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Canadian Rail 205 1968

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Canadian Rail 205 1968

NO 205
DECEXUBEFI.. 19&0

PICTOU IIIICR
Mr.R.c.Tibbetts
T HE THIRTY SIXTH ANNUAL BANQUET OF
the Association was held on March
15th. ,1968. The Guest Spe aker .Jas
Mr. R.C.Tibbetts,Manager,Tibbetts
Paints, Ltd. and Association mem­
ber from Trenton,Nova Scotia. Hr.
Tibbetts gave a very interesting
paper on the construction of the
Pictou Branch of the Nova Scotia
Railway in 1866-67, which we are
privileged to reproduce herewith.
PREAMBLE.
RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION IN NOVA SCOTIA was not very
rapid in the pre -Confederation days in the Maritimes, nor was it
without incident. As early as l836,there were stirrings and mutter­
ings, and these rumblings continued for fifteen years, to the time
when in l8C;1, Francis Hincks eschewed government ownership, of main­
line railways.This decision did little to improve Mr. Joseph Howes
temperJ Lately an enthusiastic proponent of responsible government(
his 1851 enthusiasm was for railways, -be they public (government)
or private. This enthusiasm was engendered as early as 1848, when
Premier Howe and his solicitor-general fathered a resolution in the
House of Assembly, to construct a railway from Halifax, the Pro­
vincial capital, to Windsor~ and the Government was in the railroad
business. The spring of 1~50 resounded to the enthusiasm of the
legislators as they pledged the government to underwrite half the
cost of the line. Next was a new project,which was no less enthusi­
astically promoted. This was to run sixty one miles from Halifax
north westward to Truro, and the first sod was turned at Richmond,
near Halifax, on June 13, 1854. This line was destined to form the
first portion of the Incomparable Intercolonial, -560 miles of
marvellous railway, joining Halifax, in the Province of Nova Scotia
with Riviere du Loup, on the eastern extremity of Upper Canada.
THE HALIFAX-TRURO LINE WAS COI,:PLETED on ~ceinber 15,
1858. Although Truro was at the head of Cobequid Bay,which was part
of the Bay of Fundy ( and thereby of the Atlantic Ocean ),it became
apparent that an outlet to Northumberland Straight and the St. Law­
rence River was very desirable, Hence,there must be a line from the
main line to some point to the east,The estuary of the West River
provided admirable harbour facilities, and there were evidences of
coal measures along the proposed route. Thereupon,it was decided to
construct this line, and it is from this point of decision that t-Jr.
Tibbetts article takes its start.
THE BUILDING OF THE EARLY RAILWAYS of Nova Scotia,as
was the case with any other public service that was there built,be­
gan a political battle that lasted for years and yearsJ In fact, the
two proposals which caused the greatest political controversy that
CANADIAN 264
R A I L
continued to lead to battles in the House of Assembly were first,
the Eastern Extension -that 80 miles of single track railway run­
ning between New Glasgow in Pictou County and MUlgrave, on the
Straight of Canso ( which fight lasted for 33 years before it was
settled) and second, Confederation itself, which dispute started
long before 1867, and has not been settled yet!
FROM THE TIME THAT IHE NOVA SCOTIA Railway reached
Windsor in one direction and Truro in the other, every session of
the House of Assembly at Halifax echoed to firey verbal battles
over why the road was not extended to Victoria Beach, to give a wa­
ter connection with New Brunswick and the United States, and to
Pictou,to establish steamship connections. wi.th Mont-real and centr!J.l
CanadaoBy 1864,Sir Charles TUppers ministry was convinced that the
only practical solution was to extend the Truro line to Pictou as a
government project, while aiding a conunercial company to build down
the valley from Windsor to Annapolis. This decision once taken, Sir
Charles Tupper moved fast. On March 14, 1864, House of Assembly
resolutions authorized the 1/ Pictou Branch .
WITHIN THE MONTH, THE RISING YOUNG SCOT, Sandford
Fleming,fresh from successes in railroad building inUpper Canada,
had been appointed chief engineer of the Nova Scotia Railroad and
instructed to make the necessary surveys for its construction. He
reconunended the Riverdale,West River, Landsburgh,Summit, Glengarry,
Lorne -Stellarton route, from Truro to Walmsley or Fishers Grant
(now called Pictou Landing) on the west side of the West River es­
tuary,and estimated the cost at $2,314,500.Excited beyond reason by
lurid tales of huge construction profits reaped by contractors on
United States and Upper Canadian railway construction, every local
contractor who could scrape up the amount of the deposit, put in a
bid. It is reported that every third man in the County of Pictou
aspired to the dignity of being a railway contractor and was ambi­
tious to build five or six miles of railroad for the Province, al­
though in many instances, he knew about as much about the best way
of doing the work as we know about travel through time}
THERE WERE FARI1ERS WHO HAD SOME MEANS, but very 11 t­
tIe practical knowledge; there were adventurers who had neither
means or knowledge; and there were merchants and shopkeepers who had
money and no eXperience and a few who had experience and no money}
There were also a number who knew something of their business and
who had some capital and character which they were anxious to lay
out to good account. The scramble was thus a somewhat desperate and
confused one, and as those who really knew something of a contrac­
tors work were in mortal fear,lest the adventurers should underbid
them. They, in most cases, put in bids ridiculously low, trusting to
contingencies ,extras and good luck. One month after the tenders were
filed, Section I was aVlarded to the lowest of twenty -one bidders,
-a James A. Fraser of New Glasgow, and the other sections followed
immediately. Work began on November 30th., 1864, with the breaking
of ground at Fishers Grant.
THREE LOCOMOTIVES WERE ASSIGNED by the Nova. Scotia
Railroad to the job and the Richmond Shops of Nova Scotia Railroad
began building $98,000 worth of rolling stock, turning out 12 flat
cars for immediate construction purposes. The Richmond Shops built
switches and frogs, also two second -class cars ( forty -one feet
long,of sixty passenger capacity ),six box cars and a total of for-
PHOTO ABOVE: C .• N.R. 107Q standing in the ferry terminal at point
Tupper, N.S., with the Iverness train, in July, 1938.
Photo courtesy Al Paterson.
ty -one flats. They also had to construct two first class cars, six
box cars,six cattle cars and four horse cars,which were to be ready
for the official opening in 1867.
MOST OF THE CONTRACTORS WERE VERY poorly financed
and most had no engineering experience, so that they quickly fell
behind schedule. On October 25, 1865, Mr. Fleming notified the Gov­
ernment that work was so far behind that unless something. were done
qtiickly,it would be at least 1868 before the railroad could be fin­
ished. Tupper immediately called conferences and meetings in pri­
vate, and it was decided to have Fleming take over the contracts
himself and build the road.Mr.F1eming resigned from the Nova scotia
Railroad and his deputy, Alex McNab was appointed Chief Engineer.
Fleming then tendered for the whole road at $2,116,500 and on Janu­
ary 10th, Fleming and the Province of Nova Scotia signed the con­
tract.AII this had taken place with complete secrecy and it was not
until three weeks later when Fleming cancelled all contracts and
paid off the contractors that it was discovered in Pictou and si­
multaneously announced in Halifax.
THERE WAS ALREADY A GOOD DEAL of newspaper criticism
of the Pictou road; and to the keen partisan mind, honed to razor
edge suspicion the unnatural official speed with which this con­
tract had gone through had all the earmarks of a put -up job. But
when it was noted that the amount named by Fleming was $198,000
less than his own former estimate as Chief Engineer, the partisan
press went berserk and r~ed and ranted with unrestrained fury. The
Lamentations of Jeremiah 1 were nothing compared to the shrieks and
wails that rose from Pictou County, where the opposition press took
the local contractors to its bosom and trained its heaviest casti­
gating artillery upon Fleming and the Provincial Government.
SO INTENSE WAS £HE FEELING among all classes in the
County, that it cut straight across the usual rock -ribbed Pictou
CANADIAN 266 R A I L
party, lines. The Grit newspaper was soon joined in its crusade by
the Tory II newspaper. These two virile journals of opinion outdid
one another in denouncing Fleming, his associates and the Govern­
ment and their opinions were picked up and embellished and improved
upon by newspaper allover the Province, particularly in Halifax,
where a number of influencial newspaper men who originally hailed
from Pictou County, imagined that they had an unusual insight into
the whole situation.
EACH SUCCEEDING BLAST MORE VEMENENTLY accused the
Government of being underhanded and treacherous and called upon lo­
cal MPs to vote against it or resign their seats. The IIEastern
Chronicle eventually realized that it was stretching the libel law
a little too far even for those days of free -wheeling editorial
comment ,for it proceeded to hedge slightly,in this fashion: II We do
not positively say that such a catastrophe will happen, but really,
if Mr. Fleming and his confere, Mr. McNab, choose to give such a
startling performance, what is to hinder them? OhJ Is it not high
time that Nova Scotians should arouse themselves and shake off the
deadly thing in the shape of the present government which is prey­
ing upon the vitals of: our country? II
MR. FLEMING WHO PAID LITTLE ATTENTION to this gener­
al newspaper barrage,divided the 50miles between Truro and Fishers
Grant into 10 sections and placed a civil engineer and two assist­
ants in charge of each. He hired three large locomotives and two
small ones from the Nova Scotia Railroad and quietly imported what
proved to be his secret weapon in this political guerilla warfare.
His critics were taken entirely by surprise when he announced the
first complete section of railroad; New Glasgow to Fishers Grant,
to be opened by running a train on September 29, 1866. This threw
the newspaper into a fresh tizzy; but it was E. M. McDonald, who
produced the most devastating comment: we can assure all concerned
that there is an independent authority watching the whole process
of railway botheration very closely, and the result of its supervi­
sion will be made known at the polls at the general election, now
perhaps not far distant. II It might have been only wishful partisan
thinking or a lucky shot in the dark, but Mr.McDonald hit the bulls­
eye, de ad cente r.
IT IS STILL A ~1YSTERY HOW THE locomotive that was to
haul the first Pictou Branch train between New Glasgow and Fishers
Grant reached this isolated section of the road, -forty-four miles
from the end of the main steel at Truro. Presumably, it was brought
around by way of the sea and put ashore at New Glasgow, but nobody
knows for sure. At any rate, its presence inspired the local jour­
nals to near libel,and Simon Holmes in the Colonial Standard poured
scorn on the procedings in a report ent i tIed 1/ A Ride On.A Rail II.
I WILL NOW QUOTB FROH THIS ARTICLE, the description
of this first trip: liThe ridiculoUS farce (for the thing is clearly
undeserving of any other title) of opening the railroad from New
Glasgow to FisherS Grants was pretended to be enacted on the line
last Saturday. It had been whispered about for the past few days
that notwithstanding all that was said to the contrary, Mr. Fleming
would have the line re ady accordinp: to contract. Those who knew the
real state of the work were aware of the utter folly of attempting
such a thing. Sensible and reflecting men refused to believe that so
preposterous a piece of folly could be entertained, much less enac-
CANADIAN
267 R A I L
ted. They knew that the road was not even graded between these two
points, and they could scarcely believe that any persons could so
far presume on the simplicity and innocence of the community as to
make a show of .opening the line on Saturday, –and yet the thing
was done.
THERE WAS MR. LONGLEY, THE RAILWAY COrrallissior-er,
mounted in full blast on the laboring and straining engine which
attempted to scramble along the rugged paths leading to the Grant,
and there was Mr. McNab the Railway engineer, and the real Chief,
Fleming, and a host of other wondering spectators who assembled to
witness the great triumph of opening a little railroad of 8 miles.
The affair was so ridiculous that a number of ladies and gentlemen
from Pictou crossed in the sailing ferryboats to meet the engine at
4 oclock p. m., the time announced. On arriving at the ground they
observed men and horses galloping up and down the line with trol­
lies, for sleepers and rails and others engaged in throwing them on
the road bed and spiking them together.
IT APPEARS THAT AN ATTEMPT was made at the time named
to run an engine with some flat cars to the Grant,but a gap was en­
countered about a mile and a half from the goal,and the engine with
the distinguished party aboard returned to New Glasgow. At a later
hour the attempt was repeated, and the engine came down as far as
the Grant, with Mr. Longley, McNab, Fleming, and a few others brave
enough to risk their lives, continuing on board the trollies, and
this the farce was over.
AS A MATTER OF FACT, AFTER this first run was demon­
strated no attemnt was made to operate the New Glasgow-Pictou Land-
ing section.
MEANWHILE, MR. FLEMING PROCEEDED with his main pro­
gram. He settled with all the old contractors, built comfortable
shanties and boarding houses for construction workers, opened new
qUarries and hired sufficient teams to get out stone, erected a
telegraph line to maintain touch between his headquarters and con­
struction crews along the Line. He hired every available mason in
the territory,and roofed over the principal structures so that they
could work all winter, instead of seasonally. He adopted a system,
then new in this country, of carrying on tracklaying and ballasting
simultaneously with other work, substituted tunnels for bridges and
culverts wherever possible, and built temporary wooden trestles to
carry trains until the stone work could be completed.
HE IMPORTED FROM THE STATES twoGreat American Steam
Excavators, as the pioneer steam shovels were grandly called, and
ran them day and night except Sundays. They made short work of the
Big Fill between Glengarry and Lorne,which otherwise would have re­
quired an expensive iron bridge. The most difficult bridge of all
was over the East River between Stellarton and New Glasgow which
called for four 70-foot spans. Even today, although this bri~e has
now been replaced with steel girders, it is still called the Iron
Bridge . Foundation work was a problem with this bridge and it re­
quired five steam pumps going day and night to keep the coffer dams
dry enough for the maSons to work.
TRACKLAYING CREWS WERE PUSHING s te adil y north from
Truro, and on the last day of the year, December 31, 1866, the road
PHOTO ABOVEI The Qwen Sound Way Freight, at Chesley, Ont •.
pulled by C.N.R. No. 86, on July 24, 1957.
Photo courtesy Al Paterson.
formally opened between Truro, and West River –20.5 miles. This
section had been in operation less than a month when it was abrupt­
ly closed down by a heavy snow blockade that lasted several days
and required all the snow fighting resources of the Nova Scotia
Railroad to get it going again. The unusually severe winter was in­
terferring seriously with all forms of construction work; and with
a bare five months to go, Fleming, fighting to complete the Pictou
Railroad, settled down to a grim battle.
YET STILL THE TRACK GANGS crept slowly northeast:
Mile o. ~~ro(head of Cobequid Bay -arm of
Bay of Fundy)
Union
Riversdale
West River
Glengary
Hopewell
Stellarton
New Glasgow
Fisher Grant
Pictou Landing
THE SMALL LOCOMOTIVES OF 1867 had limited tender
capaci ty and required frequent refuelling and watering, especially
in winter, so that between Truro and Pictou Landing there were four
stations that had wood yards and water tanks. Pictou came within an
ace of having the first railroad car -ferry in Canada to avoid
breaking bulk freight at Pictou Landing. The idea was given long
consideration but finally abandoned because of winter ice condi­
tions.All stations on the pictou Branch had a 30 x 60 wooden pas­
senger and freight depots with stone foundations, except New Glas­
gow,which had a larger all-stone construction. Pictou Landing had a
six -locomotive cruciform stone engine house, so arranged that it
CANADIAN R A I L
could be enlarged to accomodate 12 engines, if required. Because of
the exposed location, the turntable was placed inside the shed for
protection from the weather.Each station on the line had a 800-foot
passing track except New Glasgow which had 1,000 feet and Pictou
Landing which had two sidings of a thousand feet each.
SANDFORD FLEMING LOVED civil engineering work and he
made a thorough job of it. To show just what could be done unde-r
difficult circumstances with limited funds, he spent $40,000 on the
stations and another $30,000 on the IIMayflower which he had built
in England, to be used as a ferry for freight at Pictou Landing. He
used his pioneer steam shovel to put 4,000 instead of the stipu­
lated 3,000 cubic yards of gravel on every mile of track. He kept
within his contract price and still built one mile and 1,200 feet
more main line than the specifications called for. He was the only
contractqr ever known to have given more than he was supposed to
have given.
THERE WERE TWO GREAT INNOVATIONS on the Pictou
Branch. One was the adoption of the then revolutionary sheath rail
joint in which abutting flat ends of rails were connected by a
close form -fitting steel sheath, into which they were driven and
the whole jOint then spiked solidly to the sleepers thus doing away
with the clumsy old cast iron chairs and their wooden wedges which
had proved so costly and unsatisfactory on the NSR main line since
18~~. The rails were also of steel and the Nova Scotia Railroad
tried 300 tons of these rails and never went back to iron •. The other
new feature was provision of the first eight-wheel, double-truck,
coal cars, to handle the expected heavy trade from Stellarton.
AFTER THE EMBANKMENTS HAD TIME to settle, the cuts
had been cleaned and the ballast trimmed, passenger trains were run
over it in tests at fifty miles an hour more smoothly than had ever
been possible on the main line.However,the ordinary operating speed
was about 25 miles an hour.
THE LONG DRAG ON THE PICTOU BRANCH with its politi­
cal bushwhacking and newspaper guerrilla fighting was over at last
and right on the dot of May 31, 1867, as Sandford Fleming had pre­
dicted and promised, the road was officially opened through from
Truro to Pictou Landing. At twenty minutes to 8 a.m., a company of
400 -500 gentlemen invited by Sandford Fleming, among whom was His
Excellency, the Lieutenant-Governor, and the Archbishop of Halifax,
left Halifax (Richmond) station in a train numbering eight cars.At
Truro they were met by a large number of people, and to honor the
occaSion, the II Rothesay Blues II were paraded. At about 11 oclock
the train started for Fisher:s Grant, and at the Big Culvert at
Lairg, it was met by a locomotive and car from the other end of the
line with a few gentlemen from Pictou and New Glasgow,At this place
a luncheon was prepared; and to protect the guests from thellScotch
Mist which fell all day, the feast was spread inside the culvert,­
-the bottom of which was bridged over with a floor of timber and
planks for the occasion.lt is hard to understand how so many people
could get under one culvert,so it is obvious that most of them were
as wet outside as they were no doubt inside.
AFTER ABOUT HALF AN HOUR DELAY. the united trains
proceeded eastward, stopped a few minutes at Stellarton where a sa­
lute was fired, and a few minutes at New Glasgow where nothing hap-
CANADIAN
270 R A I L
paned and arrived at Fishers Grant terminus about 4 oclock p. m.
A banquet was served in the station building on the estuary wharf
and after many toasts and speeches the train started back at 6 p.m.
and stopped only at New Glasgow and Riversdale for refreshments and
again at Truro to leave the guests ror that placedand arrived at
Richmond Station at 1:30 in the morning.
AVARD LONGLEY, CHIEF COMMISSIONER or Railways, never
lost raith in the branch and publicly lamented that he had not dou­
bled -tracked it to handle the expected heavy Pictou coal traffic.
He declared that on the whole it was equal to any line on the con­
tinent of America,and that Mr.Fleming is entitled to highest praise
for the vigor, ability and integrity displayed. Leading British and
U. S. engineers who came to have a look at it, said much the same
thing.
THE ROAD BEING FINISHED, it would have been thought
that it would be the end of controversy, but this was not to be. It
is to be emphasized that the attacks on Fleming did not stem to any
extent rrom personal hostility to himself or to railways as such.
There were, or course ,a few old hardshells who really believed that
the coming of steam heralded the breakdown of civilization,but most
critism was based strictly on politics and partisan sentiment ••
THE CHIEF PREOCCUPATION OF MOST parties and politi­
cos at that time was (lonrederation. It is almost impossible for a
modern Canadian unless steeped in the literature und lore of Nova
Scotia in the 1~67 period, to have any idea or the intensity of the
animosities that were created when the Legis) atuJ1e voted the Pro­
vince into union, against the wishes or a majority of the people.
Many,who at the start had not been particularly adverse to union as
such,were turned into raging partisans by the methods which brought
it about. The Pictou Branch was a pet pro.1ect of Tuppers Confeder­
ates, –hence to be criticized, rought and libelled by every loyal
Antill in the land. Political friends and allies of a lifetime par­
ted company on the Confederation issue.Homes and families were bro­
ken up. Brother turned against brother. It was almost as bitter as
actual civil war, an alternative that was in fact advocated by
more than one popular agitator of the day.
MANY OF THE PARTICIPANTS NEVER forgot or forgave.
Forty-six years later, two venerable Nova Scotian senato!ts, who had
been leaders in 1867, meeting by chance on the steps or the parli­
ment buildings at Ottawa, had to be forcibly restrained, while one
denounced the other as a IItoothless old viper and other endearing
terms. II (Let not rriend, Donald MacInnis,one of our present sitting
Cape Breton members, imagine that he is the first belligerent Cape
Bretoner to challange the opposition to put up its dukes –not by
a long shotlJ)1I
THE FEELING WAS SO EVIDENT in Pictou County, that
after the grand, opening of the Branch Rail.!Oad, the utter de arth of
anything resembling enthusiasm among the population of Pictou Coun­
ty could not fail to be noticed by every person on the train. Not a
cheer greeted the arrival at New Glasgow, Even at Fishers Grant,
only 6 or 7 gentlemen or any position of inrluence were present, -­
–most or them only out of courtesy to Mr. Fleming. This reeling
carried over to the succeeding election; and when the votes were
counted, Pictou County had contributed to the expulsion of the Tup­
per Government rrom Nova Sootia.
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS station at lruro,N.S.,-a most monu­
mental pile,as it looked in May,1949. CRHA EA Toohey Collection.
BECAUSE OF THE CRITICAL EXCITEMENT attending it, the
building of the Pictou Branch came in Nova Scotia railroad folk
lore second only to the building of the Intercolonial,for which, in
fact,it served as an engineering curtain -raiser. Sandford Fleming
experimented on the branch with various new equipment and the tech­
niques he had devised .soon proved of greatest importance in the ar­
duous task of joining Nova Scotia and Upper Canada. Preliminary work
on the SOO-mile line from Truro to Riviere du loup, began almos~
before the last spike had been driven on the Pictou railroad, al­
though active construction did not get under way until 1869.
SOME OF THE OUTSTANDING ENGINEERING features that
were used on the Pictou Branch set the pattern for many of the la­
ter canadian railroads. The most outstanding of all was the use of
steel rails,being the first such use in Canada. This of course will
be disputed by our Upper Canadian friends. The second feature was
the first iron bridge, since all bridges up to that time had been
built of wood. With the dropping of hot ashes from the engines, the
life of these wooden structures was not too long.The third item was
the sheath or scabbard rail fastening which was developed and used
here for the first time in Canada. The fourth item was the first
steam shovels to be used in the construction of railroad in Canada.
These had only been used up till that time during the building of
the Welland Canal. The fifth item was the permanent drainage system
provided for the road bed by cutting tunnels through solid rock and
by building the road bed on higher ground. And the sixth item de­
serves significant mention. Sandford Fleming was the only contractor
who gave more than the contract called for, such as the extra mile
of track and the 4,000 instead of the 3,000 cubic yards of gravel
ballast per mile. Moreover,the total cost was $2,321,577 against an
tender of $2,1l,6,500, –9.6 ~ moreJ
IT STARTED AN ENGINEERING TREND that was carrted
through to the ICR construction. For many decades, to say in a pro­
spectus that any intended construction ( including the CPR ) was to
be built to ICR standards, was the highest praise or promise that
could be given.lncidently,it is not generally known that the mighty
CPR itself,-for the first few years of its eXistance, was built and
operated with second hand motive power and rolling stock from the
ICR. These are the reason that the Pictou Branch initially set the
CANADIAN 272 R A I L
standards of railroad construction for the rest of Canada.
IT IS
THEREFORE TRUE THAT although the Pictonians
were very much against the methods of construction when the rail­
voad was built,they had a great deal of which to be proud -and for
which to be thankful.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Tk WINTER T~
EFFECTIVE OCTOBER 27, 1968 ••••
Forster A. Kemp.
1I:]rsually, the change-of-time in the Fall
of the year brings fewer changes to
Canadas passenger trains than its
Spr ing counter part. Ho,rever there
were some rearrangements in October,
1968, and bere are a few of them.
Tbe new time-table folders for the Autumn-Winter period
are very eye-catching, but as is usual these days, they contain
fewer and less convenient schedules for the travelling public.
There are however, several fortunate exceptions to this general
rule. The principal route which benefits from increased service
is Canadian Nationals Montreal-Toronto line, where the long­
awaited TURBOTRAINs are again listed under schedule Nos. 62, 63; 68 and
69, with effective dates lito be announced~ It is to be hoped
that prospective TURBO riders will not have to wait as long
as they have already (since April, 1967 when schedules were first
publisbed). TURBOTRAINs 62 and b3 leave Montreal and Toronto at
1245 hours and make tbe run in the much-advertised time of three
hours and fifty-nine minutes, but their evening counterparts -68
and 69 make a stop at Dorval in suburban Montreal and are allowed
5 minutes for this formality. The Friday and Sunday RAPIDO-timed
trains which formerly carried the above numbers, have been dis­
continued, as have Montreal-Belleville RAILINERS 649 and 650.
Trains 50 and 51, LAKESHORE, again stop at Napanee, Gananoque and
Prescott, to afford a connection to and from Montreal. They still
have the same 5 hour 59 minute schedules. RAPIDO Trains 60 and 61 have
reverted to their former 1100 hour departure times. The somewhat
oVerpriced Bistro car service remains on Trains 64 and
65, but the sbort-lived Executive Lounge cars have disappeared.
When tbe TURBOTRAINs finally go into operation, as we are assured
they will SOON, there will be an unprecedented seven (7) (count
em) trains a day making the Montreal-Toronto trip, via CN. For a
greater number of daily trains, it is necessary to go back to
the mid-1920s, when there were ten or eleven trains, operated by
CP and CN, over four routes, timed in 7 hours 30 minutes to 11
hours even. The current seven hour 35 minute time of the CAVALIER
is now the slowest on the run, but it is deliberately timed this
way to allow its passengers to have a restful sleep between the
two cities.
CANADIAN
27:3
R A I L
The Montreal-Quebec service provided by CN Trains 122-
634 and 123-633 has been restored to daily frequency, as it used
to be when it was a RAPIDO service. However, there is still only
a snack bar for meal service. A new feature of this Montreal­
Quebec service is the operation of through equipment from Quebec
to Ottawa on Trains 21 and 33. This may be for the benefit of
Federalists leaving the Provincial Capital, as there is no cor­
responding return service and not even a convenient connection,
except between Trains 130 and 122 on Sunday, and between Trains 2 and 16 and 38-138 and
12, both of which require a ferry journey
from the CN station at Levis, on the south shore of the St. Law­
rence.
The matter of connections is also of importance at
London, Ont., where CN passenger train paths, via Kitchener and
via Brantford, cross and then diverge to Windsor-Detroit and
Sarnia-Chicago. The use of TEMPO equipment on Trains 141, 142,
146, 147, 150 and 154 has resulted in a certain amount of resche­
duling so that Trains 141 and 151, which formerly connected with
each other, no longer do so. This thereby reduces the number of
Kitchener-Windsor connections from three to two. There is only
one convenient connection in the opposite direction. Toronto­
Sarnia Trains 150-153 have been replaced by RAILINERS 649-650, an
unfair and unequal exchange. Train 649 operates via Kitchener,
but scuttles out of London ~ minutes before Train 647 arrives
via Brantford. RAILlNERS have also replaced all of the passenger
trains in the Toronto-Hamilton-Niagara Falls service. Bayview
Junction will NEVER be the same~
The only other extension of passenger train service in­
volves the mixed trains serving the branch-line to Stall Lake,
Manitoba, which has now been extended another 11.5 miles to Os­
borne Lake, necessitating a rearrangement of the mixed train
service. The lay-over point on this run is now shown as Cranberry
Portage, but it is not inconceivable that it might operate from The
Pas. The train, No. 281 goes up the Lynn Lake line to Optic
Lake, turns east to Osborne lake, returns as No. 280 to Flin Flon
spends 140 minutes in switching there and then runs as No. 279 to
Cranberry Portage. Only the Dispatcher knows ••••••••.•
The controversial proposed bus service on the Trans­
Canada Highway in Newfoundland has not yet found its way into the
public time-tables although sufficient space was left for its in­
clusion. Four highway stops have been included in the station list
and remarkably enough, the Caribou and mixed Trains 203-204 are
shown as before. The schedule of the St.Johns-Argentia-Carbonear
mixed train has again been rearranged.Train 207 now runs from St.
Johns to Argentia MWF returns to Whitbourne as No. 208 then lays
overnight there and runs to St. Johns next day as No. 232, with
the usually included round-trip from Brigus Junction to Carbonear
as Nos. 211-212.
All of the other changes in the New CN time-tables in­
volve reductions in service, the main one being the removal of
dining and sleeping car services from Trains 105-106 between
Montreal and Winnipeg and their Toronto-Capreol connections, Nos. 107
and 108. These trains have also lost their names. It remains
to be seen whether they (for that is how we must nO~T call them)
will follow the Continental
ll
into oblivion. The Panorama, _
CANADIAN
274
R A I L
Trains 5 and 6 continues to operate as usual between Winnipeg and
Vancouver. On the Jasper-Prince Rupert line Trains 9 and 10 have
reverted to their traditional winter schedule, after much experi­
mentation in recent years.They run six days a week between Jasper
~nd Prince George and three days a week between Prince George and
rince Rupert. The consist includes sleeping, dining and lounge
cars.
Moncton-Charlottetown passengers are gradually being
forced to ride busses by the continued downgrading of train ser­
vice to the Island Province. Trains 115 and 116 have been re­
placed by mixed Trains 235 and 236 on an even slower schedule.
Train 235 takes 8 hours and 25 minutes for the 126.5 miles of the
journey. This is the last passenger train-ferry service in North
America. Even with the improved bus service, passengers from
Nova Scotia, intending for Prince Edward Island, must endure a
two-hour walt at Amherst, Nova Scotia.
Most of the other changes:ln train service are accounted
for by the continuing decimation of St. Lawrence Region local
passenger services. This virulent disease has spread to the Lac
St-Jean line with a winter-time cut-back of Quebec-Chicoutimi
local trains Nos. 176-177, from tri-weekly to twice-weekly opera­
tions. This will be effective from November 14th, 1968 to April
9th, 1968. On the Quebec-Richmond line, Trains 627, 628 and 630
were reduced to twice-weekly operation and 629 to tri-weekly.
There is no service on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. The
Montreal-Grenville service has been pruned to two runs weekly in
one direction and one in the other~ The Montreal-Montreal North
suburban service finally terminated November 8th} 1968, after a
delay caused by a strike of Montreal bus and llliTRO employees, in
September, 1967. This strike resulted in a transitory return of
patronage to the electrified line which was subsequently recovered
to the less-costly services of tie Montreal Transportation Commis­
sion. The originally-planned date for suspension of the service
had been September 29th, 1967. Ironically this line was once en­
visioned as part of Montreal s rapid transit system.
CP RAIL, the new name for Canadian Pacific Railway, has
a new symbol -the MULTIMARK and has adopted the 24-hour clock.
However, its bright passenger folders contain very few changes.
The four services which it wished to dispense with have continued
in operation. These were the Toronto-Hamilton-Buffalo service,
described elsewhere; the Sudbury-Sault Ste. Marie DAYLlNERj the
Toronto-Windsor twice-each-way-daily DAYLINER, and the Victoria­
Courtenay (Vancouver Island) daily-except-Sunday DAYLINER. Con­
trary to information published elsewhere, these services were de­
clared to be a IIpassenger train service
ll
by the Railway Transport
Committee and were therefore ordered to be maintained.
COVER
OUR COVER THIS MONTH is a firemans-eye view of CN Train lOl,New­
foundland Area,Atlantic Region,as it loops up the reverse curves,
towards Summit and Gaff Topsal1s,in the high country. Thirteen
cars in the consist,-including the heater car and the crews sl­
eeper-observation car (in the old CN colour scheme) bringing up
the rear. Photo S,S,Worthen.
i i .. I. • ••• I 1; , • .., -. • ~. •
Jr
. ffJN~ l J!{~ N~ ! N !B~
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1tJ.ftJl lU ~ _ … tl!t II.l ftJ • III
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George H. Harris
~ N ANY EXAMINATION OF WINNIPEGS HISrORY AS A
railway centre,some study must be given to
this Manitoba citys past history, and a
map of the area, showing the invariable fe­
ature,-the Red River,is the best way of
doing this. From the map,it is easy to see
which railway lines were the first ones to
enter the City. The main line of the Can-
adian Pacific Railway makes a clear division of the City
from east to west,indicating that it was located through
this area at an early date and that the City more or le­
ss grew up around it,-or on each side of it.
THE FORERUNNER OF THE present Canadian
National Railway in Winnipeg was known as the Northern
Pacific of Manitoba and was,in the beginning, a venture
of the Northern Pacific Railroad in the United States.A
newcomer from the south, about a decade after the arri­
val of the Canadian Pacific in 1888,the railroad did not
find it too difficult to gain access to the young City.
Acreage was bought for a terminal facility on a flat
stretch of land to the south of the Red River and near
the former site of Upper Fort Garry,which had been razed
in the early 80s. Here were established an engine shed
car and engine sheds and shops,a freight house and a st­
ation,-very close to what is now downtown Winnipeg. This
area is presently known as the East Yard.
DIFFICULTIES IN LAND ACQUISITION in the
City of Winnipeg occurred shortly after this time, when
the expansion of what later became the Canadian North­
ern Railway took place. Eastward exits from the City ,­
as well as westward ones,did not cause too much trouble
but branch lines to northern points were difficult to
locate. For instance,the line to Oak Point and Gyp sum­
ville,to the northwest,practically had to circle the
City before turning northwest. Although the line to Gr­
and Beach was not built until 1914,it was forced to de­
tour eight miles to the east,before taking its direct­
ion northward along Lake Winnipegs eastern shore. All
of this detouring was necessary in order to get around
the existing main line location of the Canadian Pacific.
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CANADIAN 277 R A I L
THE FIRST TWO JUNCTION POINTS,-first in
point of traffic,at least,are entirely Canadian Pacific
and probably the busier is Rugby Junction. Named for
the famous railway centre of Englands midland district
on the London,Midland and Scottish RailwaY,the Winnipeg
junction is situated at the west end of Winnipeg City
Yard,where the branch lines to points to the north and
south fan out. Moreover,the junction is located between
the main yards and the Weston Shops complex,some three
miles from the City centre. The system was at one time
controlled from a long, wooden tower by a multiplicity of
manually-operated signals and switches. The tower was on
the south side of the junction. In midsummer of 1947
the whole arrangement was changed. The tower was repla­
ced by a much smaller brick structure,relocated to the
north side of the junction,with new electrical signals
and sWitches,of course. It now forms part of the Centr­
alized Traffic Control system. Today,east and west tr­
affic and yard traffic through Rugby Junction is heav­
ier than the traffic to and from the various branches
which has decreased considerably. In fact, there is not
a single branch passenger train running any more and
most branch-line way freights have been reduced to an
if,as and when required basis.
ONCE UPON A TIME, the Beach trains to
the sunny shores of Lake Winnipeg were very heavily
loaded and operated very frequently during the summer
months. On Saturdays, the writer has seen as many as 4
fifteen to twenty coach trains,departing for Lake Win­
nipeg beach points and an equal number returning. This
heavy seasonal Canadian National suburban traffic dw­
indled and died, about 1956.
A SECOND JUNCTION OF IMPORTANCE is Whit­
tier Junction,-another name borrowed from Great Brit­
ain. This junction is located at the east end of the C. P.
s main line bridge, CIOSS ing the Red RiveI. The . tow­
er is set back fIom the tracks at this point,as it was
built so as to obtain an unobstIucted view westwaId,st­
raight through the bIidge. Historically,this junction
would Iank first,as it was here that a connection was made
with the pioneeI Iail line of the West,-the Iail­
Ioad which is now known as the $00 Line
l
PRACTICALLY SPEAKING, WHITTIER JUNCTION
occupies the same position to the east of the City as
Rugby Junction does to the west. WhittieI is not quite
as busy as Rugby thoUgh,as there is not the heavy yard
switching which occurs at the latteI point. There is,
however,quite an amount of inteIchange tIaffic from st.
Boniface and the Stockyards,which are located on tha t
side of the Red River. It is interesting to note that
in the old days,Whittier was a wyeing point for local
empty passenger stock tIains. WhittieI has been a paIt
of the C.T.C. system foI some time,but because of the
building of the new Nairn Avenue overpass in 1967, a
CANADIAN
278
R A I L
C.P.R. WNITTIER. JUNCTION.
–=:::::::::S;;1:~~~~~~~s;:z~;~~~~:~—CI.,..y Of: .. -____ WflVNIPE.
5 C,Ty 0 ….. ___ G
LEGEND .
CALE_6= Ja NfLE..
,.. Sr -___ ,. WHITTIER TOWER. .
. l3o
IY1
f::A,CI:.., —2. RED RIVER. BRIDGE.
3. ARCHIBALD SUBWAY. rq61
4· OlD NOR.TH LINE ALIGNMENT.
$. tNDVSTAIAL SPuRS.
6· NAI~N AlE.. O·PASS •• Q67.
7. MARCDfj,1 yARD -C.p,
8. C.p.R, MAIN cAST.
WHITTIER JUNCTION in August,1953. The $00 Line train is
approaching the junction,-with one unit less than us­
ual. The tower is in the right background (on the right
side of the track) and the bridge over the Red River is
on the far left of the picture.
WHITTIER JUNCTION with Canadian Pacific engine 1418 and .
the IICanadian
ll
on its way out of Winnipeg. Taken from
the new Nairn Avenue overpass,the junction tower can be
seen on the far left and the bridge over the Red River
is immediately behind the train,in the background. The
picture was taken in January,1968.
considerable amount of the junction trackage has been
torn up and realigned and the Whole arrangement modern­
ized. A glance at the map will demonstrate this.
THE THIRD JUNCTION in the Winnipeg area
which deserves attention and is perhaps the most inter­
esting is st. James Junction. This operating point is
used by three railways and is located on the southwest
outskirts of the City. Years ago,(1887-88) when the Red
River Valley Railroad was projec~ed to the west by the
Ci ty of Winnipeg, the Canadian Pacific opposed this ex­
tension. The C.P. had already established a branch in­
to southwestern Manitoba and looked upon the newcomer
as a rank upstart and potential competitor. So muoh sp­
ontaneous heat
ll
was generated when the Red River line
proposed to cross the C.P.R.,that crews from each com­
pany almost came to blows. The C.P. ran an engine onto
the location of the proposed diamond in their line, to
prevent the Red River line from inserting the crossover.
In his book on the Canadian National,Colonel Stevens wr­
ites that on another occasion, the C.P.R.crew tore up the
whole diamond crossing and carried it off as a prize of
warll. Some reports say no blows were struck,-physical
ones, that is 1 Other accounts say that one supporter of
the Government got a black eye 1 The Courts finally set
aside the C.P.s injunction,preventing the crossing,and
the Red River line continued its line into southwestern
Manitoba. The location of this diamond crossing was gi­
ven the name IIFort Whyte II , .. a humerous title derived
from the name of the C.P.R.civil engineer in charge of
the project. The Red River Valley Railroad subsequently
voIpe. t
11,
MAIN
WE.ST
-,.—p;:iR-r:A:(lf._
JeT
-STJAMES
ToweR.
4-
WpG,
C.N.R. S! JAMES J.e.T.
SCALE e! = }i MII..E.
t FoRT WHYTE.,
came under the control of the Northern Pacific and Man­
itoba Railroad,-a competitor of the C.P.R.
THE SPOT WHERE ALL THIS FUSS took place
more than sixty years ago,is now St. James Junction.The
name Fort Whyte is still perpetuated on a small way
station,about a mile and a half south of the old cross­
ing point,-the plaoe where the Battle of Fort Whyte was
fought. Nowadays,the main line of the Canadian Nat­
ional crosses an important branch of the Canadian Pac­
ific here. Moreover,the Midland Railway of Manitoba, a
terminal switching line owned jOintly by the Great Nor­
thern and Northern Padific Railroads of the United st­
ates also crosses the C.N. here ,from the south side to
their own property and Winnipeg yards,on the north. They
have their own terminal facilities just north of St.Ja­
mes Junction. The entire junction is now electrically
controlled. When the writer was young and even as he
grew older, this was always his favourite spot for train
watching and Photographing. In those days,it was a long
hot bicycle ride out to st. James Junction from the
City.
THERE ARE SEVERAL OTHER JUNCTIONS in the
Winnipeg urban and suburban area which deserve mention.
Some of them have a considerable amount of traffic, but
they are mainly straight crossover points and for this
reason are of less interest. An examination of the map
and a brief descriptive summary should describe adequa­
tely the activity at these points. Let us consider then
these lesser junctions by classification of activity.
THIS 1933 PHOTO oaught a westbound freight on the old
Canadian Northern line at st. James Junotion.The new­
er Grand Trunk Paoifio out-off is on the left. The
Canadian Paoifio orosses north to south,olose to the
tower.
ON THE CANADIAN PACIFIC,about eight mil­
es east of Winnipeg,is Nororan Junotion. This is the
point where the former C.P.R. North Transoona Yard fun­
nelled into the main line eastbound. The name of this
junotion designates its looation. North Transoona Yard
is now no longer aotively used,exoept as a storage ya­
rd. What keeps Nororan Junotion open is the faot that
the Canadian Nationals Grand Beaoh iine makes a north­
south orossing here and faoilities must be available to
assure the safety of this orossing.
TO THE WEST,is Woodman Junotion Tower.
Here,the old Bergen outoff joined the C.P.s main line
west. The last train operated on the outoff baok in 1930
but the junotion was not abolished and the traok lifted
until 1946. The junotion tower still oontrols a Canad­
ian National orossing to the north and a C.P.branoh fr­
om the southwest. This latter line is the result of the
rerouting of a C.P.branoh whioh orossed through a por­
tion of the present Winnipeg International Airport 1
THE CANADIAN NATIONAL has a few more so­
attered junotions,round about. Beaoh Junotion, on the
east side of the City,was the terminal olearanoe point
for trains on the Grand Beaoh line. This junotion has
aohieved greater prominenoe in later years,being the
point of divergenoe for manifest freights entering and
leaving the new Symington Hump Yard,whioh was opened in
1962. This new yard would require a separate article to
describe it adequately. The Beach Junction plant is, of
course,controlled by C.T.C. nowadays.
PADDINGTON JUNCTION,-another case of bo­
rrowing the name from an English railway station, was a
straight orossover of the Canadian Nationals southeast
line to the Lakehead and Duluth,Minn.(U.S.A.) with the
Canadian Pacific-tOO Line to the Twin Cities of Minnea­
polis and st. Paul,Minn. The former C.N. main line has
RUGBY JUNCTION on the C.P.R. was rearranged in July of
1947. The track gang was replacing the crossovers,after
the new tower on the north side was built. The over­
bridge in the distance is the Arlington street bridge
which spans the yards at that point.
N,
t
Th StMAGTON YARD
U., t l.AKe: HEAD,
C.N·R, BEACH JeT,
SCALE 2; Ji MILE.,
been diverted considerably by the construction ofSym­
ington Yard complex and thus the old line is merely of
industrial switching importance. There is still a great
deal of freight traffic through Paddington Junction,but
no passenger trains pass here any more. It is interes­
ting to remember that in the old Canadian Northern days
the Grand Beach trains used to pass this junction, just
before taking their branch. This route was changed ab­
out 1924,when Beach Junction was established. It is al­
so remembered that,for a few years, the Greater Winnipeg
Water District trains used to run into the Winnipeg Un­
ion Station, through Paddington Junction.
STILL LOOKING AT C.N.LINES, there were
Portage Junction and Woodward Avenue Junction, to the
southwest. Portage Junction was a terminal clearance po­
int for Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railroad s
passenger trains,leaving the main C.N.line westbound ,
for stations on their lines to the south. This junction
was at the southwest end of the old Fort Rouge Yard,and
freight trains originating in lV1nnipeg used to swing
west here on the old Canadian Northern main line.
WHEN THE GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC WAS BUILT ,
about 1908,property was bought for a cutoff line,to al­
low for faster movement of westbound passenger trains
and freights originating in Transcona Yard. Woodward Avenue
Junction was the point at which the double-track
line left the loort Rouge Ya.rd. It was merely a switch­
shantY,not even a terminal clearance pOint,as no stop
was ever made. This line was torn up in 1956 and Fort
Rouge yards are no longer in use. The cutoff line right
of way reverted to the City of Winnipeg and,as might be
imagined,now provides an important road traffic artery.
All westbound rail traffic must now go around by Por­
tage Junction.
AS A CONCLUDING REMARK to this brief and
rather oversimplified examination of Winnipegs railway
junctions,it is obvious that many,many changes have oc­
curred over the years and many modernizations have been
made. Junctions and track arrangements which were thou­
ght to be perpetual and unchangeable,thirty or fourty
years ago,have been undone and redone two and three ti­
mes. Thus,the permanent things of our youth were rea­
lly only a few stages in the unalterable progression of
the years.
~A·.
~~~a ~lOng with several other cities across
Canada,the City of Vancouver, in the
soverign state of British Columbia,
summoned up considerable enthueiasm
about railways and reilway museume
in Canadas Centennial Year, juet
passed I
AFTER ALL,it is a generally accepted fact that moat
of Canadas transcontinental railway belongs in principle, if not
in fact,to British Columbia,-west of Calgary,that is. It is there­
fore not surprising that tha former Mayor of the City of Vancouver
began to think about a-rail transportation museum for his city. To
grace the exhibit,Canadian Pacific Railways number 374, already on
thg spot,was to be refurbished,and a Royal Hudson class,-number
2860,was to be purchased as a magnificent compliment I
WHEN QUERIES WERE MADE to CP about 2860,the Company
expressed amazement that such an engine actually existad. Instead,
the inquirers were offered 2-8-2 number 5469: the Companys last
steam engine. After some further persuasion and the presentation
of incontrevertable procrf,the Company suddenly admitted that the
Hudson was still on its books. It also reluctantly added that this
locomotive was being held for a Museum in Ottawa. Further re­
search by knowladgable west coast rail fans revealed the existence
of yet another Hudson class engine,–number 2827,-hiding at Angus
Shops,Montreal,for no particular reason and apparently unassigned.
Correspondance with the authorities of the Ottawa museum resulted
in the releese of number 2860 to Vancouver,on the condition that
number 2827 would go to Ottawa,when required.
NOW THAT ENTHUSIASM WAS BEING GENERATED, civic red
tape (or slow blight) began to invade the project. The Vancouver
Railway Museum Aasociation had been formed out of a committee au­
thorized by the City Council,to raise the necessary funds to pay
for the 2860,and,in anticipation of uninhibited progress by all
participants,the locomotive was brought to Vancouver and flawlesa­
ly restored to gleaming perfaction I
THEN CAME THE RED TAPE AND BLIGHT I The Vancouver
City Council never did approve the project,and this procrastin­
ation was reflected in the Citys Park Board,which wouldt allow
the new locomotive in any of its parks. Moreover,a civic election
resulted in a change of mayor,with the new incumbent ehowing re­
markably little interest in the scheme. To top things off, once
the Park Board learned of the Vancouvgr Railway Mueeum Associ~
tion,the Board was ell set to donate,transfar,convey or otherwise
disencumber itself of CPs 374 onto the VMRA,graciously permit­
ting the fledgling VMRA to do all of the spade-work for the pro-

VANCOUVERS VALIANT VETERAN 1
Canadian Pacific1s A2q no. 374,3x 158,ex 245,ex 92,bui1t in 1883,
as caught by Peter Cox on 17 October 1946,at Vancouver,B.C.
ject. Canadian Pacific meantime asked to be relieved of any respon­
sibility regarding number 374. Hitherto,it had assisted the Van­
couver Park Board by sharing the not inconsiderable cost of upkeep
of this historic Canadian railway relic.
RISING TO THE CHALLENGE, the VMRA sought oot a bOl1-
ding which would be suitable for the display, and readied itself tu
launch a campaign to reise funds to pay for CP 2860. But, acting
with instinctive caution,they waited for a hint of civic cooper­
ation before pressing the GO button. The hint in question might
have been an offer of cooperation from the City regarding the buil­
ding selected,-which was dity-owned~having been acquired from the
Federal Government at no cost,as part of an abandoned air force war-
time base,which was trensferred to the City of Vancouver for the
sum of $1 and other valuable considerations I
WHILE THE VMRA WAS iuAITING PATIENTLY for action,an­
other interesting situation was developing. Port Coquitlam,-a city
neighbouring on Vancouver,dedided that it would be nice to hav~
a preserved steam locomotive,and began negotiating with the Can­
adian Pacific to exchange a certain parcel of land belonging to the
City,which the RailWey wanted,for a certain steam locomotive,number
3716,which the City of Port Coquitlam wanted I To the satisfaction
of all,the trade was ratified by both parties,and number 3716 arr­
ived in town. Almost at once,indecision afflicted the civic author­
ities. They couldnt decide where to display their new enginelThat
wes in 1966 and a decision hasnt been reached yet I
AND SO,INDECISION IS RAMPANT in costal B.C.,as far
as steam locomotiVe preservation is concerned. Vancouver City Coun­
cil,the Park Board and the Museum Board are (or seem to be) unan­
imous in their discouragement of any such project. Could it be that
the real reason for this unanimous disapproval stems from s pre­
vious episode of burned fingers ? History tells us of the plan to
preserve the R.C.M.P. ship St.Roch -the first ship to travel com­
pletely around North America on a continuous voyage. The enshrining
of this ship -which originally seemed to be a praieeworthy venture
has now cost the local taxpayers close to $ 1,000,000,-and it is
quite logical to say that the City fathers are not about to repeat
this extravagance.
CANADIAN
28?
R A I L
WHILE THE WHEELS OF CIVIC GOVERNMENT grind remoree­
lessly onwsrd (Dr mBybs side-ways),Cansdian Pacific. 2860 end 3?16
ers keeping eech other company in the Drake Street roundhouse, with
the letter occasionally kicked out of bed by the latest monster
ROBOT I ,which preempt. the spacs fo~ its opsrating bass during the
current teet runa in the mountain regions of Canadss westernmost
provinclI.
PHOTO PAGE 28S
Liberated from ottawa,Canadian Pacific Railway no. 2860 (Hle)
hopefully will grace the Vanoouver Railway Museum Associations
project. Peter Cox immortalized her on film at Vancouver on May
26,1955.
PHOTO ABOVE LEFTr our Director, Denis
Latour, found this diminutive 0-4-0 ST No. 102
on its own rails olose to the
C.N. station at Sioux Lookout, Ontario
in August, 1968.
PHOTO ABOVEr Another veteran displayed
at sept Iles, Que., is Davenport-built
0-6-0 No. 48, from not-too-distant
Clark City. Photo by Pierre Viau, 1968.
PHOTO AT LEFTr In Bellev1.11e Park,
Sault Saint Marie, Ontario.,stands
fireless Porter 0-4-0 No.6? This
number means that it is a Centenn­
ial projeot of the oity. Walter
Bedbrook oaught it in August 1968.
BY F.A.KEMF
1U: ore passenger train removals are
apparently in the offing and in­
ternational runs seem to be es­
pecially vulnerable. The remain­
ing trans-border services total
eleven, of which four cross the International Boundary twice, -two from
the United States through Canada and two from Canada
through the U.S.A. One of the latter is tri-weekly. The latest
service to be threatened is The Ontarian a daily Toronto­
Buffalo service, operated by CP Rail from Toronto to Hamilton;
Toronto, Hamilton and BUffalo Railway from Hamilton to Welland and Penn
Central from Welland Onto to BUffalo, N.Y. Through
sleepers are operated between Toronto and New York. The middle­
man in this grouping the Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railway
made the first apPlIcation to the Railway Transport Committee
of th~ Canadian Transportation Commission and was promptly
joined by its owners, -CP Rail and Penn-Central. The applica­
tion was opposed by the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, which
took paid advertising space in local newspapers. The railways
cited decreased patronage as the reason for this request, but
the trains ran on slow schedules, taking 200 to 220 minutes for
the 102 miles to Buffalo. Moreover they ran at inconvenient
times and made poor connections as well as havtng rather shabby
equipment. These trains, numbered 321-376 and 371-322 are the
last link for passengers between Toronto, Hamilton, Buffalo and
New York. In October, 1968, this run was declared a passenger
train service by the Railway Transport Committee and therefore
permission to terminate it was denied.
DOUBLE-ENDED BUSINESS CARS? These older cars, with
two open platforms, are becoming increasingly rare on Canadas
railwa
1
s, although at one time every division of both of
Canada s major railways had one. Recently, one of our readers
saw CN No. 07, gracing the rear end of the Cavalier, -train
No. 58 from Toronto ,to Montreal. This is one of the few such
cars which were modified in the 1920s with steel sheathing
and under frames and are thus considered acceptable in passen­
ger train service, despite their age. These are two of these
steel-sheathed, steel-underframe cars at the Canadian Railway
Museum and several others are preserved at various other lo­
cations in Canada. All of the latter are in their original
(wooden) condition.
CP RAIL PAINTS UP~CP Rails geometric Multimark was
initially confined to the O-gauge rolling stock displayed at
FERROVIA at Man and His World, Montreal. More recently, on
September 13th, 1968 (an appropriate date~), a sample train of
representative freight equipment was exhibited to top adminis­
tration officials at Angus Shops, Montreal. The train was headed by
locomotive unit no. 4239, an MLW-built C-424 freight
unit, class DRF-24c. The units basic colour is an orange-red
similar to that colour used by CN and SP. Lettering and numbers
are white, as are the diagonal stripes, which adorn the front
and rear ends of the unit. The Multimark was applied to the
rear end of the engine, on each side, the crescent in white
and the squared triangle in black. The black colour was
carried around the end, with the afore-mentioned white stripes.
All parts below the running boards are black, but hand-rails
are white. Freight cars remain basically in their present
colours, but have the Multimark applied at one end, extend­
ing for the entire height of the car. The eXception to this
practice is the caboose, which is a bright yellow, but which
also sports the Multimark.
EXPO EXPRESS -IT MAY GO OR IT MAY STAY. The c los ing
date for tenders for purchase of the equipment of the intramu­
ral electric railway operated at EXPO 67 and MAN AND HIS WORLD
(1968), waS again advanced from September 4th, to Ootober 1st.
The 48 aluminum-bodied cars have been in the plans of several
North American transit systems -all the way from Staten Island
to lIe Jesus, and the additional month allowed additional plans
to be proposed. One of the most recent is that for a rapid
transit system for the City of Laval, (Montreals neighbour to
the north), for which a feasibility study has been made by a
firm of consulting engineers. The phrase monorail system has
been used in connection with the proposal but it would actually
be an elevated conventional railway electrified with third-rail
as is the EXPO EXPRESS trackage. According to Mayor Jacques
Tetreault of the City of Laval a corporation has been formed by
local businessmen and called La Societe Urbaine du Transport
Rapide, Inc. for the purpose of building a system of two lines
totalling 15.9 miles. The City of Laval occupies all of lIe
Jesus, -an island immediately northwest of the one on which
Montreal is situated, and separated from it by the Riviere des
Prairies. The main line of the proposed Transport Rapide
would be a U-shaped one of 9.4 miles, with two crossings of the
CANADIAN 290
R A I L
Riviere des Prairies. It would run from the Canadian National
Railways station at suburban Cartierville looping north through
Chomedey, then recrossing the river to discharge passengers at
the Henri-Bourassa station of the j4ontreal METRO. The other six
mile Line would be a straight east-west line cutting the arc of
the U at two po.1nts, and serving the central portion of Ile
Jesus. When the term1nal date for tenders came and went, the
Societe Urbaine du Transport Rapide was the highest tenderer,
outbidding the City of Edmonton, for the part of the equipment
in which the latter was interested. However, shortly after the
Committee which was disposing of the effects of EXPO 67 made
the award, the City of Montreal, -who is a minority stock­
holder in EXPO 67 and thereby in EXPO EXPRESS made strong and
definitive reprp.sentations to the Committee to retain EXPO EX­
PRESS for MAN AND HIS loJORLD in 1969. Current clamor in the
press of Montreal seems to indicate that these representations
will be successful. At least the equipment has not yet gone to
the Societe Urbaine, and the Committee for the disposition of
EXPO 67 has had to reconsider its locally-unpopular decision.
AMONG THE BILLS INSCRIBED on the order paper for the
ne .. , session of the Canadian parliament which first met on Sep­
tember 11th was a bill respecting the construction of a rail­
way in the Province of Alberta by the Canadian National Railway
Company. This new line is to start from the vicinity of Wind­
fall extension of the Sangudo Subdivision of the CNR. Located
in north-central Alberta, the line would run in a westerly
direction for a distance of approximately 51 miles, to the Big­
stone property of Pan American Petroleum Corporation. From here
a connecting spur would extend in a northerly direction for a
distance of approximately nine miles, to the South Kaybob pro­
perty of Hudson s Bay Oil and Gas Company Limited and its asso­
ciates. The Sangudo Subdivision originally was built from a
junction with the main CN line near Edmonton, in a west-north­
westerly direction to Whitecourt, Alta., and was recently ex­
tended to the Windfall oil field.
IN A HEADLINE -The Countdown Approaches CNs pub­
lication KEEPING TRACK records that rigorous testing of the
new TURBO-TRAINs is nearing completion and plans for placing
them in revenue service are awaiting the go-ahead from the pro­
jects engineering group. Track curvature has been an important
factor affecting passenger train speed, but the suspension sys­
tem on the TURBOs has overcome the problem. It is interesting
to note that the pendulum-like effect, produced by the suspen­
sion system will rotate the car bodies to a horizontal position
if the TURBO has to stop on a banked curve during its run. The view from
the control part of the dome at each end is 360
0
and
about half-a-mile ahead. The engineer, the report concludes,
will be outfitted in a uniform like an airline pilot and last,
but not least, -the whistle (which reports aver is as unique
as the rest of the train) bas gone modern, being activated by a
push-button~
FILE NO.27563.488 ORDER R-2673 of the Canadian Trans­
port Commission, Railway Transport Committee deals with the re­
port of the hearing on the proposal by Canadian National Rail­
ways to substitute passenger service on its line from St. Johns
to Port aux Basques in the Province of Newfoundland. This in­
volves Trains Nos. 101 and 102 and coach service on Trains Nos.
CANADIAN 291 R A I L
203 and 204. The Order records that after the proposed bus ser­
vice is substituted, it shall be operated for a sufficient
length of time to demonstrate to the Committees satisfaction
it is. in fact. operable. Until that time, passenger train ser­
vice must be continued by CN in the same manner and as fre­
quently as it was during the comparable period in 1967. Fur­
thermore it reads as though the passenger train service must be
maintained until April 15th, 1969, whether the bus service is
satisfactory or not. There is a last-ditch clause in the Com­
mittees ruling which says I •••••• it will not be necessary for
the Applicants to run their passenger trains, except in case of
emergencies created by extremes of weather or by any other
cause, until full bus service is restored. To meet the require­
ments of this condition, the Applicants shall keep and maintain
ready for operation such passenger train equipment as the Com­
mittee shall direct. Old-timers in Newfoundland point out that
there hasnt been a real Newfie winter for the last eight
years so that no one can really say what will happen if one
does arrive during the 1968-69 season.
The residents of Howley and other points between
Bishops Falls and Corner Brook have been protected in the
agreement by Clause 1 (4) which directs that the Applicants
will, in accordance with their undertaking, operate a daily
coach service in both directions on their express trains
i
be-­
tween Bishops Falls and Corner Brook, to provide a rai link
with the bus service for residents in the area between Badger
and Deer Lake. The express trains referred to are in reality
Trains Nos. 203 and 204, which nOVI carry passengers one day a
week. These are express-freight trains which are dOing a rous­
ing business between Port aux Basques and St. Johns. Probably
this service will be even more popular when the integrated con­
tainer service from North Sydney, Nova Scotiaw Port aux Ba~s
Newfoundland, on standard gauge cars, is fully operational.
The moral of all of this seems to be that you will
still be able to enjoy the magnificence of Gaff Topsails and
Grand Lake from the passenger coach of Nos. 203 and 204, but if
you want to ride all the way on The Caribou, (otherwise known
as the Newfie Bullet 1) it would be wise to plan to do so be­
fore April 15th, 1969.
MR. DW IGHl A. SMIi.H, JR., of Por t land, Maine, U.S.A.,
has purchased former Canadian National Railways class 0-18-a
0-6-0 No. 7470. This engine was stored in the CN roundhouse in
Sarnia, Onto after it finished its term of service at the
Canada and ~ominion Sugar Companys v1allaceburg, Ont. plant.
The refinery closed some years ago, and number 7470 was sold to
Mr. Fred SteCk! of Reese, Michigan, who stored it in the Sarnia
roundhouse. n the summer of 1967, 7470 was purchased by Mr.
Smith. On October 7th, 1968, it departed from Sarnia on its own
wheels, dead, in a wayfreight, en route to Portland, Haine. On
October 7th. it was moved from Sarnia to Port Huron and return.
It made the slow trip to Stratford on the 8th thence to George­
town and Toronto on the 9th, and from Toronto, to Osl1awa on the
11th. Reaching Belleville on the 12th, it made Montreal on the
13th, and St. Hyacinthe on the 14th. The whole trip through
Richmond and Sherbrooke, to Island Pond~ Vermont, was made on
the 15th, and south to South Paris (16th) and Portland on the
~
~
~
~
17th, -ten days on the road at a cool 15 miles per hour. Mr.
Smith says that future plans for the 7470 are indefinite at this
juncture, but they certainly include restoration and operation
of the 0-6-0 in passenger service, somewhere in northern New
England. He has sent along a picture of No. 7470, taken at
Sarnia, Ontario, 7 October, 1968. Dollars to cowcatchers, Mr.
Smith is a member of the 470 Club of Portland, or is the simi­
larity of numbers purely coincidental~
IN A RECENT ARTICLE IN CANADIAN RAIL, mention was
made of the ever-growing number of oities in the world who have
adopted METRO as a cognomen for their urban transit systems.
The latest to assume this connotation is, (of all things) Wash­
ington, D.C., U.S.A. The accompanying photograph -courtesy of
Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) illus­
trates the title. While the title may be similar, the shape
sure isnt. Designed by Louis T. Klauder and Associates, the
new vehicles are expected in October, 1969. The system size
will be a (whopping) 97 miles; average train speed 55 m. p. h.
Cars are 75 feet long, (only) 10 feet~ 10 inches high
i
over-all,
with a floor height of 3 feet 4 inches. Width, on y 10 feet.
First phase of operation of the basic 25-mile-system will be in
1972. No Virginia, the new cars do not have rubber tires~
Montreal newspapers say that the City of Montreal will retain EXPO
EXPRESS,-officially EXPRESS DES ILES in 1968,for TERRB DES HOMMES
in 1969. lhe City will negotiate with the City of Edmonton, -the
remaining interested party,now that the Societe Urbaine du Trans –
port Rapide of Ville de Laval has officially withdrawn from the
negotiations. The route of EXPRES DES ILES will be shortened, t~
operate between LA RONDE and ILE ST-HE.LENE only,not cros sing the
Pont Concordia to Place dlAcceuil on CITE DU HAVRE which is now loederal
Government property. Could it be that the Montreal author­
ities are taking care NOT to operate the EXPRES DES ILES on terri­
tory of TERrIE DES HOIIUmS not belonging to the City of Wontreal?
The Ottawa CITIZEN recently headlined the purchase,by the Museum
of Science and rechnology of the National iViuseums of Canada,Ottawa
of nine pieces of urban transportation equipment,from the Toronto
Transit COl1lrnission. These pieces include 2 busses,l horse-drawn
sleigh,2 stage coaches,one horse car and some street cars. Included
in this group,-the first six items of which had arrived in Ottawa
by 8 November,1968,were the vehicles of the historic collection of
the T1C,-the electric street car and trailer. It is very disapp­
ointing that these histortc roronto vehicles should not have been
preserved in Ontario by the Ontario Centennial liluseum of Science &
Technology or by one of the electric railway preservation societies
in Ontario.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
YOUR MEi4BERSHIP -YOUR PUBLICAnON -YOUR ASSOCIATIO~l.
This issue of CANADIAN RAIL is the eleventh produced in
1968 by the new ColTtllittee. The production of these 11 issues
has not been easy, since many of the Committee members were rela­
tively inexperienced in their new responsibility. Some had con­
tributed previously to the magazine, but none had ever been
directly involved in the detail and dog-work, essential to the
preparation, production and distribution of the magazine.
What was the Committees specific responsibility? It
was to produce 11 issues of CANADIAN RAIL at a minimum cost while
maintaining the standard of excellence previously established.
More important -the Committee was implored to produce each issue
ON TIME. To accomplish this objective, there was a small reserve
of manuscript material for publication available -residual from
the CANADIAN RAIL Contributors Content, but this was quickly ex­
hausted in the production of the first three issues. The Com­
mittee was then obliged to solicit or otherwise generate addi­
tional interesting material for subsequent issues. Thanks to the
dependable contributions of our members, Hr. F. A. Kemp, Mr. F.F.
Angus, Mr. John Thompson, Mr. George Harris, Mr. Gordon Younger
and others, eleven issues of CANADIAN RAIL have been produced and
mailed to the members, to be received within the month for which
the issue was intended.
CANADIAN
294
R A I L
How L~portant is CANADIAN RAIL to you, -the members of
the Association? The Committee believes that it is the binding
agency for the membership, -the means by which we all are joined
together in a single confraternity. To the general public and to
corporate organizations, it is the image of our Association.
Ideally, it is a current report, an historical review and a pic­
torial record of Canadas railways. It must provide a broad spec­
trum of interesting reading, ,.,rith as much appeal to those in­
terested in present-day railway hapoenings as to those occupied
with the historical aspects of the same subject. Occasionally it
should include glimpses of railway activities in other parts of
the world.
With these requirements in mind the search for material
for publication is undertaken, for without this material, ~
~ never be a. single issue of CANAI2.LAN-.Bill. Admittedly it would
be a very simple matter to publish twenty eight pages or so, per
month of Association ne,.,rs committee ,reports, proceedings of meet­
ings and gossip. However, this type of a publication was dis­
carded long ago, when we agreed that this was NOT a desirable
format. We must maintain a judicious mixture of current and his­
torical articles, seasonRd with the occasional report on Associa­
tion affairs and decorated with a frosting of pictures of rail­
way subjects -ancient, modern and in-between.
While we are very grateful to those members who have been
kind enough to send in material _for publication in CANADIAN
RAIL in 1968, it is now very necessary to replenish the reser­
voir of available material for 1969. We have received a few,
varied comments from our readers, during the year, all of which
have been constructive and some of which have been complimentary~
The Editor would like to receive more of these comments, since
the composition of CANADIAN flAIL can be varied only when .le are
informed by our readers of the relative popularity of the various
types of material. Hore than this, we would like to be able to
innovate a little by introducing new writers to the re~ders. In
short, and recognizing the writers natural liking for a particu­
lar subject or a particular period, it would be very desirable to
have additional contributions by the members, so that the final
mixture (described above) could be provided in every issue of
CAilAD IAN RAIL.
The
act of contributing to CANADIAN RAIL is the easiest
way of involving oneself in the main stream of Association acti­
vities. There are many other ways. There is a goal to be achieved
in the publications sector of the Association, where exi~ting ma­
terial awaits organization into one or more booklets, like Road
to the Sea. Progress continues and objectives are developed at
the Canadian Railway Huseum, where activity will not terminate
with the advent of winter -it will merely be continued in en­
closed areas. Plans are being made for next years operation at
the Museulll, for Special Events and Programmes, for new projects
and for the continuation of already-established activities. For
any member who really wants a job to do – a challenge – a goal –
there is one waiting for him in the organization of our Associa­
tion.
For most of us, the real enjoyment is in the winter
season of regular monthly meetings, generally held at HcGill Uni-
CANADIAN 29.5 R A I L
versity, in the McConnell Engineering Building. Every member –
within a reasonable distance is invited to participate in these
meetings, which are normally held at 8.00 P.M. on the second Wed­
nesday of the month -July and August excepted. If you are near,
come and bring a friend. If you live at a distance – a post-card
to the Director of l1embership and Branches will assure you of a
cordial welcome. Come and bring your friends, remembering always
that you and they should immediately feel at home and part of the
Association, rather than outsiders attempting to intrude into a
closed shop. Come and make yourselves at home, its your meeting
and your Association!
in 1969? At
the conclusion of 1968 what do we have to anticipate
The following possibilities are suggested:
1. The Annual Meeting of the
January, 1969. Here, the
The Association have the
forming themselves about
year and possibilities in
Regular Members in
Regular Members of
opportunity of in­
events of the past
the new term.
2. The Winter Rail Ramble or SNOW SAFARI, which
will be held before the white stuff disap­
pears. As organized in 1968, it was sopopu­
lar that it is proposed to make it an annual
affair.
3. The Annual Association Banquet, -an evening
of fun and interest for the membership. Good
food and entertainment at minimal cost.
4. Opening of the Museum will probably take
place about the first of May. The second ex­
hibits building should be enclosed and per­
haps the Library/Archives building will be
started. Operation? Perhaps~ But this will
depend on how much progress can be made in
track-work, preparatory to rearranging the
existing exhibits to provide essential track
for steam (?), diesel (!~) or electric (~?~)
operation.
All in all, there are a great many opportunities for
every member to participate in one or more of the various activi­
ties which the Association offers. It could be fairly said that
if your particular interest doesnt appear to be satisfied by any
oftbe suggestions made above then you can create a special sphere
of interest for yourself -providing ahrays that it has a common
bond vii th our general interest in railways, -particularly those
of Canada. To continue the work of the Association, the essential
elements are members with a desire to help, a capacity for work and a
willingness to do and to make, to build and to contribute.
Given these energies, there is not the slightest chance that our
common objectives will not be attained in the years ahead.
INSIDE FRONT COVERs
Through the courtesy of Mr. Doughas R.Brown, we herew1th reproduce
a photograph of the PICTOU of the Nova Scotia Railway, as she
appeared when new.
CANADIAN RAIL
published lXl.onthly exoept July & August oOlXl.bined )
by the
CANADIAN RAILROA.D mSTORlCAL ASSOCIATION ~~~,::!,~2Qu::-t1on 5
ASSooiate MelXl.bership inoluding 11 issues of
Canadian Rail 8.00 annually.
EDITOR S.VVorthen PRODUCTION P.Murphy
DISTRIEUTION J.A.Eeatty & F.F.Angus
DIRECTOR OF MEMEERSHIP AND ERANCHES
11r. J.A,Beatty. 4982 Queen I-Iary Road, Montreal 29, Quebec. Canada.
ASSOCIATION ERANCHES
OTTAWA Maj. S.H.Ell1ot, Sect1y. t P,O.Box 352, TermInal riA Ottawa Onto
ROCKY MOUNTAIN Mr. James R.Webb, Secty., 14703 -104 Street, Edmonton.
ASSOCIATION REPRESENTATIVES
OTTAWA VALLEY K.F.Chivers. Apt. 3. 67 Somerset St. W., Ottawa, Ontario.
SASKATCHEWAN J .S.Nicholson, 2306 Arnold St., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
PACIFIC COAST Peter Cox. 2936 West 28th Ave Vancouver, Brl tlsh ColumbIa
FAR EAST W.D.McKeown, Oaska (Tossoorl) YMCA, 2-ohome, Nlshl-ku,Osaka,Japan.
BRITISH ISLES J.H.5anders, 67 Willow Way. Ampthill. Beds. England.
MANITOBA K ,e .Younger 267 Vernon Road, WInnipeg, Man! tobs.
ALBERTA Mr. Donald W.Scarfe, 12407 Lansdowne DrIve, Apt. 101, Edmonton, Alberta.
Copyright 1968
prInted In Canada
on CanadIan paper

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