basic concepts which make TURBO possible
are lightweight construction,streamlined de
sign,pendulum suspension and small, powerful
engines. These features did not develop over
night,but are the results of years of exper
imentation and change,dating back to the era
of steam propulsion.
For hundreds of years before the ~oming of the railway,the speed
of land transportation ~ad undergone little improvement,so that,by 1800,
the fastest way to travel was still on the back of a galloping horse.The
first railways changed all that and it was soon possible to travel at 20
or even 30 miles an hour,much to the alarm of the critics,who thought at
once that such extreme speeds would haye a very serious effect on the
health of the traveller. As steam locomotive engineering became more ad
vanced,experimental designs evolved,capable of much higher speeds.A rate
of a mile a minute had been achieved before 1850 and,in the 1890s, runs
exceerling 100 miles an hour,for short distances,had been made. These
speeds would be impressive even today and represented the prectical up
per limit,without resorting to completely nel concepts of rolling stock
However,it should be emphasized that these early high-speed runs
bore little relationship to the practical,day-to-day running time of tr
ains. I~hile the maximum speed reached its effective limit in the Nine
teenth Century,the average operating speed only crept up slowly,year by
year and an everage of 40 miles an hour was still fast running in 1900.
OccasionaJly,where two rai-!cways competed nirectly,a speed war lould
temporarily drastically raise the schedule sneed. The most famous exam
ples of this were the British races to the North on the trains between
London and Scotland in 1808 and again in 1895. In Canada,the competition
between the Canadian Pacific and the Canada Atlantic Railways on the Mon
treal-Ottawa service in 1899-1900 saw both lines build high-speed Atlan
tic (4-4-2s) locomotives,setting speed records which remained unbroken
for years. Once the heat of the competition cooled however,schedules re
turned to their more leisurly pace,as the high-speed engines could not
pull long train~ and load,rather than speed,was what made the railway
These brief excursions into the realm of higher speeds had shown
that the effect of Air resistance,almost negligible below 20 m.p.h., be
came an important factor at high speeds. The laws of physics tell us
that the force required to overcome the resistance of air varies as the.
sguare of the velocity; thus,the work done to overcome this force in tr
avelling a given distance is 36 times as great at 60 m.p.h. as at 10 m •.
p.h. Every protruding part of a train contributee to this drag and for
best efficiency, a smooth,unbroken surface should be used. In 1865, a
patent was issued in the United States for a train embodying such fea
tures. This train consisted of a 4-4-0 locomotive and one car,the entire
unit being cigar-shaped and completely enclosed,even on the underside. The
platforms were connected by flexible diaphragms and the whole train for-
Underslung car (from the Scientific American, March
med a streamlined surface. Even the rear end WAS pointed,showing that the
pronounced retarding effect of turbulence,behind a flat moving surface was
appreciated,even then,probably as a result of experiments on ships. This
train would look modern,even today and to a person in 1865,in the era of
wood-burning locomotives and open-platform,wooden coaches,it must have
seemed as unrealistic as air travel.
It is very doubtful if an actual train was built from the designs
of this patent and not much was done towards high-speed trains until the
enn of the cen~ury. By then,the trend Idas definitely to higher speeds,and
in the year 1900,the ~altimore and Ohio Railroad in the United States,ac
tually constructed a streamlined train named the Windsplitter, which
underwent tests at speeds of up to 90 m.p.h. However,a conventional, un
streamlined locomotive was used and lightweight rolling stock had not yet
been developed,so much of the benefit of the streamlining was lost, and
the l~indsp1itter ld3S soon retired,dismantled and forgotten.
As so often happens to a good idea,the whole concept of stream
lining and high-speed travel lay virtually dormant for many years, until
a new competitor,the aerorlane,made the railways realize that they would
have to improve their schedules or lose business. The first,modern stream
lined train,the Union Pacifics diesel-powered,articulated train ~amed
City of Salina was placed in service in 1934. Other railways throughout
the world soon inaugurated streamlined trains,both steam and diesel pow
ered. The problem of reduced pay-load was minimized by the use of modern
lightweight equipment and few heavyweight cars were built thereafter. In
Aritain,one of the ~treamlined 4-6-2 steam engines of the London and Nor
th Eastern Railway captured the worlds speed record for a steam engine,
and in Canada,speeds above 100 m.p.h. were not unRnown with the CanHdian
Nationals 5700s and the Canadian Pacifice 30005.
.~:.!~, ,;,-,. 9
First streamlined train (patented by S. R. Calthrop,
8, 1865, No. 49227)
.. ~~.~ ~ .
37 R A I L
During World War II,longer trains rrecluded high-sreed running,
but by 1950,radically new designs werR on the drawing boards, or even on
the rails. It was at this time that the Spanish Talgo,the American Tr
ain X and others of their type were developed. In 1956,the Chesapeake &
Uhio Railroad in the United States,evolved a train very similar to TURBO
although diesel-powered. It embodied the concepts of low centre of grav
ity,pendulous suspension,an idea conceived in 1B46,but long since forgot
ten, two-wheeled trucks under the articulations between the cars and other
features. This would allow high speeds to be maintained on curves, giving
a decided advantage over earlier streamlined trains. This train was not
built at that time but was TURBOs immediate predecessor. In the 1960s,
the Japanese electrically-powered Tokaido train became the worlds fast
est reqularly scheduled train,s title which it retains to this day. With
the development of a small turbine engin~,similar to that used to power
aircraft,the design of the C. & O.s 1956 streamliner was revived in North
America by United Aircraft Corporation, and TURBO became a reality.
Adams Windsplitte1 on the Thomas Viaduct, Relay,
1900 (by courtesy of the Baltimore & Ohio
Future increases in schedule speeds on existing railways will de
pehd as much on the improvement of track and the elimination of level cr
ossings as on improvement in equipment,since TURGO is theoretically ca
pable of more than 150 m.p.h. Certainly,there is need for high-speed tr
ains for runs of less than 500 miles,to conserve air space for longer
flights. History has shown that maximum speeds,achieved under ideal con
ditions are t~JO to three times greater than the practical speeds. Already
an experimental electric train in France has surpassed 200 m.p.h. and, if
new developments can increase the ratio of practical to maximum speed, it
is not inconceivable that,by the year 2000 C.E.,intercity rail travel av
eraging 160 m.p.h. and exceeding 200 m.p.h.in places,may,under certain
the m~jor innovations incorporated
design of the propuleion system of
Aircra.ft Corporations TURBO Train
aircraft-type gas turbins.
The gas turbine in itself is not new to railroading. Its first
cousin,ths steam turbine,was employed in several steam locomotivss in the
United Ststee,using both electrical and mechanical transmission ( refer
ence Norfolk & Wsetern 2300 and Pennsylvania Railroad 6200,respectively).
In 1948,ALCO-GE constructed No. 101,a demonstrator 4500 hp. gas -turbine
electric locomotive which saw service on ths Pennsylvania Railroad and
the New Vork,Chicago & St. Louia (NICKEL PLATE) ,before being delivered to
the Union Pacific Reilroad,in 1949,as U,p. 50. Although this locomotive
was returned to the builder in 1951,it was the harbinger of twenty-five
4500 hp. gas turbines,dalivsred by General Electric to U.p. between 1952 and 1954.
Finally,from 1958 to 1961,numbers 1 to 30,which were initially
rated at 8500 hp.,were received by U.p. from GE. Many of theee latter
locomotives have been rerated to 10,000 hp. at the turbine,in more recent
One other gas turbine,number 80,later no. 8080,was constructed by
U.P. in their own shops,utilizing a 2000 hp. ALCO passenger A-unit,numbsr
607-A,model PA-1,ae the control unit. A GE 4900 hp. gas turbine, arranged
to burn both Bunker-C fuel oil and pulverizad coal was installed in a
former Great Northern electric locomotiva,number 5018. This two-unit set
was trailed by an ax-4000 claes tender,equipped with a coal pulverizer.
The final results of testing this most ambitious project were such that
numbar 8080 was retired sfter only 5 years of service.
The conclusion reached by U.P.,-ths ecknowledged laader in gaa
turbine motivs power development,is that,at present,gas turbines sre not
economically justified,dus to high capital expenditure end maintenance or
operating costs. The railroad hae turned to double-engined dieeel -elec
trice to achieve their aim of unit reduction. Ae a result, the 4500 hp.
gae turbines hsve now been retired.
For the past few years,the Budd Company of Philadelphia,Pe., has
been experimenting with self-propelled commuter coach sets,powersd by gae
turbine prime movere. Apparently,work ie still progressing. Overeess, the
British Railwaye expsrimentel GT-3,a 2750 hp. gss turbins-mechsnicsl unit
built in 1961 has coms to naught in respect of being the prototype of the
motive power eelectad to replaca BRe thousands of steam locomotives.
This,in brief,is ths hiatory of gas turbines in railway motive
power service end obviously,the reaults have been enything but promising.
High msintenance coste,short life and a gargsntuan appetite for fusl hsve
discouraged their previously antiCipated widespread usage. The U,A,C,a
TURBO Train will be watched most carefully by the railway industry to sse
whether or not the answer to rising costs of railway operation is in tha
use of aircraft-type gas turbines,installed in integral trains,
For those not acquainted with tschnical mattera,a summary of the
workinga of gae turbines will ba informative. The basic form of the gas
turbine is the turbo-jet engine. This engine conaists of an air inlet noz-
TURBO POWER -UACs ST-6B is about 5 feet long and 1.5 feet in diamater.
Turbine governor is on the right endjscreen to left is air intake & com
pressor.Power turbine is enclosed by bright metal cover in centre, with
exhaust port visible just to left. Output shaft is on left end of tur
bine.Photo courtesy of McGill University (Engineering) from U.A.C.
zle,through which air is drawn by a turbine or fan. This inlet turbine,as
one might expect,compresses the air to many times its initial pressure,so
that this air,in its compressed state,is passed to a combustion chamber,
where fuel is injected and ignited. Very rapid combustion occurs and the
total prassure and temperature of the gas are raised tremendously.Seeking
an outlet to a norm~l pressure state,the compressed gas passes through B
small turbine, which uses up enough of the power generated to drive a sh
aft,running down the centre of the engine and powering the inlet com
pressor turbine.After passing through this small turbine,the expanding
gas still has a great amount of energy for conversion to Kinetic ~nergy,
by expansion and hence further acceleration of the gas through the outlet
nozzle where it teaches a normal pressure state by being exhausted to the
atmosphere. The rate of change of momentum of the gas passing through the
engine produces the thrust,which is the output. This is the power which
moves the turbo-jet aircraft.
The U.A.C. gas turbine is similar to the turbo-jet,except at the
outlet nozzle,where a set of additional turbines is substituted to remove
the unexpended energy of the expanding gasses. A shaft connected to these
power turbines is used to transmit the power to whatever load system is
desired. The spent gasses are usually then exhausted to the atmosphere ,
although sometimes the hot exhaust is used to preheat the inlet air. This
function is very similar to the feedwater heater installed on many large
Canadian and United States steam locomotives,which used exhaust steam to
preheat the inlet water before it was injected into the boiler.
The prime movers used by the United Aircraft Company in the TURBO
Trains are the ST-6B gas turbines,which are the Canadian development of
the Pratt & Whitney PT-6 engines,used for aircraft. There is a total of 5
engines installed in each seven car train set; four are rated at
CANADIAN 40 R A I L
400 hp. each end are ueed for propulsion,while the 5th. engine is employ
ed es the Auxili~ry Power Unit (APU). This ges turbine is reted at 527
shaft horsepower and drives a 460 volt,60 hertz,3-phese generetor, which
delivers 300 kw. at 3600 r~m. One of the propulsion turbines is erranged
so that it can be subetituted r~pidly for the resuler APU,ahould the let
Each 400 hp. propulsion unit ST-6B weighs only 300 lbs.complete , which
contrasts sharply with a diesel engine,such es the 16-cylinder ALCO
251C,producing up to 3900 hp. end waighing 42,000 lbs. The 16V-251C ie
ebout 12 feet long,6 feet wide and 6 feet high,without its generator, wh
ereas the ST-6B is ebout 60 inches long end 18 inches in diameter~ From
these figures~the weight per horsepower or the horeepower per cubic foot
of volume can be calculeted.
In addition to the greet weight and bulk sevings,the ST-6B is er
ranged as a free turbine engine. That is, the output shaft is indepen
dent of the compreesor ehaft. Thus, while the engine is idling end the
compressor is functioning,the output shaft need not rotete. This errange
ment eliminates the need for a transmiesion system, such as en hydraulic
torque-converter or electric gen_erator,cheracterietic of the conventional
dieeel locomotive. The four propulsion turbinee,-two in eech end of ea
ch trainset,are directly coupled to a gear-mixing box, which reduces the
turbine sheft speed and increases the torque applied to the card an-shafts
connected to axls-mounted gear-boxee. The power truck,under each dome cer
is of e two-exle design,incorporeting high support points to fecilitate
banking on curves.
While the speed of the power turbines mey thus be controlled by
the train speed,the power developed by them is directly controlled by
fuel admission rate. This function is determined by the poeition of
engineers controller,in the dome ceb. Of an integral-type design,
controller, if turned clockwiss from the mid-position,increeaee the power
while if turned counter-clockwise, the air brakes are epplied. When the
controller ie returned to mid-point while the train is at speed, a free
wheeling condition ensues,with no great change in trein speed, elong
level etretches of track.
Thus,unlike conuentional dieeel locomotives,it is not possible to
have the locomotive still providing power,while the eir brakes are func
tioning. This feeture is essential on conventionel treine, to prevent the
effect of sIeck between the cere,but the erticulated deeign of the TURBO
Trein has eliminated the need for such independant ection between the
breking and throttle syetems.
The maximum reted epeed of CNe TURBO Trein Beta ie 120 mph.,while
the 3-car sets,destined for the New Vork,New Heven & Hartford will have a
substantially higher rating. These letter treine are still undergoing ad
ditional testing,under the auspices of the U.S.Federsl Governments De
partment of Trensportation,as pert of the Northeeet Corridor Project. Be
cauee of the noxious gasses which are given off by turbines,the New Haven
sets will be provided with d.c.traction motors,connected to the gear mix
ing boxes,for use in the third-rail electrified territory in the tunnele
and etetions of subterranean Menhatten.
Technically speaking,the individuel eyetem designs for the TURBO
Trein are not new,but whet ie new ie the combination of pendulum suspen
sion,eingle guided axlss,erticulation,gae turbine motive powsr and right
weight design. Only the test of daily long-distance service will deter
mine whather the aircreft menufacturer-turned-reilwsy supplier can suc
ceed in providing faat,afficient and reliable service in rail transpor
tetion,which will be so vital in the future.
ltt was exactly as exciting as a five
year-olds Night Before Christmas,
or mabye it wasnt. It was just like
seven days before Apollo 8 moon shot
and it seemed as though the prepara
tions had been under way quite a wh
ile longer. The target date was be
fore Christmas,but that was really
the day after tomorrow,depending on
the project engineers said.And
anyone who could ~ersuade them to
commit themselves was doing a super
human thing because they werent too
communicative. In fact,they werent
saying a thingl
And then,as the data continued to pour in,everyone became a
little more confident end a little more sure.About November 23, the word
around that Company employees could and were riding to Toronto end
test runs. And then,on December 7,United Aircraft Company of Can
ada borrowed a unit for one day only,to take a group of notables on a
Saturday trip to Brockville and back. The President of the Canadian Rail
road Historical Association was among the participants. Finally,the logiC
system on the computer spat out the decision that all systems were goand
that the lessor could preview the thing to the press,radio and television
representatives on December 10,1968 at 1245 hours and thereafter. Thus the
dscision was taken and what followed thereafter is history.
Some history I In retrospect ,what happened on that Tuesday,
in the neighbourhood of Kingston,Ontario,looks almost like a put-up job.
But nobody in their right mind would have set up a ·cliff-hanger like the
one which actually happened. With every newspaper,magazine,radio and tele
vision notable for miles and miles around on the train,would you believe a
thing like an accident!
TURBO P-204 headed out of Montreal on the advertised et 1245
hours,while its counterpert TURBO P-201 departed from Toronto at the same
hour. A mile west of Kingston,eastbound P-201 approached a level croasing
at a considerably reduced spead,since one of tha Companys RAPIDOs had wh
acked a cement truck at the very same crossing the day before.
Frank Bordeaux,Company signalman from Montreal,standing at
the crossing,was the first to know it would happen. Senior Engineer L.
Langabeer,at the throttle of TURBO P-201 saw and knew the same thing in
microseconds. And at the moment of impact,the picture of the year was sn
apped by Press Photogrepher Ernest Lee of the London FREE PRESS of London,
Ontario. This was thB picture that made the front pages of most Canadian
dailies the next morning,and the publicity for Canadian Nationals TURBO
was well and truly launched I And the launch was just as successful as that
of Apollo 8,some days laterl
PICTURE OF THE VEAR -Ernie lees shot from the rear dom~ of P-201 at the
moment when train and semitrsiler disputed the crossing st Kingston,Ont.,
on the press run of 10 December 1968. Photo courtesy london FREE PRESS.
Driver Don Maclean of Kingston,Ont.,who was at the wheel of
the first vehicle to get in the way of TURBO,-a semitrailer truck,liter
ally never knew what hit him. He only found that out when he staggered out
of the tractor portion,shaken up but otherwise unhurt. Quite accidentally
(and no pun is intended),he created the biggest news story that CN could
have asked For. But at a pricel Adrian Lunny of the Montresl STAR snapped
a terriFic shot From the front dams of westbound TURBO P-204,as it slow
ly approached the scene,a Few minutes later. Ron Haggart of the Toronto
TELEGRAM smiled,Well,iF you must hit a truck on a press run, then the
place to be is on CanadianNationals bullet-shaped, rock-steady new TURBO~
And he was about right,too. Without a doubt,iF there had baen some
spare nose-panale stowed awey somewhere on TURBO P-201,CNs eF
Ficient maintenance boys would heve had them out and installed in a jifFy
and,all things being equal, TURBO P~201 would have arrived in Montreal a
little late snd thats all. As it was,this unit was back in service some
36 hours later. But,in the intereat of public safety,press,radio and tele
vision replesentatives From Toronto were detrained From P-201 and entrain
ed on ~-204 For the retulntrip to Toronto. The Montreal contingent made
tha entire round trip. The plaudits were many snd loud,-not only For the
new TURBO train, but also For CNs excellent handling of the whole episode.
The days events had supplied every element essential to a real good page one
story. And thats where the story was printed,-right across Canada.
CANADIAN 4; R A I L
CNs own house-organ,KEEPING TRACK,described the event as the best cov –
ered and most widely reported minor accident in railway history. All in
all,the Company came out of it well. On an occasion such as this, it is
undoubtedly best not to have an accident. But,as Mr. Haggart and others
of his colleagues intimated,the accident did show the rock-steady TURBO
cen take it. All that most people on board felt was a slight jar, and it
was difficult at first to convince some that anything like hitting a huge
trailer truck had happened.
Well,thats the way it was. And it is improbable that, as
of this writing,anyone outside of Kingston,ont.,even remembers the name
of the driver of the ill-fated trailer truck. Historically speaking, he
was the first Canadian to challenge TURBOs right of way. But it is very
doubtful if he or his semitrailer of frozen meat will make Canadian his
What is still being discussed,however,is the effect of TUR
BOs silent speeds at other level crossings along its intercity route. To
date,considerable experience in level crossing control has been derived
by Canadas railways in the operation of self-propelled ~ars of the BUDD
ROC type. Consequent on this experience,main line road crossings havs
been adequately provided with every essential protective device.However ,
with its higher speeds,TURBo has significantly reduced the time interval
between closing of crossinq flasher and barrier circuits and crossing the
R A I L
Nowhere has this been more evident than along the Lakesh
ore,-ten to twenty miles west of Montreal. With Highways 2 and 20 clo
sely parallelling both CN and CP along this stretch and with several in
tersections of heavily travelled streets crossing these two double-track
ed main lines,the municipalities have been forced to install manually
controlled traffic lights. These lights regulate traffic crossing the two
railway lines,as well as the highway intersections. Normally,when a train
hits the crossing protection circuit,the traffic polica officer on duty
at the control post,first clears the two railway crossings of road vehi –
cles and then changes the traffic lights to red as the half-barriers come
down. With normal passanger or freight trains,including those whose speed
is somewhat reduced due to starting from station stops,the traffic control
officer can count on three or four minutes for this operation, but wh~n
TURBO hits the circuit,this time margin is telescoped to single minutes
or fractions theraof. And the motorists had better hustlel They probably
would,too,if they knew that TURBO was on their tail! But most Mr.Motorists
cant tell the difference between TURBO and 6218.
This formidable reduction in crossing clearance time was
noted by a C.R.H.A.member on TORBOs inaugural run on December 12. It was
particularly obvious on the eastbound trip,when TURBO zipped through the
Lakeshore communities after dark,in the middle of the evening. Next mor
ning,information exchanges between civic officials in thesa cities and
Canadian Nationals St. Lawrence Region Public Relations Department lad
to conferences,designed to evaluate this new condition. It was established
that top train speeds are a matter of Railway Transport Committee regul
ation. TURBO does not exceed these speeds. HoweJer,TURBO does not make any
stops in this area (except at Dorval,on one run) and does not have to de
celerate for curves,so that point-to-point eUapsed times ara significant
ly less than with RAPIDO or freight trains. After all,thats how TURBO
gets to Toronto in 3 hours and 59 minutesl
It is hoped that civic authorities in thesa an othar sim
ilsr communities along TURBOs trajectory will issue the appropriate in
structions to their traffic control men,so that the latter will keep a copy
of TURBOs schedule at hand,so that when the speedster is approech
ing their area or crossing,they will clear the traffic from the crossing
well in advance of the TURBO passing time,thus avoiding any further mech
anical impact tests,such as was conducted at Kingstonl
Simultanaously,existing by-laws prohibiting the sounding
of TURBOs chsracteristic warning horn should be revoked,for the protect
ion of the public. Alreedy,consideration is being given to the provision
of specisl flashing lights at suburban stations in both the Montreal and
Toronto sreas,which will give adequate advance warning that TURBO is com
ing,somewhere close up or down the lins. In some localltles,-notably at
the two crossings at Kingston,Ont.,overpasses are b~ing constructed, but
until they can be completed,it is evident that Mr. Motorist end Mrs. Ped
estrian will have to be specia~ly instructed and totally educated that a
completely new form of rail transportation has happened on Canadian Nat
ional Railways. Theyll have to pay closer than normal attention. Theyll
learn that this new thing doesnt maks as much noise as a DC or Apollo 8,
but it is just as portentious and will,insvitably,relate much more close
ly to their every-day axperience. Stop,Look snd Listen,my fellow Canad
ians,TURBO is here,-officislly as of December 12,19681
A BEAUTIFUL SHAPE -On page 60,TURBO clips em off at 90 plus,flashing by
the poles on the way west from Montresl to Toronto.Photo courtesy C.N.R.
~Jhe day was Thursday,December 12,1968. The occasion was the first official
run of Canadian National Railways TURBO train,-TURBO for short. T-hour
was 1245 hours,Eastern Standard Time.
The platform is alive with press representatives,television crews and
cameras,film cameramen, photographers, arc lights,celebrities and some
very pretty hostesses,acting as guides. Montreals Mayor Jean Drapeau
strolls up and down and through the new train with Canadian Nationals
President,Mr. N.J.MacMillan,Q.C. The cror.~d on the platform grows. Re
porters scribble, flash-bulbs pop and cameras and tape-recorders whirr.
Mr. MacMillan and Mayor Drapeau complete their tour of the new train.
Dr. Nicholls,President of the Canadian Railroad Historical Associa
tion,joins them. More pictures are taken. Thirty excited members and
friends of the C.R.H.A. join the crowd on the platform. No,-by ac
tual count,there are only twenty nine. One ticket has had to go beg
ging,in spite of the valiant efforts of Mr. Walter Bed brook to give
it to some deservin~ person in the crowd in the Concourse of Central
T-DAY 1968 -Minutes before departure,CNs President N.J.MacMillan,C.R.H.A.s
President Dr. R.V.V.Nicholls and Montraals Mayor Jean Drapeau discuss the
donation of the first TURBO to the Canadien Railway Musaum. Mr. Lorne Perry,
CN Public Relations and C.R.H.A. membar is in the left background.
Photo courtesy Canadian National Railways.
CN Turbo CN Turbo
Inaugural Week Semaine Inaugurale
Commemorating the introduc
tion of Canadian Nationals
Turbo-the fastest and most
luxurious inter-city passenger
train in North America. The
Turbo heralds a new era in land
between Montreal and Toronto
in only 3 hours and 59 minutes
-downtown to downtown.
Le plus rapide eHe plus luxueux
des trains de voyageurs inter
dAmerique du Nord, Ie
Turbotrain des Chemins de fer
Nationaux du Canada marquera
Ihistoire du rail. II ouvre une
ere nouvelle des transports
terrestres et relie Montreal II
en 3 heures 59, de
centre II centre.
~f~~~1 ~o~nrO:el::~e~I~~eate ~~II~~: 3.~~~~le~lll!ell:eV~~~fo·n
panengers receipt coupon r~u
not valid for transportation ne Plut servlf de bltlal
TURBO TICKET 3448 -held by M. Claude Blaie,P.Eng.,for CN TURBOs inaugural
run on 12 DecBmber~ 1968,Montreal-Central Station to Toronto-Union Station.
Courtesy M. Claude Blais,P.Eng.
Within touch-distance of the platform stands the silent,sleek,cigar
shaped vehicle; colours of cream and gray. Worlds newest example
of high-sp~8d rail travel. TURBO -powered by aircraft turbojets, –
turbojets powering an aircraft on whp.els! And on steel rails! The
man in the pilots com~artment of the front TURBO dome wears a bus
iness suit and a snap-brim felt and a la~el badge. Black background
and I~hite letters spell TURBO-3_ Idatch in hand,his steady blue-eyed
gaze sweeps over the powder-blue lights of the control console_ Re
directed,it encompasses the platform and the crowd and the ceremon
ies. The control compartment is silent. The noise and celebration on
the platform below is entirely sealed out.
In the passenger seat,immediately behind the engineers position,is
the observer,-a professional mechanical engineer,watching intently.
In the centre of the aisle, looking through the open glass doors of
the control compartment,another interested passenger stands talking
to the man in the business suit. The formp.r is the C.R.H.A,s Hon
orary Auditor. The latter is the project engineer from United Air
craft Company of Canade.
luith a final,fleeting look at the platform crowd,the television cam
eras and the arc-lights,the man in the business suit with the TURBOr
3 button makes a decision. Seating himself in the senior engineers
seat,he reaches for the telephone,cradled low down on the control
console. Speaking into it,he establishes communication with the
rear dome of the train. ~uiet orders are given. Trackside auxiliary
power is available, Touch of a button and the femiliar,rising whine
of a starting turbojet engine is just audible. Majestically,the wh
ine climbs upluard through the frequencies, A deeper note as the ig
nition button is pressed and the turbines ignite, On the other side
of the qlass,the crowd suddenly stirs, Eyes turn from friends and
relatives to the faintly vibrating gray tubular shape,now the focus
of attention. Invisible hands separate tracks ide connections. The
last fixed earth-ties are free. A ripple of excitement,of uncertain
ty,passes through the spectators. A quiver of expectation is mirror
ed on the faces of the crowd.
The crowd on the platform recoils slightly. Something so new,so diff
erent. A new experience,so near at hand. The uneasiness of standing
so near. To see this long expected marvel. Thie marvel of transport
of the Twentieth Century astonishes and silences tha observers. Now
in Canada,-land of the second century,progress is heralded by the
increasing,commanding roar of limitless power,under the enginaers
Mesdames,Messieurs. Sil vous plait! Will all those persons not ac
companying the TURBO to Toronto please leave immediately.
The conductors vOice,clearly audible,from the announcing
in each unit and dome of the train.
Turbines now whine eagerly. Uniformed train crew,just photographed
with officials and dignitaries,quickly leave the platform to take
their operating positions,some in the body of the train and two in
the control positions in the first dome. Slipping into right and le
ft-hand seats in the forward dome,the senior engineer and his assis-
• • •
tanto The senior engineer glances quickly at the man in the business
suit with the TURBO-3 button. A questioning glance. All pre-start
checks made and satisfactory? a nod. Press a button. Passenger steps
the length of the train,in preciSion-drilled groups lift,turn and so
fold out of sight into the smooth gray shape. Orange-coloured doors
slide out of hidden recesses,move sideways,then outward,forming an
integral, perfect seal. On the control console,a light winks, another
A nod from the first engineer to the second engineer. Brakes release
with no audible sound. Another light winks out. The man in the bus
iness suit stands between. Three pairs of eyes look ahead. Green on
the dwarf signal. A slight advance in throttle position and a re
sponding higher whine from the turbojets. The moment of action. Then
slowly,slowly,but with quickening speed, the platform and the crowd
begin their retreat. The control car,-the entire train accelerates.
Silently the entire unit moves out,past the platform, from under the
canopy,beginning its first official voyage over the three-hundred –
miles to its terminal westward,-to be accomplished in three
hours, fifty nine minutes and no seconds.
The time is 1245 hours. The date is December 12,1968. The place is Mont
real,Canada. The long, gray shape, variously decorated with black and or
ange is Canadian Nationals TURBO,-first train in the world to make of
this idea,reality,-high-speed rail transportation between two great ci
ties. The idea has become the reality. This splendid event marks the new
era,-the dawn or-the new age of railways in Canada.
On page 43,THE RESULT OF DISPUTE -Adrian Lunny of the Montreal STAR shot
this photo of P-201 from the front dome of westbound P-204, just west of
Kingston,Ont.,after the disputed passage. Photo courtesy Montreal STAR.
Page 47 depicte the drams of T-Hour 1968. Montreals Mayor Jean Drapeau
gives the highball to P-204s engineer, from the departure platform of
CNs Central Station,Montreal. Time is 12.46.30, 12 December,1968. (CN)
Below,FIRST RUN IN REVENUE SERVICE -CN Train 63,otherwise TURBO P-204 ,
crosses the old swing-bridge over the Lachine Canal at St-Henri,Que., on
12 December 1968 at 12.52 hre.,on the inaugursl run to Toronto.(W.Blevina)
T-TIME 1968: On page 48,unit P-202 anticipates P-2D4 as it pulls out of CN
Central Station on a teat run in the latter part of the Bummer.Photo CNR.
The picture on page 49 showe TURBOS ARRIVAL IN CANADAS QUEEN CITV.P-1D2 on e
test run, passes Cherry Street Tower and enters Union Station. P-204
glided past the same spot on 12 December 1968. Photo courtesy C.N.R.
Below, TURBO IN THE SUBURBS. CNe alumalloy arrow zips westbound through
the suburbs along Montreals Lakeshore,on the way to a 239-minute rendez
vous at Torontos Union Stetion.Photo courtesy Canedian National Railways
On page 63,Charlie De Jean captures THE GREAT PUMPKIN=P-100 at Dorval,Que.
on 19 October 1968 during pre-inaugural triale.Picture on page 58 portrays
TURBO whisking through the eastern Ontario fermlands,west of Kingston.(CN)
J[ D,mb 12,1958, 1245 h,,- ml
after Canadian Nationals TUR80 had eased out
and away from the departure platform of .Mon
treals Central Station, the nattily-dressed
train conductor stood in the aisle in the fr
ont dome. He turned to face the passengers who
were sested around the circumference and ut
tered the time-honored phrase in a well-modul
ated voice:Tickets,please. This traditional
request was made for the first time in an en
tirely new environment.
The conductor of CN Train No. 63 reached out for and accepted for
validation the first ticket offered,-number 344B,held by M. Claude 81ais
P.Eng.,member of the Management Team of the world-wide orqanization of
Surveyer,Nenninger & Chenevert,Inc.,Montr§al,Canada. As some of us may
remember,M. 81ais was formerly associated with Hydro qu§bec and in his
capacity with that Company,once stood in an open field at Delson/St-Con
stand,Que.,with the Associations President,Dr. R.V.V.Nicholls.This was
years ago,when they were planning the main power line and slJitch-qear
which now supplies electricity to the Canadian Railway Museum.
Although M. 81ais company (Surveyer,Nenninger & Chenevert) concerns
itself mainly with huge hydroelectric developments and other large com
mercial projects,M. 81ais can still find the time to assist the Associa
tion and his Company is still interested in forwarding the MusBum project
The second ticket punched,number 3449,was tendered by the Associa
tions Honorary Auditor,Douglas W. Spencer. The tickets were collected
rapidly and expeditiously,thanks to the positioning of the seats around
the circumference of the dome,with the round floor-mounted table cen
tralized. The dome on this inaugural trip was crowded to overflowing,but
the conductor nevertheless made his good-natured way among the many pas
sengers. There were twenty eight assistant engineers in the dome,-all
very attentlve,assisting ftom the first official passengers cab,almost
tailor-made for train-watching.
On his way through the train,the friendly conductor collected 210
tickets from TUROOLUX passengers, 66 from TUR8UCLU8 passengers and tl~enty
from railway officials,making a grand total of 296 riders on TURBOs fir
st official trip.
TUR80 will cut rail travel times to Toronto by twenty percent. It
thus betters all existing train times between the two cities.Unbelievable
but true,part of this clipping of times is made possible by a modern
hair-styling device,normally found in the modern tonsorial emporium. Used
at better than 90 mile per hour speeds,by one of the two engineers, this
unique appliance has a very important role to play.
The qlass front of the forward portion of the front dome is sloped
backward sliqhtly,like the perspex of the modern jet,in order to minim
ize wind resistance. Directly behind it is a solid half-inch of perfectly
transparent unbreakable plate glass. It is mounted on steel brackets that
hold it rigidly in place,just millimeters from the main glass panel in
R A I L
front of the engineers. Thus,any flying objects which might possibly pen
etrate the main pane of glass will be stopped by this layer of safety
glass. An added safeguard for the crew.
~ith external temperatures at the 20 below zero level at some times,
during the Canadian winter, frost spots and fog patches may develop on the
glass in front of the two engineers. At a normal,constant speed of better
than 90 miles per hour,the temperature on the exterior surface of the
glass may go as low as 40 to 60 below zero,when the chill factor,caused
hy the fierce wind at that speed,is taken into account.The resulting fog
and frost spots on the glass must he removed quickly and completely, if
perfect vision is to be maintained.
This is accomplished by means of a hand-held hair-dryer! Normally in
constant use in barber-shops and beauty salons,this device dries hair ra
pidly. It also removed fog and frost spots rapidly. The stream of hot,dry
air from the dryers nozzle is aimed at the frost spot and hingo!, it
disappears. A clear view is immediately restored. Right-of-way and signal
lights are clearly visible.
Thanks to the ingenuity of some clever eN employee,TURBO roars th-
rough the dazzling white of the Canadian winter,keeping closely to its
high-speed timing. And this is possible,at least in part,thanks to the
humble hair-dryer from the tonsorial parlour!
Picture below -ANACHRONISM. During test run on Nov. 10,1967,TURBO P-100
slows at St. Lambert,Que.,to receive hooped-up orders. Time 13.43 hrs.,as
TURBO leaves for Beloeil,Que. P-100 & P-200 were running in tandem. (CN)
memorable day among memorable days. A
superbe beginning of a new era. A mag
nificent trip on the day of the glamor
ous trip of a beauty. This is tne way
it was,thanks to the valiant labouring
of C.R.H.A.s Special Activities Chair
man Walter J. Bedbrook,on the very first
run of TURBO to Toronto,in regolar ser
From the first minute one entered the concourse of Central Station
one could sense the atmosphere of something special coming up I, ,~hat with
hordes of people,TURBO buttons,camera-men and a huge illuminated sign in
dicating TURBO -Toronto: Cars 01-10,-a real ShOl~-case actl
The THE moment came; gates opened,people rushed down the stairs to
their respective locations,to be greeted by the most charming and so re
freshing hostesses,dressed in smooth beige two-piece uniforms. Camera -men
were everywhere, Even Montreals Mr. Mayor Jean Drapeau came over to give
his salute in his own dignified way to this new-born marvel,which was al
~ady raising eyebrows in pride. After Mr. Mayor had greeted everybody, he
paused for a photo-stop and then raised the lantern in a high-ball sig
nal and we were on our way to Fun,Excitement,Speed and Surprises.
Up in the dome of coach 6310,1 tried to write a record of the trip
as exactly and comprehensively as could be, Here it is,-details,speeds
times and all,for you to peruse and digest,-without bromo,I hopei
Mileages shown on the left are from CNs operating timetable,Win
ter,1967,whereas mileposts shown in the middle of the table are the old
mileages from Bonaventure Station,via Lachine and Dixie.
Speeds shown in the right-hand column are not averages,but rather
the speeds at those precise moments and locations,as indicated. As anyone
knows,the speedometer is not completely reliable.
Milee Time Remarks Indicated
000.0 12.46.30 TURBO Train 63 leaves Montreal-Central Station.
12.51.30 First ticket punched. Half-mile Dorval-84.
First time at 95 mph.
010.7 13.00.00 Dorval. Slight downgrade. (Note a) 101 mph.
017.5 13.05.00 Beaurepaire 100 mph.
020.8 13.07.30 Ste-Anne-de-8ellevue. Reverse curve. 82 mph.
021.0 13.07.40 First Bridge-Ottawa River 90 mph.
13.08.30 Second Bridge-Ottawa River.Meet eastbound
freight.Bridge speed 70 mph. 97 mph.
13.10.00 Dorion. Speed restriction. (Note b) 39 mph.
026.5 13.13.30 Cedars. 85 mph.
13.16.00 St-Dominique. 96 mph.
037.8 13.20.00 Coteau Station. (Note c) 100 mph.
13.23.30 Rivi~re Beaudette 96 mph.
13.24.00 Change control-senior engineer to assistant.
092 • .6
R A I L
The waiter finally made it to the front of the domel
8ainesville. (Note d) 103 mph.
Lancaster 95 mph.
Good curve about 0.75 miles west of Lancaster
tqken at…….. 98 mph.
Mile Post 57 100 mph.
with freight 100 mph.
Good curve west of Cornwall
Meet Train 50
Cardinal (Note e)
Location where International Rridge to
ogdensburg,N.Y.,can be seen •••••••
Meet Train 60
Brockville (Note g)
Very sharp reverS8 curve about 1 mile west
yard limit brockville •••••••••
Old Mile Post 151
TURBO No. 62
Old Mile Post 194
Old Mile Post 211
Old Mile Post 253
Port Hope bridge
Port Hope station
Old Mile Post 282
Old Mile Post 296
Meet Train 55
Slow order-30 seconds
93 mph. 97 mph.
100 mph. 95 mph.
98 mph. 102 mph.
R A I L
321.2 16.29.30 Guildlclood 96 mph.
After bridge,west of Guildwood,a double
reverse curve,upgrade,was taken at ….. SO mph.
323.2 16.30.50 Eglinton 90 mph.
325.2 16.32.20 Scarborough (Note g) 85 mph.
16.33.20 Dld Mile Post 327 (Note r) 100 mph.
328.6 16.34.25 Danforth 95 mph.
332.4 16.37.30 Cherry Street
333.8 16.40~30 Toronto -Union Station
a Reduce speed slightly at Chemin des Sources Road crossing to 60
mph.,due to slow clearing of the crossing and closing of the two
half-barriers and poor judgement of automobiles crossing.
b On Vaudreuil Hill westbound,slow acceleration after speed reduc
tion on Dorion crossing.
c Downgrade; train speed therefore increased.
d quite a downgrade; track very straight and train accelerating
all the time,thus a very good high-speed achievement.
e Cardinal Station is on a long sweepinq curve;thus 90 mph. in
dicated is very good here.
f A freight train was in the process of getting out of the way
and therefore the surprisingly low speed here.
g At this point,125.6 miles in 90 minutes and 30 seconds -83.27
h A good indicated maximum speed. The track is not especially on
the downgrade, mind you,but we have an indicated 104 mph. just
the same. Fantastic!
i 40 mph. indicated on the sharp, sweeping curve upgrade. Very
j From the sound of the turbines, the engines t~ere NOT in an iale
acceleration state or on deadman control and yet 100 mph. was
indicated on a flat track.
k Considering the~ve at the station site,this speed is very good.
1 The station location,lLlestbound,is on a ~ooc!. upgrade curve and it
waff noted that the engineer didnt exactly fool around here!
was noted that the engineer didnt exactly fool around here!
m 14 miles were covered in 9 minutes flat! Average 93.3 mph.
Heavily downgrade here. No reduction of train speed and no brake
o Eastern terminus of GO TRANSIT Service.
p Rouge Hill was nicely negotiated,as this is the lowest speed re
corded on the whole grade.
q Exactly 10 seconds after,our speed wae 98 mph. A splendid example
of acceleration capability.
r Would you believe that there was an oncoming curve,downqrade, at
this point 7
We left Montreals Central Station 1 minute and 30 seconds
and arrived at Torontos Union Station 3 minutes and 30
ahead of schedule. The whole run was therefore made in 3
54 minutes,-an average speed of 85.6 miles per hour for
The accelerating potential of the train,mainly at high speeds, is
CANADIAN R A I L
quite astonishing and was used very liberally. Braking power pro
ved very good and quite adequate, but the engineers did not seem
to make use of it very much.
top speed of 95 mph. as shown on the speedometer is,in my 0-
pinion, only a round figure,-an average between 90 and 100 mph.
maintained most of the time on track not necessarily going
At meets with TUR80,RAPIDO,passenqer and freight trains,no per
ceptible effects of high velocities were felt.
And so,back to earth,my friendsl
As a post-scriptum, let me pass a few comments on this varnish.
First,we did NOT and could NEVER enjoy on TURBO the ne p~us ultra of a
Canadian,the plush of a Super-Chief, the ~uxury of a Rapido or the haute
classe of the Twentieth Century Limited. These belong to a past age.TUR80
is not intended to supply the voyageur l~ith that,but it is intended to be
8 downright practical train,zooming fast and as comfortable as can be.Tak
ing into consideration its spe8d,the comfort is there all rightl Eiome
critics will hazard the opinion that RAPIDO is far smoother. Perhaps, but
then if you were to skip No. 55s stop at Dorval and throw it on the re
verse curve at 101 mph.,with the diesels loosening up,-and I will gladly
discuss comfort but perhaps from a hospital .bedl The smoothness of TURBOs
ride is fairly impressing, with the tachometer needle hanging up there in
the high 90s,-curves or no curvesl
The whistle is ridiculous,-just plumb stupid,-I overheard. So?
Tell me,at that speed~dont you think the one thing that is eesential is
that TUR80 should attract attention.? Well,in my opinion, the TUR80-beep
is doinq just that. Stopping everybody and making them wonder about what
is coming down there? Whats that thing that just flew by,dammit? To
make the public turn its head,you need something new,not just an· old-time
The view up there in the first dome is just plain fantastic,-for
us rail enthusiasts,at least. The decors throughout tha train are most of
all, pleasing and diecrete,and also tasteful. There is·a strong resemblance
to the modern jet aircraft,from pilots position to curved windows is very
appropriate and achieves a predominantly sales-minded impact. To spartan
ize and simplify a consist and yet maintain its economy,efficiency and
appeal is a first-class challenge. CN end UAC certainly rolled up their
sleeves and met it head-on and their success is unparallelled and they did
very well indeed. However,the one aspect in which something is lacking is
the Gourmets Section. The facilities for aatables are somewhat disapp
ointing and it appears that some alternative arrangement in the dining fa
cilities is very necessary.
It is very interesting to note that acceleration, in speed bursts,
from 60 mph. to top speeds is downright amazing. Not so, however, between 35
and 60 mph.,where speed-up leaves something to be desired.
In conclusion, I propose that TURBO is a very clever innovation,
practical and exciting. All of the members of the varnish associetion
must say proudly,after this premi~re,Not bad,-not bad at alII. Save
for a few minor details,TURBO is certainly living up to their expecta
tions in a very acceptable fashion. A vastly different evaluation than
those realized on the late, lamented Telgo,AeroTrein and Train X.
Ves,I must say that TURBO is not bad at all,indeed ••••••
MARY W. ANGUS
~ as it a flash of liQhtning across the
beautiful white of the winters snow,
or a white aluminum and steel monster
never before seen, racing before the
eyes of bewildered spectators on the
We could not answer any questinns,for we,the members (at least
some of them) of the Canadian Railroad Historical Association of Montreal
uere riding inside the magnificent TURBO train of the Canadian National
It was TURBOs first run with passengers and the C.R.H.A. had en
gaged and filled the first car. I have travelled by many means of trans
portation (but not yet by rocket to the Moon,where the gallant Astronauts
have just achieved such glorious and instructive success!). Aut TURBO is
a beautiful train,-all steel, aluminum and white and travels at the rate
of ninety-two (92) miles per hour, averaging 84 miles per hour. Our run ,
so far TURBOs only route,was between Canadas Metropolis,Montreal and
the queen City,Tnronto,which it makes in 3 hours and 59 minutes!
One is whisked along rapidly and very smoothly and pleasantly, like
Aladdin on his Magic Carpet. The seats are unbelievably comfortable and
roomy and one feels no motion or jarring whatever. This train took about
three years to build. It was designed by United Aircraft Corporation and
built by Montreal Locomotive Works for United Aircraft and it is rented by
the C.N.R. for about three years,after which it will be owned by this Can
A unique feature of TURBO is that there are no dbors between the
cars,so one does not have to pull those great,heavy doors of adjoining
train cars,which quite exhausts one! It is the first train of its kind in
service in the world and,since it has been such a tremendous success, it
will undoubtedly change the pattern of inter-city rail travel, for there
is no question it will be copied by many other countries! For it will cer
tainly revolutionize passenger travell
I never felt nervous for an instant and had perfect confidence in
the two most efficient engineers and conductor. Looking ahead, above its
red nose,one saw the glittering track stretchinq away in the distance,
as far as one could see,-a solid,sefe,well-built roadbed,miles and miles
straight ahead. One felt no fear. One was on solid earth and yet had a
sensation of flying. The seats are most comfortable,-the most comfort
able I have ever occupied on any train or plane. The genius of all those
who conceived TURBO,designed it and built it,-they are to be congratul
ated. The engineers and signalmen,road men and all who mede ~he marvel of
this type of travel possible have achieved a wonder of transportation, so
It was most gracioue of His Worship Mayor Drapeau and Mr.MacMillan
President of the C.N.R. to see us off and to come on board and shake
hands! Charminq,indeed and such courtesies are greatly appreciated.
Good luck,TURBo! Long may you carryon! Bonne chance ~ tousl
Mary W. Angus.
My first look at CNs TURBO l~as from the Lakeshore highulay, near
Montreal,when I often saw it going by,during the months when it was being
tested,before beginning to cerry passengers between Montreal and Toronto.
~nd I kept on wishing I could travel on it.
One niqht,my Dad came home and asked me if I wanted to come with
him on the inaugural run of TURBo,from Montreal to Toronto,early in the
month of December and that seemed like a qreat,early Christmas present to
me. I jumped at the chancel
The outside of TURBO looks like speed. It1s kind of like an air
plane in looks,-all silver,with red trim and with raised observation sec
tions at both front and rear,so you can look out,ahead or back. When you
are looking out in front,you can see the track ahead and all the dials
and things the engineer has in his compartment. You ca~ see the speed-
ometer that often shows you are travelling ninety miles an hour,or faster.
A very new suspension system enables TURBO to take the curves at much gr
eater speeds than ordinary trains can make them,which helps this new
train travel from Montreal to Toronto in just one minute less than four
We qat food at the snack bar in the TURBO-LUX section on the way
to Toronto and ate it on trays that came out of the back of the seat just
~head of us. On the way back from Toronto to Montreal,we had our dinner
brought to U8,tO our seats,in the TURBO-CLUB section of the train. It was
The seats were comfortable and it sure is a nice way to travel. I
really enjoyed my trip on the TURBO and hope to be able to go again,soonl
Editor1s Note: Mr. Danny Cauley lives in Baie dUrfe,Que.,
and is the son of Mr. Al Cauley,Sports Director of Radio
Station CJAD,Montreal. The foregoing is TURBO, through the
eyes of a 13-year old.
Canadian Nationals long-awaited TURBU trains b8qan operation on
12th.,1968,aftllr an accident-plagued pre-inaugural press run
on December 10th.,when one of the trains struck a truck semitrailer on
the Division Street lavel crossing at Kingston,Ont.,nearly half-way on
the Montreal-Toronto run. The train sliced cleanly through the semi-tr
ailer body,scattering its cargo of meat in all directions and sustaining
some damage to its nose and doors. There was a 25 m.p.h. slow order on
the crossing, due to a previous accident. An overpass is under construc
tion at this location, also one at another busy Kingston crossing, that of
Princess Strp.et. The passeng8rs were transferred to another train and
the damaged unit continued to Montreal at slow speed. Two other TURBO tr
ains began operation Docember 12th. ,_. Trains 63 and 62, leaving Montreal
and Toronto at 1245 hours,returning as Trains 68 and 69,leaving at 1810.
Although the outward trips were made on time,a pulled drawbar on an
eastbound freight train at Collins Bay,near Kingston,resulted in delays
to both trains,as the line was reduced to single-track working bet~Jeen
Napanee and Kingston. Several other trains were also delayed, including
Rapido trains 64 and 65 and Toronto-Ottawa Trains 44 and 45.
Rapido Trains 60 and 61 made their last runs December 12th.For
TURBO,during the remainder of the month,various troubles developed which
not arisen during the lengthy test period. Most of these related to
the electrical system, including heat,ventilation and kitchen services.To
operate these services,power is supplied by a turbine generating unit,
which was apparently adversp.ly affected by the fine,powdery snow which
is thrown up as the train zips aLong at its usual 95 m.p.h. Anyone who
has seen this train at speed in winter will note thst the clouds of snow
are whipped up to window level. This may have been the cause of the el
ectrical failures,with consequent delays to TURBOs,with the result that
on January 3rd.,it was announced that the TURBO trains would cease op
eration on January 6th.,and would be replaced by conventional trains,for
the period of adjustment. The replacement trains are to leave at the
same times (1245 and· 1810 hrs.) but will take about one hour longer for
the trip,or the same time as Rapido trains.
IdHEN (and if) TURBOs return to service, l~ithin the next three years they
are likely to have a new terminal at the western end of their runs.A new
combined transport terminal is expected to constitute the first unit of
MEIaO CENTRE -the billion-dollar redevelopment of dOldntown Toronto ter
minal area. Its announcement was made jointly by officials of Canadian
National and Canadian Pacific,recently. The METRO CENTRE area includes
in addition to the present Union Station,CP Rails John Street coach
yard,piggyback terminal and engine house as well as Canadian Nationals
5padina Street engine tarminal,coach yard and Bathurst Street yard. Much
of the trackage would remain in an underground condition,similar to
CANADIAN 62 R A I L
th3t at Montreals Central Station. The terminal would provide facilities
for inter-city trains,GO TRANSIT suburban trains,the TTC subway 3nd air
line limousine services,as well as for sllburban and long-distance busses.
Other supplementary services,to be built over a 15 to 2o-year period,will
include office buildings,an enclosed shopping centre, apartment complexes
and residential housing units (town-houses,ma1sonettes,etc.). Present
pl3ns for the new passenger terminal call for opening in 1971.
CANADAS FAR-NURTH NARROW GAUGE RAILWAY, the White Pess end Yukon
announced a $20 million expansion programme. About $ 5.2 million
come from a proposed offering of 500,000 sh3res of a new issue of
preferred stock. Proposed capital expenditurp.s include $ 5 millions
rail and road improvements, $6.2 million for a new ship, and $ 7.1
for improvements at Skagway, Alaska and Whitehorse,Yukon.
ROADCRU ISERS AND THE NEldFIE BULLET. Canadian National began operation
of its R03dcruiser bus service across Newfoundland on December 2,1968.
The service consists of 8 through express and a through local service 3
between St. Johns and Port-aux-Basques,with other local services be
tween St. Johns and Corner Brook,Corner Brook and Port-aux-Basques,Port
aux-8asgues and Gander,Gander and St. Johns,so that each one of the 31
intermediate stops has three services,each lJay,daily. The express ser
vices (called,would you believe,EXPEDo),numbered 501-502, are timed at
14 hours 15 minutes each way,including 45-minute meal stops at Corner
Brook and Gander and 15 minutes at Grand. Falls-Windsor. They connect at
Port-aux-BasDues with the overnight ferry services. They are also tied
in with local seriJices;allouJirrg—t-ransfer to be made at meal stops.Seats
on EXPEDO services are reserved. In the summer months,an additional EX
PEDo serv_ice will operate daily (Nos. 503-504). No. 503 will run thirty
(30) minutes ahead of No. 501,while No. 504 will follow twenty (20) min
utes behind No. 502.
Patrons of daytime ferry services to and from North Sydney may
now make connections as far as Corner Brook by local trips Nos. 515 and
516. All trips are served by 39-passenger Prevost motor coaches, equipped
with toilets,but several 43-seat humpback vehicles are on order. Built
in Ste-Claire,Cte.Dorchester,Que.,on CNs main line through Edmunston,N.
B.,Prevost motor coaches are used throughout quebec but are not often
seen beyond its borders. Newfoundlands weather in winter,which can vary
considerably over the 573-mile route,has already effected Ihe service.
Winters first blast on the Avalon Peninsula (the eastern end of the Is
land) did not arrive until January 6th.,but when it did,it brought some
10 inches of snow, delaying the busses for 12 hours. The train service at
the same time was delayed 2 hours by the storm, but was not stopped for
any appreciable period,while the bus was well and truly immobilized on a
remote section of the Trans-Canada Highway. A recent visit to Newfound
land revealed that while some travellers have accepted the buses readily
due to faster and more frequent service, many others continue to use the
train which,althouqh slower,is more comfortable, provides good meals as
well as berths and lounge service. Reserve capacity is also available. It
was put to good use during the above-mentioned storm and also _ at the
Christmas holiday period,when some 500 students went home by train and
later returned to their classes the same way.
CP RAIL AND QUEBEC CENTRAL RAILWAY have been permitted by the Canadian
Transport Commission to remove station agents from 43 stations and care
takers from 14 locations in southeastern Quebec. A Customer Service Ce
ntre is to be established at Sherbrooke,to serve most places on the Q.
C.R. and Farnham Dlvision,CP Rail. This is in line with similar moves in
western Canada and central and eastern ontario,made recently.
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS HAS ORDERED fifty 3,000 hp.S~~O locomotive
units from General Motors Diesel Limited of London,Ont. They will probab
ly bear numbers 5076-5125 and will be delivered durinq 1969.
NATIONAL STEEL CAR CO~PANY LIMITED will built! 650 specially-fi tted news
print box cars for Canadian National at its Hamilton,Ont.,works,during
1969. They will have cushion underframes and bulkheads,to give a softer
ride to the heavy but fragile rolls of newsprint,-a mainstay of Can
adian freight traffic.
WHILE PLANS FOR A NEW TORONTO TERMINAL are still being formulated, some
of the odds and ends are still being cleared up at Ottawa,which resulted
from the relocation of the railway station. The new Hull station is al
most completed,but CP Rail trains are still using Hull ~est,only about
200 feet away. The old Hull station is stili standing, but the old Ottawa
West station and roundhouse are completely gone and Scott Street is now
being extended across the site. A one-room shelter now graces and serves
Ottawas West End. The Rideau Canal sding-bridge has been removed; all
trains run through the tunnel and its rock-cut approach. The latter is
equipped with a lunar white signal indication,~hich is supposed to in
dicate high water in the tunnel! The old Canadian Northern bridge over
the Rideau River (r~ann Avenue srllJr,originally serving the Canadian Nor
thern station at Ottawa) was taken down last November and a contract is
soon to be let to remove the Canada Atlantic Railways three-span through
truss bridge (Alexandria Subdivision). The old CPR bridge now carries a
pipe line and is apparently to remain in place. Another strange vestige
of the not-too-distant past is the old New Yorl Central Railroad engine
house,which still stands near Mann Avenue and Nicholas Street. Built of
concrete blocks,it only dates-back to 1953,when diesel locomotives were
first seen on NYC trains and the coal shed which housed the steam engines
was removed. Now this relict is a mile from the nearest railway track and
fifty miles from the PennCentral.
THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY at Ottawa continues to add
to its railway and transport collection. Recent arrivals include the for
mer Canadian Government official cars Nos. 1 & 2 -the Governor-Generals
cars,which have now been restored to their original green colour.C.P.R.s
business car no. 23 (wood,steel centre-sill,open rear platform, ex q.C.R.
Megantic and uBeauce),a C.P.R.caboos~ have also appeared. The major
part of the Toronto Transportation Commissions historical collection,in
eluding the first electric car and its horse-car trailer, horse car no.16,
two horse omnibuses,a horse-drawn sleigh (reproduction),the John Thomp
son coach (representing pre-horse-car transit) and two Fifth Avenue
motor buses (one single deck,one double deck) have been acouired.Mention
was made of the latter in a recent issue of CANADIAN RAIL.
THE ONTARIO ELECTRIC RAILWAY HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION -OERHA,for short,has
aleo benefitted from the distribution of the TTC historical collection. It
has received open car no. 327,which was shipped to their prooerty near
Rockwood,Ont.,late last November. They are also to get car no. 4000,-the
first Canadian PCC car.
e:x;oept July & August oombined)
CAN1I.DIAN R1I.II.R01I..D HlSTORIC1I.l1l.SS0CI1I.TION :;;~i~!,~24u::-t1o. .
Assooiate Membership inoluding 11 issues ot:
Canadian Rail e. 00 annually.
EDITOR S. VVorthen PRODUOTION P.Murphy
DISTRIBUTION J. A. Beatty & F.F.Angus
DIRECTOR OF MEMBERSHIP AND BRANOHES
Mr. J.A.Beatty. 4982 Queen Mary Road, Montreal 29. Quebec, Canada.
OTTAWA Maj. S.H.Elllot. Seoty., P.O.Box 352, Termlnal A Ottawa Onto
HOCKY MOUNTAIN Mr. Donald W.Soaf. 12407 Lansdown. Driv •• Apt. 101. Edmonton Alta.
K.F.Chlvers. Apt. J, 67 Somerset st. wo, ottawa, OntarIo.
J .S.NIcholson, 2)06 Arnold st .. Saskatoon, Saskatohewan.
Peter Cox,. 2936 West 28th. Ave., Vancouver, Brltish Columbia.
W.D.McKeown, 6-7. 4-ohome. Yamate-oho,SUlta CIty. Osaka, Japan.
J .H.Sanders, 67 Willow Way, Ampthill. Beds., England.
K.G.Younger, 267 Vernon Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Mr. Donald W.Scafe, 12407 Lansdowne Drive, Apt, 101, Edmonton Alta.
PrInted in Canada
on CanadlM paper