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Canadian Rail 166 1965

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Canadian Rail 166 1965

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~a:n..adia:n..
)~miin
Number 166 / May 1965
Independent days of the Orford Mountain Railway
are recalled by this pastoral scene
showing the wayfreight switching at Lawrenceville
about year 190.50
(Collection OoSoAoLavallee)
steam power bearing the Canadian Pacifio insignia
is not entirely dead. At least one locomotive of
the C.P.R. 1200 class is in operating oondition and
performs service over part of the former Rutland Ry
in Vermont, U.S.A. The engine, #1293, now the pro­
perty of the Monadnock Northern, was used on the
M.N.s excursion trains between Riverside (Bellows
Falls) and Chester, Vt.,during the latter part~tbe
1964 Season. The above photograph shows the loco­
motive crossing one of the scenic bridges near Rook­
Ingham on September 19th, 1964.
(D.S.Robinson)
The picture below shows Canadian Pacifio 3651,which
is now on permanent display at Lethbridge, Alberta.
It is located in Galt Gardens, a park in the down­town
section of the city, a short distance from the
railway station.
(D.W.Brow)
I.
Canadian Rail Page 71
Valedictory for the Orford Mountain
~
~
N RESPONSE to a recent application by Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
the Board of Transport Commissioners for Canada has authorized the rail­
way to abandon most of its Orford Subdivision in the Province of Quebec.
extending from Eastman to Valcourt. 13.9 miles. This abandonment. to take eff­
ect on April 30th next, marks the closing of the last existing section of the for­
mer Orford Mountain Railway Company. a process which has taken just a few
weeks over twenty-nine years. Though the history of the Orford Mountain was
summarized in a sketch prepared by the late Robert R. Brown for the CRHA News
Report in 1952. and reprinted in the October 1964 issue of Canadian Rail at
page 221, it would now seem appropriate to review the interesting history of the
OMR in more detail. and in the light of additional facts since uncovered.
The story begins somewhat over a century ago
when the demand for copper brought about by the civil war in the United States
encouraged interests headed by L.S. Huntingdon to exploit a mine near Dillonton,
about three miles south of the present village of Eastman, Que.; the site was
later known as Bolton Mines. The war economy forced copper prices up from
28 to 55 cents a pound, and by 1862. the Huntingdon mine employed several hun­
dred men, the ore being transported by wagons for about twelve miles to the
railhead of the Stanstead. Shefford &: Chambly Railway at Waterloo. The demand
for this mineral held up following the conclusion of hostilities in 1865, and other
similar deposits in the same general area were opened up and worked. among
them a mine near South Durham whose proprietors included the name of Jeffer­
son Davis; the former President of the Confederate States of America had fled to
Montreal with his family for asylum. following defeat of the Confederacy in 1865.
In 1870, Huntingdon sought and obtained a charter for a light mining tramway
to connect the Dillonton mine with Waterloo. Partly due to a falling off in copper
demand. however. the tramway was never completed, though there is said to be
evidence of a roadbed in the vicinity of Libby Pond. The tramways rights were
sold to Central Vermont Railway interests on July 26, 1871 and were eventually
transferred, in 1874. to the Waterloo &: Magog Railway which had been incorpor­
ated on December 13, 1871. and was then under construction between the towns
in its corporate title.
The First Railw2-.X.
In 1870. the Missisquoi &: Black Rivers Valley
Railway Company was chartered to build from Potton. south of Bolton Mines. to,
at or near Durham or Richmond on the Grand Trunk Railway. This was the first
charter issued covering territory later served by the Orford Mountain Railway,
In the ensuing years. the company constructed the railway grade between Mel­
bourne (near Richmond) and Potton Springs and. after the completion of the Wat­
erloo & Magog to Bolton Forest (Eastman) in 1877 enabled construction material
to be brought in by rail, the M&BRVRy. laid track on its own grade from Bolton
Forest to South Bolton. 10.1 miles. This line was then operated by the Waterloo
& Magog for the proprietors of the Missisquoi & Black Rivers Valley Railway un­
til about 1887. when service was suspended due to the W&M being sold to Canad­
ian Pacific Railway interests. The M&BRV owned no rolling stock.
Orford Mountain
Railway
0123456789
SCALE OF MILES
_ qUf~~ ______ _
.,, 10
Windsor
Mills
Canadian Nail Page 73
The Second Railway
In 1888, a new body, the Orford Mountain Rail­
way Company was granted a charter to build from Eastman to Lawrenceville and
elsewhere. Since this charter covered territory previously included in the Miss­
isquoi railway charter, it is evident that the latters rights of extension had lap­
se d. Construction got under way in 1891, using the old Missisquoi grade; by
the summer of 1894, it was in operation between Eastman and Kingsbury, 26.5
miles. Inauguration of service on the Orford Mountain resulted in partial resus­
citation of the completed section of the Missisquoi railway which had been aban­
doned in 1887. At this time, 7.34 miles of the M&BRVRy. are shown
l
as oper­
ated in summer by the Orford Mountain Railway, for freight only, between East­
man and Bolton Centre j the rails extended a further 4.6 miles to a point south
of Potton Springs, but the same source listed this as disused.
In the decade following completion of its initial section, the Orford Mountain
Railway enjoyed successful operation, and turned a modest profit. Its principal
traffic was lumber which accounted, in the eleven year period ending in 1904,
for a total of well over one-third of the total freight tonnage, or an average of
more than eight million board feet a year. Other forest products such as fire­
wood and pulp wood helped this category to account for about one half of all
traffic. The railway was well managed, the ratio of earnings to working expen­
ses in the same (1894-1904) period averaging 112 :100. The officers at this time
included S.W. Foster, President, Knowlton, Que.; G. Stevens, Secretary & Treas­
urer, Waterloo, Que.j A.C. Lytle, Superintendent, Eastman, Que.
In 1904, the decision was made to effect certain extensions:
(1) From Kingsbury to Windsor Mills, on the St. Francis River, completed
in 1905.
(2) From Eastman to Bonallie (Stukely) Lake, completed in 1906, and
(3) An extension of the former Missisquoi line, from Potton Springs to
Mansonville, built in 1906 and opened on July 12th, 1907.
This expansion policy proved to be ill-advisedj while additional traffic was gen­
erated, operating costs of the extended system rose out of proportion, and by the
end of 1906, the earnings/working expenses ratio had exactly reversed itself to
88 :100. The consequent loss of public confidence enabled the Canadian Pacific
Railway, then in an expansionist phase, to purchase all of the capital stock at
bargain prices, and on March 7th, 1910, by an Order-in-Council, the Orford
Mountain Railway was leased to the Canadian Pacific for 999 years, integrated
into the larger system as the Orford Subdivision.
Under C.P.R. Control
The new owners took the obvious step immed­
iately and in 1910 and 1911, built an additional 4t miles of track southward from
Mansonville and over the border into Vermont, there to connect with the Newport
and Montreal main line at a point six-tenths of a mile east of North Troy, called
Troy Junction. The mile of track on the Vermont side was built under the char­
ter of the Midland Railway of Vermont. While it may be questioned whether the
acquisition of the Orford Mountain was a good capital investment for the C p, it
might well have been justified on the basis of insurance alone, as the Manson­
ville end of the independent line was only about fifteen miles distant from Rich­
ford, Vermont and the Central Vermont system, which had occasionally evinced
interest in the Canadian short line. Failure of the CP to take action might have
Page 74 Canadian Rai 1
provided the CV with a ready-made feeder deep into Canada and Canadian Pac­
ific territory. The erstwhile Orford Mountain Railway had now reached its
greatest extent.
The first contraction of mileage came about shortly after the commencement
of the first World War, when the branch into Bonallie Lake was ripped up for use
elsewhere during the war shortage.
Under CPR operation, the Orford Subdivision enjoyed four passenger trains
daily, two in each direction. Train #270 left Windsor Mills in the morning for
North Troy, returning in the afternoon as #273. Also in the morning, #271 left
North Troy for Windsor Mills, returning in the afternoon as #272. All trains
crossed at Eastman where there was a three-hour layover for connections, the
trains going up the l.4-mile spur to Eastray to meet Montreal-Sherbrooke-Saint
John main line services. By the Twenties, the service had diminished to one
round trip a day, #276 southward from Windsor Mills, returning from North Troy
as #275.
Contraction
On April 1st, 1936, the 22.8 miles of track between Troy Junc­
tion (by now called Elkhu rst) and Eastman was abandoned, and fifteen miles of
track from Elkhurst to Bolton Centre removed in that year j the balance remained
in place until the demand fo r war scrap claimed it in 1942. At the other end of
the system, the Kingsbury-Windsor Mills portion lost its train service on April
27th, 1940, and was officially abandoned on December 23rd, 1941. Its 9.4 miles
of rails were also removed in 1942.
The next abandonment took place in the period of economic retrenchment
following the end of World War II, and this was the IZ.7-mile portion from Val­
court to Kingsbury, whose service was abandoned on December 15, 1949, the rails
being lifted in 1950. The station at Flodden, on this section, was removed and
transplanted to the Montreal lakeshore suburban area, as a shelter was needed at
Grovehill. Still lettered Flodden, it was unloaded from a flatcar and for a few
days while awaiting repainting, it aroused the ire of at least one local commuter
of Caledonian ancestry, who thought it high-handed of the CPR to rename his
station after the spot in northern England where the Scots went down to honour­
able but crushing defeat at the hands of the English in 1513. Flodden, alias Gr­
ovehill, remained in use for a decade.
Following the 1949 abandonment, the former Orford Mountain Railway was
reduced to a meagre 13.9 miles, extending from Valcourt to Eastman. This may
have disappeared at this time as well, but for traffic which in large measure or­
iginated from the well-known Bombardier snowITlObile factory at Valcourt, which
community was served until recent years by execrable roads. The inevitable eX­
tension of a better highway system into the Black River valley where Lawrence­
ville and Valcourt are situated, has resulted in recent years in a distinct cut in
what was never very large revenues. The result is the order permitting aban­
donment of what is left of the OMR on April 30th, 1965.
Thus, the remains of yet another Canadian short line will disappear from the
railway map for good. It is true that the l.4-mile spur from Eastray into East­
man will remain, but that is a relic of the Waterloo & Magog, rather than of the
Orford Mountain Railway.
Number Three and tts crew took time off near
Bolton, Que., about year 1909, to be preserved photographically.
Locomotives
In its independent era, the Orford Mountain Railway possess­
ed six locomotives, two of them purchased from the South Eastern Railway, two
from its successor, the Montreal &< Atlantic Railway, and two from the Canadian
Pacific Railway:
4-4-0
(1) 1
( 1) 2
1879 Kingston 13×18 45
Ex SER #21 in 1891. Scrapped about 1900.
20

II
Originally 3 6 gauge engines built for the Lake 91amplain & Saint Lawrence
Junction Railway. Standard-gauged in 1881, becoming SER #21 and #20.
4-4-0 1880 RLode Island 16×24 63
(2) 2 Ser.888 Ex M&A #18. in 1901. Scrapped March 1909.
4-4-0 Rhode Island 14×24 57
(2) 1 Ex M&A #2 about 1900. Scrapped 1910.
4-4-~0 __ ~18~7~8~.~B~a~1~d~w~i~n~.
17×24 62
3 Ser.4714 Ex CP #20 in 1906. Scrapped March 1910.
This locomotive, a sister of the Countess of Dufferin. was built for contractor
Joseph Whitehead, and was his #5, Empress of India. It was sold to CPR in
1882, this engine becoming CP #147. It worked on ballast trains in the west, and
on lines in southern BC in the Nineties, then was transferred to Montreal and
used in suburban service. It was loaned to the Orford Mountain in 1906, and
sold to it officially in July 1909.
Page 76
4-4-0
(3) 2
Canadian Rai 1
1882 Kingston 17×24 62
Ex CP #45 in May 1909. Sold July 1910 to Baie-des-Ha!-Ha! Ry.
as their #2.
In the Canadian Pacific period. after 1910.4-6-05 of a number of designs
were used. the duties later falling on E class 4-6-05. and D-4-gs. In the later
years of steam when the line extended only to Valcourt. a D-IO was the usual
assignment on the way freight.
Sources of information: 1-White. James. Altitudes in the Dominion of
Canada. Ottawa. Kings Printer. 1901. Also: Poors Manual and the Official
Guide. various editions; Railway Statistics. pUblished annually by the
Federal Governmentj Warrington and Nicholls. A History of Chemistry in
Canada.
Metro Montreal
According to a progress report given by Mr. Lucien LAllier,
Chairman and General Manager of the Montreal Transportation Comm­
ission to the Montreal City Council at the beginning of April,
tunnelling on Montreals Metro has passed the 75~ mark. Mr.
LAlliers report indicated that contractors have completed the
digging of more than 64000 feet of tunnel, the total initial len­
gth of whichwLll be 85,182 feet.
Line No.1, under Western, Burnside, Ontario, and Demontigny
Streets is 92~ complete (as far as qigging the tunnel is con­
cerned). Exoavation on Line No.2, under Berri and Vitre Streets
is 84~ finished, while tunnelling on the stretch under the St.La­
wrenoe River to St.Helens Island, Expo 67, and Longueuil is 28~
complete.
Mr. LAllier also announced that Canadian Vickers had oompleted
the framing of five 3-car units (10 motor cars and 5 trailers)be­
sides the prototype motor car now being equipped. It is expected
that delivery of rolling stock for testing will commence about
September 1st.
The M. T. C. informs us that the Car Inspection and Servicing
Shop and the Track Shop constructed by the Commission at Youville
are virtually completed. A start will be made shortly on too fir­
st section of the General Repair Shop. Track laying in the Shop Yards
is praotically complete, and tracks are now being installed
in the tunnel of Line No.2.
1912 hf~~e~~~~/~h~~s,S~j~~I;;~l:h~u~~~r $~i:~w~OJ~o;;t, ~f;~~r h~~ref~:~
white pinafore; thel( oullng was a brand-new venture no one dored hope
would become the Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth , , , and their means
of trove! to the, First Colgary Stampede was public tronsit: the number 1
car of the origlnol Colgary Mvniclpo! Rai!way (shown above at the old
Stampede Gate),
fjl.LGARY MUilICIPAL RAiLWAY.
Operations on what was at first
called the CalGary Electric Railway
commenced on July 5,1909. Two cars
were used in the first operation on
the Ii t tIe bel til on E1gh th Avenue
between 2nd Street East and 1st st.
~est, on 1st Street West between
8th and 17th Avenues,on 17th Avenue
between 1st Street ~est and 2nd st.
East and on 2nd Street East between
17th Avenue and 8th Avenue
t1r. fhomas Hacauley was the
first Superintendent and remained
in the post until after Jorld War l.
,ie was succeeded by Hr. R. A. Drown,
and ~lr. Charles Comba was Superin-,
tendent during and after the 1939 ..
1945 war.
The expansion of Calgarys
street car system was very rapid in
the years before 1914. In fact, 79
cars and six trailers had been pur­
chased by the time hostilities
broke au t. 1he rou tes were desig­
nated by various shaped and colored
signs, illuminated by colored bulbs
–J. Meikle.
at night, on the front and sides of
the roofs of the cars, as well as
roller destination signs. About
1935, this system VIf).S supplanted by a
system of perforated numbers, of­
ten referred to as I1Jack-o-lan­
terns.
The early routes, which were
changed from time to time over the
years, were as follows:
Red
IVhi te
Blue
Ilest CalGary -Burns
Ave. with connection
to the Grand Trunk
stub line and the
regular service to
Jowness Park.
El bow Park-East Cal
gary.
Sou thwest bel t (inner
& outer) 2nd st. E.,
8th Ave., 1st St. W.,
12th Ave.W., 14th st.
W., 17th Ave.
Blue & Yellow South
line.
Calgary loop
Lines Obcmdonecl
.beFore cess-ario/?
Or .sr~r car Se,….;ce.
CAPITAL
HILL
SVNALTA
ZOth A … .
l.. ___ _
Ii!. th Ave
TUXEDO
PARK
17 A.-e.
~r-~———-~~~–~~–~~-.—-~–~
/(/[LAlIff£Y / Z(;fI. ~
/
I
, , ,
/
,.
70 SARC£E
Red & White
Red & Blue
~
~
North belt (inner &
outer) 16th Ave., NW
& NE, 4th St. E.,
8th Ave., 4·th st. .I.,
4th Ave., 10th st. W.
wi th connection to
Capital Hill stub
line.
Sunnyside loop line.
Yellow Arrow Killarney loop line.
Red Cross General Hospital
(Riverside loop line)
wi th stopover trans­
fer privileges at the
Public l1arket on 4th
AVe. E.
To Or;DE/V
Diamond (Blue & !Ihi te)
1st St.W. & 8th Ave.,
to 18th St. W. & 12th
Ave. (Sunal ta)
Star (Green & White)
Tuxedo Park- l·
lanehes­
ter.
OVal (Red & Ihi te)
Sarcee
Ogden -regular ser­
vice.
Special service to
Sarcee military camp
during World War 1
and for a short time
afterward. This line
was built as an ex­
tension from the
ilillarney Line.
Canadian Rail Page 79
I It Y
= ~~~ t R I ~. – A. I ~. WA1
~~-;: … —~.~–~
.!…o._~ _
In addition to the foregoing
routes, the system operated cars in
the morning and afternoon to the
Ogden CPR Repair shops, picking up
the employees at various points on
the regular routes and transporting
them to the shops, reversing the
process in the late afternoon. On
weekends and holidays in the summer
special service was provided to
Bowness Park, an amusement park op­
erated by the Street Railway and
located abou t nine miles west of the
city. The six trailers were used
exclusively in these two services,
except during World War 1. when
they were also used in the Sarcee
service.
lUl the cars purchased new in
the early days were single-end,
short front vestibule, long rear
vesti bule types and were designed
for two-man operation. Nos. 19-36
were single-truck cars wi thout air
bra~es and were referred to by Cal­
garians as dinkies. These cars,
wi th their rather long rigid wheel­
bases, had a propensity to derail
on turnouts, particularly during
the spring breakup when the roadbed
was soft. Six of these cars were
traded to Saskatoon in 1919 for six
double-truck cars. Eight of the
remaining cars were spliced in the
system shops to make up four full
length double truck cars with long
front and rear vestibuleB. No. 22
r
was converted to a double-ender and
provided service for a time after
1915 to bring returned soldiers
from Sarcee into the city to attend
a vocational school and return them
at the school closing hour. Later
it was used in emergencies only.
No. 26, shorn of its rear vestibule
and painted bright red,was used for
many years as the Auxiliary or re­
pair car,until supplanted by No.SO.
A freight operation was carr­
ied on in the period 1914-18 as a
means of transporting supplies to
Sarcee Camp. A number of 4-wheel
box cars was construe ted (numbered
in the 100 series) and a freight
motor with a cab on each end of a
fla t frame was built. After the
war, the thrifty system officials
converted the bodies of these box
cars to shelters for passengers
waiting at car stops in outlying
parts of the city. One car, Origi­
nally No.8 was rebuilt as a com­
bination passenger-baggage unit and
operated to nowness and Ogden every
morning for years, mainly to pick
up milk cans. It was numbered 300,
and rebuilt in 1932 or 1933 as a
passenger car, after which it carr­
ied the number 36.
::hen the shortage of manpower
dictated conversion to one-man op­
eration, Hr. J.lacauleys ingenuity
came into play. In order to provide
Page 80
both entrance and exit doors at the
front (short-vestibuled) end of the
cars, he removed the ri&ht front
vlindovlB and the dashes below them
and replaced them vlith Jdtty-cor­
nered doors. l.he mechanism for
opening and closing theSe doors was
constructed out of used t inch pipe.
The only other SysteLl in CanCda us­
ing this idea was Reginas. In the
case of the six din~ies later sold
to Saskatoon on which this conver­
sion was performeci, the Armstrong
brake lever was in the way of the
new door, so iacauley had a wheel
type brake rigGing installed in­
stead. A feature of the one-man
cars was switch bars which hung in
holes bored through the vestibule
floor, so that the motorman could
operate the track swi tches Ili thou t
getting out of the car. The bell
cords used by the conduc tors under
the two-man operc.tion, were connec­
ted to the brake valves so that a
passenger could stop the car by
pulling the cord in an emergency.
rhe motormen soon had knots tied in
these just inside the vestibules.
Cars which normally operuted
on outlying routes were equipped
wi th large 10 como ti ve type auxiliary
headlights and scrapers for opera­
tion in snow. All cars except the
dinkies were equipped wi th air
whistles. Some of these were home­
made and produced very piercing,
unmelodious sounds. The OGden and
Bowness routes suffered from low
voltage on the overhead, especially
when the traffic was heavy. This
Canadian Rail
-;lo.S later remedied by the construc··
tion of two portable sub-stations
l:1ounted on wheels, which were towed
out to spurs at points neur the
outlying ends of the lines and con­
nected up.
Because Calgary is qui te hilly,
many difficulties were encountered
during winter operation. On two
occasions, serious accidents occur­
red when cars came down the 14th
Street ,fest hill on the South Cal­
gary line out of control. The first
one occurred during World War 1 when
Ho.68 derailed and plunged into the
basement of a drug store at 17th
Ave. and 14th st. 5/ Idlling a pass­
enger Vlai ting for a car. During
World War II, No. 67 collided with
No. 91 CI.t the same intersection
badly damaging both cars. j~o. fatal­
ities were involved in this acci­
dent. Very rarely however, was the
Calgary street Railway entirely tied
up. Other difficulties were flood­
ed subways during heavy rainstorms.
.ihen these conditions prevailed,
some sort of service was maintained
even if some of the cars had to be
operated in reverse for long dis­
tances.
Work equipment consisted of
sweepers, track sprinklers, flat
work motors (which were equipped
with snoVi plows in winter) and a
repair car for rerailing derailed
cars and towing disabled cars. The
system never had a tower car. At
first a tower wagon was used, later
succeeded by a series of tower
trucks.
·r
I
Calgarys pride and joy •.••• with Motorman Huss
and Conductor-Announcer Bishop. Photo from J.Meikle and
C. T. S.
The Calgary Nunicipals pride
and joy was its sightseeing car.
This was similar to those operated
in l1ontreal, Edmonton and Vancouver
but waD a particularly ornate one.
The management, in fact, was very
careful about who operated this car
and nobody on the spare board was
likely to get a chance at it.
In addition to the Saskatoon
Swap the Calgary system bOU8ht six
cars during the immediate post-war
era from Springfield,11assachusetts.
These cars had short vestibules at
both ends, and Vlere never converted
to the two door front set-up. They Vlere
used mainly in the Ogden shop
shuttle service. Having originally
been built as double-enders, they
were for a short time during the
hungry thirties reconverted to
double-end operation on an experi­
mental stub type operation, but
this was soon abandoned.
In the late twenties, a pro­
gram of installing rear treadle
Page 77 -Photo of No.1, courtesy of
Calgary Transit System.
Page
79 -An early shot at the car-
barn. Note sprinkler be-
hind No.18; cars in next 2
stalls believed to be 16 &
17. Note original tower wagon. From
J.Meilde.
Page 80 -Interior of a Prairie
type car with kitty-cor –
nered
entrance doors.
One of the portable sub­
stations. Believed tak­
en on BurnR Avenue.
Page
82 -Eighth Avenue,lookjng west
from the Post Office,show­
ing No. 7 in two-man car
days. From J .Meikle.
After the Farewell Run,
no.lL took last place in a
scrap-line after completmg
the final run on December
29th, 19.)0. A.Clegg.
Page 82
exits was commenced by the mainten­
ance shops. Eventually, eleven of
the cars were so equipped. Since
all the Calgary cars,when converted
to one-man operation, boasted of
smokers in the rear vestibules,
the installation of the treadle
exits involved cutting down on the
size of the smokers to the extent
of the partitions around the treadle
exits. In 1928, the system pur­
chased three double-truck safety
cars from Canadian Car Co.Hontreal,
followed by six more the following
Canadian Rail
year. These cars had air-operated
front doors, treadle rear exits and
26 wheels, and were the last street
cars to be acquired. The first
busses went into service within a
few
years, and the complete conver­
sion to trolley coaches and busses
took place in the years immediately
following World War II. The last
street car run took place on Decem­
ber 29, 1950, performed by Car No.
14, operated by Bob Thompson who
was number one on the seniori ty
roster of motormen.
Canadian Rail
Additional notes on the CALGARY ELECTRIC RAILWAY
CALGARY MUNICIPAL RAILWAY
CALGARY TRANSIT SYSTEM
provided by Mr.J.K.Gush, Assistant to Mr.R.H.Wray, Manager,
Calgary Transit System.
Page 83
The inaugural run of the Calgary Electric Railway on July 5,
1909, was attended by Mayor Jamieson of Calgary, along with the Al­
dermen, Commissioner Graves, and C.E.Ry. Superintendent Maoauley.
As the first car passed down Eighth Avenue, it was oheered by citi­
zens of the growing community and by the local businessmen. It
was reported that the Indians in the area were at first frightened
by the new electric machines and hid behind the buildings. Once
the initial shock was over, however, and they became accustomed to
the new means of transit, they took to the trams and spent muoh
of their spare money joy-riding on the cars.
The initial expansion of Calgarys street car system was very
rapid. By the end of 1909, the System comprised of thirteen miles
of line, and by 1912 service was provided to Crescent Heights, the
Ogden CPR Shops and Bowness Park.
In 1913, an electric sightseeing car was purchased by the
C.M.R. This observation car had a canvas canopy top and large pl­
ate glass mirrors on the sides. Fare for a two-hour sightseeing
trip was 25¢.
One-man car operation was introduced in 1917, due to labour
shortages during the 1914-1918 war. Bus operation by the C.M.R. commenced
in 1932 using two Leyland buses on the Mount Royal route:
in 1944, five Ford gas buses were added to the fleet. The first
trolleycoach route was inaugurated in June, 1947, on the Crescent
Heights line, while the conversion of the system to rUbber-tyred
vehicles was completed on December 29, 1950, the last eleotrlc cars
being operated on the Ogden route on that date.
The name of the organization, operated by the City of Calgary,
was changed to Calgary Transit System, and now operates a fleet of
105 trolleycoaches and 88 motor buses serving an area of 155 square
miles with a population of approximately 300,000.
In 1909, ~assengers carried by the original electric cars tot­
alled 1,924,925, while in recent years the Transit System has car­
ried in the vicinity of 25 million riders per annum.
************************
A roster of equipment operated by the
Calgary Electric Railway –
Calgary Munioipal Railway
will be inoluded in next months issue
of Canadian Rail.
MOTIVE POWER
Changes in ownership of motive power by the Canadian Paoifio
Railway during the year 1964 were as follows:
Looomotive Disposals (Sorapped unless underlined)
4-6-0 D-10: 842,
rm
988, 1088
4-6-2 G-5: 1200, , 1210, Im, 1212, 1214, 1227, 12)4,
1238, 1243, 124o, 1248, 1270, 1286, 1287, 1290,
~, 1298.
G ..
3: , 2367, 2392, 2409, 2429, 2433, 2446, 24~9,
24.51. 4-6-4 H-
1: 2816, 2860. 2-8-0 N-2:
;m,~.
2-8-2 P-1: :;nT, 5134, 5221, 5244. P-2: 5392, .5433,
5434, 54.57, 5469, .5471.
0-8-0 V-4: 6921, ~, 6949.
The above numbers shown
underlined have been preserved:
1238 -sold to Mr.George Hart, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
1286 1246 –
sold to Steamtown, North Walpole, N.H. U.S.A.
1293 (I)
2816 894 –
City of Kltohener, Ontario.
1088 -City of Fort William, Ontario.
2860 -City of Vanoouver, British Columbia.
36.51 -City of Lethbridge, Alberta. (I)
.5433 -City of Chapleau, Ontario.
(#)-See page 70 -this issue)
Diesel-eleotrio units rebuilt and renumbered.
As at mid-April, 196.5, six Canadian Pacific diesel-electr.m
units had been rebuilt into 2400 h.p. Road s~/i tchers by M.L.W.
as follows:
4098 nOH 4201 MLl serial number 84839 8469 4202 84840 4001 4203 84841 4026 4204 84842 4045
420.5 84843 4048 4206 84844
In addition, units 4419 and 4027 were undergoing rebuilding
and will emerge as 4207 and 4208, but not necessarily in that
order. The new #4200 is already oocupied by former #8300, built
in 1963.
No rebu1l t GMDL Imi ts had emerged as new 2.500 h. p. Road swi t­
ohers at publicatiun time, but former GP series 8200 to 8213,
built in 1963 ano. 1964, are ourrently being renumbered .5000 to
.5013, and the rebuilt units will carryon from ,014 upward.
ROLLING STOCK
Canadian Paoifio is ourrently taking delivery of record
quantities of new fre:l.ght rolling stook. The situation in
mid-April was as follows:
Piggybaok flatcars: order plaoed with International Equipment
Company for 125 -.544 flats now almost oompleted.
Covered Hoppers: about half an order for .500 -100 ton steel
(Continued on Page 89)
WHEEL SL IP
AND SLIP DETECTION ON DIESEL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES.
–B.A. Biglow.
In the days of the steam locomotive, wheel slip was a specta­
cular affair. The slipping of the mighty iron horse was accompan­
ied by visible and audible indications, well known to all but the
youngest of railway employees and railfans. Wheel slip on a modern
diesel-electric locomotive, however, gives no such readily­
apparent indications —not even to a skilful operator in the
control cab. This unobserved slipping, if uncorrected, can be
the cause of a good deal of serious trouble, and has led to the use
of wheel slip detectors.
The oldest wheel slip detectors utilized the eleotrioal ohara­
cteristios of the moto r s
to predict axle speeds and
hence give an indioation
of a slipping axle. If
the motors were connected
in series, a bridge cir­
ouit,similar to Figure 1,
detects axle slipping. If
the speed of motor #1 is
significantly different
from that of motor #2, a
voltage differential ex­
ists, causing the relay
to operate. This circuit
historically has been
quite satisfaotory for
slips at low speeds. The
sensitivity is reduced,
however, when field shun­
ting is applied to the
motor fields as a transi­
tion step.
G. M. locomotives compare currents in a magnetic circuit. (See
Figure 2). If i, differs enough from i2 , the net magnetic force
closes the relay contacts. This detector works for parallel or
series connections of motors. A more sensitive relay is sometimes
fitted to detect wheel
creep.
For parallel con­
nection of motors, the
circuit shown in Fig.3
is usually used. If
i, differs sufficient­
ly from 1, , the volt­
age difference across
the fields operates ~
relay. The sensitiv­
ity of this circuit is
normally barely adequ­
ate, expecially if the
motor fields have been
shunted. Thus wheel
slip detection at high
speeds is generally
poor.
Page 86
A traction motor
is designed to with­
stand centrifugal for­
ces only up to a given
speed. Operation a­
bove this speed will
cause commutator de­
formation and eventual
motor destruction. Mo­
tor failures from over
speed -at first some­
what a mystery -even­
tually led to the dis­
covery of high speed
wheel slipping. Slip­
ping at high speeds
was previously thought
to be rare, due to the
locomotives low trao­
tive effort at these
high speeds.
To
MaIn
(jen.
Canadian Rail
MoTor
Arma-TI/res
MoTor
Fields
L ….
Deteotors, which
measure each axle sp­
eed independently were
developed to detect these high-speed wheel slips accurately. A
comparison cirouit compares each axle speed against the others. If
the difference is excessive, a wheel slip correction circuit is op­
erated. These detectors must have deoreasing sensitivity with in­
crease in speed in order to allow for slight differences in wheel
diameters. See Figure 4.
Trial installations of this type of detector, as developed by
the General Electrio Company are fitted on C.N.R. units 3660 to 3664
and 3880 to 3884. A comparable detector, developed by the C.N. s
Technical Research Branch, and operating along similar lines, has
been fitted to O.N.R. unit 3117. Both designs are presently being
tested by the railway under actual operatin~ conditions.
The factors leading to wheel slip, and the methods of correct­
ion, have not been discussed in this summary, but may form the
basis for a future article on this subject.
***************
CRHA Special train, Montreal
CRHA Special train, Montreal
A DA TE TO !ID.!EhIEER
May 29-30.
to Drummondville and return
Leaves Central Station 10:00 am Standard time
to Ottawa and return
Leaves Central Station 8:35 am Standard time
Fares -$8.50 per day -both days $16.00
Ch.ldren -Half farel under 5 -Free.
l/illel4nliol
Axle
Sp.~d
/,-I/al
Ofiset

Road .sp~eq
~ P/I;~erence dve
to ~4h7eT8r ,c
1<1/1611/.9.
CN PASSENGER EQUIPMENT CHANGES
Additional details concerning the 34 sleeping cars recently purchased by CN
and the 10 cars leased ,by the National System are now available.
Leasedl The six N&W (Wabash) sleepers will be used Montreal to Toronto between mid-Jme and ndd-September.
Names of the cars, built by ACF in
1950 arel Blue Boy, Blue Cloud, Blue Gazelle, Blue Horizon, Blue Knight, and Blue Sky.
During
the same period, the following cars will be operated Toronto-Chicagol
Erie Lackawanna cars Pride of Youngstown and Spirit of Youngstown, built
by Pullman Standard in 1953l Louisville & Nashville RR or C.& E.!.RR cars
of the Pine series, built by Pullman Standard in 1954. These cars will
be assigned to Pullman operations to replace four CN Green series sleepers
which will be operated Toronto-Timmins-Noranda.
Purchasedl
Two BAR sleepers (6 sec. 6 roomettes, 4 double bedrooms) North
Twin Lake No.80 and South Twin Lake No.81. They will be renamed Green
.Gables
CN 1190 and Oreenoch CN 1191. They will be used Montreal-New York.
They were
built by Pullman Standard in 1954, are stainless steel and have
been
renovated at Port Huron Shops.
The twenty ex-NYC sleepers (10 roornettes,6 d.b.r.-Pullman Standard,1950)
are to be refurbished during the summer at the various car shops across the
System. The Frisco cars (i4 roomettes,4 d.b.r.) were built by Pullman Standard
in 1948. They are to be rebuilt at Pointe St.Charles Shops later
in the year. According to present plans, their stainless steel sheathing
will be removed during the renovation.
Following is a list showing the former NYC or Frisco number and name,
together with the name ~nd number assigned by the Canadian National:
NYC 10141 Powder River rn Exploits River CN 2075 10144
Penobsoot River Margaree River 2076 10152
Miami River Mabou River 2077 10157
Winding River Sable River 2078
10161 Agawan River Restigouche River 2079 10162 Deer
River Petitoodiao River 2080 10165
East River Riviere du Loup 2081 10167
Manistee River Riviere au Renard 2082 10174
St.Regis River Riviere Rouge 2083
10188 S~.Franois River Riviere Raquette 2084 10197
Licking River Nipigon River 2085 10199
Chicopee River Pembina River 2086 10213 Hooking
River Saskatchewan River 2087
1021, Huron River Prairie River 2088
10216 Housatonio River Peaoe River 2089
10218 Niagara River Smoky River 2090 10222
Saugus River Skeena River 2091 10223
Soioto River Hay River 2092 10230
Oswegatohie River Yukon River 2093 10233 Kanakee
River Rideau River 2094
Frisoo 1450 Pierre Laolede Churohill Falls 2095
1451 Thomas Hart Benton Topsail Falls 2096
1454 Auguste Chouteau Sisiboo Falls 2097 1457 Meramao
River Reversing FallS 2098
14.58 Osage River Pine Falls 2099 14.59
Gasconade River Horseshoe Falls 2100
1460 Niangua River Kakabeka Falls 2101
1461 James River Pyramid Falls 2102
1462 Grand River Teokawa Falls 2103
1465 Spring River Ooean Falls 2104
1466 Cimarron River Rainbow Falls 210.5
1464 Neosho River Alexandra FallS 2106
Canadian Rail Page 89
Conversions: In addition, the CNR will convert twenty ooaohes to
coaoh-Lounges. The 44 coaoh-seat, 24 lounge-seat units will
be numbered 3020 to 3039, and are to be oonverted from E-M
ooaohes 5451, 5546, 5550, 5555, 5556, 5561, 5563, 5565, 5566,
5567, 5568, 5572, 5577, 5600, 5604, 5606, 5607, 5609, 5613, &
5614. These will bring the CNs inventory of Coaoh-Lounge
cars to forty units.
Other conversions sOheduled for the current year:
19 forty-eight seat diners
#1360 -1368 #1369 –
1378
9
Diner-Lounges
#1351 -1359
10 Club-Lounges #2316 -2325 (18
oonverted from Parlor Urill #900-908.
from Coaohes 5384, 5385, 5387, 5391, 5392,
5397, 5398, 5401, 5408, 5410.
dining seats -12 lounge seats)
converted from 45 seat diners
#1351 -1359.
in refreshment section -17 to 21 in lounge)
converted from Buffet Parlors
#875 St.Charles
876 St.Franois
877 St.Louis
878 St.Peter
879 Amethyst 880
Alleyne
884 Mani to ba and
from B.B.L.oars,
#1062 Fort Garry
1063 Fort Lawrenoe 1071
Fort Augustus
************************
Canadian Pacific
(Continued from Page 84)
covered hoppers had been oompleted by National Steel
Car Co. These cars are numbered from 386000 upward.
Box cars: About 200 of an order for 500 70 ton box cars deliv­
ered by Hawker Siddeley (Canada) Ltd. These cars
oommenoe at No.80500 and follow immediately upon order
for 500 similar oars built by H.S.Ltd between Deoember and March, numbered 80000
to 80499. The
following equipment has been ordered but is not yet in
produotion:
150 mechanical refrigerators -Hawker Siddeley.
400 steel covered hopper cars -National Steel Car
150 piggyback flat oars -Intl.Equipment Co.
25 bi-level flat oars -National Steel Car.
25 tri-level flat cars
It is rumoured that the company has under consideration further
orders for bi-level and tri-level cars to meet a current shortage,
and also that a further sixteen diesel locomotives will be dealt
with in the rebuilding and updating programme.
Page 90 Canadian Rail
Notes and News
by Ferro
* A new name in sleeping accomodation bargains will be introduced
by CN to its travellin§ customers on its name trains this sum­
mer. The new name is Dormette. It is applied to a series of
open section space sleeping cars that will operate on the Super
Continental, Panorama, O.cean Limited, and Scotian. Dormettes
will be marshalled directly at the head-end of the trains, ahead
of the ooaches. For Dormette sleeping accommodation, passengers
will pay less than standard upper, lower and section prices.
Complimentary meals will be served in Dinette or Cafeteria cars,
and Dormette:p,assengers also may enjoy the facilities of the
coach lounge. Dormettes will be made available to the general
public for individual travel, but are ideal for group travel such
as student and olub tours –truly a tourist bargain.
* No more aboard a CN train
Will :rood and news age·nts be found.
No more their tiresome harsh refrain
Throughout the coach will sound.
Each one of them has been removed
CN declares theyre obsolete.
Perhaps coach atmospheres improved
But atmospheres no good to eat!
(anon. )
* Ah the woes of the public relations man, says the Kingston Whig­
Standard in a news report. Five important Canadian National Rail­
ways officials, including one of the companys PR men, were in
Napanee last week to explain changes in service to the community.
After a press conference which lasted over an hour, the changes
were all explained and the PR man heaved a sigh of relief and
leaned back in his chair to enjoy a cup of coffee. One of the
reporters present, taking advantage of the relaxed atmosphere,
decided to pay a compliment to the men present. You know, one
train you fellows really do a good job on is the Canadian running
out west, he commented with a smile. The PR man groaned. Theres
our press conference all shot to hell. Our train is called the
Super Continental. The other is Brand X.
* A new method of burning pulverized coal in a diesel engine might
recapture the one-million-ton coal market lost when Canadian rail­
ways started burning oil. Mr. John H. Delaney, United Mine Workers
district 26 international board member recently described an ex­
periment conducted in the U.S. in October, 1964, using pulverized
low ash bituminous coal as a substitute for 100 percent, number two
diesel fuel oil in a conventional one cylinder, four stroke
engine. Mr. Delaney said the demonstration appeared successful
enough to warrant further study and another test is planned.
* ON is discontinuing four express freight trains that operate be­
tween Toronto and London, Ontario, in favour of a trucking service.
Most of the new truck service will be let out on contract.
C ana d ian R ail Page 91
* Thomas Fuller Construction Co. Ltd. of Ottawa has been advised
that it is low bidder on a contract from the National Capital Com­
mission for construction of that Citys new Union Station. The new
station is to be built some miles from the present downtown
site in an effort to beautify Ottawa by removal of its downtown
railway tracks. It is to be greatly hoped that nobody gets the
idea of beautifying the whole of Canada in the same manner!
* eN has been authorized by the Board of Transport Commissioners to
abandon two rail lines in southwestern Ohtario. The railway was
given authority to close at any time after June 30, its lot-mile
line between Glencoe and Alvinston, midway between London and
Chatham, and a 6.85-mile line between Woodstock and Hickson. There
were no regular passenger or freight services on either line but car­
load fre.ight pickup and del1very was available on a when required
basis •
* Expo 67, the 1967 Canadian world exhibition has received Federal
government approval to purchase a system of secondary transportat­
ion from the Habegger Company of Thun, SWitzerland. Habegger
provided the minirail and tele-canopy for the 1964 Lausanne exhib­
ition. The minirail is a small monorail system in which passengers
sit in open air while travelling through the pavilion areas. The
tele-canopy is a system which runs on two rails in normal railroad
fashion but with the passengers facing one side. They mount and
dismount the cars from a huge disk which revolves at the same speed
as the passing trains. These novelties will supplement the mainstay
of the Expo transportation system, that being an orthodox standard
gauge electric railway system.
* The British, as an experiment, have placed a U.S.-style bunny
on the evening train from Manchester to Alderley Edge, to bright­
en up travel. The hostess passes out Chocolates and asks pas­
sengers if they are comfortable. (What corrective action is taken
in the event of a negative reply is not indicated –Ed.)
Red to Pink
Red White and Blue fares on many C N R runs were adjusted on May
1st last. In most cases the low Red fares were augumented, while
the more expensive Blue fares were slightly reduced. This does
not apply in all cases, however. On the Halifax-Montreal run, Red
fares are up by $1.00 while Blue fares are reduced by a like amoun~
Montreal-Ottawa Red is up 20¢, while the Blue is down 20,. Toron­
to-Vancouver passengers will pay an extra 50¢, no matter which day
they travel, as will Winnipeg-Prince Albert patrons. No ohange is
recorded in Montreal-Edmundston Red rates, but Blue fares, between
these points, have been reduced by .1.80. (There is no ser~e be­
tween these pOints, however, except via mixed trains which layover
17 hours at Monk, and make no connections at Joffre.) Montreal­
Toronto Blue fares have been decreased by 70¢, but Red day travel­
lers will pay an extra 60¢ for the journey.
We hope to have a complete report on the Summer Timetables of
all Canadian railways in the next months issue of Canadian Rail.
Tunnel Of Love
Doug Wright –Montreal Star
If two suburbs can squabble 20 years over one underpass, 88 at Rockland, how long can seven suburbs flght over converting
17 miles of rallro. d to rapid transit?
CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTOlUCAL ASSOCIATION
CANADIAN RAIL: Published eleven times annually by the Publications Committe,
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