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Canadian Rail 197 1968

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Canadian Rail 197 1968

)~®fin
run] 0 OrmtmD-
No.187 March 1968
/
~~THE
TRACTION
the story of the
London & Lake Erie
bY J.I.Cooper
# q
The frequent attention given by Canadian Rail to electric
railways reiterates the historical importance of this form of
transportation. Almost fifty years ago (October, 1918), the
electric railway !mOvln popularly as The Traction, and more
formally as the South Western Traction Company or the London and Lake
Erie Railway and Transportation Company, ceased op­
erations. Its history has been treated as one element in the
general study by Holton and Due? The Electric Interurban Rail­
way in America (Stanford, 1960), and by J. F. Due, The Inter­
city Electric Railway Indus-r,ry in Canada (Toronto, 1966). The
Traction also figures in T.T.H. Ferriss History of the London and
Port Stanley Railway, 1852-1946 (unpublished MA thesis,
1946, University of Western Ontario). The present study is in·
debted to these standard works. In addition, it includes docu­
mentary and periodical mater tal from the London and St. Thomas
Public Libraries, documents in private possession, interviews
with the persons who were familiar idth The Traction, and some
field observations.
BEGINNINGS
In 1900, petitioners, chiefly from London, sought a charter
from the Ontario Legislature for an extensive electric railway,
having its centre in London. They were blocked by a counter­
petition of the City of London. Two years later, a renewed
petition was successful, and with a change in name from London
Railway Company to South Western Traction, the legal foundation
was laid. Who were the interested Londoners? What was the
cause of the opposition by the City of LOndon? The Londoners
vlere a representative group: The most prominent waS Frederick
George Rumball, a manufacturer of small wooden articles and a
force in local politics. (In 1901 he had become Mayor). Two
were lawyers! Thomas Hunter Purdom and Thomas Luscombe. There
was the inev table·real estate operator, A.E. Welch. Non­Londoners were
represented by two spokesmen from neighbouring
townships, and by a capitalist of no given address. The key
figure was probably T.R. Purdom, a very able lawyer, specializing
in commercial law, and a director and president of several trust
and loan companies, all operating in southwestern Ontario.
CANADIAN
60
R A I L
Purdom was, moreoveri. president of the Advertiser Company, which
published the chief iberal newspaper of the district. The op­
position is less easy to particularize. Elements in the London
City Council may have been roused by the threat to the city­
owned London and Port Stanley Railway. This line was operated
under lease by the Pere Marquette Railway, but so unsatisfactor­
ily as to be the subject of constant complaint. However, the
Citys objection was not very determined. Perhaps on the under­
standing that The Traction would interest itself principally
in passenger service, the charter was not opposed in 1902. It
mayor may not have been of significance that, in the interval
between the two applications for charter, Rumball had been mayor.
In its initial stage, The Traction was a local enterprise in
direction, in objective, and in large measure, in capitalization.
THE CANADIAN ELECTRIC TRACTION OF ENGLAND
A flow of adequate capital waS however, difficult to main­
tain. Local resources (some $50,000) provided enough money to
bUild about five miles of line between the London boundary and
the nearby village of Lambeth. The work waS done by local labor
under the direction of A.E. Welch, whose real estate interests
no doubt sharpened his concern. In March, 1904, a notice by The
Traction directorate in London newspapers introduced the
next phase:
Arrangements have been concluded in England for
financing the road ••• The first installment of con­
struction money is in the bank here in London (Ont.)
and active work of building will be started the
moment the ground is in shape.
There was bUrst of energy as a letter written by Thomas Luscombe –
at that point, The Tractions soliCitor, showed:
This is the first Canadian Electric Railway that
has interested British capital •• The South Westarn
Traction (re) commenced construction •• extending
southward.
The letter also revealed the new capital source, The Cana­
dian Electric Traction Company of England and its chief promoter,
H. M. Rumball. (In spite of the similarity of surnames, there was no
family connection between F.G. Rumball and H.M. Rumball). The
contractors who were to build and equip the line were Bruce
Peebles of Edinburg, Scotland. In his conclusion, Luscombe re­
ferred to grandiose plans for extension:
The system •• would make connection at Hamilton with
other Railways •• The building eastward will be .con­
tinued as fast as possible •• in accordance with the
ample means now forthcoming to complete the whole
system in the near future ••• to Hamilton.
CANADIAN
61
R A I L
Under British direction, the first real progress waS made.
Entry was secured to London, the Thames bridged and, in this way,
the isolated line to Lambeth was brought into use. Ne~T construc­
tion was begun towards St. Thomas. Apparently, it was at this
time that running rights over the St. Thomas street railway were
negotiated. Grading, if not construction, was undertaken south
of St. Thomas towards Port Stanley. At Chelsea Green, southeast
of London, the generating station waS built. It was, of course,
steam-powered and produced alternating current. The Traction
was designed to operate on the Ganz system; certainly the only
Canadian interurban to do so. The contractors supplied the first
cars. three combination passenger and luggage cars, seating
forty-eight persons. The cars were double-ended and could be run
in combination as well as in single units. By midsummer, 1906,
The Traction was in operation over part of its route. On June
1, the official opening of the line to Talbotville, took place.
H1gh hopes were entertained of an immediate entry to St. Thomas and
to Port Stanley by the end of the summer. Almost eighteen
months were to pass before Lake Erie was reached in October, 1907.
Meanwhile, The Traction suffered a disastrous fire to its
London plant.
DRAWING ABOVE: One of the first, British built, Combinations.
Drawn by the author from a newspaper photograph in the London
Advertieer, June 1, 1906.
CANADIAN
62
R A I L
liTHE TRACTION UNDER CHANGED MANAGEMENT
The fire broke out early on the morning of August 10, 1907.
Newspaper accounts and the report of the London Fire Department
leave no doubt as to the damage: Five of the six cars in the
barns were destroyed. The barns and the machine sbop were gutted.
A tentative estimate placed the loss at upwards of $160,000. It
was a costly bonfire of only about an hours duration; the cause­
a short circuit.
The fire was a decisive factor in the lines history. Half
of the British-bull t stock ,.,as destroyed. (In addition to the
car saved in London, The Traction had four cars at St. Thomas).
Replacements were secured from Canadian builders. The physical
appearance of the trains changed drastically, and, more funda­
mentally, their operation. Tbe A-C electrical system was re­
placed by D-C. This last must have been an undisguised blessing,
if only in the simplification of operations over the four or five
miles of the St. Thomas street railway.
Finally, there was a change in management and in financial
control. Rebuilding costs were heavy. Six of the new passenger
cars cost nearly $20,000. Recalling the sharp recession of 1907
it is not difficult to understand The Tractions going into re­
ceivership in 1908 and its sale the next year to a Toronto group
of whom George B. Woods was the best-known member. The new cor­
porate name waS The London and Lake Erie Railway and Transporta­
tion Company. Transportation signified the new managements in­
terest in developing Port Stanley into a lake shipping centre.
The inclusion of London in the title Vias largely a formality.
Such London interest as did survive, did so principally in tbe
person of T.B. Purdom who became Secretary-Treasurer. Hanage­
ment, in the new dispensation, was brought in from the United
States. The work force was no longer largely from London. (A
little later, it would be held against The Traction that no fewer
than forty of its employees were natives of St. Thomas). The main
car barns and shops were situated in St. Thomas -sen­
sibly, since that city waS about the mid-point of the line.
In the late autumn of 1909 a very comprehensive report on The
Traction Uhe old name perSisted) Vas prepared for the
new owners. The Railway was:
well located from a revenue stand-point (passing
as it did through) rich agricultural townships ••
and the prosperous city of St. Thomas.
Excessive gradients and curvatures were unfavourably re­
marked on:
However,
these ••• are not seriously objectionable
for a purely passenger service, as electric cars ••
in single or in double units have little trouble
in ascending the heaViest grades.
In fact, there was only one really difficult section of the
line. It lay between Talbotville and St. Thomas where The Trac­
tion descended to the floor of Kettle Valley, and after taking
a sharp curve, climbed to the plateau on which St. Thomas stood.
CANADIAN R A I L
Chelsea GrMl
~
-~l
~ THE SOUTH WESTERN TRACTION COMPANY
d 1
lHE TRACTION EMPLOYED PRINCIPALLY SIDE-OF-THE­
Glen G e. ROAD RUNNING.
~
SOUTH OF LONDON IT FOLLOWED Q-HY 4. AT THE
MIDDLESEX
ELGIN LINE IT CROSSED TO·THE WEST.
Lambeth
AT TALBOTVILLE IT RE-CROSSED TO THE EAST,
PROBABLY TO OBTAIN A SATISFACTORY PASSAGE
~
Tel!!pO
,.
UNDER THE WABASH AND AN EASY GRADE TO KETTLE CREEK.
IN ST.THOMAS, IT USED TALBOT STREET AND FIRST AVENUE ..
SOUTH OF ST. THOMAS THE TRACTION USED BOTH SIDE-OF­
THE-ROAD, AND PRIVATE RIGHT OF WAY.
T41botvill&Y WABASH
~ ~~-F.. –=
/ 1.. .-.—:{MICHIGAN CENTRAL
St.Thom4S
APPROXIMATE SCALE: -TWO NILES TO THE INCH
THE
MAP IS BASED ON London Sheet DEPART~IENT
OF THE UlTERIOR, 1915. AND Oll St.Thomas Sheet
DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE, 1947-1950.
CANADIAN 64 R A I L
Modern steel bridges spanned the principal rivers, flattering
characterizations, certainly, of the Thames River and Kettle
Creek. The main line was laid with new, standard sixty-pound
rail; track, poles and overhead electrical cable were in fairly
good shape, and well set and sound. The main generating
station waS the original Peebles one of 1904, although it must have been
considerably altered to provide direct current. (In
19121 The Traction began to buy power from the Ontario Hydro CommIssion, whose main
southwestern transmission line crossed
the railway near Talbotville. How the Chelsea Green generating
station waS employed after this date is not known). A note on
motive power concluded the report. The stud consisted of twelve
passenger motors, two express motors, and a construction locomo­
tive. There was also some miscellaneous freight stock, two box
cars and six platform cars. All the passenger cars were built
by the Ottawa Car or the Preston Car companies.
The report contained no description of the line south of St.
Thomas or of the facilities at Port Stanley. (Possibly they were
treated in a separate report now lost). This section of The
Traction had been located with the same shrewd eye for local
traffic as the northern. It lay to the east of the L&PS and
served, therefore, the numerous villages neglected by the older
railway. The eastern alignment saved the cost of a second
bridge over Kettle Creek – a considerable stream as it approached
Lake Erie. The Traction descended a long hill to enter Port
Stanley by way of Colbourne Street. lhe terminal waS non-descript
building on the east side of the harbour. A spur line led to the
harbour wall. At that time, the eastern location was as satis­
factory as any other, since no part of the extensive beach had
been developed. Fishing tugs and the small steamers chartered
by the Railway could be reached from the spur.
Under the new management, The Tracti:m enjoyed much good
will. Local traffic was considerable. Farm people poured into
London to sell at the Covent Garden Market. Country children
took advantage of the St. Thomas or London secondary schools.
Long distance traffic (to Lake Erie) was seasonal. The summer
festivals, Victoria Day, Dominion Day, IrishmansIDay, July
12 (In Western Ontario usage, Irish and Orange were interchange­
able terms) and Civic Holiday, taxed the Railway to capacity.
Precise figures are difficult to cite: In June, 1906, the line
carried almost 13,000 passengers. In the year, June 1906-1907,
it carried 170 199 or on an average of about 14,500 a month for
the eleven mon£h period. The Railway at that time waS operating
only between London and St. Thomas. The following year, when
the entire line was in operation, the General Manager stated
that he carried 441,659 passengers. In its second to last year,
June 1916-July 1917, liThe Traction carried 726,799 passengers.
This appears to have been a record. Running time was about an
hour and a quarter and while this may seem excessive for only
twenty-eight miles, it was far ahead of what the L&PS could
perform. The steam passenger service supplied by the L&PS
lessee was pathetic in its inefficiency. Indeed? so promising
was the outlook of The Traction that in 1912, 1t bought four
additional cars, two motors and two trailersJfrom Niles.
Commentators agree that the years 1909-1913 were the high
points of Traction operation. In response to these good
times, the Railway seriously considered two lines of expansion.
In 1913 it began to negotiate with the Michigan Central and Wabash
~Grand Trunk) for exchange of light freight at St. Thomas.

CANADIAN
66
R A I L
It was believed that a very lUcrative bUsiness in fresh lake fish
would materialize. Nothing, however, materialized; discussion
trailed off into disputes over cost and the problems of electric
and steam shunting. The other proposition was more expansive.
It was to carry The Traction eastward from St. Thomas through
the thickly settled countryside to Aylmer and on to Port Burwell.
Caution, engendered by the very modest profits of the fat years,
interdicted this scheme.
Retrenchment waS certainly wise, for at that very moment, The
Tractions own position in the lucrative lakeshore passenger
trade was jeopardised by a revived L&PS. The expiration of the
Pere Marquette lease in 1912 made possible the reassertion of
municipal control and the introduction of electric operation. The
conventional story is that The Traction was put out of business
by its rival and had to be sold as scrap in 1918. A careful ap­
praisal of The Tractions history after 1913 suggests a much
less sensational conclusion.
THE END OF THE TRACTION
It may be conceded at once that The Traction found itself
under considerable disadvantage in the new situation. Its route
was less direct) its trains, slower than those of the L&PS. Be­
cause of its road-side running, The Traction first experienced
competition from the automobile. Its stations were badly placed
for the new era. In London/the L&PS station actually stood be­
tween that of The Traction and the centre of the City. In St.
Thomas, there was no station at all. At Port Stanley, the po­
sition waS nearly as bad. The station on the east side of the
harbour was about as far away as it could inconveniently be from
the fine casino, bath-bouse and bathing beach that the London
Public Utilities Commission had thoughtfully erected on the
western edge.
Finally, The Traction was caught in a bitter business
cross-fire of policies, personalities and party politics, all
centering on the modernization of the L&PS, and on the position
occupied by Sir Adam Beck. He was both a local and a provincial
figure. One-time Mayor of the City of London and, for a period
longer than the one under examination, Chairman of the Ontario
Hydro Electric Power Commission. He was, in addition, Hinister
without Portfolio in the Conservative Provincial cabinet. So
far as can be learned Beck had no early animus against The
Traction, but after 1912, wben he became determined to muni­
cipalize the L&PS, he found himself pitted against persons
prominent in Tbe Traction directorate, particularly George
Woods and Thomas Purdom. The former was a critic of public
ownership and the latter was strongly opposed to tbe L&PS under
municipal control. Tbe newspaper, The Adver tizer began to
attack Becks bungle and to characterize the re.vival of con­
trol by the City of London as iniquitous. InevitablYt The Flee
Press of London, the Conservative newspaper, was drawn in
to denounce Woods, Purdom, and all their works -including The
Traction. In fact, it was given first place in the interplay
of opposing forces. The main group of interests against elec­
tr ifica tion (and municipalization of the L&PS) are •• the London and Lake
Erie •• Tbe Canadian Northern •• the Street Railway ••
the Helena Costume Power Company, the London Electric Company.

CANADIAN 68 R A I L
Taking a longer view, it may be said confidently that The
Traction was more the victim of the times than of its rival.
The outbreak of the First Great War placed it, along with other
railways, under increasing strain. The cost of supplies rose –
officials alleged between 100 and 200%. Be that as it may, wages on The
Traction certainly did not, because in 1917, it Was
paying only thirty cents an hour to its senior employees. Equip­
ment however, could not be maintained -let alone modernized or
replaced. In the winter of 1917, passenger service was cut
drastically, because coal could not be purchased for the stoves
that warmed the cars, and electric heaters were unobtainable.
Demands on The Tractions services, if anything, increased., In
1916, the General llanager wrote:
The Traction line is doing more business at present
than ever before. We are bringing thousands of shop­
pers into the City (London) every week. It will be
well to correct the impression that the line is a
dying duck.
No doubt, this was literally true. Passenger traffic was
swelled by the great number of soldiers who used The Traction.
Special rates were offered to the men going on leave from the
great military training centre of Carlings Heights, London.
Nevertheless, in 1916 and 1917, The Traction incurred
defecits. The Directors embarked on a number of complicated
manoeuvres to sell the line. These were in the wind as early as
April, 1917. The street railways of London and St. Thomas were
considered to be in the market for The Traction. Nor was the
Ci ty of London itself, believed to be unresponsive. The Trac­
tion had been built as was pointed out, with an eye to local
traffic and it waS argued that, suitably modernized, it could
usefully supplement the L&PS wbose line had been designed for
freight. The cost of modernizing, indeed, the impossibility of
finding new equipment, frigbtened off the street railways. In
a sense, it frightened off the City. It would be impossible to
decide what to do with The Traction in case it (came into)
the citys hands at a low price (since) its equipment ••• is not
of the same class of (sic) that used on the London and Port
Stanley. The Vice-Chairman of the L&PS, Philip Pocock, ad­
vanced an ingenious solution. He believed that
enough money could be secured from the scrapping
of the St. Thomas-Port Stanley end to rehabilitate
the line from London to Talbotville.
This, of course, was the only part of The Traction in which
the City of London had any genuine interest; certainly it was no
part of its strategy to do anything that might benefit its rival,
St. Thomas. The Tractions directors were realistic; they would
sell in part or in whole, although, naturally, they preferred to
sell the entire line. The price that they were prepared to take
and the price that the buyer waS prepared to offer were the sub­
jects of debate. The directors wanted $600,000 although it was
alleged that they were ready to accept 3500,000 from St. Thomas. London,
prompted by Sir Adam Beck, refused to go beyond $300,000.
CANADIAN R A I L
(The actual figure Beck cited was $294,000, or 35% of the bonded
interest). Londons refusal was backed by a report made by the
Hydro Power CommisS.on; It was found impossible to recommend
purchase •• as the receipts appear ed to be too low. The Company
officers
1
thereupon decided to sell The Traction for what it
would fetch as scrap. Service was stopped, first between Port
Stanley and St. Tbomas, then between St. Thomas and London. On
October 28, 1918, w. W. Warburton, the last General Manager,
wrote:
(The Traction) has ceased operations and the work
of dismantling has already commenced at London and
Port Stanley.
The decision to dismantle had not been made abruptly. In
July 1918 J. Warburton had made an estimate of The Tractions
assets. He believed that they were worth over $360,000; rails,
$162,000; overhead and cable, $75,000; cars, $50,000; miscel­
laneous and real estate, possibly $100,000. Steel and copper
were at a premium in 1918. Moreover, The Traction had not
removed the double trolley wire of the early A-C operation.
This must have represented a substantial dividend in itself.
The cars to be disposed of numbered fourteen.
In the course of the next two years or so, these physical
assets were liquidated. Rails, spikes, copper wire, and so on seems
to have been sold piecemeal. The cars were widely dis­
persed, the largest number apparently going to the Niagara,
St. Catherines and Thorold Railway. The real estate, which
consisted chiefly of private right-of-way in London and the
Thames bridge, was sold to the City. Other items of property,
for example, the stations, passed to various owners. The London
station, by a strange turn of history, has become local head­
quarters of the Salvation Army.
One of the later passenger motors, probably built by the ottawa
Ce.r Company. From-a newspaper photograph, October, 1907.
CA NADIAN
70
R A I L
Photos in the foregoing article ar~ reproduced here through
the courtesy of Mr. William Bailey of Oakville, Ontario, and
are from his personal collection.
Views show various passenger, express, and freight
cars of the London & Lake Erie Railway, taken in the L&LE
yards.
INSIDE FRONT COVER photo from the collection of Mr.R.M.Binns
shows L&LE car # 9 in October 1912. Those dapper gents are
delegates to the Canadian Street Railway Association Canvention
which was held at London & St.Thomas in that year.
DEPARTMENT OF RED FACES .••••••••
IN OUR ZEAL TO PRODUCE THE JANUARY ISSUE
with celerity and precision, the time
devoted to proof-reading the blues
from the printer was reduced to a min­
imum.
THE DREADFUL AND EMBARRASSING RESUUJ was that we did not notice that
the printer had dropped the art-type credit line on the leading ar­
ticle. Our sincere apologiee are hereby tendered to Mr. GEORGE J.
HARRIS,our member-contributor from Winnipeg,Man.,who won a prize
with this story in the recent CANADIAN RAIL Contributors contestl
WE MUST EXCUSE OURSELVES as well,to our diesel fans end
to the Delaware & Hudson,for inadvertantly creating a new D. & H.
locomotive class, -U-OPA-1. Our cover caption should have read:
Delaware and Hudson class new-old n PA-1 locomotive ,wi th train No.
34. Thus do evil communications corrupt good manners I
THE CONTRIBUTOR of the excellent cover photograph was Mr.
Bill Linley,our member in Ottaw~.
WE SHOULD ALSO HAVE ACKNOWLEDGED that the donor of the com­
plete file of CANADIAN RAILWAY AND MARINE WORLD 1898-1960(now known
85 CANADIAN TRANSPORTATION) came from Mrs. J.J.Borbridge, of Alta­
dena,California,from the estate of her late hueband, Mr. J.J.Bor­
bridge.
COVER
THE ORDER BOARD at Red Pass Junction indicates
that orders must be picked up and directions provided
to the crew telling them where to leave their set-off
for the Prince George B.C. line. (Tete Jaune Subdivis­
ion). Another photo of the same train may be found on
page 83. Both photos from Clayton F.Jones.
~
-. L~ I!l!p.rt J{. Nt·,··:. ~ ~~ A· ~; ~ …. .. . . . i······ . .. .. .
. . . . IH· .. ….. .
r
~. ·R··
. … .
. … .
~
~·V·IR~·
. . . . . .
. . . . .
F.F.AugUB
During 1967, the Canadian Pacific Railway donated two sleeping
cars to the Assoc1at10nfor display at the Canadian
Railway Museum at Delson. The older of the cars is NEVILLE,
built in 1921, the last unrebuilt survivor of the N series
of 12 section-l drawing room heavyweight standard sleepers,
with the traditional clerestory-style roof. The newer car is
BROOKDALE, the unit in the best condition of the DALE
series of 10 roomette-5 double bedroom cars. These arched roof
streamlined Pullmans were built in 1939 and bought from the New
York Central Railroad in 1958.
It is only fitting that such cars should be preserved, since
Canadas railways played a pioneer role in the history of sleep­
ing cars, early examples being used on the Grand Trunk and Great
Western Railways. DUring the evolution of the sleeping car in
the second half of the 19th century, many variations of the
original designs were developed. The Canadian Pacific Railway,
from the outset, operated its own sleeping andillning cars, un­
like many other major railroads, and its cars of the 1880 sand
1890s were among the finest on the North American continent.
Unfortunately, these early wooden cars, with their elaborately
finished interiors, have disappeared, and the few that survive
in work service have been completely rebuilt inside and are be­
yond restoration to their original condition.
In the early 20th century, wooden cars continued to be built,
and gradually more plain andutilitarian designs were produced.
While there was always a considerable variety of sleeping car
types, one configuration gradually came to be the most widely
used type in the history of North American railways. This was a
car of about 80 feet in length, containing 12 open sections
(lower and upper berth), a drawing room at one end and a smoking compartment
at the other. During the same period, steel re­
placed wood as the material for constructing passenger cars and by
1920, most new cars were of steel. The C.P.R. built its first
steel coaches in 1912-14 and its last wooden sleeper in 1913, but
built no steel sleeping cars until after World War I. In 1919,
a series of steel tourist sleepers was constructed and two years
later, the earliest first-class C.P.R. sleeping cars made their
appearance. Among this lot were a number of 12 section-l drawing
room cars, all of which were assigned names beginning with the
letter N. The steel frames and trucks were constructed by
Canadian Car and Foundry Company, while the cars were completed
in C.P. s Angus shops 1n Montreal. The first lot is distinguished
from the later (1922-24) N cars by having steel roofs instead
of tbe later canvas-type. liNEVILLE was one of the first of these,
being out-shopped in May, 1921 and it continued in service for
45 years.
CANADIAN
72
R A I L
By 1930 the 12-1 type comprised almost half the total North
American sleeper fleet and became the standard sleeper. The
last C.? 12-1s ,ere the S series of 1931, but shortly
after World War II, a number of N s and TIS I s were extensive­
ly rebuilt and re-named in the T series.
The 1930s were a period of great innovation, change, and moder­
nization of the railways. Although these were depression years,
the automobile and aeroplane had not yet developed to the point
here they offered serious competition, and progressive railway
managements spared little effort to create and operate fine up­
to-date passenger trains. New cars were designed -in many cases
streamlined, to allow hiEher speeds and give a more pleasing
appearance, while modern construction methods allowed a weight
reduction of about 30 percent OVer similar sized older cars.
Accomodation in sleepers changed too and the enclosed room came
gradually to supersede the old open section. Most of the early
streamlined cars were coaches, but by the late 30 s streamli.ned
sleepers with all-room accommodation were being introduced. In
1938, the New York Centrals 20th Century Limited, and the
Pennsylvanias Broadway Limited, both running between NeVl York
and Chicago, became the worlds first trains in which all sleep­
ing space was enclosed. The most common configuration among
these early lightweight cars was 10 roomettes (1 bed each) and
5 double bedrooms (2 beds each). lany such cars were built by
the Pullman Company and virtually all 10-5 Pullmans, hether
owned by Pullman or by the railroad, were named in the CASCADE
series. New York Central had 33 CASCADE cars, 4 of which,
after nearly 20 years service, were sold to Canadian Pacific
while most of the remainc1.er eventually went to the National
Railways of Mexico.
After World War II, streamlined passenger cars continued to be
developed and the 10-5 car became the predecessor of the 10
roomette-6 double bedroom car ,,,hich is today the most popular
sleeping car designed by far, being present on nearly every
large passenger carrying railroad in North America. Canadian
Pacific built its GROVE series 10-5 sleepers as late as
1949-50, and nearly a decade later, after its large purchase
of stainless steel equipment, bought 8 sleeping cars from the
N.Y.C., the last sleepers ever purchased by C.P. Four of these
were CASCADES and were re-named in the DALE series.
These four cars were usually assigned to the Montreal-Toronto
overnight pool train, and with the discontinuance of these trains
in October, 1965, they were placed in storage.
The 1950s and 60s have seen a very marked reduction in the
use of heavyweight sleepers, to the degree that today there
are no heavyweights in regular assigned service in the United
States, although some still run in Hexico. In Canada, the
Canadian National still operates such cars, including 12-1
types, but most have been extensively rebuilt and little re­
semble their original appearance. The majority of Canadian
Pacifics large fleet of heavyweight sleeping cars has been
retired follo,Ting the final run of the transcontinental Expo
Limited at the end of October, 1967. Host of these older
cars will be scrapped or converted to other uses and so the
tradi tional heavyweight sleeping car of the pre-World var II
era, will have passed into hisbry.
CANADIAN R A I L
The N cars were air-conditioned after 1936 and the interiors
were somewhat modernized in 1953, but in exterior appearance
and most basic features, NEVILLE is little changed from 1921,
certainly less so than other sleepers presently seen in Canada.
The DALE cars have never been rebuilt, and apart from their
C.P.R. paint scheme, are essentially as they were in 1939, when,
running on some of the worlds most famous trains, they and
others of their class were the standard on which todays
sleeper was designed.
These two cars for our Museum represent two different eras in
rail-roading in the past and, in their day, were as much a part
of progress in passenger train travel as the corresponding de­
velopments in steam and diesel locomotives. Today, with dis­
continueance of passenger trains being reported almost daily,
cars of these types have become rare and soon will be as much a
part of the past as the steam engine and the interurban car.
The tlvo types of sleeping cars are unique representatives of
the great years of long distance passenger train travel, when
such trains were the most popular and luxurious means of land
trans porta tion.
PHOTO: A C8.nadian Pacific sleeper under construction in January
1921. Photo by the Canadian Car & Foundry, now in the CRHA archives.
Information courtesy of Mr. J .Shields, Mr. L.Lei tch, /llr. M.paul.
j
ROOTER OF CANADIAIJ PACIFIC RAILWAY N SERIES SIEEPING CARS
LISIED IN CflI1ER OF CONSlRUCTION
WITH DAlES
OF CONVERSION AND DISPOSITION
EQUIPMENT ORDER NO. 1717
Steel framel Canadian Car and Fdy. Completedl C.P.R. Angus Shops 1921
NAUGHTON ac 1937 bd 411351 1962
NAPIES ac 1936 Scr Aug. 1965
NANIEL ac 1946 rb TCRONTO 1946
NEPTUNE ac 1945 rb TABER 1945
N NElThWU NEW DENVER ac 1937 Scr Mar. 1967
NEVILlE ac 1936 To C.R.H.A. 1967
NICOIET ac 1937 Scr May 1967
NIXON ac 1937 rb flat car 1968
NAIRN ac 1936 bd 411271 1959
NffiTH BAY ac 1936 Sold to Cartier Ry. 1961
NAKUSP ac 1936 bd 411365 1962
NANTON ac 1936 Scr May 1967
NARAMATA ac 1936 bd 411648 1959
NEELEY ac 1936 bd 411252 1959
NESBITT ac 1937 Scr Oct. 1965
NEWCASTIE ac 1936 bd 411264 1959
NEWPffiT ac 1936 bd 411362 1962
.NEW WESTMINSlER ac 1936 Scr Aug. 1965
NIGHTINGAIE ac 1936 bd 411689 1967
NOBEL ac 1936 bd 411368 1962
NORTH BEND ac 1945 rb TADANAC 1945
NORWOOD ac 1937 bd 411253 1959
NAMAKA ac 1936 bd 411372 1963
NAPANEE ac 1952 rb tourist GENERAL 1952 rb tourist UTICA 1955
Scr Sep. 1967
NASEBY ac 1937 Scr Nov. 1965
NEEPAWA ac 1952 rb tourist GEST 1952 rb tourist UTOPIA 1955
Scr Aug. 1967
NETIEY ac 1937 bd 411341 1961
NEWBURG ac 1937 bd 411352 1962
NEWTONVILIE ac 1937 Scr May 1967
NOKOMIS ac 1945 rb lEESWAIER 1945
NANAIMO ac 1945 rb TAPPEN 1945
NAPINKA ac 1936 bd 411662 1961
NATAL ao 1945 rb THESSALON 1945 Sor May 1967
NELSON ac 1937 bd 411254 1959
NEUDORF ac 1936 bd 411262 1959
NEWDAIE ac 1936 Scr Mar. 1967
Steel fr~1 N!tional Steel C!r CO
a
C2!!!eleted I C1P!R. Angus Shops 1921 -22
NIAGARA ac 1936 bd 411367 1962
NINGA ac 1937 Scr Apr. 1967
NOLAN ac 1952 rb tourist GRASSY 1952 bd 411290 1960
N NOTCH HILL ac 1937 Scr May 1965
CANADIAN R A I L
EQUIP!.ENT OODER NO. 1725
Steel frame National Steel Car COp Completed C,P,R. Angus Shops 1922
NAISCOOT ac 1936 bd 411371 1962
NEREPIS ac 1952 rb tourist GERMAIN 1952 rb tourist UXBRIDGE 1955
R 1966
NEVIS ac 1936 bd 411661 1961
NCRTH TROY ac 1936 bd 411654 1960
NASHWAAKIS ac 1945 rb lELFCRD 1945
NAVAN ac 1937 bd 411690 1967
NESTlE TON ae 1937 R 1967
NEWSlEAD ac 1936 Scr Nov, 1967
NESTCR ac 1936 bd 411265 1959
NISKU ac 1945 rb TAFT 1945
EQUIPmNT CRDER NO. 1736
Steel frame • N!tion!l Steel C!£ CO
2
CO!l!Eleted, C
1
P
1
R
2
Angus Shops 1922
NCRTON ac 1952 rb tourist GUY 1952 Sold to Cartier Ry.
(#B36) 1960
NEMi:GCS ac 1937 bd 411655 1960
NCSBONSING ac 1937 bd 411342 1961 (exhibited at C,NtE,
EQUIP}4i;NT CRDER NOo 2092
Steel frame C!Aadian C!£ and Fdy. CO!l!Eleted. CoP.R
2
Angus Shops 1924
NIPIGON 1960 ac 1952 rb tourist GLOBE 1952 bd 411302
NOTTINGHAM ac 1946 rb TISDAlE 1946
NAICAM 1960 ac 1952 rb tourist GERALD 1952 bd 411299
NOBLEFCRD 1960 ac 1952 rb tourist GRANGE 1952 bd 411653
NIVERVILlE ac 1946 rb THURSO 1946
NICHOUlON 1960 ac 1952 rb tourist GLASS 1952 bd 411301
NICOAJ.EN
NEMISCAM
NEIDPATH
NAVARRE
NE:EDLES
NACKAWIC
ac 1946 spelling changed to NICaMEN 1927
rb TOMPKINS 1946 ac 1946
rb TILlEY 1946
renamed
NOMININGUE 1933 ac 1946 rb THRUM) 1946
ac 1945 ac 1946
ac 1946
rb TILBURY 1945
rb THCRNE 1946
rb TICHBCRNE 1946
Scr Dec, 1966
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY DAlE SERIES SlEEPING CARS
ARMDAIE
BROOKDAlE
CLOVERDAlE
RIVERDAlE
ex N oY ,C. CASCADE FAWN
ex N, Y ,C. CASCADE LANE
ex N,Y,C. CASCADE maT
ex NoY.C, CASCADE RUN
ac Air conditioned
R 1965
To C,R.H,A. 1967
R 1965
R 1965
bd Converted to boarding car
rb Rebuilt
R Retiredo To be scrapped
Scr Scrapped 1922)
~; +-CIlf–+-~
~-~~:~~————–59~GT~K~~TQ~.———————.+j:~~
r—————————84~ GIIJ~I[)(!. cOUP.t~ lWUC~IU.—————~·——-~.;
—————TB~II .. ovtQ 1WO r:RAMIl.C.————————–.,J
S BEDROOM t 10 ROOMETTES
AIR COt-lOITONL.O ON E·O· G91~ IN I(BG.
ABOVE: Brookdale as photographed by Dr. R.V.V.Nicholls at Angus
shops on July 4, 1967.
BELOW: Nestor an interior view taken in 1936. C.P.R.photo.
PAGE 77: Neville Photo by Dr. R.V.V.Nicholls July 1967 at Mtl.
PAGE 74: Neidpath C.P.R.photo, taken at Angus Shops in 1924.
by Derek Booth
DELIVERY HAS BEEN COMPLETED of orders for cabooses and cy­
lindrical ore hoppers,as detailed in the report of new equipment on
order by Canadian National,in CANADIAN RAIL,January,1968.
CN HAS UNVEILED A SUPER-INSULATED FREIGHT CAR,that keeps
itself so cool or warm that the need for heating or refrigerating
units may be eliminated for some kinds of traffic. Where auxiliary
heating or cooling is necessary,substantially less fuel is required
resulting in genuine savings in operating dollars. The essential
secret ingredient is E! polyurethane foam insuLation layer, which
reduces heat 1055 and adds structural strength to the car. Further,
the seven inch foam layer actually becomes part of the cars sup­
port system,reducing to an absolute minimum the use of wood. Ths
temperature control system is mounted in the car door,thus provid­
ing a clear interior length of 50 feet. The unit will maintain any
desired temperature from-10
0
F. to + 70
0
F.,despite outside wea­
ther.A prototype has successfully undergone cross-Canad~ tests and
is presently in operation transporting such commodities as dairy
products,fruit and fresh vegetablss.
SOUTH OF THE 49TH. PARALLEL,passenger trains continue to
disappear like dew before the eummer sun ! Rock Island announcea
in February the discontinuance of its Trains 3 and 4 between Chi­
cago and Tucumcari,New Mexico.Southern Pacific knocked off its
connscting Golden St~e to Los Angeles,at the same time. No imm­
ediate change in the Los Angeles-New Orleans Trains 1 & 2 was
projected. Louisville and NaShville withdrew Trains 14 & 19, be­
tween Bowling Green,Ky.,and Memphis,Tenn.,at the end of February
and Trains 17 & 18,-Cincinnati,Ohio to Atlanta,Ga., early in Mar­
ch. Alas! One can no longer go by L. & N. to Etowah,Ga.!
CANADIAN PACIFIC INTENDS TO CLOSE its Port Arthur,Ont~.,
station for good and all. Mr. A.J.Cowie,Fort William District
Superintendent,informed the Lakehead press that this action would be
effective 28 April 1968. Port Arthur patrons,presently served
by The Canadian dailh; in each direction,will have to entrain
and detrain at Fort William station,-4.4 miles west.Port Arthurs
station was built in the 1880s,and could be incorporated in the
Citys urban renewal plans.
ONTARIO NORTHLAND RAILWAYS PR officer contributes the
optimistic note to the sad story of passenger train travel. After
a very significantly successful season in Canadas Centennial Year ONRs
Centennial Train will continue to operate in year 100+1,and
already two charter special train trips have been firmly booked.
More such triPB are expected to run.
CANADIAN
80
R A I L
AND FINALLV,THE GENIUS OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS must be
recognized,for informing newspaper readers of the following odd circumst!!fl1ce
in Sunderland,England. The wedding of Miss Janet
Parkin !rod Mr. Stanley Kipling was abruptly cancelled when the
bride-to-be discovered that the groom kept a three-foot-high lo­
comotive model in his bedrtiom.Apparently,this was the only place
in the houee where he could keep it.Mr. Kipling pleaded,· Its
my only hobby and I want to go on tinkering with it. Miss Parkin
retorted,! will never take second place to a lcr.comotiVI! I Read­
ers should note one other irrelevant fact: the groom was a young 62 and
the bride-to-be,-a widow,wBs a sprightly 66.
CA NAD lEN
, NA no NAt

eN 239 000

This CN-designed, super-insulated freight car, represents
an important breakthrough in construction and operation costs
of refrigerated and heated equipment. Key feature of the car
is a foam insulation system that wil I reduce heat loss by close
to one-half. The polyurethane insulation has proven so effective
in tests that It may el imlnate the need for refrigeration or
heating units for some types of traffic. (CN Photo)

POW:K

<:; ,,
,
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS
CN
Deliveries: up to 31 January 1968.
5022 to 5025 ••.•• 01/01/68*
5026 to 5027 ••..• 02/01/68
5028 to 5029 ….. 11/01/68
5030 to 5031 ….. 17/01/68
5032 to 5033 •…. 24/01/68
2008 .•••• 12/01/68
2009 .•.•• 24/01/68
2010 •..•• 25/01/68
2011 ….• 30/01/68
General Motors units are assigned to the Mountain Region while
the 2000s operate from the St. Lawrence Region.
* This is the date accepted by CN. Locomotives outshopped 22/12/67.
Locomotive Tr8nsfers: up to 31 January 1968.
ROAD NUi-1BER
8044
8066 0101 0112
TRANSFERRED FROM
St. Lawrence Rgn.
St. Lawrence Rgn.
Atlantic Rgn.
Great Lakes Rgn.
TRANSFEfiRED TO
Atlantic Rgn.
P.tlantic Rgn.
Great Lakes Rgn.
Atlantic Rgn.
International Nickle Company: up to 26 February 1968.
DATE
24/01/68
24/01/68
22/01/68
22/01/68
The builders numbers for the three DL-718Bs are M-3497-01 to
M-)497-0).
QUEBEC, NORTH SHORE, AND LABRADOR RAILWAY
Purchases: up to 26 February 1968.
The serials for the six SD40s are A-2328 to A-2JJJ. Road
numbers 200 to 205 have been assigned.
ABOVE: The inaugural run through the np.w Dows Lake Tunnel, Ottawa,
was CP Train 90, the Prescott way-freight headed by Engine 8795
on 02 August 1968.
BELOW: The first passenger train through the tunnel on the same date
was CP Train 131. Dayliner 9022, en route from jlontreal to Otta~1a.
Photo courtesy W.R.Linley.
ABOVE: C.N.R. # 6, at Calder Yard, with No.5 behind it. The former
is ex Hinneapolis & st. Louis No. D842 rebuilt by GE for CN in 1957.
BELOW: Rolling along the shore of Moose Lake, just east of Rainbow
B.C. Photographed 30 minutes & 6.3 mi. later than the cover photo.
February 6, 1958
..• and you say this 2,250,000 words of testimony, 119 witnesses and 358 exhibits have
given you a feeling of being unwanted .•.
OANADIAN RAIL
published mont.hly (exoept. July & August. combined)
by t.he publicat.ions commit.t.ee
CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION ~~~,:::,~24u::,,lOO S
Associat.e Membership including II issues of
Oanadian Rail 8.00 annually.
EDITOR S. Nort.hen FRODUOTION F.Murphy
DISTRIBUTION J.A.Beat.t.y & F.F.Angus
DIREOTOR OF MEMBERSHIF AND BRANOHES
Hr. J.A.Beatty, 4982 Queen J.lary Road, f>lontreal 29. Quebec, Canada.
ASSOCIATION BRANCHES
OTTAWA J.iaj. S.R.Ell1ot, Sectyo, P.O.Box )52, Terminal nA Ottawa Onto
ROCKY MOUNTAIN V.H.Coley. Secty •. 1124) -72nd Aveo, Edmonton, Alberta
ASSOOIATION REFRESENTATIVES
OTTAr.A VALLEY K.F.Ch1vers, Apt. ). 67 Somerset st. W •. ottawa. Ontario.
SASKATCHEWAN J .S.N1cholson, 2)06 Arnold St., Saskatoon. Saskatchewan.
PACIFIC COAST Peter Cox. 29)6 West 28th Ave., Vancouver. British Columbia
PAR EAST W.O.McKeown, Oasko (Tosabor1) YMCA, 2-chome. N1shi-ku.Osaka.Japan.
BRITISH ISLES J.H.Sanders. 67 Willow Way. Ampthill, Beds. England.
MANITOBA K..G.Younger 267 Vernon Road. Winnipeg, I:,anitoba.
Copyright 1968 Printed in Canada
on Canadian paper

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