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Canadian Rail 169 1965

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Canadian Rail 169 1965

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I&~iin
September 1965 / Number 169
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Our Cover
Eleventh Ave., Regina, looking
west from the City Hall at
Rose Street in 1920. English­
buH t tram 11 1 is shown in the
foreground, with Prestons ,; 24
and l 20 beyond.
LEFT: Car ,J-3 proceeding west
on Eleventh Avenue at
Scarth Street in 1911.
BELOW: First street car run,
Regina, on Friday, the
28th July, 1911.
Photographs courtesy of
Saskatcheifan Archives.
Canadian Rail
QEngli.sb = huilt !rra~.s
l.rgina ;Municipal
on tbe
l.p.
Page 139
Colin K. Hatcher
A STORY OF THE SIX ENGLISH BUILT STRE1l CARS THAT WERE tHE I1AI~STAY
2F _r.!!E_RE!G!N~ !1UliIQ.IEAb gA!L~A! £:RQHJl!.L! J,.9D_U,!iTIL_E!Rb.Y_Ili J,.9V ….
Regina, capi tal of the prairie province of Saskatchewan, was,
in 1910, a proud city boasting a population of about 25,000. In
May of that year, final plans Vlere laid to enable the city to have
a street railway system. Target date for completion was July 25,
1911, in order that cheap, efficient and regular transportation
would be available from downtown Regina to the Exhibition Grounds
about one mile away. For many years previous to 1911, the Exhibi­
tion Grounds were the centre of activity during the annual .fair
week generally held toward the end of July or beginning of August.
In 1911, however, the Dominion Exhibition was to be hosted and the
city of Regina was most anxious to have car service to transport
citizens and an expected influx of visitors to the site.
In Hay 1910, Ci ty Council decided on a municipally-owned system
to be called the Regina I-lunicipal Railway. November, 1910, marked
the calling of tenders for the provision of four single truck cars
and two double truck cars. Bids were received from European, Bri t­
ish and Canadian firms; but the latter, which included the Preston
Car and Coach Company and the Ottawa Car l1anufacturing Company,were
unable to deliver by the July 1911 deadline because of previous co­
mmi tments, A Belgian firm, Les Ateliers Hetallurgiques of Brussels
apparently could have provided cars to the Regina specifications,
but that firm had not submitted complete prices and there was fear
that further negotiations would be too time-consuming. On the oth­
er hand, the Canadian Ford Company of Nontreal, negotiating for the
Brush Electrical Engineering Company of London, England, could gua­
rantee delivery by June 25, 1911. On January 30, 1911, Regina City
Council gave final approval for the order to be placed with the
Brush Firm. The two double truck cars were to be delivered cOfl!plete
with air brakes and quadruple motor equipment at i>7,194.80 each and
the four single truck cars with double motor equipment and hand
brakes at $4,291,80 each.
During the intervening months track plans were finalized and
by April 1911 crews began working day and night to lay the essen­
tial portions of line, By Exhibition time double track was comple­
ted on Eleventh Avenue West from Rose Street to Albert Street and
on Albert Street north from Sixteenth Avenue to Dewdney Avenue. On
Dewdney a single track was completed west from Albert to Elphinstone
Street, then two blocks south to a wye at Tenth Avenue at the Exhi­
bition ground gates.
On Tuesday July 4, 1911, the four single truck cars arrived in
the C.P.R. yards. They were shortly afterward moved to the tempor­
ary barns erected at NcIntyre and Dewdney just one block east of
Albert street. Here final assembly and adjustments were carried
out under the direction of Mr. W,R. Nowell a representative from
the Brush Electrical Engineering (Falcon Works) where the cars were
built. Apparently one car was briefly tested on the afternoon of
,/ednesday, July 26, 1911, but major testing took place on Thursday,
July 27. when at 2:25 p,m. car number 3 moved out into daylight
c·p·
Page 140
E.!04I.,TtON
GltOUND.5
lE6IS1AT~
5LDOS
MrCoI/vm Avr.
Canadian Rail
REGINA MtlNICIPAI..
RAILWAY
TiRACK PLAN
.pee· /9//
ran south on Albert, backed up on Dewdney Avenue, then ran west on
Dewdney to the exhi bi tion wye. When car 3 returned to the barns,
each of the three remaining cars in turn made a similar trip. At
5:00 p.m., one car ran to Eleventh Avenue and Scarth street in the
heart of the city, wyed and returned to the barns, but not before
drawing much favourable comment from home-bound workers. At 8:00
p. m., all four cars ran downtown, where they remained for some time
allowing citizens to inspect them.
The exterior finish of these wooden cars was mahogany set off
with a neat silver border around side and end sheathing as well us
woodwork above the front windows. Silver digits 1, 2, 3, and 4
indicating the respective unit numbers appeared on the front centre
immediately above the headlight, and on the centre of the rear pan­
el. Centred below the car body windows on each side the words Re­
gina Hunicipal Railway appeared in silver lettering. Each car was
topped wi th a white deck-type square-cornered roof. On the left
side there was no break in the wood sheathing at the front or rear
bulkheads leaving the impression that the platfor:.ls were an intlgral
part of the car body. lhe front curved, deviating enough from the predominantly square design to
lend a plE-asing touch to the somewhat otherwise severe exterior of
the cars. Since the cars were buil t for single end, two-man, pay­
as-you-enter operation,the rear platform was longer than the front.
The former wc:s fitted wi th brass handrails so that boarding passen­
gers wer, directed past the fare box and into the body of the car
through a sliding door in the left side of the rear bulkhead. Those
leaving the car passed onto the rear platform through a similar door
on the right side of the bulkhead. Disembarlr.ing passene;ers also
had access to a front platform exit through a pair of sliding doors
in the centre of the front bulkhead.
Canadian Rail
Page 141
The interior was predominantly mahogany, with ceilings finish­
ed in a birds eye maple veneer. Windows were fitted with pinch
handle blinds. Fourteen transversely-arranged rattan seats plus
two longitudinal seats at the rear provided seating space for thir­
ty-two passengers. Overhead straps at each end provided standing
room for about twelve additional passengers.
Hechanically, the cars were set on what were described as
Brush Electrical Engineerings 21-E type eight foot wheelbase sing­
le trucks powered by two Brush 1204E 40 horsepower motors operated
by K-IO controllers. Over the bumpers, they were thirty-three feet
long. On delivery each car was equipped with storm sashes, electric
heaters and platform doors, but the latter were never installed on
the rear platform. Before the first Winter set in the railway in­
stalled forced air coal stoves on the front platform of each car.
In summer the stoves and storm sashes vlere removed and the permanent
inside sashes could be lowered into side pockets.
On Friday, July 28, 1911, the four cars were backed a block
east on Eleventh Avenue from the Scarth street wye and spotted in
numerical order in front of the city hall building. Hundreds of
Reginans lined the street to witness the official opening of the
Regina !1unicipal Railway. At 10:00 a.m. a brief ceremony took
place, then with Lieutenant-Governor Brown of Saskatchewan acting
as motorman, car 1 pulled away with prominent provincial dignitaries
aboard. Car 2 with the city fathers as passengers and Mayor McAra
as motorman followed. Hembers of the Board of Trade were aboard car
3 with their president, T.B. Patton, dOing honours at the control.
Car 4, driven by Alderman Shaw, Chairman of the street Railway Com­
mittee and carrying street railway officials, brought up the rear.
The procession operated over all of the completed portions of the
system going first to the Exhibition Grounds and then to the south­
ern terminal at Albert and Sixteenth. When the cars returned to
the downtown area and safely discharged their passengers, Mayor HcArs
declared that all fares be suspended for the remainder of the
day. Eager, curious citizens took full advantage of the declara­
tion. Reports at the end of the day indicated that the four little
cars had carried a total of some 7400 passengers. One reporter
estimated that 107 people crammed aboard one car on one occasion;
but average loads consisted of 50 or 60 passengers. Host enthusias­
tic riders were young boys who were always eager to clamber aboard
for as many rides as possible. One youngster was reported boasting
at 11:00 p.m. that he had made twenty-four trips to the EXhibition
Groundsl
Next day twenty-minute serv.ice was available between the Scarth
Street wye and the Exhibition Grounds. Fares were set at 5¢ per
trip or patrons could purchase five tickets for twenty-five cents.
Apparently the novelty of riding the new cars had not worn off as
the system reportedly carried 5500 revenue passengers on that occa­
sion. The exhibition opened on Monday, July 31, with cars 1, 2 and
3 providing ten minute service to the grounds from Scarth Street.
Car 4 operated on a thirty minute schedule from Albert street and
Sixteenth Avenu e to the Exhi bi tion Grounds. These two routes con­
tinued until the fair closed on Saturday August 12, ~hen the rail­
way announced that effective Monday, August 14, two new routes
would be introduced. Since the end of July double track had beon
laid on Eleventh Avenue east to St. John street hen it narrowed to
single track and continued to Winnipeg street. Cars 1 and 2 Vlere
designated as ~~ed line cars providing IS win. service from the east ..
ern terminal at Winnipeg Street to the exhi bi tion gates. The Blue
Page 142
line offered similar service
Sixteenth with cars 3 and 4.
red and blue lights displayed
in the front windows identified
Canadian Rail
from Winnipeg Street to Albert and
At night routes Vlere identified by
on respective cars. Suitable signs
the routes by day.
The long overdue double truck cars numbered 5 and 6 finally
arrived in Regina on August 28, having been held up in i-lanchester,
England, by a shipping strike. Their basic design was identical to
their single truck counterparts but they had twelve body window,, as
opposed to eight on the smaller cars. They were equipped wi th four
Brush 1204E 40 horsepower motors, K-28 controllers and measured
forty-six feet over bumpers. Forty-four passengers could be seated
in two rows of eleven double rattan-covered transversely-arranged
seats.
In the closing months of 1911 routes were being constantly ad­
justed or lengthened to accommodate newly completed sections. Sep­
tember 26 saw the Blue line commence service over the single track
on Thirteenth Avenue from Albert Street to Llphinstone Street. A
new
route, the Whi te line, began service on the same day from Elev­
enth Avenue and Broad Street to Albert and Sixteenth, but by Novem­
ber 2, this route was extended sevEoral blocks south on Albert Street
to the Legislative Buildings wye at HcCallum Avenue. Just over a
week later on November 10, single track on Fifteenth Avenue and
Scarth Street was completed and White line cars were diverted over
this track on their trips between downtown and the Legislative
Buildings. About the s·rune time Red line cars were able to make
their eastern terminal at Broad Street and Fifteenth Avenue. The
Broad-South Railway-Lorne Street loop was opened to White line cars
late in 1911 and its completion mar){ed the fulfillment of the orig­
inal track plan. The four English buil t single truck cars provided
fifteen minute service from 6:00 a.m. to midnight six days a week
on the Red and Blue lines while the two double truck cars worked
the llhi te line on a half-hourly schedule. In adcii tion, at certain
times of the day, one of the Whi te line cars provided special ser­
vice on Dewdney Avenue between Albert and Broad Streets. Early in
1912 the six cars in addition to carrying coloured lights to iden­
tify their .respective routes, began to carry destination signs on
the roof immediately above the front windows Clnd on the right side
below the window sills. These boards were lettered foI their res­
pective routes as follows:
Red line
Blue line
White line
BROAD DEVIDNEY­
WINNIPEG THIRrEENTH
UNION DEPOT PARLIAHENT BLDG.
A coloured disc appeared in the centre of each board signifying the
route colour.
During 1912 and 1913 the Regina Municipal Railway tripled its
original ten miles of track and increased its passenger rolling
stock from six to thirty-four uni ts. As the new cars were delivered
from Canadian builders, the English cars Fenerally held their own,
but they were already suffering the effects of hard service encoun­
tered in the first two years of operation. They were apparently
slower than the other cars, thus quickly becoming little more than
tripper, standby or special cars. In November 1920 their original
Brush motors were replaced by more conventional ones in hopes that
they might be speeded up. One newspaper in 1920 reporting a very
Car No.5 on the WHITE LINE pauses on South Railway Street near Hamilton Street.
( 1912 )
The Union Station is shown under construction in the background at right side.
(Photograph courtesy Regina Chamber of Commerce)
minor accident involving an automobile skidding into the side of car
1, described the car as one of the old English cars. In 1921, the
front platforms of the four single truck cars were lengthened to
allow them to be operated as one-man cars, but as far as can be de­
termined the double truck Brush cars were never converted to conform
with the systems one-man operation policy and doubtless saw little
or no service after that time.
With the delivery of fourteen steel light weight cars in 1928
and 1929, the English cars were completely retired from service.
In October 1935 cars 3, 5 and 6 were stripped of all their access­
ories and sold. Car 1 met a similar fate in April 1936 while cars
2 and 4 were sold about the same time. Reginas English built
street cars, once the pride of the system, began their service amid
cheers of welcome and colourful publicity, but they were retired
from service and struck from the roster without ceremony at a time
in prairie history when there was unfortunately little concern for
ceremony,
Sources of Information.
1. Regina City Council Minutes (1911, 1935 and 1936)
2. ilorning Leader May 1910
July 1911
August 1911
September 1911 November 1911
3. Regina Transit System
4. The Daily Standard July 1911
Notes and News
by Ferro
;t The Ontario government has awarded a $4,309,840 contract to HavTker­
Siddeley (Canada) Ltd. for the manufacture of 40 suburban commuter
cars and nine self-propelled cars. The cars will be eighty-five
feet long, electrically heated and air conditioned, and will seat
125 passengers. The nine self-propelled cars will be identical
to the non-powered, locomotive-hauled cars. A $2,903,048 contract
for eight suburban diesel locomotives was awarded to General Motors
Diesel Ltd. The Ontario Highways Minister said that it will be
more economical to use self-propelled cars instead of locomotive­
hauled trains during non-peak periods. Service is to be maintain­
ed at twenty-minute intervals during peak periods and huurly during
other parts of the day. The trains, between Burlington, Toronto,
and Dunbarton, will operate from 6:45 a.m. to midnight and carry an
estimated 15,000 commuters daily. The service will be operated
by CN but losses will be paid by the Provincial government.
;t Meanwhile CN has applied to the Board of Transport Commissioners
to discontinue four trains operating between Toronto and Hamilton,
onrethe Government service begins operation. Trains affected are:
No. 920 which leaves Hamilton at 6:15 am, No. 922 which leaves
Hamilton at 7:00am, No. 921 which leaves Toronto at 5:20pm, and
No. 923 which leaves Toronto at 6:20 pm. Such a move would mean
that Hamilton commuters would have to travel to the Burlington
station by bus or auto and transfer there to the new Ontario Govern­
ment service. The City of Hamilton will, of course, protest the
proposed discontinuance.
;t Still on the subject of commuters, its interesting to observe vlhat a
difference a w makes. C&NW is using classified advertising
to encourage more people to make use of its commuter operation to
and from Chicago. CN, on the other hand, recently distributed
circulars to Montreal commuters inferring that if the municipal­
ities served by its Mount Royal Tunnel service dont take the
operation over, CN intends to allow the service to become inade­
quate for the increasing number of people using it, and that people
will simply be left standing on the platform. ON has made it
clear that its love for passengers in no way extends to those pas­
sengers who travel daily on ON to and from work.
~ On August 16th last, Canadian Pacific announced that its trans­
continental passenger train The Dominion
lt
would be discontinued
on September 7th, and an augumented passenger service provided by
the oompanys other transcontinental train, The Canadian. The
Canadian would offer increased passenger acoommodation both for
coach and for sleeping car passengers. CPR spokesmen said the
cancellation of the Dominion would free some 25 diesel units for
hauling grain and other valuable commodities. Originally, the
Board of Transport Commissioners indicated that they would not inter­
fere with the CPs policy, but protests continued to mount, and at
the end of the month, the Board ordered the CPR to halt the planned
disoontinuance. The cancellation plan was frozen, pending a
series of publio hearings at which the railway and communities along
the CPR main line will be given an opportunity to argue for and
against the proposed move.
Canadian Rail
Page 145
~ Canadian Pacific, meanwhile, was given permission to drop passenger
service between Farnham and Newport, Vt. The B.of T.C. has author­
ized the OP to discontinue trains 31 and 32 running between Montreal
and the U.S. border near Highwater, Que. Cancellation of the runs
may take place after September 20th, provided twenty days publio
notice is given.
~ Canadian Pacific has created the impJ:ession that pe:..haps the honey ..
moon is over for nearly all its passengers. Effective August
first, the Railway increased 1 ts one··way passenger fares on local
lines and eliminated reduced rates on round-trip tickets. On some
of its lines it also established a single fare, doing away with the
special rates for coach and first class. A spokesman said the
changes are to improve the financial results of rail passenger
business. Examples of the improvements: the new one-way fare
from Toronto to Windsor is $11.25; the corresponding ON fare is
$6.20 except Friday and Sunday when it 60es up to $7.20. The new
CP fare from Toronto to Sudbury is ~12.80; the CN fare is
$7.00 except Friday and Sunday Then it is $8.00.
* CN is providing Bathurst, N.B., with a new railway station. The new
building will replace a station which dates back to the build­
ing of the Intercolonial Railway in the 1870s. Forty-five per­
cent more space in the waiting room and concourse will be found in
the new structure.
~ The Crysler Farm Battlefield Park railway museum has received a wood
sheathed baggage car from CN to go with the locomotive and
coach which have been on display there for the past half-decade or
so. The park, near Morrisburg, OntariO, commemorates the succes­
sful repulsion of U.S. invaders in 1813.
~ CN is spending $8,600,000 for 100 seventy-ton woodchip cars and
500 seventy-ton double door box cars. The woodchip cars have a
hinged door at one end and are unloaded in a fashion similar to
a dump truck operation. Meanwhile CN welders at Calder, Alberta,
and Port Mann, B.C., are converting a total of 65 gondola cars
for similar operation in woodchip service.
* A multi-million-dollar, 100-mi1e monorail system is being talked
about to link Toronto and Buffalo by 1970. The system, if built,
will carry 90-mph trains between the two cities in about an hour.
The developer, Goodell Monorail Inc. of Houston, Texas will start
this August to build the first $1,500,000 section of the line in
the central district of Niagara Falls, N.Y .. The company will
build the initial eight-b10ck-long section at its own expense but
has not decided whether or not to seek some public assistance
from municipalities or the Provincial government for the Canadian
sections. The monorail system will consist of ~11YQ.. parallel rails
suspended about 30 feet from the ground on columns spaced eighty
feet apart. The three cars per train will look, it is sald, like
jetliners Tithoutwings. (Or perhaps like modern standard railway
cars travelling 30 feet above the present underuti1ised rail lines
.. -Ed. )
* During the latter part of August and the first week in Sept­
ember, the Canadian National leased a number of coaches from the
Canadian Pacific. Ten air-conditioned coaches (2100 and 2200
series) were rented and the Pacific companys red paBsenge~ equip­
ment appeared on eN trains opel~ating in southern Ontar:l.o.
3:>
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For
this
mo
nths
issue
of
Canadian
Rail
Mr.
G.A.
Parker
has
produced
another
of
his
fine
mechanical
drawings.
The
CLIMAX
GEARED
LOCO}.K)TIVE
was
popular
years
ago
with
a
number
of
industrial
railways,
particularly
those
with
severe
grade
and
curvature
problems.
Details
of
the
locomotive
illustrated
are
shown
on
the
drawing.
Canadian Rail Page 147
NUMBERING OF MONTREAL METRO ROLLING STOCK
With the advent of rapid-transit
rolling stock, and in order to keep all vehicle
records and maintenance procedures on data processing
machines, Montreal Transportation Commission has
adopted a new numbering system into which all future
vehicles will be fitted.
Basically, MTC vehicles will be
divided into; (a) road vehicles, numbered above
5000, and (b) rapid-transit vehicles, numbered
below 5000. Every vehicle will carry a 4-digit
number, and in addition, a 2-digit prefix code
number which will identify a particular group as
to date in service, class, builder, etc. With
this system serial numbers will run consecutively
wlthout break, -only the code number identifying
a particular lot.
Vehicles engaged in any type of
rapid-transit service, -present underground
rubber-tired type or possible future surface rail
type, -are divided into three general categories:-
Passenger cars without motors: start at 0001
start at 1501
start at 4501
Passenger cars with motors:
Work cars:
Accordingly, the 369 metro passenger
cars, the first of which wIll be delivered about
September 1st., will be numbered as fo110ws:-
123 trailer cars: 80-0001 to 80-0123
246 motor cars: 81-1501 to 81-1746
For operating Durposes, each three­
car set will be identified by the centre trailer car
number, -regardless of which motor cars comprise
the set, -namely set NO. 1 to set No. 123.
Work cars are numbered as follows:-
13 flat cars:
4 diesel locos:
5 elec. cars (future):
82-4501 to 82-4513
84-4701 to 84-4704
83-4601 to 83-4605
(Autobuses will be numbered from 5001 upwards. The
one hundred buses presently on order will be designated classes
35 and 36. General Motors vehicles will be numbered 35-5001 to
35-5050, while Flexible type buses being bunt by Canada ir
will be 36-5051 to 36-5100. No changes are contemplated in the
numbering of buses at present in operation.)
Somewhere in the Maritimes many years
ago, an unknOlIn photographer recorded
four raihmy scenes and his glass
negatives were fortunately preserved.
We dont know where the vim,s were
photo graphed, the ident i ty of the
train, nor the occasion that prompted
the picture .. taking. Any information?
Canadian Rail Page 149
Why
not a 5000 horsepower 8 – B
diese I -electric ?
__ B. A. Biglow.
fuy
not indeed! After all, 5000 Horsepower 4-axle steam locomotives
existed. The answer is quite simple -the limitations of the diesel en­
gine.
But let us begin at the beginning. A fundamental law of
states
F u N
where F = horizontal force
u coefficient of friction
N = normal (vertical) force
t
w:wc-;—–; .. ~ F
u
physics
All locomotives must be designed around this simple law. Thus for a large
F (tractive effort) a locomotive must have a large normal force (weight on
driving axles) and a high u (clean rail).
If we want a
heavy itself (at
non-powered axles
electric units
locomotive to haul large amounts of tonnage, it must be
least on driving axles). In order not to waste weight,
should be minimized. Thus the appearance of B-B diesel
all wheels contribute.
Fine! So one makes a locomotive heavier and heavier. But wait. A­
long comes the designer who limits us to around 30 tons per axle (This is
caused by axle bearing and track limitations). And immediately the use­
fulness of the B-B unit has been specified. Total locomotive weight is
fixed at around 120 tons.
How about u -the coefficient of friction? Here is a factor about
which reams could be written. Experiments have been conducted to clean
rail thus increasing u but to date an economical means has not been de­
vised. Thus the locomotive must work using the u available, be it greasy
rail or perfectly clean. The worst rail usually exists on a misty day when
the contaminants form a lubricant but are not washed off.
Lets go back and look at what we have found:
(1) The maximum weight per axle is around 30 tons.
(2) The coefficient of friction is variable.
Most designers assume a coefficient of friction of 0.25, commonly
called the adhesion coefficient. (Its inverse 4.0 is called the factor
of adhesion). However, conSidering all conditions,a coefficient of adhe­
sion down to 0.18 may be found and this figure is sometimes used by trans­
portation departments.
Thus a design figure of 60,000/4 or 15000 lbs./axle is the tractive
effort per axle of the unit leading to 60,000 lbs.total T.E. for the B-B
unit. This figure may be reduced under poor rail conditions.
Page 150 Canadian Rai 1
Now lets consider moving a train. Ideally one would like to accel­
erate the train quickly to running speed and maintain this speed. For
constant acceleration (ignoring friction, etc.) by Newtons Law
Force = mass x acceleration
i.e. for constant acceleration a constant force is required and for maxi­
mum acceleration the ma.{imum force is required. !Jell the maximum for c e
is 15,000 Ibs. axle and we Vlould like to sustain this up to running speed.
On FigureA the TE correspo;lding to 0.25 and 0.18 adhesion factors
are plotted as lines A & B. The horsepower corresponding to a constant
T.E. of .25 is plotted as line C. Note that this is a straight line of
increasing H.P. for increasing speed. The low speed characteristic of a
steam locomotive closely approximated this line. (In actual fact, the
coefficient of adhesion decreases slightly lIi th speed. This secondary
factor will be ignored.)
But we have a prime mover of constant !:i.P. ,namely the diesel engine.
This constant H.P. is plotted as line D. The tractive effort correspond­
ing to this constant H. P. is a hyperbola of T.t:. plotted as line E which
has a sharply increasing T.E. as the speed is reduced. This sharply in­
creased tractive effort is the secret of the diesels ability to start
cars moving. (It does not say it can move them quickly.) Obviously one
hooks everything, including the kitchen sink, behind a diesel.
Such thinJdng ignores the fundamental law F = u N, for as the engine
is slowed down eventually a point is reached where the wheel lets go and
slips. If the rail adhesion is good, it slips at point F. If the rail
is bad, it slips at point G. An extremely good rail may allow more T.E.
than point F at a correspondingly slower speed. If more horsepower (line
H) is put into the same axle it reaches the adhesion limit at higher
speeds namely points I and J for adhesions of 0.25 and 0.18 respectively.
Thus a high horsepower unit tends to be slippier than a low horsepower
unit of the weight/axle. Placing more driving axles under the unit with­
out increasing the total weight will have no effect since the T.E./axle
decreases in exactly the same proportion as the weight/axle. Going to 6
axles and increasing locomotive weight to 180 tons allows more total T.E.
to be generated at slower speeds but the T/E./axle is not increased.
Another factor is the limitation on the current fed to the traction
motor. The current increases as the unit slows down and the heating ef­
fect of the increased current destroys the motor insulation and hence
life. Because of the mass of iron in the motor, a certain amount of over
current can be tolerated for a time before the motor is overheated. Nor­
mally a traction motor can run at speeds of around 10 m.p.h. continuously
..ithout overheating, and this speed is lmown as the continuous speed.
Loading a train with tonnage which slows it below the continuous speed
risks burning the motors as well as problems of wheel slip due to the high
tractive effort and is not to be recommended.
Factors of adhesion of 0.40 have been claimed for Krauss-Haffei
units and others. What about this? When a coupler force is exerted, it
causes a larger percentage of the locomotive weight to be supported by the
rear truck and similarly within the truck itself. Thus the leadine axle
supports less than its share of the locomotive weight. For this axle to
exert 15,000 Ibs. T.E. the coefficient of friction mU5t be considerably
higher than the nominal figure of 0.25 leading to the high coefficient of
adhesion mentioned. Axles coupled wi th gears share the weicht leading to
better nominal adhesions. The dynamics of the locomotive suspension also
affect the actual Vlorking coefficient of friction required for non-slipp­
age of axles.
Canadian Rail
Page 151
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SPEED MoP. H.
What then is the place of the high horsepower four axle units? First
they are not tonnage houndssince the earliest FT could start an equi va­
lent amount of tonnage. Indeed the misuse of high horsepower tends to
make tonnage starting difficult due to slippage. If tonnage is to be
moved, more axles and more locomotive weight is required. If,however, the
engineman notches out carefully (and slowly) attempting to increase horse
power with speed, i. e. lork along a constant tractive effort line, the
horsepo.ler becomes useful in sustaining acceleration to high train speeds
1. e. hot shot trains. Graphically the engine moves from line L to line
E to line H at appropriate speeds. Opening tho throttle before train
speed is obtained merely puts the engine over the sustainable f.E. curve
and the engine slips until the correct speed is obtained. (This method
corresponds somewhat to the peaking current method usually recommended
where the throttle is advanced a notch when the current peaks in the pre­
vious notch).
TWO NEW PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY CRHA
Canadian Railroad Historical Association has published two new
books on Canadian railroading.
These two illustrations are from the pages of
a) Beloeil. This is the story of Canadas worst
railway disaster, in which one hundred persons
lost their lives. Above is the only known photograph
of the wreck which occured June 29th, 1864.
b) The Road to the Sea. An account of the circumstances
surrounding the contruction of the Saint Lawrence and
Atlantic Railway, and the Atlantic and Saint Lawrence
Railway, between Montreal, Canada East and Portland,
Maine.
The photo, taken on December 18th, 1856, is the
earliest known Canadian photograph of a steam locomotive.
It shows Atlantic & St. Lawrence Railroad Coos
locomotive, built by Portland Cos Works in 1850.
The books were written by Orner S. A. Lavallee and the late
Robert R. Brown respectively. The latter is a re-issue, with
extensive layout and photographic additions, of a bulletin
published by CRHA in July 1953.
Page 153
BACK HOME
AGAIN
Aftp,r a three year or more rest in
the Weston Shop boneyard at Winni­
peg, Canadian Pacific 2634 return­
ed to her old staMping erounds at
Moose Jaw where she worked for marw
a year. This eneine worked on ilie
Saskatchewan Division of the CPs Prairie Region at Regina, Moose Jaw and
Saskatoon, and made many trips with trains 319-320 between Moose Jaw and
Shaunavon.
A little over a year ago, a Centennial Committee was formed in Moose
Jaw
to secure a steam engine to be placed on display in remembrance of a
past era in railroading history. CP 2634 was selected. To raise money
for the locomotives purchase, the Centennial Committee arranged to sell
shares, and an unique scheme was employed to help the sale. An old CPR
caboose was borrowed and placed on Main Street in front of Zellers Depart­
ment Store, and remained in this location for some weeks, provinr, its wo­
rth as an advertising gimmick.
Finally, on Saturday, JUly 17th, engine 2634 arrived in Moose Jaw on
Extra 8831 West from Winnipeg.
The above photo, taken on the
following day, shows the loco­
motive on a storage track near
Moose Jaw Yard. The engine js
to be sandblasted, repainted, fiit!t!l •• I
and placed on display in Cres­
cent Park.
The adjacent photo shows
the caboose in its Main Street
setting, as the advertising and )
publicity attraction.
Photos and information re-
ceived from G.E. Bliss, Moose ~-::::=~i:l:o..
Jaw, Sask. r
Continued from Page 151

Correct usaGe leads to improved tain performance. ~hus improvement
in trDin speed Ii th moderate tonnaGe is the justification for the high
horsepo··.er B-B units while the C-C high hor.se:!JoVier units ca:J. haul more
tonnage at a lo~;er average speed. Attempting to haul heuvy ton!1age with
high horsepol!er 4 axle units will only lead to poor performance and dis­
satisfac tion.
Because of the difficulties in using high horsepol/er units, sophis­
ticated engine controls may be expected to develop, enabling better usage
of high horsepOI/E)r, but these controls are not expected to repeal the
fundamen tal laws:
Horizontal force = coefficient of fricti:>n x normal force (F = u 11)
Force mass x acceleration.
BUT ARE WE ON THE RIGHT TRACK?
Recently, two U.S.magazines (Business Week 17-7-65, and Time (16-7-65)
ran feature stories cover:ing the proposals for high-speed rail trans­
portation between Boston and Washjngton, USA. The USA Government is
to spend some 90 million dollars on experiments and investigRtions, which
are to include such innovations as hovercraft, monorails, levacars, and
driverless electric buses, as well as conventional and not-so-convention­
al ra illlays. Japan I s Tokaido Express and a 130 mile per hour tra in at
Munich, Germany, also come under the scrutiny of the writers.
These methods of travel may increase the speed of travel in the 100 to
1000 mile range. But is that the feature most lacking in the trans­
portation picture today? Would increased speed lure the autoist from
his car? And the other advantages of the proposed systems are already
IMMEDIATELY AVAlLABLE on present-day railway lines IF someone would pay
the bills (or at least hide the costs in taxes).
Is that, hmvever, where our efforts at transportation research are most
needed? Is not regular and frequent service in the under-IOO-mile range
the place where our transportation eh;lities are most lacking? This is
the rRnge where the moat new potential travellers exist.
Again, rail lines can still provide the desired services most efficiently
in this range, if profit and loss accounting and rate-makin~ were geared
realistically to the requirements of the patrons. (i.8.(1) such travellers
do not require elaborate terminals and the expensive facUities of MRin­
Line stRtions: (2) it costs no more to carry a paRsenger to the trains
destination than to carry a passenger one-tenth of that distance.)
Will hovercraft, levacars, and other such technically-possible marvels of
our Engineering Age be able to solve a problem which is really not an en­
gineering problem at all, but one of finance and the allocation of re­
sources vlhere they will do the most good?
Notice of meeting:
Next regular meeting of the Canadian Railroad Historical
Association will be held Wednesday evening, October 13th
at 8:00 p.m. in the McConnell Engineering Building within
the McGill University groundS, Montreal.
OPPOSITE: Contemporary sketch of Canadian National Railways
crack train, The International Limited, which ran
between Montreal, Toronto, and Chicago. From the
Canadian National Railways magazine, July, 1923.
~tIffllt7l{flI{/l111
The
Interna tional
Limit
ed
Shockproof Doug Wright –Montreal Star
Do they think a few bombs are going to frighten U9 that ride this f.hing all week behind every lead.foot diesel driver on the spare list?
CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTOPJCAL ASSOCIATION
CANADIAN RAIL: Published eleven times annually by the Publications Committe,
Canadian ~ailroad Historical Association. Subscription included
with Associdte I-lembership: $4.00 annually.
CHAIRI1AN, PUBLICATIONS COl-llHTTEE: David R. Henderson
EDITOR, CANADIAN RAIL:
ASSISTANT EDITOR:
DISTRIBUTION:
COMMITTEE:
Anthony Clegp.
Hilliam Pharoah
John VI. Saunders
Frederick r. Angus
Hyman ~landel
Robert Half yard
Orner Ldvallee
fJilliam Fowle
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CqfltM 1965
Kenneth r. Chivers, Apartment 3, 67 Somerset Street ~est, Ottawa, Onto
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