD FOR ONE YEAR
TIX …. ? … I……………… GOOD FOR ST~P·OVER
ToI ……… t.. . .(..,….. NOT TRAJ lERABL£.
I~ Form 168f67
Gwl Ni-;;f&ffiO M:w~ 0 1 ~ …. ) .
THE LAST STEAM LOCOMOTIVE to OpErate in passenger service on the Branch
was Canadian Pacific Railways no. 2929,a JUbilee-type 4-4-4.This engine
was built by Canadian Locomotive Company at Kingston,Ont.,in 1938, was
rebuilt at Angus Shopa,Montreal in 1945 and made this last run on Thurs
day,February 16,1956. Photograph courtesy Darrell Phillips.
c -:c :::)c =
After 93 years of passenger operatioD,the end of it fi
nally came on April 28th.,1962,with the change of time
table. The last passenger train,number 112,otherwise Gas
electric Car no. 9003 and trailer., left the Union station
in Fredericton at 8.35 p.m.,for the Junction, arriving
there at 9.15 p.m. The return trip,Train lll,left Fred
ericton Junction at 10 p.m., loaded with many passenge rs
who were saying good-bye to the service. The last pas
senger train arrived at Fredericton Union Station at
Photo Story by
~ astern railway enthusiasts may,if
they choose, delude themselves
into believing that only they
are privileged to participate
in meaningful fantrips.
Just to persuade them that their west-coast cousins are
not all that slow about organising meaningful things, this series
of pictures is presented. Taken on August 11,1962, they portray the
remarkable result of some negotiations between the mod.el railroad
fratern:i.ty of Vancouver,B,Cthe Pacific Great Eastern Railway and
Ra illay Appliance Re search Limited. The day, the superb Br:tt ish
Co1uml;)ta scenery and the incredible motive power combined to pro
duce an occasion which would make the most conservative railway
enthusiast really drool!
r :::at :c ::x
THE FUNNY LOOKING CAR behind ·P,C,T,s no, 115,northbound to BrlJFlswick Beach on
P,G,E,s coast line is a water car,which wa~ followeJ by modern and
vintage PGE passenger coachee.
ON THE SOUTHBOUND TRIP, near the close of a very perfect day,Pacific Coa
at Terminals PC Shay no. 115 pausas and poses on the trestle at mile 6.7
of Pacific Great Eaaterns Vancouver Squamiah line.
THE PICTURE ON PAGE 292 shows what happened on August 11,1962,when the
local model railway fraternity in Vancouver,B.C.,organized an excur
sion from North Vancouver to Brunswick Beach,on Howe Sound, using three
cylindar PC Shay no. 115,owned by Railway Appliance Research,Limited.Sha
looks great on Nalson Creek Trestla.
ON THE OPPOSITE PAGE (293),the August ExcuraiOn over the P.G.E. winda
its way south,heading back to Vancouver,after a day full of satisfaction
for the local anthusiasta.
Rail,road and Nanaimo Ferry meet at Horseshoa Bay,B.C. Pacific Coast
Terminals PC Shay no. 115 slows for the main highway crossing,while tha
photographera have a field-day.
, he current year,1969, will witness
two memorable centenaries. May 10,
1969,marks the completion of the
first North Amer~can transcontinen
tal railway and November 17 is the
one hundredth anniversary of the
completion of the Suez Canal. Al
though both of these events took
place far outside Canada, they had
important consequences for our na
tion and therefore have a place in
any e~timate of late nineteenth –
century Canadian history.
In the United States of America,the transcontinental railroad
was completed when two ltnes of track, one from the west and the
other from the east,met at. Promontory Point, Utah. Seven years ear
lier,two companies, the Central pacHic the It/estern and the Union
Pacific the eastern, had been chartered by the Congress of the Un
ited States. The Civil war (1861-1865) delayed construction, but
from the end of that war,building liaS rapid and,early in May,1869,
the It/estern and eastern lines approached each other. By May 7, tr
ain loads of dignitaries began to arrive at the squalid track
side settlement of Promontory point. From the west came two of
the Central Pacific1s IIBig Four
: Leland Stanford, the President
and MArk Hopkins,the Treasurer of the railroad. Comparably impor
tant personages from the east were delayed by a strike, but on the
afternoon of May 10, the lIuedd ing of the rails II, as it was touch
ingly described,took place.
A laurel-wood tie ltlaS put in place and the last rail laid.There
were spikes of various metals: iron,silver and gold,symbolic of
the mineral wealth of the western territories,although legend re
roombers only the golden one. In fact,Californj.a supplied two gol
den spikes and a silver sledge-hammer. Armed with this tool, le
land Stanford undertook to drive the last spike,-and missed.The
telegraph operator who covered this event was primed for such a
mishap. He struck l1is telegraph key to Simulate the blows of the
silver spike maul and the waiting United States heard !lOne -two
A SELDOM-REPRODUCED PICTURE of the Great Ceremony at Promontory,Utah,
shows the gala scene of May 10,1869 from the cab roof of the Union
Pacific Railroads engine. In the background is the Central Pacifics
steamer and to the left of the U.p.s stack is the photographer taking
the pictures which made this scene immortal. UPRR photograph.
e ::se ::c =3
three: done. Such were some of the advantages of the pre-radio
and pre-television age 1
After that anticlimax,the final ceremonies were carried out.At
a signal,two locomotives,the Jupiter of the Central pacj.fic and
Number 119 of the Union pacific,g1ngerly approached one another,on
the newly laid track, until thetr pilots almost touched,or did tou
ch. The band of the United States Twenty-First Infantry struck up
America. There were prayers, speeches and the two engine-drivers
were regaled ,ith champagne,drunk straight from the bottles. Fin
ally, the three photographers moved their ponderous box cameras in
to position,to perpetuate this historic scene.
R A I L
It is a fair guess that no one among the actors or spectators at
Promontory Point,on that May afternoon, had any connection with
the beginnjngs of the transcontinental railway project. It dated
bacl~ some 17 years to 1852, when the Honorable Stephen Douglas, the
United States Senator from Illinois,commenced agitating for a
raihIaY that would make Chicago, his home town by adoption, the
railway capital of America. Chicago lIas,or soon llould be,connect
ed l/Hh the Atlantic coast, so Senator Douglas 1 project was a
railroad to the pacific. Alas,he did not live to see it. The bit
ter sectional rivalry of North and South in the early 1860
blighted Douglas 1 hopes,as they blighted his presidential ambi
tions. He died in 1861 and llhen his dream became a reality, it
l/aS shared by two corporations, the Central pacific Railroad,llith
Leland Stanford,Mark Hopkins,Charles Croker and above all, Collis
P .Huntington,CalHornia-based and the Union Pacific Rallroad, its
eastern counterpa.rt. Thus, the reality fell short of the dream. In
fact, there llere h/o railroads .Moreover, they did not form a true
transcontinental line of themselves,since their eastern terminus
was Omaha, Nebraska, on the banks of the Missouri River.
Some six months later,on November 17,1869,the Suez Canal was
opened. This important maritime link was constructed in a setting
of unsurpassed monotony,-a desert between two seas. The Canal,by
its nature, was a featureless trench cut through a sea of sand ,
to join the old Red Sea town of Suez with the new Port Said, on
Yet the opening ceremonies were undeniably brilliant. They were
graced by the presence of an Empress of the French,an Emperor of
Austria,a Crown Prince of Prussia and a galaxy of leSser notables.
The Khedive of Egypt lIas a charming and spendthrift host, who
spared no expense, -as his unhappy subjects kneil to their cost, to
make all the foreign guests happy. The Empress Eugenie,in the
French imperial yacht, led the procession of vessels through the
Canal. There was a stunning performance of the opera Aida, which
the Khedive had commisSioned the Italian maestro Guiseppi Verdi to
compose for the occasion.
It must have been intensely gratifying to the designer and ex-
ecutor of the work, Count Ferdinand de Lesseps. It is substantially
true that the Suez Canal was the work of thj;s one man. Over thirty
years before,de Lesseps had gone to Egypt in the French consular
service. He had conceived the plan of joining the Mediterranean
and Red Seas by means of a canal across the Isthmus of Suez. Of
course, the plan was not entirely original except,perhaps,in timing.
The progress of steam navigation in the Mediterranean and the ap
pearance of steam vessels in the Red Sea,-it was in 1839 that the
English had acquired Aden as a coaling-statlon,put a premium on
speed .and on the continuous voyage.
De Lesseps pers isted in the venture and finally accomplished hls
object, in the face of the frank hostility of Britain,the crass in
competence of Egypt and Turkey and the 11avering support of France.
Hhile de I.esseps had powerful allies in a group of Austrain and
Ge~man bankers and, indirectly, of the Austrian government, he owed
hj.s success to no one more than to himself. His was a triumph of
A NEWS REPORt IS ON pAGE 5.
FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC? Well,almost. From Chicago to tha Pa
cific,at any rate. Passengers east of Chicago took their own chancBsl
C :::xc :ZC :::)
The impact of these events on Canada resembled that of a stone
thro~m into a pond, The agitation was felt immediately at the cen
tre; later,towards the outer edges, The completion of the trans
continental railroad in the United states brought Omaha, its east-
R A I L
ern terminus vtithin ninety hours of the pc,cHic. In 1869, Canada
las half-a-continent alfray from the Pacific. Ir.deed, unless some
thing was done quickly, Canada might find no spot on the Pac j.f i.c
to reach. The Crown Colony of British Columbia was poi.sed precar
iously between Washington TerrHory and Alaska, the latter bought
from Russi.a as recently as 11:367. Ruperts Land,todays Prai.rie Pr
ovinces,was held ileakly by the ancient Hudso.:1s Bay Company. In
this dilema,ho11ever,Canada acted promptly. In the late autllmn of
ls Land vIas
purchased from the Hudsons Bay Company and
in 1871,Briti.sh Columbia was induced to enter Confederation. Tile
decisive element in Canadals successful offer was the promise to
construct a transconti.nental railway to the new Province.
Canadals transcontinental raili1ay,the Canadian pacific, VIas com
pleted on November 7,1885. The last spike,or spikes,as every Can
adian school child ought to know,.vlas driven by Donald Smith, soon
to be Lord Syrathcona. The place ilas Craigellachie, in the heart of
the third mountain pass over which the railvlay had fought its way.
The spike (13) used ilas a utilitarian, iron one and Hilliam Notman ,
the official photographer, vIas not able to introduce very much dr
ama into what is surely Canadals best-knovTn railway photograph.
There were no prayers,no set speeches and no champagne and there
was most certainly no band. In add ition to II.C .vanHorne 13 rather
terse conunent on the work as a vthole, nothing very apt was said at
this great occaSion, unless the parting exclamation by the train
conductor is counted. Six months later, when the first trans-
continental train prepared to leave Dalhousie Square Station in
Montreal,an inspired conductor called out All aboard for the
Pacificl and made this phrase immortal. Such vIas Canadas re-
sponse to the two events of May and November,1869.
The real response to the event of November, 1869, came a little
later. The opening of the Suez Canal and the continued expansion
of steam navigation brought the pacific area closer to Europe. A
vast seacoast, from Singapore north to Vladivostok, as well as all
of southeastern Asia, became a market for European …. Iares. The
multiplication of European-dominated port cHies, -Singapore
Hong Kong, Shanghai. and Yokohama,offered opportunities for North
Americans,as …. Iell. A key member of the Canadian Pacific direct
orate was alert to such opportunities. He was George Stephen, who
had risen to the pres idency of the railway through the same po
sition …. Iith the Bank of Hontreal. He was a keen student of or
iental history and a collector of oriental objets dart. George
Stephen was fond of finding practical applicati.ons for his hob
bies and in midsummer, 1886, Port Moody,son-e miles east of the
future City of Vancouver, witnessed the arri.val of the first tea
cargoes from Japan,consigned to wholesalers in Montreal. The C.
P.R. entered Pacific shipping by first leaSing and then building
its own vessels.
In l891,the first Emperesses began their Pacific crOSSings.
Thus,the opening of the Suez Canal,which stimulated the late nine
teenth century development of southeast and eastern Asia was ef
fectively capitalized on by Canada. Our pacifj.c Northwest became
a frontage to Asia and Canada itself soon formed an essential link
CANADIAN 300 R A I L
between Europe and Asia. As the English publication PUNCH char
acterized it,there was a New Northwest passage by Land,which was
the title of Sir John Tenniells famous cartoon. And,indeed, there
was a new northwest passage by land, between Europe and the East,
thanks to George Stephen and the Canadian pacific Railway.
:::ae :c ::x
Map OWl rouln of
malo, rallroadl In Ihe
U.S. loday. Heavy
black line OWl approximate roule
Ihe flnl I.anlcon
Iinenlal railroad ….
IWHn Omaha, N ..
bralka, and Sacramenlo, Callfomla.
RECEIVED SUBSEqUENT TO THE PUBLICATION of the article Man Conquers Moun
tain by Mr. Philip Mason,in the Apri1,1969,issue (no.209) of CANADIAN
RAIL,we herewith present two rare photographs of the Mountain Park Rail
way of 1890-95. Theee photographs,kind1y provided by Mr. David R. Hen
derson from his co11sction,show the line as seen from tHe top of the in
cline with a car coming up from the base station and in the second view,
a broadside shot of an open car ascending the incline. From the inside
of the car,five dignifisd ms1e patrona of the funicular coldly contem
plate the perspiring photographar,carefu11y concealed by his dsrk cloth.
C :::)C ::Ie ::
BY F.A. KEMP
PASSENGER CONFUSION •••••••• Conflicting statements by hi
gh officials of Canadian National Railways, concerning
passenger services,have resulted in some confuslon among
writers,editors and railway enthusiasts, but the reason
for the statements can be summed up tn one word: SUBSIDIES.
For the last 10 years,the Canadian government has paid a
general but diminishing annual subsidy to the rallways to
cover the cost of unprofitable passenger and branch line
services. There is also a provision for payment of a sub
sidyof up to 80% of the cost of specific servtces.To be
eligible for the specific subsidy, the raihlay must apply
for permission to discontinue the service and then sub
mit evidence to prove losses, under a government costing
formula which has only recently been released.
CP RAIL was granted leave recently by the Supreme Court
of Canada to appeal this formula. The application to dis
continue service is necessary however and it was for this
reason that Dr. Robert Bandeen,CN Vice-President,Corpor
ate Planning, stated that CN would apply for abandonment
of all passenger services,except those linking major
ciU.es in eastern canada, i.n the general area between the
City of Quebec and Hindsor,Ont. This statement evoked a
flurry of editorial comment from several Canadi.an and U.
S. papers,so that Mr. J. Frank Roberts,CN General Mana
ger,passenger Sales and Service,was kept busy making a
number of defence statements to the effect that pas
senger service was NOT being downgraded.
DEFENCE STATEMENIS to the contrary,CN released advice notes show
ing service cuts in Ottawa-Toronto,Montreal-ottawa and Montreal
Hervey,Que.,service,to take effect October 26,1969. ottalla-Toron –
to Trains 44-45 will again be combined with the Bonaventure .I)r
ains 54-55,between Brockvi.lle and Toronto. One train has been cut
.from the Montreal-Ottawa service,which thus returns to 4 runs.The
competing bus line,it is noted in parantheses,has run hourly ser
vice all Summer! The Montreal-Chicoutimi and Montreal-Senneterre
trains are to be combined between Hervey and Montreal, red ucing
this line to once-a-day service. CP RAIL will also cut off its
Sunday Trains 204-205 between Montreal and Sherbrooke.
R A I L
CP RAIL STATIONS: The famous landmarks ?-t .Jinnipeg, Man.
and Vancouver,B.C. may be abandoned in favour of their
CN counterparts 1n both cHtes. The former rank as med
ium-sized terminal stattons,but are served by only one
train (guess its name!) in each di.rection. Many smaller
stations are being closed along CP RAIL ltnes,as I. Cus
tomer Service Centre.s are being established on each
d ivtsion, rep lac ing local agencies. One large centre to
feel the axe 1s vlindsor,Ont.,where it is intended to re
move the agent, despite the fact that a large amo·unt of
freight is handled here. Already tickets are· sold only
on trains and baggage is checked without tickets.
A NETiJ HAY TO NETfl YORK! On just another day in June,the 22., 1969,
De lavlare & Hudson Railway trains be gan running from Ballston .. Spa
via Schnectady and trackage rights on the Penn Central through Al
bany to Rennselaer,on the east side of the Hudson River,where coa
ches are sVlitched into Penn Central trains for forwarding to New
York. This was necessitated by abandonment of Albany Union Station
and demolttion of the adjacent lower N.Y.C. bridge across the Hud
son to make way for a new highway project. For several months, D.
& H. trains executed a switch-back move through the abandoned sta
tton to get onto the upper N.Y.C. bridge. Work was continued thr
ough the summer to make a direct connection between the lines at
Albany, but it i.s not certain whether D. & H; passenger trains will
revert to their old route.
AN OPERATING ROYAL HUDSON: That is the dream of an organ
ization called the Royal Hudson Company,which is said to
have purchased former Canadian pacific H-l-c class 4-6-4
no. 2839 with the intention of moving it to the U.S.A •.
and restoring it to operating condition. Thi.s engine was
built in September, 1937, by Montreal Locomotive Works and
was used in passenger train service out of Toronto, often
hauling 14-car sect ions of The Dominion between Toronto
and Fort l1illiam,on a run where its booster was helpful
in starting loads of more than 1200 tons from difficult
places on the Schreiber Division. No. 2839 Vias officially
retired in March, 1963, but had actually ended service in
1960 as a helper on triple-headed transfer trains up the
steep grade from Montreals Hochelaga yard to Mile End.It
was also used to supply steam at west-end Glen coach yard
early in 1961,operating under steam for the last time. It
Vias stored outdoors at st. Luc and Angus Shops and was
sold to the Ontario government in 1965 fdr restoration and
display at the proposed Centennial Science Centre at Tor
onto. It VIas moved to North Bay (O.N.R.shops),then to Eto
bicoke,outside Toronto,where it has since remained. Res
toration to an operating condition will be a difficult as
vle11 as costly undertaking.Classes H-l-c, –<1 and -e, nos.
2820 to 286l~ !Jere designated Royal Hudsons.
R A I L
NEil] UNrrS FOR CP RAIL:CP RAIL has ordered 16 additional diesel-
electric units froinMLW-Worthington,Ltd.,bringingthe total to 67
and has renumbered the units to indicate the type of radio con
trol installed. There are two types of equipment: PACESETTER will
permit operation at very slovl.i?pe.E*l·s-durlng loading and unloading
of coal unit-trains, while LOCOTROL-equipped units fill be used to
control mid-train slave units at road speeds. LOCOTROL repeater
equipment vlill be installed in 6 ROBOI cars nml being prepared.
Road nwnbers and other details follow:
1. 3,000 hp. units:
4500-4507 DRF-30c Existing units PACESETTER R
4508 DRF-30d Delivery 1969 PACESETTER R
4509-4516 DRF-3Oe Delivery 1970 PACESETTER R
4550-4553 DRF·30d Delivery 1969 PACESETTER M
4554-4555 DRF-30e Delivery 1970 PACESETTER M
4566-4557 (+) DRF-30f Delivery 1970 PACESEITER M
4570-4575 DRF-30d Delivery 1969 LOCOIROL M
4576-4581 (+) DRF-30f Deliver,Y 1970 LOCOIROL M
2. 3,600 hp. units:
~·700-4719 DRF-36a Delivery 1969
4720-4729 DRF-36b Delivery 1970
4730-4737 (+ ) DRF-36c Delivery 1970
(+) new order
It is reported that the experimental 4,000 hp. unit vlill be number
ed 4710 instead of 4729,class DRF-36a. EXisting ROBOI cars 1000 and
1001 are being renumbered 1001 and 1002 and four additional cars
1003-1006 are being converted from silk express cars at CP RAILs
Angus Shops. They are also deSignated ROBOI 3 to 6 incl., and are
painted royal blue, wi th red and white multimarks.
CP RAIL has recently sold several coaches to the Algoma Central Ry.
enabling this line to replace most of its passenger equipment. All
of the cars were from the 2200-223
f series, built in 1947. Also, two
of the view
series 6-bedroom observation cars,stored at Glen
Yards,Montreal,for several years have been sold to the Cartier Rail-
way Company at Port-cartier,Que.,probably for that lines over-
night sleeper service to Lac Jeanine.
Delivery of CP RAILs bi-level suburban coaches has been delayed,
due to engineering requirements to strengthen the underframes .They
will NOI be ready as expected for the change of time. on October 26
as planned. CP RAIL RDC-4 no. 9251 will be the first such unit to
have the IIne1;1 image II. The pattern on the ends will remain the same
but the colour vlill be changed to lIactj.on red II •
ACI and data-processing equipment are now ready to gob
ble up and digest ,Iithout pain the new numbers assigned
by Canad ian National to GO TRANSrr equipment in the Tor-
R A I L
CP RAIL units, now at Ogden Shops,Calgary,Alta., after
var ious accidents, include 1~064, burned out July, 1969 ;4076, wre cked
at Hasa,B.C.,on the vlindermere Sub. on August 20,1969; 8713 de-
stroyed in the same wreck. In the east,four wrj.tten off units
are still in Angus Shops yaro,Montreal: nos. 1415,1801,8148 and
Former Canadian National Railways No. 46,the last uncommitted
4-6-4 class X-10-a has been sold by its former owner and moved to
a new location from the industrial siding at Dorval,Que. Opinions
of the identity of the new owner vary,but it is reported that the
gentleman is a scrap metal dealer and that he paid a price con
siderably in excess of the engine IS scrap value.From this fact,it
is reasoned that his intention is to preserve it,rather than con
verting it to scrap. The locomotive will be preserved in the Mon
treal area. The companion business car,whose original interior
was torn out some years ago,will be scrapped.
PASSENGER TRAINS U.S.A. Train travellers in the U.S.A.
will have a few more years available before their fav-
ourite means of transport disappears complete ly, but
tmportant gaps are being opened in the passenger ser-
vice network. These can only be circumvented by long
detours. One such gap was created by the removal of Lou
isville & Nashville Railroad· Trains 11-12, between Flo
maton,Ala. and Chattahoochee,Fla., thus severing the
through Gulf Hind service between Jacksonville,Fla, &
Nevi Orleans, La. The L. & N. has also .applied to d iscon
tinue passenger service between st. Louis,Mo., Evans
ville,Ind.,Chattanooga,Tenn. and Atlanta,Ga. This is
the last passenger service over the state-owned (Ala.)
western & Atlantic Railway,over which the famous Civil
War locomotive chase took place. It is also the last
train to use Atlanta Unton Station.
Other services terminated or applied for include Sea
board Coast Linels Florence-Augusta,Ga. and Jacksonvil
le-St. Petersburg,Fla., via Gainesville and Atlantic and
VJest Point-~estern Railway of Alabama I s Atlanta, Ga. to
Montgomery,Ala. The Texas & pacific has applied to dis
continue its Nevi Orleans-Marshall,Texas Trains 21-22.
Its recent pull-out from Dallas made that city the lar
gest in the world without rail passenger service,an un-
CANADIAN 307 R A I L
enviable title which it may not retain very long. The
New Orleans Union passenger Terminal,newest station in
the U.S.A. (1954), is being altered to accommodate Grey
hound buses,in addition to its diminishing roster of
passenger trains. Several tracks have already been re
moved to permit this change.
RAID-JAY STATIONS U.S.A.: Some of Chicagos six passengersta lons
are due to disappear shortly,as railroads with fel passenger runs
left move to other quarters. The B. & O.-C.& O. combine will aban
don its own Grand Central Station to move into the North Western
terminal,while Rock Island is expected to vacate LaSalle Street
for a berth in busy Union Station, after alterations to that vast
edifice are complete. part of the latter has been pulled down to
allo~1 construction of a new .office build ing above the tracks, sub
jecting commuters and casuals to the frustrations still fresh in
the minds of those using New Yorks Pennsylvania Station during
its latter-day transformation. Penn Central,following its succes
sful rebuilding of Penn Station, is planning a similar defacement
for Grand Central Terminal.This proposal is being resisted by a
group which seeks to have GeT declared a national historic site,
although it was only built in 1913! Penn Central recently closed
its downtown stations at Albany and Schnectady,N.Y. and replaced
them with out-of-town locations at Rennselaer and Colonie, which
have large parking lots as well as large taxi bills for those not
having their own transportation.
THE BRITISH HAVE LANDED AT BOSTON …. Alan PeglerS famous locomo –
tive ex-LNER no. 4472 Flying Scotsman,motive power for the Brit
ish Trade Exhibition train, was off-loaded from Cunard Steamship
Lines S.S.SAXONIA, in the middle of Boston Harbour on September 28
by a giant crane from the Charlestown Navy yard. The locomotive
was followed by the two tenders and two of the nine exhibition
cars, some of which are converted coaches and some converted lug
gage vans. The cars are painted in what has been described as an
emetic chocolate and cream. Previously,the S.S.MEDIA had discharged
three cars and the S.S.IBERIA four,making a grand total of one en
gine,two tenders and nine cars. After preparation at the civilian
portion of the nearby Army Base,the train began its tour at Boston
on October 8,working in steam to Hartford,Conn.,on the 12th.
Rumor has it that Flying Scotsman will enter New York with
stone-cold firebox,the necessary steam being supplied by an
fired boiler in a train heating car, hauled behind the second ten
der of the locomotive.An intriguing ideal
Flying Scotsman will complete its eastern tour at Houston,Texas,
on November 15,1969,having covered some 2,000 miles.Mr. Frank Ky
per,Editorial Coordinator,Massachusetts Port Authority,Boston,Mass.
send s this information.
published monthly exoept July & August oombined )
CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICA.L ASSOCIATION ~~~,~:,~24u:~u 8
AssOCiate Membership inoluding 11 issues ot:
Canadian Rail e.oo annually.
EDITOR S. VVorthen PRODUCTION P.Murphy
DISTRIBUTION J.A.Beatty & F.F.AnguS
MEMBERSHIP AND BRANCHES
Mr. J. A. Bea tty, 4982 Queen Mary Road. Mon treal 248. Quebec I Canada.
Mr. M. lvasen f Secty •• P.O.Box 3S2, Terminal A ottawa Onto
ROCKY IlOUNTAIN Mr. Donald W.Scafe 12407 Lansdowne Drive, Apt. 101, Edmonton Alta.
K.F.Chlvers. Apt. 3. 67 Somerset St. W., Ottawa, Ontario.
J.S.Nioholson, 2)06 Arnold St., Saskatoon, saskatchewan.
Peter Cox, 29J6 West 28th. Ave., Vancouver, British Columbia.
W.D.McKeown, 6-7, 4-chome, Ysmate-oho,Sulta Clty. Osaka, Japan.
J.H.Sanders, 67 Willow Way, Ampthill, Beds •• England.
K.G.Younger, 26? Vernon Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Hr. Donald W.Scafe, 12407 Lansdowne Drive, Apt. 101. Edmonton Alta ..
Copyright 1969 printed in Canada
on Canadian paper