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Canadian Rail 141 1963

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Canadian Rail 141 1963

<::an.adia:n.
) ffimiin
Issued 11 times
yearly by
Canadian Railroad Historical Association .
. _ .U

.
NUMBER 141
FEBRUARY 1963
WHILE RAILWAYS HAVE CONQUERED many natural obstac­
les in the course of their history, one of their
most bitter and unpredictable adversaries
in Can­
ada and in other northern countries has been the
snow. While the means to fight this seasonal
adversary have undergone
great technological chan­
ges during the past century, the snow still blan­
kets the countryside every bit as effectively as
it did back in Ivlarch, 1869, when a photographer
captured this broad-gauge Birkenhead 4-4-0 en­
gine tackling a drift near Black River
on the Que­
bec and Richmond
section of the Grand Trunk Rail­
way of Canada.
Collection of the late John Loye.
Page 22 Canadian Rail
The III.. and Pall
of the
PBOVENCEAL GAUGB
by O.S.A. Lavallee
00000000
I. THE SITUATION BEFORE 1851
I
T IS AN INTERESTING MENTAL EXERCISE to speculate upon how the rail­
ways of Canada might have developed if, in some way, the blight
of the broad gauge could have been averted. Many of the troubles
of the Great Western Railway and of the Grand Trunk might never
have arisen, and it is pOSSible, though admittedly not probable, that
the Grand Trunk, as an independent railway, might still exist today.
Other factors helped the GTR on its downward path, such as absentee
management and balance sheet acrobatics, but these handicaps paled in
comparison to the artificial restraint which the broad gauge put upon
the expansion of this system and. the other 56 lines for twenty years.
Added to this was the financial burden of conversion to conformity,
necessitating the purchase of new motive power, regauging of rolling
stock and permanent way renewal which was more burdensome to smaller
companies and significantly retarded their own conversion plans; the
Canada Central Railway, for example, was not changed over until 1880,
ten years after the legislation was revoked.
The perspective of history permits us to view this period at
arms length, so to speak, and it is quite clear, from the standpoint
of the Twentieth Century historian, that the broad gauge was inflicted
on British North American railways by selfish commercial interests,
and the Provincial Government was taken in by glib talk. Nothing
else could possibly excuse an action which was of such tremendous cost
not only to the railways, but to the people of Canada.
That such a thing as the adoption of a wide gauge could come
seems particularly hard to understand when one realizes that all of
the first railways in Canada, the Champlain & Saint Lawrence opened
in 1836, the Albion Colliery tramway opened with steam locomotion in
1839 and the Montreal & Lachine Rail Road1l: opened in 1847, were all
built to the Stephenson (48~) gauge or track width. Moreover, all
of the raihvays in those parts of the United States in closest cultur­
al and commercial contact with Canada, were of the same gauge.
Gauge problems were fashionable, of course. In England, the
Great v/estern adopted the gauge of 7 O~, selected by Isambard Kingdom
Brunel, surely one of the worlds great railway engineers and the
greatest protagonist in history of the advantages of the broad gauge,
which included larger, more powerful and faster trains and the ability
to haul greater loads. The ~lR started out in the late Thirties, and
11:-The Lachine railways gauge was officially 49.
Canadian Rail Page 23
for nearly sixty years held tenaciously to its seven-foot width. In
the United States, similar reasons were advanced for the building of
the Erie Railroad to broad width, and in the Forties and Fifties, this
line built from New York to Dunkirk and to Buffalo with a six-foot
width of track. Rather more of an idiosyncracy than an advantage was
the five-foot width adopted by the railways of the southern United
States, and later transplanted to Russia where it exists today.
The Province of Canada didn· t have a raih,ray problem of any kind
in the year 1845, when a Royal Commission was appointed by the Legis­
lature to enquire into means to aid railway construction, and to sel­
ect a suitable gauge which would be adopted as standard throughout the
Province. Possibly due to the fact that the Champlain & Saint Law­
rence, the only steam line, and the Erie & Ontario, a horse-operated
railway around Niagara Falls, were the only public railways in the
Province, caused the matter to be deferred for several years. In the
interim, interests in Portland, ~~ine, and in Montreal, promoted the
construction of a railway linking the two cities, which would, in
addition, afford Montreal an ice-free port for winter use. ThereDore,
two railways were incorporated almost simultaneously –the Saint Law­
rence & Atlantic Rail Road, to run from Longueuil, opposite ~bntreali
by way of St. Hyacinthe, Richmond,and Sherbrooke to the Internationa
Boundary near Coaticook, Que. On the American side, charters were
sought in Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, for the corresponding US
company, the Atlantic & Saint Lawrence Rail Road, which would build
from the Boundary to Portland, via Island Pond, Berlin and Lewiston.
We do not know how the gauge of 56
11
came to be selected for this
railway, but it is possible that it may have come about as the result
of the purchase of its first two locomotives, 1!St. Hyacinthe·

and
1!Beloeil1!,which are said to have come from the Arbroath & Forfar Rail­
way in Scotland, which was built originally to this gauge. The first
section of the railway to Portland was opened from Longueuil to St.
Hyacinthe in the spring of 1847. In the following year, the American
line started service on its first section, out of Portland to Danville
Junction, using, as motive power, some of the first products of the
Portland Companys Works, as shown by GTR No.106, 1!Coosll, below.
This was the time of great activity in railway building in Canada
and charters had been obtained for many lines, not the least of which
was a IIGrand Trunk
ll
railway to extend from one end to the other of
what is today Ontario and Quebec. Another was for the Great Western
Railway, which was to
link the Niagara and
Detroit river frontiers
in southwestern Ont­
ario, and form part of
a through Chicago-New York
rail link. Then
too, in the Maritimes,
there was much agitat­
ion for railways at
this time, and though
the Provinces of Nova
Scotia and New Bruns-
wick were politically independent of the Province of Canada, there is
no doubt that the development of the railway in these areas was much
influenced by that which took place in the upper province.
Finally, in 1851, the Royal Commission brought itself to grips
in the matter of the gauge, since so many projects hinged upon the
Page 24 Canadian Rail
decisions which would be reached. It is clear now that the mercantile
interests of Portland and those of the promoters of the Portland rail­
way were determined to obtain the approval of the broad gauge, and to
make it mandatory on the projected Grand Trunk and on other major
railways to be built in Canada. Most important of all to these inter­
ests, it would secure for Portland a virtual monopoly on Canadian ex­
port rail traffic –or so they thought, by forcing traffic to flow
artificially from east to west in Canada. They sought to arouse the
patriotic instincts of the Canadians by pointing out that a railway
system whose gauge was substantially dissimilar to that used in the
United States, would hamper any military invasion of Canada from the
USA. Ridiculous as this may seem today, it was nonetheless a plaus­
ible argument to older Canadians to whom the War of 1$12 was still a
distinct and unpleasant memory. Other, obviously weaker reasons were,
for example, that transshipment at border pOiRts would be advantageous
to local interests; that lack of interchange would thwart the theft
of cars by foreign railways and, unthinkable as it may be to the com­
fort-loving Twentieth Century North American –that changing trains
at gauge-break points would afford passengers healthful exercise !
The Chief Engineer of the Portland railway, A.C. Morton, was much
impressed by the broad gauge, and he could and did speak with author­
ity. It is not so well known that Morton had previously worked for
the six-foot-gauge Erie Railroad and so could be expected to have been
influenced to some degree. For the side of the Stephenson gauge, the
Great Western, whose complete economy depended upon uniformity of
gauge with United States roads, took the stand that this uniformity
should continue for the reasons, valid even today, that the standard
gauge had an established character, that it would be less costly to
build and to maintain, and that interchange with other railways was
necessary and desirable.
II. ADOPTION OF THE PROVINCIAL GAUGE
Nonetheless, heedless of the voices of moderation and of logiC,
the Broad Gauge forces carried the day. On July 31st, 1851, the Leg­
islature of the Province of Canada enacted statutes making the adopt­
ion of the 56 gauge a precondition of the receipt of government fin­
ancial assistance under the Guarantee Act of 1849. The latter legis­
lation, having as its end the stimulation of railway building in the
Province, had provided government help to railways to be built having
a route length of 75 miles or more, but the government reserved to
itself the right to pass on the technical qualifications of railways
applying for this relief. By its action in 1851, the Government of
Canada pressured the Great Vlestern Railway into adopting a gauge
obviously contrary to its interests, since the railway could not hope
to complete its construction programme without the aid afforded by the
Guarantee Act. In vain did it protest this cavalier action and much
against its will, the GVm started construction of its rails to a width
which would not correspond, at either end of its Suspension Bridge­
Windsor main line, with connecting United States railways.
RIGHT: This photograph of Hamilton station taken bettleen 1866
and 1873, shows the complicated trackwork made necess­
ary by the installation of double gauge on the Great
-~iestern main line in the former year. With the repeal
of the broad gauge law in 1$70, the outer, broad-gauge
third rail was gradually taken up.

Page 26 Canadian Rail
Construction forces were released to build a network of raihlays,
almost without exception to the new width. Almost prophetically,
just a month-and-a-half after the decision for the Broad Gauge, which was
thereafter referred to as the Provincial Gauge, the Champlain &
Saint Lawrence Rail Road connected up with the Vermont & Canada
Railroad at ~ouses Point, and in mid-September, 1851, a Railway Cele­
bration was held in Boston to mark the first through train from Mon­
treal to Boston, using, in Canada, the existing 48~ gauge lines
which were not affected by the new legislation. ilith the traffic of
the Montreal area now going to Boston, Portland became more determined
than ever to finish the broad-gauge connection. In August, 1852, the
railway from Longueuil was opened as far as Sherbrooke. In January,
1853, the American-side A.& St.L. was completed to Island Pond, and on
July 18th, 1853, the first through train ran over the broad gauge from
Montreal to Portland, Maine. Only days before, the Portland railway
had become the nucleus of a new railway, the Grand Trunk Railway of
Canada, whose imprint was to appear liberally across the pages of the
history of Canadian transportation.
In Canada West, (what is now Ontario), the first steam operated
line, the Ontario, Simcoe & Huron Union Railway, was opened in May,
1853, from Toronto to Aurora. On November 10th, 1853, the first sec­
tion of the Great Western Railway was completed from Suspension Bridge
at the Niagara frontier, to the city of Hamilton, all this on the new
56 gauge; but the standard gauge still had its protagonists, and in
1854, the By town & Prescott Railway, excepted from the provisions of
the Broad Gauge act of 1851 by reason of its length of less than 75
miles, was completed from Prescott to By town (now Ottawa). The Grand Trunk had
not yet been built through Prescott and the selection of the
Stephenson gauge for the B&P was dictated by its car ferry connection
between Prescott and Ogdensburgh, N.Y., whence the Northern Railroad
of New York, and later, the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburgh Railroad,
afforded through rail connections to United States markets.
FIGURE 1. -PROVINCE OF CANADA: Annual Growth of Railway
Mileage by Gauge I 1826-1860
New Total New Total Grand Year
56 56
!t8~ !t8~
Total
1836 14 14 14
1847 30 30 8 22 52 1850
12
~~ ~~ 1851 22 1852 66 96 38
94 190
1853 212 308 94 402 1854 276 584 54
148 632 1855 236 820 148
968
1856 437 1,257 148 1,405
1857 58 1,315 148
1,~63
H~58 141 1,456 148 1, 04
1859 221 1,677 28 176 1,853
1860 29 1,706 176 1,882
Source: Report of Samuel Keefer, Esq., Inspector
of Railways, 1859-60.
Canadian Rail
Page 27
The
By town & Prescott was one of very few new railways built to
the standard gauge during the twenty-year period in which the broad­
gauge legislation vas applicable. Another was the Stanstead, Shefford
& Chambly which connected St. Johns with Waterloo in what is now Que­
bec, in the early 1860s. The table reproduced as Figure 1 and showing
the annual gro
h of railway mileage in the Province of Canada between
1836 and 1860, will demonstrate the profound effect the legislation of
1851 had on construction in both gauges. The broad r,auge mileage kept
increasing, and was arrested only momentarily by the depression of
1857.
Not only did the decade between 1850 and 1860 see the railway ex­
tend itself from Sarnia and Windsor on the west, to Riviere-du-Loup
and Portland on the easta but in the neighbouring British provinces,
Nova Scotia saw its first train run a few miles out of Halifax in July
1855, while two years later, on March 17, 1857, the European & North
American Railway opened for three miles out of Saint John, in the dir­
ection of Moncton. Both of these lines, influenced no doubt by the
current of opinion in the Province of Canada, built to the 56 width.
Unlike Canada, however, where the public favoured free enterprise and
private ownership of railways, the two Maritime provinces undertook
these initial railway projects as government-owned and operated enter­
prises. Public ownership of railways was always a popular creed in the
Maritimes. In the course of time, both Prince Edward Island and New­
foundland would undertake their own rail systems as government proj­
ects. Indeed, Prince Edward Island, in all of its railway history,
never had privately-ovmed public railways at any time.
South of the boundary, the Portland interests were a strong infl­
uence in Maine. Portland had been reached from Boston by the Portland
Saco & Portsmouth Railroad, on November 21st, 1842. Though this was a
standard-gauge line, other lines in ~~ine corresponded to the broad
gauge of the Atlantic & Saint Lawrence, now become the Grand
Trunk. Among these las the Androscoggin & Kennebec Railroad, opened
in December 1849 from Danville Junction to Vlaterville, and the Penobs­
cot & Kennebec RR, which continued the A&K from Waterville to Bangor,
opened in September 1855. From Bangor on to the New Brunswick border,
and then to Saint John, the European & North American Railway was con­
structed as a broad-gauge line. Its completion, however, did not come
about until 1871.
In 1860, 92% of the 2,160 miles of public railway in Canada, New
Brunswick and Nova Scotia, was of the 56 gauge. The outbreak of in­
ternal hostilities in the United States in 1861, and the subsequent
abrogation, by the U.S.A., of its Treaty of Reciprocity vnth Canada,
set up forces in the British provinces which were important factors
leading to Confederation on July 1st, 1867. The advent of such a un­
ion resurrected a project for a railway connecting Halifax with
Quebec. The resulting Intercolonial Railway, reflecting the policy of
Imperial military authorities, was routed around the coasts of New
Brunswick and Quebec, as far away from the International Boundary as
possible. It was built largely to the broad gauge simply because the
railways with which it connected at either end, were also broad gauge.
Before the Intercolonial JaS completed in 1876, however, the change of
gauge on the eastern end of the GTR, occurring in 1874, set up a chain
reaction which saw the Intercolonial changed while under construction,
and the consequent change, in turn, of the older lines in New Bruns­
wick and Nova Scotia.
t-The first public train service. The Albion Colliery tramlay, of
48~tt gauee and opened in 1839 with steam locomotion, was Nova
Scotias first steam railway.
_/
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Hampshire
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Canadian Rail
Page 29
III. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE BROAD GAUGE ERA
Strangely, in spite of the arguments in favour of the broad gauge
advanced before the 1851 Commission, no practical advantage was ever
taken of the wider width to build heavier or larger motive power or
rolling stock, as the Erie had done in the United States ~nd the Great
Western had in England. Yet the era was not lacking in accomplishment
even though none of the achievements were necessarily attributable to
the adoption of the 56 track width.
The year 1859 saw the completion of the mile-long Victoria Tub­
ular Bridge across the Saint Lawrence at Montreal, a feat in which the
noted Robert Stephenson was consultant and which was considered by
railway professionals to be one of the greatest engineering accomp­
lishments in the world. The official opening, in August 1860, was marked by
the presence of the nineteen-year-old Prince of Wales, whose Royal
Visit in that year was the first of many such visits to this
country which employed railway transportation extensively.
At the end of 1860, the opening of Canadas first railway tunnel
occurred, this structure built by the Brockville & Ottawa Railway un­
der the town of Brockville and, incidentally, still in use. Earlier,
a project which stands apart for sheer audacity rather than practical­
ity claimed the attention of the public when, in the year 1854, the
Cobourg & Peterborough Railway completed a pile bridge with draw spans
for three miles across Rice Lake. Vfuen it is realized that the rail­
way itself was only twenty-eight miles long, one can comprehend that
the maintenance of such a costly structure would loom large in its
modest balance sheets. After several futile attempts were made to re­
pair it following ice damage in successive winters, it was abandoned.
The Broad Gauge and its era witnessed two serious railway accid­
ents, the first at Desjardins Canal near Hamilton in 1857, and the
second at Beloeil, each of llontreal, in 1864. The latter catastrophe
still holds the record, with 100 fatalities, as Canadas worst railway
disaster. It so aroused public opinion as to bring about reform and
unification in railway operating practice, and stimulated the develop­
ment of safety devices such as the air brake.
IV. MOTIVE POlt/ER AND ROLLING STOCK
Motive power and rolling stock was of the same size as contemp­
orary United States standard-gauge equipment, as exemplified by the
behemoth of the Canadian locomotive fraternity, GTR No. 209, which
was built at Point St. Charles works in Montreal in May, 1859. Weigh­
ing 48 tons, 10 hundredweight in working order, and having an overall
length of 506, it dwarfed its contemporaries and was the object of
an admiring public as it appeared majestically at the head of the 1860
Royal Train, much as its successors, CNR 6400 and CPR 2850 claimed the
attention of the multitude when Their Majesties King George VI and
Queen Elizabeth toured Canada in 1939. Like most engines in Canada a
century ago, No.209 was of the 4-4-0 arrangement, though other types
included a few 4-6-Os, 0-6-0s, and 2-4-0s and even some 4-2-2s. Mot­
ive pOler is summarized by gauge in Figure 2, and rolling stock in
Figure 3. Of particular note in the latter is the sixteen-wheeled
passenger car built for the Royal Visit of 1860. A similar vehicle
was used in New Brunswick on the European & North American, and is
illustrated in one of the photographs appearing with this story.
While locomotive design at this early period gravitated strongly
Page 30 Canadian Rail
FIGURE 2. -PROVINCE OF CANADA: Construction Origin and Track Gau~e
of Locomotive Engines
l
Dec. 211 1 60.
Built in: Canada Great Britain U.S.A. Total
56 Gauge: 57 105 210 372
48~ Gauge:
4 19 23
TOTALS:
57 109 229 395
Source: Report of Samuel Keefer, Ope cit.
either toward British or American practice, the year 1854 saw the int­
roduction of the first purely Canadian locomotive design, an interest­
ing blend of Anglo-American features
l
built at Birkenhead, England by
Peto, Brassey, Betts & Jackson. 00me sixty engines of this design,
originally 2-4-0 but later built as more flexible 4-4-08, became a
familiar feature on the GTR and to a lesser extent, on the Great Wes­
tern. These engines, known as IBirkenheads, after their place of or­
igin, were a familiar sight in broad-gauge times. So sound were these
machines that some of them were among the very few steam locomotives
to be rebuilt to standard-gauge during the conversions of the l870s,
and these survivors found their way to short lines such as the Drumm­
ond County Railway, the Irondale, Bancroft & Ottawa Railway and the
Montreal & Ottawa Hailway. But it remained for a broad-gauge Birken­
head to be the last in regular service, chalking up more than a half
century of service when retired by the Carillon & Grenville in 1910.
V. DECLINE
Throughout this period, the Montreal & Champlain Railway, which had
succeeded and united the Champlain & Saint Lawrence, the Montreal
& New York and the Montreal & Lachine roads, continued to function
between I,lontreal and the International boundary on two 4 8~ routes.
One was from St. Lambert to Rouses Point, via St. Johns, the other
from Ilontreal to Lachine with a car-ferry connection across the Saint
Lawrence to Caughnawaga, thence from that point to Plattsburgh,N.Y.,by
way of St. Isidore, Hemmingford and Mooers Junction. In 1864, the
G.T.R. acquired control of this Stephenson-gauge network. No attempt
was made to broaden the gauge, however, and a third rail was laid ac­
ross the Victoria Bridge for standard-gauge trains, then another third
rail along the standard-gauge line from St. Henri into Bonaventure
(to page 35)
RIGHT (Top): Broad-gauge tracks are clearly apparent in this 1860
view of the Prince of Wales Royal Train in Saint
John, N.B.,on the European & North American Railway.
Note the sixteen-wheeled passenger car. The loco­
motive, No. 12, had been built new in that year by
Messrs. Fleming & Humbert of Saint John, and was
specially named Prince of Wales for the occasion.
(Bottom): This view of a typical broad-gauge train of the l850s
was taken on the Great Western at Suspension Bridge,
Onto Locomotive No. 15, Essex, built by the Lowell
Machine Shop in 1853, heads a typical train of flat­
roofed, outside-framed passenger equipment.

Not
shown
on
map:
Ca.n.a.dian
Pacific
Railway,
Mackey
to
Bonfield.
Ont
..
74
miles.
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G
Gauge
Railway
System
1847-1810
_
5
6
Gauge
Lines.
~
Principal
48,
Gau
ge
Line
s
in
1867.
These
maps
show
thl!
uProvincial
Gauge
rail­
way
network
at
i
ts
greatest
extent.
construct­
ion
occurring
principall
y
in
the
period
1847-
1875,
and
eonversion
or
a
bandonment
between
1870
aDd 191
0.
The
or
eti
ca
ll
y.
th
e
longest
56
gau
ge
journe
y
whi
ch
a
tra
ve
ller
might
have
be
en
able
to
ma~
over
this
s
ys
tem
wouldhave
heen
;:~i:.f
~:~~o
~~:
!~:~
:Uitn~~;~o~:~iet~o~::~
was
ne
ver
possible
however.
s
ince
the
Bangor­
Vanceboro
link
wa
s
completed
only
in
1871.
onc
year
after
the
Penobscot
Ie.
Kennebec
had
red­
uce
d
its
gauge
to
standard
between
Waterville
and
Ban
gor
.
~.
Canadian Rail Page 35
FIGURE 3. -PROVINCE OF CANADA: Summary of Rolling Stock by Type and
Track Gauge, Dec. 31, 1860.
First Class, 16 wheels:
12
8
4:
Second CI. & Emigrant, 8 wheels:
4
Composite, 8 wheels:
Baggage, Mail & Express,

Box, Freight & Cattle, 8
4
12 wheels
8
4
wheels:

Conductors Cars, 8 wheels:
Platform Cars, 8 wheels:
Grain Cars:
Refrigerator Car:
Gravel Cars, 8 wheels:
4
Timber Cars, 16 wheels:
4
Spar Timber Trucks:
Snow Ploughs, Large:
Hand Cars:
TOTALS: (Cars)
17
1
7
3
9
2
140
1
105
82
1
25
206
110
2
12 95
3,040
100
40
1,763
50
1
90 278 6
6
16 34
~
5,977
1
25 223
1
117 3
2
12
104
2
3,180
101
1,8~g
50
1
90 360
6
6
16
35
~
6,364
Source: Report of Samuel Keefer, Esq., Inspector of Railways, 1859-60.
Station, so that broad gauge trains might use this terminal, which was more
centrally located than the G.T.R. station at Point St. Charles.
After having endured tedious and expensive transshipment at int­
erchange points for thirteen years, the Great Western took a notable
step on January 1st, 1867, by inaugurating the use of a third rail for
standard-gauge over the entire 229-mile main line from Windsor to Sus­
pension Bridge. This proved to be the opening move in the dissolution
of the cumbersome and expensive Provincial Gauge. The ffivR made no change
in its motive power or rolling stock immediately, and trains of
mixed-gauge equipment were marked, on this section, by a placard with
the letters NG carried on the front of the engine. This was to
prevent such a train being switched, in error, into a siding which was
not equipped for both gauges. At best, this measure was a temporary
expedient, resulting in considerably-increased maintenance and oper­
ation expense.
After nearly twenty years of experience in operation of the Prov­
incial Gauge, the Government of what had now become the Dominion of
Canada took the inevitable step, in 1870, of repealing so much of the
Act of 1851 which referr-ed to a mandatory 56 gauge. The Great West­
ern was well-prepared for such a move; on one day in December, 1870,
the first positive step was taken by changing over the Hamilton-Toron­
to Branch from 56 to 48~ in the space of eight hours only. This
LEFT: mm s Niagara with the NG plate referred to in the text.
Page 36 Canadian Rail
line had never been converted to double-gauge. Shortly after, in late
1870 and early 1871, the third rail was removed between Windsor and Komoka,
and from Hamilton to Suspension Bridge. Later in 1871,the rest
of the Broad Gauge system was converted, but the three-rail section
between Komoka and Hamilton was left intact until June 1873, so that
usable broad gauge equipment could be kept in service as long as poss­
ible. However, in that month, the GWR became a completely standard­
gauge railway system.
The Grand Trunk made a start in November, 1872, by changing over
its line which, like the GWR, united the Detroit river and Niagara in­
terchanges with American lines. The section affected was from Sarnia
to St. Marys Junction, and from Stratford, via Paris and Brantford to
Fort Erie. A third rail was retained between St. Marys Junction and
Stratford, for the use of broad gauge trains on the London branch. The
GTR changed the rest of its system in October and November, 1873, with
the exception of lines east of Richmond to Riviere-du-Loup, and bran­
ches, which did not go over to standard until September 1874, along
with the section of the unopened Intercolonial between Riviere-du-Loup
and Ste.Flavie (Mont Joli). The balance of the Intercolonial and the
Windsor & Annapolis Railway, were changed in June and November, 1875.
With the line to Portland, the original broad gauge railway, con­
verted to standard gauge in November, 1873, the other 56 lines in
Maine followed suit, all lines west of Bangor being changed by 1875.
In 1877, the European & North American between Bangor and Saint John,
N.B., via Vanceboro, was reduced to standard, and with it went the 22-
mile Fredericton Railway. In 1878, the New Brunswick & Canada Railway
was converted, and the stragglers to belated conformity continued with
the reduction of the Northern in 1879! and that of the Canada Central
which took place on Easter Sunday, 18!50.
Even
at this eleventh hour, the Broad Gauge was not quite dead;
late in 1880, while the Canada Central was being extended westward
from Pembroke, under Government subsidy, to the eastern terminus of
the Pacific Railway at Callander, out of a desire to utilize broad­
gauge equipment left over and still unconverted! account pressure of
work, from the gauge conversion of Easter of 18!50, the Canada Central
constructed its new line, on a temporary basiS, between Mackey, Ont.,
and Callander, to the 56 gauge. In 1881, when the CCR shops at Car­
leton Place could accomodate this remaining equipment for alteration,
the section was changed over to standard gauge for normal operation.
At the close of the year 1881, thirty years after the enactment
of the Provincial Gauge act, only 60 miles of 56 gauge railway re­
mained in the Dominion of Canada. Forty-six of those miles belonged
to the Cobourg, Peterboro & Marmora Railway, which operated between
Cobourg and Harwood, on the southern shore of Rice Lake, with a miner­
al spur near Blairton, further inland. The C.P.& M. was never changed
but was abandoned completely about 1889 as a broad gauge line. The
remaining fourteen miles were those of the Carillon & Grenville Rail­
way, which operated a portage service in connection with the Montreal­
Ottawa steamer service on the Ottawa River. The Carillon & Grenville
had no physical connection with other roads, nor any use for such a
connection; its quaint antiquated train was hauled over the road by the
last Birkenhead engine in Canada, and it continued a charming, past­
oral and anachronistic existence until the end of the navigation seas­
on of 1910 when it closed for good, taking with it the vestigial re­
mains of what had been, in retrospect, a costly and unfortunate exper­
iment for the railways of Canada, yet one of intense interest to the
historian –the era of the Provincial Gauge.
LIST
OF
5
6
GAUGE
RAILWAYS
IN
CANADA,
WITH
DATES
OF
CONSTRUCTION
AND
CONVERSION
OR
ABANDONMENT,
WITH
U.S.CONNECTIONS
~
Year
Built
GRAND
TRUNK
RAILWAY
OF
CANADA
Longueuil

St.
Hyacinthe.
Que.
1847
St.
Hyacinthe

Sherbrooke.
Que.
1852
Sherbrooke

Soundar
y U
.SoA.
(on
line
to
Portland)
1853
Rich.m.ond

Point
Levi(s).
Que.
1854
Chaudiere
Ie.

St.
Thomas.
Que.
1855
Montreal

Brockville,
Onto
1855
Brockville

Toronto
,
Onto
1856
Toronto

Stratford.
Onto
1856
Stratford

St.
Marys
Ie
.•
Onto
1858
St.
Marys
Ie.

LondoD.
Onto
1858
St.
Mar
ys
re. –
Sarnia,
Onto
1859
Victoria
Bridge
&
approaches.
Montreal.
1859
St.
Thomas

St.
PascaL
Que.
1859
St.
Pascal

Riviere-du-Loup.
Que.
1860
Kingston
Branch
1860
Bona
v
enture
Sta
••
Montreal
to
St.Henry
(St.Ga.1847)
JR
1864-
Arthabask
a –
Doucets
Landing
.
Que.
1864
GREAT
WESTERN
RAILWAY
Hamilton

London,
Ont
o
Suspension
Bridge

Hamilton.
Ont.
London

Komoka.
Onto
Komoka

Windsor.
Onto
HarTisburg

Galt
.
Onto
Hamilton

Toronto.
Onto
Galt

Guelph.
Onto
Komoka

Sarnia.
Onto
Wyoming

Petrolia.
Ont.
Guelph

Alma
,
Onto
NORTHERN
RAILWAY
OF
CANADA
Toronto

Allandale.
Onto
Allandale

Collingwood.
Onto
Collingwood

Meaford,
Onto
Allandale

Orillia.
Ont
o
Orillia

Washago.
Onto
Washago

Gravenhurst
(Muskoka
Wharf)
EUROPEAN
&
NORTH
AMERICAN
RAILWAY
Saint
John

Moose
Path.
N.S.
Pointe-du-Chene
(Shediac)

Moncton.
N.
B.
Moose
Path

Rotbesay.
N.
B.
Rotbesay

Sussex.
N.B.
Sussex

Moncton,
N.B.
NOVA
SCOTIA
RAILWAY
Halifax

Bedford.
N.S.
Bedford

Grand
Lake.
N.S
.
Grand
Lake

Truro.
N.S.
Windsor
Jc.

Windsor,
N.S.
Truro

Pictou
La.nding,
N
.S.
1853
1853
1854
1854
1854 1855 1857 1858 1866 1870
1853
1855 1872 1873
1875 1857 1858 1859 1860
1855 1857
1858
1867
Changed
to
4
8t
4/1874
10/1874 11/1873 10/1873
3R
11/1872
1011873
10/1873
11/1872
3R
1864
./1874
10/
1874
11/1873
4/1874
10/1874
3R
1/1867
3R
1870
3R
1870
3R
1870 1873
1870
1873 1870 1871 12/1870 1871
1879
6/1875
6/1875
NOTE:
3R
indicates
third
rail
installed
thi$
date.
NEW
BRUNSWICK
8.
CAN
AD
A
RAILWAY
St.
Andrews

Barber
Dam.
N.B.
Barber
Dam

Canterbury,
N.B.
Canterbury

Richmond
(Debec
Jc.).
N.S.
Watt
rc.

St
.
Stephen.
N.B.
Richmond

Woodstock,
N.B.
Richmond.
N.B.

Houlton
,
Me.
INTERCOLONIAL
RAILWAY
OF
CANADA
Painsec
rc
. –
Dorchester,
N.B.
Dorchester

Sackville.
N.B.
Sackville
.
N.B
. –
Amherst.
N.S.
Amherst

Truro.
N.S.
Riviere-du-Loup.

Post
Road.
Que.
Post
Road

Trois
Pistoles,
Que
.
Moncton

(Miramichi
River
crossing)
N.B.
MIDLAND
RAILWA
Y
OF
CANADA
Port
Hope

Lindsay.
Onto
Millbrook

Peterborough.
Ont.
Peterbor
ou
gh

Lakefield.
ant.
Lindsay

Bea
verton,
Onto
Bea
ver
ton

Orillia,
Onto
BROCKVILLE
&.
OTTAWA/CANADA
CENTRAL
railways
1857 1858
1862 1866 1868 1871 1868 1869
1870 1872 1872
1873
1875 1857 1858 1870 1871 1873
Broc
kvill
e –
Almont
e,
Onto
1859
Smiths
Falls

Perth,
Onto
Brockville
Town
Tunnel.
Almonte

Sand
Point,
Onto
Sand
Point

Pembroke,
Onto
Carleton
Place

Ottawa.
Onto
1860 1867 1870 1870
BUFFALO
&:
LAKE
ERlE
RY.
Fort
Erie-Stratford,
Onto
1856
Strat!ord-Coderich,Ont
.
1858
LONDON
&:
PORT
STANLEY
RY.
London-Port
Stanley
,
Ont.
1856
COBOURG
&:
PETERBOROUGH
RY.
Cobourg-Harwood,Ont.
1854
Harwood-FetErborougb,Ont.

(inclu
ding
Rice
Lake
bridge)
WINDSOR
&.
ANNAPOLIS
RY.
Windsor-Annapolis,
N.S
.
1869
SAINT
JOHN
&.
MAINE
RY.
Saint
John,
N.B.-Vanceboro.Me.
1869
FREDERICTON
RY.
Fredericton
Jet.

Fredericton.
NB
1869
ERIE
&.
ONT
AR
IO
RY.
Chippewa

Queeoston,
Onto
1854
CARILLON
&.
GRENV[LLE
RY.
Carillon-GreDville,Que.
1854
WELLAND
RY
.
Port
Dalhousie

Pt
.
Colborne,
ant.
1859
PETERBOROUGH
&
CHEMONG
LAKE
RY.
tiUe)
1859
CANADIAN
PACIFIC
RY.
Macke
y
-Boniield.Ont
.
1881
CONNECTING
RAILWAYS
OF
5
6
GAUGE
IN
NEW
ENGLAND
GRAND
TRUNK
RY.
Portland-Boundar
y,
Canada
.
1853
187
8
6/1875
10/
18H
1111875
6/
I
874
4/1880
11/1872
10/1873 10/1872
Abandoned
1889
cl8bO
6/1875 9/1877 c187S
Abandoned
1910
3R
1872
cl875
6/187
18
83
ANDROSCOGGIN
&.
KENNEBEC
RY.
Danville
Ic.-Waterville,
Me.
1849
PENOBSCOT
&.
KENNEBEC
RY.
Waterville-Bangor.Me.
1862
EUROPEAN
&.
NO.
AMERICAN
(Maine)
Bangor-Vanceboro.
1871
ANDROSCOGG[N
RY.
Leeds
Je.-Livermore
Falls,
Me.
1855
PORTLAND
&.
OXFORD
CENTR.AL
Mechanic
FaUs-E.Sumner
1854
4/l874
11/1871 11/1870
9/1878
1862
e1878
E.
Sumoer-Canton
.
Me.
1870
BUCKSPORT
L:
BANCOR
RR
.
Bueksport-Bangor,Me.
1874
BANGOR
&r.
PISCATAQUIS
RR.
Old
Town-Dover,
Me.
1869
Dover-Abbott.
Me.
1874
#
changed
to
3
gauge
in
1879.
back
to
4
st
ll
in
1883.
1877-1877 1877
OUR
MUSEUM
BRANCHES
OUT
To
dispel
any
impression
that
CRHA
museum
activity
is
confined
to
the
proj­
ect
at
Delson,
Que.,
near
Montreal,
we
reproduce
the
photograph
at
right
showing
members
of
the
Rocky
Mountain
Branch
of
the
Association
busily
engaged
in
restoration
work on Edmonton
Transit
System
No.1,
a
double-
truck
deck-roofed
elec­
tric
car
built
by
Ottawa
more
than
half-a-century
ago.
ETS
No.
1
not
only
inaugurated
service
in
the
Alberta
capital,
but
was
also
in
service
until
streetcar
service
ceased
in
the
early
1950s.
Stored
outdoors
for
many
years,
No.1
is
now
in­
side
the
ETS
garage
where
our
members work on
it
in
comfort,
recalling
the
fact
that
the
parent
soc­
ietys
museum
project
started
in
exactly
the
same way
at
Montreal
in
1950,
working
on
MSR
274.
Canadian Rail
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY: DISPOSITION OF
STEAM LOCOMOTIVES, 1962
Page 39
During 1962, Canadian Pacifics steam locomotive scrapping programme
was noticeably decelerated, owing to lower prices for scrap prevailing during
the year. As a consequence, only 57 locomotives were scrapped, as compared
to 176 in 1961. As a result, 131 locomotives remained to be disposed of as of
December 31st, 1962, being 11 locomotives held for our Association, plus 120
others which included several held for possible historical preservation by var­
ious groups and individuals.
Steam locomotives scrapped were:
Class G-5 (4-6-2): 1215, 1228, 1237, 1240, 1244, 1245, 1249, 1251, 1265, 1266,
1267, 1268, 1274, 1292. 1264.
Class G-3 (4-6-2): 2338, 2376, 2377, 2387, 2428, 2435, 2437, 2439, 2447, 2448,
2450, 2452.
Class G-4 (4-6-2): 2709.
Class H-1 (4-6-4): 2812,2830, 2835, 2837, 2843, 2845, 2846, 2847, 2849, 2852,
2853.
Class P-l (2-8-2): 5203,5207,5227,5233, 5253, 5255, 5256, 5258.
Class P-2 (2-8-2): 5381, 5427, 5437, 5438, 5440, 5443, 5451, 5470, 5472.
Class V-4 (0-8-0): 6943.
Gas-electric unit cars scrapped were:
9003, 9005 at Angus in October.
Two electric locomotives of the Lake Erie & Northern Ry. were sold:
333, 335 sold to Cornwall Street Ry., Light & Power Co., in June.
A list of the steam locomotives remaining as of January 1 st, 1963, will
be published in a forthcoming issue of our pUblication.
NOTES AND NEWS
* The onslaught of winter has proved to be as troublesome to British Columbia
highway authorities maintaining the new road over Rogers Pass, as it was to
the Canadian Pacific Railway before construction of the Connaught Tunnel in
1916. Up to early January, it was reported that the highway had been obstr­
ucted by no less than four major wet snow avalanches. Authorities are giving
consideration to plans to lengthen some of the highway snowsheds.
On January 4th, Canadas two major railways agreed to a temporary freeze
on western branch line abandonments, while the then Federal Government
sought to obtain Parliamentary approval for an overall plan of branch line
closures. The conference was called by the Government, and was attended
by the railway presidents and heads of major prairie grain-handling inter­
ests. While the railways would continue to file applications for abandonment
with the Board of Transport Commissioners for Canada, action would be sus­
pended. The railways agreement was conditional upon legislative action
(contd page 43)

Canadian Rail Page 4)
e
~9)
90 Rail Transportat~ o~
~~
The following donations to the Museum Fund, made during 1962
and during January of this year, are gratefully acknowledged:
N.E. Kistner •••••••••• $10.00
Northern Electric Com-
pany ••• 0 ••••••••••••
L. Eric Reford ••••••••
James M. Mitchell •••••
The Royal Trust Com-
pany •••••••••••••••
F. Clayton Snyder •••••
E. Ratcliffe ••••••••••
Edward G. Schimke •••••
e.A. Moore ••••••••••••
International Harvester
Company ••••••••••••
William S. Billings •••
Bruce B. Shier ••••••••
Lawrence C. Haines ••••
Jean-Guy Major ••••••••
D.J. Appleby ••••••••••
Worden J. Phillips ••••
~ITs. R.R. Sandusky ••••
Norman Kistner ••••••••
William S. Kuba •••••••
J.A. Thomson ••••••••••
J.R. Scott ••••••••••••
Anthony J. Martin •••••
David C. Knowles ••••••
James R. Barney ••••••.• Ivlaurice
Bleau •••••••••
Paul McGee ••••••••••••
W. Lupher Hay •••••••••
O.M. Taylor •••••••••••
G.L. Brown ••••••••••••
A.D. Westland •••••••••
John R. Davis •••••••••
J.A. Collins ••••••••••
Ross Peever •••••••••••
Anonymous •••••••••••••
d. Lupher Hay •••••••••
Anonymous •••••••••••••
–End of 1962 —
250.00
100.00
5.00
200.00
5.00
10.00
5.00
3.00
250.00
5.00 5.00
5.00 5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00 5.00
14.00
5.00 5.00
6.00
5.00 5.00 5.00
20.00
8.80
5.00
2.50
25.00
5.00
25.00
5.00 5.15
11.38
50.00
Lawrence Meloling ••••••• $5.00
C.E. Homuth ••••••••••••• 5.00
H.D. Johnson •••••••••••• 1.00
Harry Martin •••••••••••• 5.15
David A. Swendsen ••••••• 10.00
Roland O. Doig •••••••••• 25.00
EdWard H. Bensley ••••••• 25.00
J.W. Durnford ••••••••••• 15.00
G.R.E. Tucker ••••••••••• 15.00
E.A. Durnford ••••••••••• 25.00
William E. Weighill ••••• 5.00
R.H. Tivy ••••••••••••••• 10.00
R.G. Harris •••••••••••••• 5.00
Cecil F. Harding •••••••• 10.00
Orville Robinson •••••• ~. 5.00
Anonymous ••••••••••••••• 2.15
Streeter B. Flynn, Jr •••• 25.00
Foster M. Palmer •••••••• 10.00
Robert J. 1,valker •••••••• 5.15
V.H. Coley .•••••••••.••• 5.15
H.J. Darling •••••••••••• 5.00
Charles L. McGovern ••••• 3.00
Carroll C. Sait ••••••••• 10.00
D.S. Anderson ••••••••••• 10.00
Lawrence C. Haines •••••• 5.00
Arnold Wainwright ••••••• 100.00
William Clarke •••••••••• 10.00
Total ••••••••••••• ~1,442.48
Previously ack-
nowledged •••• 48,808.24
GRAND TOTAL ••••• $50,250.72
FURTHER CONTRIBUTIONS ARE
URGENTLY NEEDED II
THIS HU3EUM IS ~ JvlUSEUIvl 1 t
LEFT: Back in those eventful times when people were wont to call a spade a
spade, without worrying about the effect on an impressionable public, the
purpose of Canadian Pacific car 3015 was proclaimed for all to see, in
letters no less large than those of the company name itself. This photo­
graph, taken at CP Hochelaga car shop in Montreal back in the 1890s,
shows a side-door conductors car converted from a boxcar. Note the
quaint arch-bar trucks and outside brake hangers.
Page 42 Canadian Rail
Recently, the City of Montreal awarded its fOurth contract for construction
of the Montreal Metro rapid transit system. It was awarded to Spino Construc­
tion Company Limited, who submitted the lowest tender of $3,122,429 for the
work. The contract, No. 2-A-3, covers that portion of the so-called North­
South subway, Line No.2, under Pronovost and Berri streets, from Rosemont
Blvd. to a point north of Cherrier Street. It is the fourth contract to be award­
ed covering construction of the system, and brings to almost seven miles, the
length of rapid transit line under contract, for which $18,285,000 had been com­
mited so far.
Early in February, the Montreal City Council was informed by Public Wor­
ks Director Lucien lAllier that about 6,000 feet of tunnel had been excavated so
far, on the seven miles under contract. This consisted of 3.600 feet of excavat­
ion on contract 2-A-l, and 2,300 feet on contract 2-A-2. On the remaining two
contracts, work to date consists only of digging of access ramps and wells.
Another matter brought to light early in 1963 has been a study for a proposed
rapid transit link to Montreal airport at Dorval. A committee of La Chambre
du Commerce du District de Montreal is advocating extension of the proposed
rapid transit system from the CNR Val Royal station to Montreal airport, a dis­
tance of approximately four miles. Val Royal, it should be recalled, would be
served by the proposed Line No.3, to operate over the present CNR electrificat­
ion through the Mount Royal Tunnel. The City administration has taken this
project under advisement, and have indicated that it would not be undertaken in
any event until the rest of the system is in operation, probably by 1966.
by Omer S.A. Lavallee
ASSOCIATION NEWS
The Annual Meeting of the Association was held in Montreal at McGill Univ­
ersity on Wednesday, January 23rd. The officers and committee chairmen pre­
sented their reports covering 1962, a year of unprecedented activity, and the
thirtieth full year of the Associations existence.
Following the reading of reports, the members present elected twelve Dir­
ectors by acclamation, there being only that number of nominations at meetinl?
time. The incumbents for 1963. in alphabetical order, are:
Messrs. R.M. Binns. D.R. Henderson, O.S.A. Lavallee, F .S. Lewin. I.D. Macor­
quodale. P.R. McGee, R.V.V. Nicholls, J.W. Saunders. L.A. Seton. Chas. Viau.
A.S. Walbridge and S.S. Worthen.
Subsequently. at a meeting of the new ExecutIve Committee held on Monday,
January 28th. individual executive positions and standing committee chairman­
ships were appointed as follows:
PRESIDENT: Dr. R.V.V. Nicholls; VICE PRESIDENT; Charles Viau. VICE
PRESIDENT: O.S.A. Lavallee; TREASURER: A.S. Walbridge; SECRETARY:
Leonard A. Seton, Q.C.; MUSEUM COMMITTEE: Dr. Nicholls; RAILWAY
COMMITTEE: Mr. Lavallee; PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE: David R. Hen­
derson; EDITOR. CANADIAN RAIL: Anthony Clegg; MEMBERSHIP COMM­
ITTEE: Stephen Cheasley.
Canadian Rail Page 43
NOTES AND NEWS (from page 39)
being taken at the current session of Parliament. Since the minority Con­
servative Government fell following a want-of-confidence vote on February
5th, and Parliament was dissolved pending elections on April 8th, it is not
known what effect this will have on the application freeze.
* Canadian National Railways has called for conditional tenders on clearing,
grubbing and stripping route and preparing sub-grade for a 23 -mile branch
line in northern New Brunswick to be completed one year hence, connecting
the CNR Montreal-Halifax main line near Bathurst with a zinc, lead and cop­
per operation of the Brunswick Mining &: Smelting Company Limited. The
first 2.8 miles of line were to be located on the old Northern New Brunswick
&: Seaboard Railway line, now abandoned, and the remaining 20 miles are to
be run over new ground. The project, to cost 1.5 million dollars, was, like
the branch line abandonment freeze referred to above, to be conditional
upon approval by Parliament.
* Canadian Nationals red-white-blue fare plan has been reported to have
been successful to date, with the year-long test ending on April 30th next.
The new reduced fare system has resulted in some lines carrying 200% more
passengers than in 1961, with the overall revenue being considerably higher.
~, A 273-foot railway barge, built recently at Vancouver for F .M. Yorke &: Sons,
and named YORKE 21, was recently launched by making two high-speed runs
from the Second Narrows Bridge to outer reaches of the North Shore. The
800 h.p., $250,000 craft carried three railway lounge cars in which the guests
travelled during the trials. The Vancouver Sun commented that this equipment
would probably be the fanciest rolling stock that the craft would ever take
to sea. It normal complement is 18 freight cars on deck, with room for some
160,000 gallons of caustic soda in internal tanks.
and a few notes from our Pacific Coast Representative, Mr. Peter Cox ••••••••
* CN locomotives 4702,4703,4708,4711,4715 and 4732, recently used as stat­
ionary boilers, were moved to Transcona at Winnipeg and scrapped last fall.
* Canadian National 6043, on display at Winnipeg, has just been repainted by Can­
adian National Railways. This engine forms the motif of the menu at the Union
Station cafeteria in the Manitoba capital.
* The potash mine at Yarbo, Sask., is in full production, loading more than 1,000
carloads in January.
* Manitoba Paper Company (Abitibi) 2-6-0 No. 30 is still in use, though the Com­
pany is expected to acquire a diesel locomotive shortly, releasing No. 30 to our
Association. The smoke deflectors, which were the only ones ever applied to a
2-6-0 in Canada, were recently removed.
* The two 0-6-0 steam locomotives owned by Pacific Coast Terminals at New
Westminster, B.C., were recently retired. One of them, No. 4012, was used on
an excursion out of Vancouver last year. It is believed that both locomotives
will be saved from scrapping and put on display or preserved.
Indoctrination
Doug Wright -Montreal Star
These gentlemen are from Public Relations, Claude … they want to talk to you about the new corporate Image
the raUroads
tr ylng to achieve.
CANADIAN RAILROAD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
t;,ta6i;,fiel 1932 • :Box 22 . otat;on :B . :Montreal 2 . QII,6ec • 8n CANADIAN RAIL: Published eleven times annually by the Publications
Committee. Canadian Railroad Historical Association.
52.$0 ….. 11,
CHAIRMAN. PUBLICATIONS
COMMITTEE: David R. Henderson
EDITOR:
ASSISTANT EDITOR:
DISTRIBUTION:
COMMITTEE:
Anthony Clegg
William Pharoah
John W. Saunders
Robert Haliyard
Orner S.A. Lavallee
Frederick F. Angus
Peter Murphy
PACIFIC COAST REPRESENTA TIVE:
Peter Cox, 2936 West 28th Avenue,
Vancouver 8, B.C.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN REPRESENTATIVE:
William T. Sharp, Apartment 11,
11544 St. Albert Trail, Edmonton, Alta.
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